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From Theory to Practice: Implementing Education PPPs
Jouko Sarvi (ADB) and Cliff Meyers (UNICEF)
The views expressed in this presentation are the views of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Directors or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the source, originality, accuracy, completeness or reliability of any statement, information, data, finding, interpretation, advice, opinion, or view presented, nor does it make any representation concerning the same.
Growth of Non-State Provision NonNonNon-government primary enrolment increased from 39 million to 62 million between 1991 and 2004 (58 percent), While public enrolment grew from 484 million to 530 million (10 percent) during the same period (UNESCO 2007). Both developed and developing countries exhibit hybrids (mixed) of public or private financing and/or management in the provision of education. education.
Scale of private providers in education (selected countries)
Percentage of students in private schools: pre-school, primary, and secondary…
100 75 50 25 0
Rep. of Korea
But From a Rights perspective, how can we work with Private Sector?
Article 4: “…undertake such measures to the maximum extent of available resources…” Obligation to RESPECT
requires States to refrain from interfering directly or indirectly with the enjoyment of the right to education.
Obligation to PROTECT Obligation to FULFILL
requires States to take measures that prevent third parties from interfering with the enjoyment of the right (such as girls being forbidden to study). The Obligation to Fulfill requires States to adopt appropriate legislative, administrative, budgetary, judicial, promotional and other measures towards the full realization of the right, or itself directly provide assistance or services for the realization of that right.
Changing role of the State
to Regulator of
Services provided by the Private Sector
from Direct Provider of
Basic Services & the related Infrastructure
to Purchaser of
Services/Infrastructure provided by the Private Sector
Finance and Provision
• • • •
Private schools Private universities Home schooling Tutoring
User fees Student loans
• • • •
Vouchers Contract Schools Charter schools Contracting out
Public schools Public universities
Classification of Pro-Poor ProEducation PPPs
Education Service Delivery Initiatives Professional and Support Services Voucher and Voucher-like Initiatives VoucherInfrastructure Initiatives Philanthropic Initiatives
Approaches to Partnership – Give and Take
Partner to support the State Deliver teacher training for the State Develop curriculum, textbooks and reading materials for the State Assist the State in inspecting and monitoring schools Private schools required to provide free seats to disadvantaged children Contractors responsible for repairing schools and constructing toilets/water facilities Partner supported by the State Receive teacher training from the State Receive free textbooks and reading materials from the State Special policies to govern standards and registration of private schools targeting the poor/disadvantaged Private schools receive State stipend per poor/disadvantaged children enrolled Private schools eligible for free water/toilet facilities if 50% of students are from disadvantaged groups
Contracts can improve service delivery when all stakeholders are accountable to each other:
Finance and Oversight
Assign clear responsibilities Clear guidance on expected outputs, outcomes and minimum standards of performance Systems in place for monitoring and reporting Flexibility from bureaucratically designed operating procedures of traditional school based learning
Allow more autonomy in management of staff, budget and educational planning
Means to enforce contractual provisions
State supervision and capacity building of non-state partners. non-
PPPs in ADB Education Sector Assistance
ADB Education Policy (2002), p. 37, 40: “….ADB will help mobilize resources for sustainable education delivery, in particular facilitating the role of the private sector, while protecting access by the poor to affordable basic education.....ADB will support private sector education institutions and educationeducationrelated industries and services … when this is clearly the more costcost-effective alternative." ADB Strategy 2020 (2008), p. 20: “….Across all these [education] areas, ADB will explore opportunities for new approaches and instruments involving publicpublicprivate partnerships.” ADB Strategic Study - Education and Skills: Strategies for Accelerated Development in Asia and the Pacific (2008): Further identified scope for innovative partnerships in technical and vocational education and training, and in higher education. Education by 2020: A Sector Operations Plan (2010): Operationalizes the above strategic directions
PPP in Education - Strategy
Guides PPPs in ADB’s operations in education:
Reviews trends and rationale for partnerships in education Explores ADB’s potential future role in PPPs Focuses on operational requirements and provides guidance to support PPPs in the various subsectors of education Provides specific recommendations in four areas: (i) capacity development; (ii) project operations; (iii) knowledge management; and (iv) finance
Current ADB Initiatives
Study of PPP dimensions in ADB education projects about 40% of all projects in 2000-2009 included one or 2000several of the following design aspects:
– – – –
Contracting for the delivery of education services Private management of public schools Education support services/capacity development Vouchers/scholarships
Case studies – Lessons from country contexts Preparation of a operational tool for design and assessment of PPPs in education Latest lessons learned from international experience with PPPs in education
UNICEF Engagement with NSPs
UNICEF far more engaged with NGOs, Civil Society and Faith based Organizations than with Private Sector UNICEF Global Education Policy (2005-2015) clearly (2005identifies expanding PPP engagement, especially with Early Childhood and adolescent education UNICEF EAP Adolescent Education Strategy (2009) identifies importance of supporting private sector, in the areas of association/network strengthening, policy revision, and equivalency/alternative delivery systems.
UNICEF Engagement with NSPs: Building Partnerships
Ensure PPP providers are Key Stakeholders in Sector Planning and Review processes invited as members of ESWG (esp. faith based and NGO)
Providing funds for NGO Umbrella organizations, represent PPP providers in Sector Planning process (eg., KAPE in Cambodia)
EFA Mid Decade Reporting (UN) – 47 Countries submitted Nat’l EFA MDA Reports on Theme: Reaching the Unreached – Identifying Disparities. PPP providers were members of Nat’l EFA Committee – and data was disaggregated by PPP providers.
UNICEF Engagement with NSPs: Building Partnerships
Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic engagement on many levels on behalf of children and education.
Corporate partnership and funding of projects Guidelines for rights based business practice Policy advice on responsible CSR and adopt-a-school adoptregulations Emergency response support to schools through PPP
Conclusions - (1)
Rationale for PPPs can differ – increase access, improve service, increase transparency, overcome public sector operating restrictions, service innovations Wide range of possible programs – can be contextualized Broad definition of private sector – NGO, forfor-profit, community Not privatization or nationalization – hybrid
Conclusions - (2)
Government remains responsible for education – but plays different role Good design is key – policy, targets, roles and responsibilities (contracts), address risks Capacity of implementing body is critical – management, staff, financial mechanisms, etc More country level studies required on the impact of PPPs on poor, disadvantaged students PPPs not a panacea, but has potential for innovation for improving access and education outcomes