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I

MRE

MRE
Parte I Introduction

Parte II Working environment

1 Menu ................................................................................................................................... 4
File Menu
Edit Menu
View Menu
Tools Menu
Data Menu
Calculation

2 Data

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Model geom etry
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Building site .......................................................................................................................................................... 12
Generals
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Geosynthetics..........................................................................................................................................................
archives
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Soils archives.......................................................................................................................................................... 21
Conditions .......................................................................................................................................................... 23
Com binations.......................................................................................................................................................... 26
Groundw ater .......................................................................................................................................................... 28
Seism
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3 Calculation
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Analysis options
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Inner checks .......................................................................................................................................................... 34
Global checks.......................................................................................................................................................... 39
Project
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4 Theoretical
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outline
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Calculation of ..........................................................................................................................................................
the stress in the reinforcem ents
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Calculation of ..........................................................................................................................................................
the pullout stress
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Parte III Contact

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2011 Geostru Software

MRE

Introduction
Analysis of retaining works realized with reinforced earth technology. The MRE
software allows executing both the check and the project of reinforced earth
works, duly taking into account the presence of seismic actions and the
presence of reinforcement elements inside the ground. In particular, a solution
process which takes into account the possible additional resistance offered by
the presence of the reinforcement material is organized in the software. This
latter also allows executing the classical global stability checks used in the
retaining works:
- Overturning check;
- Sliding check;
- Limit load check;
- Global stability check (Fellenius or Bishop Method).

Working environment
The main active window is the following::

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Working environment

Figure: Main window work

From this window you can enter the basic data of the model, such as
dimensions of geometric terraces and geometric dimensions of the reinforcing
elements. The key issues relating to the window main job are:
Graphic objects:
It ispossible include graphical objects such as lines, rectangles, circles, texts
etc. These items can be used to complete the drawings required for the
preparation of a project. It's very useful the inclusion of shares by the user. In
the figure below you can see an example of use of graphical objects:

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Viewing surfaces sliding on the main window:


It is possible, after the various tests, see the circular sliding surfaces directly
on the main window. In particular, you can view the following groups of
surfaces:

Surfa c e s re la t e d t o t he a na ly sis of globa l st a bilit y :


For these types of surfaces you can see all the surfaces, only the surface
a factor of at least or any surface;
Surfa c e s re la t e d t o t he a na ly sis of int e rna l st a bilit y :
For these types of surfaces you can see all the land (these are all critical
surfaces) or any surface;
Surfa c e s re la t e d t o t he c om poud st a bilit y :
For these types of surfaces you can see all the land (these are all critical
surfaces) or any surface;

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The selection of areas to be displayed can be made using a special tool bar
(see figure below). The following figure shows a sample display of all
surfaces (Selection of 'last text box drop-down menu) for the "Combination
1" (Selection of the first text box drop) in the context of analysis of global
stability (Selection of the second text box drop-down menu).

Figure: Viewing the rupture surfaces of the main window.

2.1

Menu

2.1.1

File Menu
New
Creates file(s) for a new project.
Open:
Opens file(s) for a previously created project.
Save:

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Save file(s) for the currently open project, replacing any previous version.
Save As:
Save file(s) for the currently open project under the name and in the folder, to
be entered in a subsequent dialogue window. This creates a new file with that
name. If the file already exists the user is asked to confirm that it should be
overwritten.
Esc
Exit the program.

2.1.2

Edit Menu
Undo
Cancels the last amendment restoring the situation as before the change.
Copy
Copies to the
also available
copy bitmaps
editor (Word,

clipboard the selected area of the active window. (Function is


from the Standard toolbar). This function is particularly useful to
of images in the various phases of computation to a preferred
Works etc.)

Paste
Pastes the clipboard in the worksheet.
Delete
Deletes the selected object in the worksheet

2.1.3

View Menu
Redraw
making the redesign of the bridle removed any errors display;
Zoom all
Allows viewing all the graphic objects present in the window, resizing the view
of the work window so that all the graphic objects can be contained;
Zoom window

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Allows enlarging a part of the work window previously selected through a


selection box;
Move
Allows the displacement en masse (including the reference system) of the
graphic objects contained in the drawing area;
Previous Zoom
Returns to the zoom factor current before the last operation.

2.1.4

Tools Menu
Line
The use of this tool allows the interactive drawing of a line on the active
window.

Po ly line
The use of this tool allows the interactive drawing of a polyline on the active
window.

R e cta ngle
The use of this tool allows the interactive drawing of a rectangle on the active
window.

C ircle
The use of this tool allows the interactive drawing of a circle on the active
window.

Te xt
The use of this tool allows the interactive insertion of a text string.

D is ta nce
The use of this tool allows determining the distance between two points
previously selected by double clicking on the left mouse button.

Se le ct
The use of this tool allows selecting a graphic object present in the active
window. The control can only act with regard to graphic objects defined
starting from one in the previously described tools.

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Data Menu
B uilding s ite
Allows entering and changing the data relevant to the building site for the
realization of the reinforced earth work;

G e ne ra ls
Allows entering and changing the general data of the work;

G e o s y nthe tics a rchiv e s


Allows entering and changing the data relevant to the Geosynthetics archives;

So ils a rchiv e s
Allows entering and changing the data relevant to the Soils archives;

C o nditio ns
Allows entering and changing the data relevant to lle Load conditions;

C o m bina tio ns
Allows entering and changing the data relevant to the Load combinations;

G ro undwa te r
Allows entering and changing the data relevant to the possible Groundwater;

Se is m
Allows entering and changing the data relevant to the possible Seism;

[****]

2.1.6

Calculation
Analysis Options
Allows you to insert and modify data on the options analysis;
Internal checks
Allows you to perform internal audits of the model;
Global checks
It allows to perform comprehensive audits of the model;
Project
Allows to carry out the Project of the model.

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2.2

Data

2.2.1

Model geometry

In this data set are defined all the useful parameters for the geometrical moulding of the
model. The geometrical parameters which must be entered are relevant to:

G e o m e try o f the do wns tre a m , ups tre a m a nd fo unda tio n pa rt o f the no nre info rce d pro file ;
G e o m e try o f the re info rce d s o il pa rt (re info rce m e nt blo cks );
G e o m e try o f the re info rce m e nt e le m e nts .
These parameters turn into the following data:

Firs t ups tre a m s tre tch inclina tio n

[ ] - a 1m

Firs t ups tre a m s tre tch le ngth

[m ] - d1m ;

Se co nd ups tre a m s tre tch inclina tio n

[ ] - a 2m ;

Se co nd ups tre a m s tre tch le ngth

[m ] - d2m ;

Firs t do wns tre a m s tre tch inclina tio n

[ ] - a 1v ;

Firs t do wns tre a m s tre tch le ngth

[m ] - d1v ;

Se co nd do wns tre a m s tre tch inclina tio n

[ ] - a pm ;

Se co nd do wns tre a m s tre tch le ngth

[m ] - d2v ;

Ups tre a m fa ce inclina tio n

[ ] - a pm ;

Fo unda tio n he ight

[m ] - H f

Besides, for each reinforcing bench the following data must be defined:

R e info rcing be nch he ight

[m ] - H g;

R e info rcing be nch ba s e

[m ] - B g;

D o wnhill fa ce inclina tio n o f the re info rcing be nch [ ] - a .


As regards the reinforcement elements, on the contrary, the following data must be
defined:

C o o rdina te o f o utcro p o n the do wnhill fa ce

[m ] - y r;

To ta l re info rce m e nt le ngth

[m ] - Lto t;

R e info rce m e nt he ight

[m ] - H r;

Fo lding le ngth

m ] - Lr;

G e o s y nthe tic ty pe (to be cho s e n a m o ngs t the ge o s y nthe tics de fine d in


the G e o s y nthe tics a rchiv e s ).
In order to enter the geometrical data correctly, it is advisable refer to the following
diagrams:

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Figure: Reference diagram for the definition of the model geometry

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Figure: Reference diagram for the definition of the reinforcement geometry

The environment for the insertion of the data relevant to the geometry is the following::

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Figure: Environment for the insertion of the model geometrical data

Consequences of clicking on the buttons:

Apply butto n: Reading of the data from the form and update of the
geometrical model drawing;
? B utto n: Opening of the help window with regard to the data of the
model geometry.
G e ne ra te butto n: Automatic generation of the reinforcements
throughout the height of the reinforced work. By executing this
control you can generate a succession of reinforcements with
features equivalent to the first reinforcement defined. It follows that
the automatic generation of the reinforcements is subordinate to the
correct definition of the first reinforcement.

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2.2.2

Building site
In this data set is defined all the necessary information to characterize the
type of the work, the project engineer and the area where the work must be
built besides the standard taken as reference. The data relevant to the
building site are the following:

D a te : Date of creation of the project relevant to the building site;


Pro je ct e ngine e rs title : The software allows choosing amongst the
following options:
Engineer;
Architect;
Surveyor;
Master contractor.

M unicipa lity : Insertion of the name of the municipality inside which the
work will be built;
Pro v ince : Insertion of the name of the province inside which the work
will be built;
W o rk de s criptio n: Insertion of the work description;
Sta nda rd na m e : Insertion of the name of the standard used in the
calculation procedures;
The environment for the insertion of these data is the following:

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Figure: Environment for the insertion of the building site data

Consequences of clicking on the buttons:

O K butto n: Recording of the data and closing of the window;


C a nce l butto n: Closing of the active window without data recording;
? B utto n: Opening of the help window with regard to the building site data.

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2.2.3

Generals
In this data set is defined the general information necessary for characterizing
the general behaviour of the work as well as the minimum safety requirements
of the work with regard to the different breaking modes. The general data are
the following:

Se is m ic la te ra l pre s s ure :
As regards the lateral pressure from earthquakes, the programme allows
the insertion of the coordinate corresponding to the point of application
of the action in a dimensionless form. For the determination of such
value, you can refer to the following diagram:

Figure: Diagram calculating the data relevant to the seismic lateral force.

With reference to the figure, the data to be entered is the ys quantity - Htot
quantity ratio. It should be noticed that in any case the software allows not
only selecting preset values for this quantity (1/3, 2/3, 1/2) but also entering
any value.

Va rio us pro pe rtie s :


Fo unda tio n a dhe s io n:

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The foundation adhesion is important when the sliding check is executed on


the work. In fact, the sliding-resistant stress is evaluated through the
following formula:

Sr

N tan(

) ca

Where N is the vertical foundation unloading, tan(dF) is the foundation friction


and ca is the value of the foundation adhesion.

Fo unda tio n frictio n:


The foundation friction contributes to determining the sliding-resistant stress
(see previous formulas). The value to be entered in the general data window is
directly the tangent of the angle of foundation friction (tan(df)).

So il- wo rk a ngle o f frictio n (So il- wo rk a ngle o f frictio n):


This parameter determined the slope of the thrusts acting on the back of the
reinforced earth work. It must be expressed in degrees and must be higher
than 2/3 of the angle of inner friction of the thrusting soil.

M e tho d fo r the ca lcula tio n o f the s ta bility a na ly s is :


The software allows these of two methods for the calculation of the safety
factor in the global stability analysis.
Fellenius method;
Bishop method;

Sa fe ty fa cto rs re quire d:
Sa fe t y fa c t ors for t he inne r c he c ks:
Safety factor with regard to the collapse due to the breaking of the
generic reinforcement (reinforcement breaking);
Safety factor with regard to the collapse due to the slipping off of the
reinforcement (pullout);
Safety factor with regard to the collapse due to sliding (direct sliding).

Sa fe t y fa c t ors for t he rigid body c he c ks:


Safety factor with regard to the collapse due to the overturning of the
work;
Safety factor with regard to the collapse due to the sliding of the work;
Safety factor with regard to the collapse due to the limit load of the work;
Safety factor with regard to the collapse due to the global instability.
The environment for the insertion of the general data set is the following:

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Figure: Environment for the insertion of the general data

Consequences of clicking on the buttons:

O K butto n: Recording of the data and closing of the window;


C a nce l butto n: Closing of the active window without data recording;
? B utto n: Opening of the help window with regard to the building site data.

2.2.4

Geosynthetics archives
In this data set are defined all the properties of the geosynthetic materials necessary
for a correct execution of the calculation. It is possible to define, through the insertion
of new geosynthetics in the archives, how many types of geosynthetic materials you
want. For each material, the following data must be defined:

G e ne ra l info rm a tio n:
G e o s y nthe tic ty pe :
The software allows the use of two types of geosynthetic materials:

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Geotextile fabrics;
Geogrids.

G e o s y nthe tic na m e :
The name used to identify the geosynthetic in the archives must be defined.
Warning! The software does not allow the insertion of geosynthetics under the
same name;

C o lo ur:
It refers to the colour used to graphically identify the geosynthetic material
sheet inside the active window;

D a m a ge fa cto rs :
The damage factors are those factors whose product constitutes the
reduction factor which allows moving on from the nominal resistance of the
geosynthetic material to the admissible resistance of the geosynthetic (T
allowable). The software allows the calculation of the admissible resistance
with different approaches, so that damage factors of different nature must be
entered according to the approached used:

Ca lc ula t ion a c c ording t o t he G R I (G e o s y nthe tic R e s e a rch Ins titute )


a ppro a ch
According to this calculation approach, the admissible resistance is
evaluated as follows:

Tallow

( FS ID FSCR

Tult
FSCD FS BD FS JNT )

Where:
FSID - Damage factor following the installation of the bound product;
FSCR - Damage factor as a consequence of the creep;
FSCD - Damage factor as a consequence of the soil chemical
aggressiveness;
FSBD - Damage factor as a consequence of the soil biological
aggressiveness;
FSJNT- Damage factor as a consequence of the superimpositions;

Ca lc ula t ion a c c ording t o t he B S8006/ 1995 a ppro a ch (Code of pra t ic e for


st re ngt he ne d/re inforc e d soils a nd ot he r fills).
According to this calculation approach, the admissible resistance is
evaluated as follows:

Tallow

( f m111 f m112 f m121

Tult
f m122 f m 211 f m 212 f m 22 )

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Where:
fm111 - Safety factor on the production process;
fm112 - Safety factor as regards dimensional imperfections;
fm121 - Safety factor on the level of experimentation carried out;
fm122 - Safety factor on the data mining process;
fm211 - Safety factor as regards the damage in the laying stage (shortterm);
fm212 - Safety factor as regards the damage in the laying stage (longterm);
fm22 - Safety factor as regards environmental factors;

Ca lc ula t ion a c c ording t o t he FH W A (Fe de ra l H ighwa y Adm inis tra tio n)


a pproa c h
According to this calculation approach, the admissible resistance is
evaluated as

Tallow

( FD

Tult
FID FCR )

Where:
FSD - Damage factor following the soil chemical aggressiveness;
FSID - Damage factor following the installation of the product;
FSCR - Damage factor as a consequence of the creep;
In the previous formulas, Tult is the nominal resistance of the geosynthetic material.
The environment for the insertion of the data set of the geosynthetics archives is the
following:

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Figure:Geosynthetic materials archives.

As regards the pullout coefficient and the direct sliding coefficient, the following
considerations are valid:

Pullout c oe ffic ie nt :
The pullout coefficient is used for the evaluation of the pullout resistance at
the geosynthetic level considered. Said coefficient is evaluated through the
following formula:

fb

tan( )
tan( )

'b
'n

1
2 tan( )

The symbols used in the previous formula have the following meaning:
as is the part of the geogrid width capable of mobilizing the passive
resistance;
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d is the friction coefficient between the solid part of the geogrid and the
soil;
B is the thickness of the transversal elements;
S is the distance between the transversal elements capable of mobilizing
the passive resistance.

Dire c t sliding c oe ffic ie nt :


The direct sliding coefficient is used in the check of the work direct sliding.
Said coefficient is evaluated through the following formula:

fb

tan( )
tan( )

The symbols have the same meaning as the previous ones. In any case, for
more clarity, please observe the following figure:

Figure: Diagram for the interpretation of the symbols used in the previous formulas

NB: The previous formulas are due to Jewell and are based on the
assumption of a complete interpenetration of the soil inside the open
meshes of a synthetic reinforcement element such as a geogrid.
Consequences of clicking on the buttons:

O K butto n: Recording of the data and closing of the window;


Annulla / C a nce l butto n: Closing of the active window without data recording;
? butto n: Opening of the help window with regard to the building site data;
Pull- do wn te xt bo x: Calculation of the admissible resistance according to the
selected approach;
R ight butto n o n the le ft s e ctio n (tre e s tructure ): opening of the menu for
the insertion or deletion of a geosynthetic.

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2.2.5

MRE

Soils archives
In this data set are defined all the soil properties necessary for a correct execution of
the calculation. The software allows defining the parameters connected with three soil
categories:

Fo unda tio n s o il:


The features of the foundation soil are necessary for the execution of
the global checks, such as the limit load check and the global
instability check;

R e info rce m e nt s o il:


The features of the reinforcement soil are necessary for the
execution of the inner checks and of the project of the elements
reinforcement. Obviously, said parameters are also used in the global
stability checks such as the sliding check, overturning check, limit
load check and global instability check.

Filling s o il:
The features of the filling soil are necessary for the execution of the
inner checks (though the compound analysis) and of the project of
the reinforcement elements. Obviously, said parameters are also used
in the global stability checks such as the sliding check, overturning
check, limit load check and global instability check.
The identification of the parameters to be associated to the various soil blocks
can be achieved with reference to the following figure:

Figure: Schema per la definizione dei terreni

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Diagram for the definition of the grounds

To each soil present in the archives, the following data are associated:

Spe cific gra v ity [kN/ m ]: It is the dry soil specific gravity;
Po ro s ity [% ]: It is the soil porosity. This parameter is necessary in
case you want to calculate the saturated weight of the ground
automatically (optional calculation);
Sa tura te d we ight [kN/ m ]: It is the saturated weight of the
ground, which can be entered by the user or calculated by the
programme automatically;
C o he s io n [kN/ m ]: It is the drained cohesion of the material;
Angle o f inne r frictio n [ ]: It is the angle of inner friction of the
material;
C o lo ur: It is the colour used to identify the soil graphically on the
active window.

The environment for the insertion of the data set of the soils archives is the following:

Figure: Environment for the insertion of the soils archives

Consequences of clicking on the buttons:

O K butto n: Recording of the data e closing of the window;


C a nce l butto n: Closing of the active window without data recording;
? B utto n: Opening of the help window with regard to the data del building
site.
B utto n: Automatic calculation of the saturated weight (the porosity value
must be entered).

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2.2.6

MRE

Conditions
In this data set are defined all the load conditions to which the reinforced earth
work can be subject. For each load condition, the following data must be
defined:

C o nditio n na m e ;
Se t o f co nce ntra te d lo a ds co nta ine d in the co nditio n;
Se t o f dis tribute d lo a ds co nta ine d in the co nditio n;
NB: For a correct working of the calculation, each condition must be identified by an
unequivocal name.
As regards the loads, the software allows two types of acting loads, namely:

C o nce ntra te d lo a ds ;
D is tribute d lo a ds ;
T he c onc e nt ra t e d loa ds.
The concentrated loads are to be meant as punctual forces
provided with two components (one long component x and one
short component y). In order to correctly take into account the
effects of a concentrated force, the following parameters must be
defined:
Name (Name of the concentrated load);
x [m] - Coordinate x of the force application point;
y [m] - Coordinate y of the force application point;
Fx[kN/m] Intensity of the force in the reference direction x;
Fy[kN/m] Intensity of the force in the reference direction y.
For a correct definition of the concentrated loads, it is advisable refer to the
following diagram:

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Figure: Reference diagram for the definition of the concentrated forces

T he dist ribut e d loa ds.


The distributed loads are to be meant as loads uniformly distributed by
length unit, determined on the basis of a unit depth. In order to correctly
take into account the effects of a concentrated force, the following
parameters must be defined:
Name (Name of the distributed load);
xInitial [m] - Coordinate x of the force application point;
xFinal [m] - Coordinate y of the force application point;
Q[kN/m] Intensity of the distributed load value.
For a correct definition of the distributed loads, it is advisable refer to the
following diagram:

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Figure: Reference diagram for the definition of the distributed loads

NB: In the last figure, x0 stands for xInitial and x1 stands for xFinal.
The environment for the insertion of the data set relevant to the load conditions is the
following:

Figure: Environment for the insertion of the load conditions

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Consequences of clicking on the buttons:

O K B utto n: Recording of the data and closing of the window;


C a nce l butto n: Closing of the active window without data recording;
? B utto n: Opening of the help window with regard to the building site data.
Add butto n: Addition of a load condition. The added condition is placed at the
end with respect to the previous conditions;
D e le te butto n: Removal of the current condition (of the conditionwhose name
appears in the text box "Condition name").

2.2.7

Combinations
In this data set are defined all the load combinations to which the reinforced
earth work can be subject. Each load combination is, precisely, the result of
the combination of the previously defined load conditions. In case no load
condition has been defined, the software will perform the calculation taking into
consideration the default acting loads. The correct definition of a load
combination requires the insertion of the following data:

C o m bina tio n da ta :
Name This is the name used to identify unequivocally the combination
inside the set of combinations;
Partial factors of the materials:
Angle of friction (gF):
This is the factor through which the tangent of the angle of friction inside
the soil is reduced:

tan 1 (

tan(

Soil weight (gg):


This is the factor through which the value del weight per volume unit of the
ground is reduced:

Cohesion (gc):
This is the factor through which the value of the soil cohesion is reduced:

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cd

c
c

Admissible resistance (gR):


This is the factor through which the value of the geosynthetic admissible
strain is reduced:

Partial factors of the loads:


These are the multiplicative factors to be applied to the default
load conditions (Static action, Dynamic action, Hydrostatic action,
Own weight, Upward water thrust) and to the possible load
conditions defined by the user.
Load conditions:
The user can of course choose which of the load conditions
defined at the previous stage must be considered in the generic
load combination. In order to enter a load condition in a
combination, it is necessary to execute the following procedure:
Select the combination to which you want to add a load
condition;
Select the load condition from the upper panel of the load
conditions (red contour in the following figure)
Click on the "+>>" button.
Alternatively, it is possible to double click on the condition to be
entered from the upper panel of the conditions (red contour in
the following figure )
In order to remove a load condition from a combination, it is
necessary to execute the following procedure:
Select the combination from which you want to remove a load
condition;
Select the load condition from the lower panel of the load
conditions (green contour in the following figure)
Click on the "-<<" button.
Alternatively, it is possible to double click on the condition to be
removed from the lower panel of the conditions (green contour in
the following figure )
The environment for the insertion of the data set relevant to the load conditions is the
following:

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Figure: Environment for the insertion of the load combinations

Consequences of clicking on the buttons:

O K B utto n: Recording of the data and closing of the window;


C a nce l butto n: Closing of the active window without data recording;
? B utto n: Opening of the help window with regard to the building site data.
C o m bina tio n (o ra nge ba ckgro und in the pre v io us figure ): The data relevant
to the combination are recorded.

2.2.8

Groundwater
In this data set are defined the geometrical properties of the groundwater
possibly present in the model. The correct definition of the groundwater
requires the insertion of the following data:

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Ve rtice s o f the gro undwa te r;


For each vertex, the two coordinates of the plane x and y, both expressed in
metres must be defined. For a correct definition of the data relevant to the
groundwater, it is advisable to refer to the following diagram:

Figure: Diagram for the definition of the groundwater

The environment for the insertion of the data set relevant to the load conditions is the
following:

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Figure: Environment for the insertion of the data relevant to the groundwater

Consequences of clicking on the buttons:

O K B utto n: Recording of the data and closing of the window, drawing update
in the active window;
C a nce l butto n: Closing of the active window without data recording;
? B utto n: Opening of the help window with regard to the building site data.

2.2.9

Seism
In this data set are defined the seismic properties of the site so as to achieve
the definition of the coefficients of the horizontal and vertical seismic thrusts.
The parameters to be entered are those provided for by the new NTC2008
regulations in force in building matters. The environment for the insertion of the
seismic data is the following:

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Figure: Environment for the insertion of the seismic data

Consequences of clicking on the buttons:

C a lcula te butto n: This calculates the seismic parameters necessary for the
calculation (Kh, Kv);
O K B utto n: Recording of the data and closing of the window;
? B utto n: Opening of the help window with regard to the building site data;
G e o s tru PS butto n: Opening of the Webpage "www.geostru.com/geoapp" for
the on-line calculation of the seismic parameters;
Im po rt fro m G e o s tru PS butto n: Reading of the text file generated on the
Website www.geostru.com.

2.3

Calculation

2.3.1

Analysis options
In this data set are defined the analysis parameters (e.g. the variation range of
the radius for the circular sliding surfaces). The parameters must be defined for
the following types of analysis:

G lo ba l s ta bility a na ly s is ;
Inne r s ta bility a na ly s is (aimed at determining the critical surfaces which are
completely contained in the reinforcement soil portion);
C o m po und s ta bility a na ly s is (aimed at determining the critical surfaces
possibly extending outside the reinforcement soil area, and consequently being
deeper than those calculated through the previous analysis);
In any case, the following parameters must be defined for all three types of analysis:
Coordinates x and y of the initial analysis point;
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Coordinates x and y of the final analysis point;


Coordinates x of the second point of the circular sector, under starting
analysis conditions;
Coordinates x of the first point of the circular sector, under final analysis
conditions;
Surfaces research step. This is measured according to the curvilinear
abscissa which crosses the ground profile;
Minimum radius. This is the minimum radius of analysis;
Maximum radius. This is the maximum radius of analysis;
Radius step. This is the increase in the radius value.
NB: Clicking on the "Calcola parametri"/"Calculate parameters" button,
the programme will set the values of the above-mentioned
parameters automatically. When necessary, the user can proceed to
the change starting from the automatically calculated estimate.
In any case, for a correct definition of the analysis parameters it is advisable to refer to
the following diagram:

Figure: Reference diagram for the identification of the first 5 analysis parameters

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Figure: Reference diagram for the identification of the last 3 analysis parameters

NB: What is defined above as the Radius Rate is the step to be used in moving
on from the minimum radius to the maximum radius. The environment for the
insertion of the data set relevant to the analysis options is the following:

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Figure: Environment for the insertion of the analysis options

Consequences of clicking on the buttons:

O K B utto n: Recording of the data and closing of the window, update


of the drawing in the active window;
C a nce l butto n: Closing of the active window without data recording;
? B utto n: Opening of the help window with regard to the data del
building site;
C a lcula te pa ra m e te rs butto n: Automatic calculation of the analysis
parameters (it is advisable always to start from the automatically
calculated data).

2.3.2

Inner checks
The inner checks are aimed at determining the safety factor with regard to the following
collapse phenomena:

R e info rce m e nt bre a king;


R e info rce m e nt s lipping o ff (pullo ut).
In the following figure are shown the diagrams of the collapse mechanisms it is
possible to analyze by means of the inner stability analysis.

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Figure: Local collapse mechanisms (Inner stability analysis)

One of the essential steps in the check calculation of a work is to calculate the
stress occurring in the reinforcements. The flow chart of the algorithm used for
this purpose is the following:

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Figure: Flow chart for calculating the stress in the reinforcements.

In the previous figure, r is the index which identifies the reinforcement (the
numbering ranges from the highest reinforcement (r=1) to the lowest
reinforcement (r=nr)). After the calculation of the stress in the reinforcements,
a check must be carried out as well.
NB: The calculation of the stress in the reinforcement is performed on the
side of the flow chart (red boxed in the previous figure) where the unit
(FS(Tr)-1=0) safety factor (calculated according to Tr, which is the
stress searched for) is assumed. The solution to the equation can be
found through a classical method of numerical solution (Newtons
method aka Method of secants).

R e info rce m e nt bre a king che ck:

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This check consists in satisfying the following ratio:

FS rc

(Tallow /
Tr

FS rr

Where the meaning of the symbols (which is the one defined in the previous
sections) is the following:
Tr is the stress calculated in the reinforcements (with the algorithm
concerned by the previous figure);
Tallow is the admissible (allowable) stress of the r-th geosynthetic;
gR is the partial combination factor to be applied to the resistances;
FSrc is the calculated safety factor, with regard to the breaking of the
reinforcement;
FSrr is the required safety factor, with regard to the breaking of the
reinforcement.

Slipping o ff che ck (Pullo ut che ck):


This check consists in satisfying the following ratio:

FS pc

(T p /
Tr

FS pr

Where the meaning of the symbols (which is the one defined in the previous
sections) is the following:
Tr is the stress calculated in the reinforcements (with the
algorithm concerned by the previous figure);
Tp is the pullout-resistant stress (depending on various factors
including the reinforcement normal strain, the soil-geosynthetic
interface friction coefficient, etc.) relevant to the r-th
geosynthetic;
gR is the partial combination factor to be applied to the
resistances;
FSpc is the calculated safety factor, with regard to the breaking
by slipping off (pullout-related breaking);
FSpr is the required safety factor, with regard to the breaking by
slipping off (pullout-related breaking).
The environment for above-mentioned checks is the following:

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Figure: Environment for the output display

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2.3.3

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Global checks
In the framework of the present software, by global checks we mean the ones relevant
to the collapse with regard to:

O v e rturning of the whole work considered as a rigid body;


Sliding of the whole work on the surface of contact with the foundation (the
work is always considered as a rigid body);
Lim it lo a d of the work foundation;
Slippa ge of work portions with the sliding plane coinciding with the soilgeosynthetic interface.
O v e rturning che ck

The overturning check consists in comparing the extent of the overturning


moments with the stabilizing moments. The reference pole for the calculation of
the moments coincides with the reference system which regard to which the
forces are defined (as shown in the following figure):

Figure: Diagram for the calculation of the overturning moments and stabilizing moments

With regard to the previous figure and to the reference diagram for the

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definition of the forces, the different forces will generate an overturning


moment if the product between F(i) and dF is higher than 0 (zero), otherwise it
will generate a stabilizing moment. In any case, the ratio to be satisfied in
order to consider the overturning check as positive is the following:

FS rc

MS
MR

FS rr

Please refer to following meaning of the symbols:


FSrc is the calculated overturning safety factor;
FSrr is the required overturning safety factor;
MS is the stabilizing moment;
MR is the overturning moment.
The software, besides considering the loads defined by the user in the
framework of the load conditions and combinations, also considers the
following loads (set by default):
Static thrust of the ground on the back of the work;
Dynamic thrust of the ground on the back of the work;
Hydrostatic thrust;
Upward water hydrostatic thrust;
Weight characteristic of the reinforced mass.

Sliding che ck:


The sliding check consists in comparing the extent of the resultant of
the sliding-soliciting forces with the extent of the resultant of the
sliding-resistant forces (mainly by friction and adhesion). The diagram
to be taken as reference is the one reported in the previous figure. In
any case, the ratio to be satisfied in order to consider the sliding
check as positive is the following:

FS sc

Fres
Fsol

FS sr

Please refer to following meaning of the symbols:


FSsc is the calculated overturning safety factor;
FSsr is the required overturning safety factor;
Fres is the sliding-resistant force;
Fres is the sliding-soliciting force.

C a pa city be a ring che ck:


The capacity bearing check consists in comparing the extent of the
maximum operating strain under the foundation with the extent of the
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limit breaking strain of the work-foundation ground complex. The ratio


to be satisfied in order to consider the limit load check as positive is
the following:

FS q limc

Qu
Qes

FS q limr

Please refer to following meaning of the symbols:


FSqlimc is the calculated limit load safety factor;
FSqlimr is the required limit load safety factor;
Qu is the collapse limit load of the work-foundation complex;
Qes is the calculated operating strain.

2.3.4

Project
In the framework of the present software, it is possible to realize the project of
the reinforced earth work. In particular, you are allowed to execute the
calculation of the following quantities:

C a lcula tio n o f the s pa cing be twe e n the re info rce m e nts o nce the
ultim a te ca lcula tio n s tra in o f the ge o s y nthe tic ha s be e n fixe d;
C a lcula tio n o f the ultim a te ca lcula tio n s tra in o f the ge o s y nthe tic
o nce the s pa cing be twe e n the re info rce m e nts ha s be e n fixe d.

It is possible to fix the spacing between the reinforcements or to fix the


ultimate calculation strain of the geosynthetic. The calculation strain of the
geosynthetic material can be fixed arbitrarily, i.e. choosing amongst the strains
corresponding to the geosynthetics present in the archives (double clicking on
the geosynthetics list on the left of the window). It is also possible to choose
the minimum amongst the calculation strains corresponding to the
geosynthetics present in the archives (clicking on the button with three dots
(...)).
Consequences of clicking on the buttons:

C a lcula tio n butto n:

Execution of the check calculation;

C lo s e butto n: Closing of the active window;


? B utto n: Opening of the help window with regard to the building site data;
[ ] B utto n: Loading of the minimum calculation strain as regards the
geosynthetics present in the archives.

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2.4

Theoretical outline

2.4.1

Calculation of the stress in the reinforcements


The calculation of the tensile force in the reinforcements is performed using a
variant to Leshchinskys algorithm. Actually, it being understood that the basic
concept is valid, in the present application a circular sliding surface different
from the one used in Leshchinskys method, which belongs to the logarithmic
spiral type is used. The algorithm used is aimed at detecting - for each
reinforcement level the critical surface, i.e. that surface in whose
correspondence the maximum strain occurs in the reinforcement, imposing a
unit safety factor. A schematic representation of the used algorithm (which
has already been presented above) is shown in the following figure

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Figure: Flow chart for calculating the stress in the reinforcements

As it can be easily observed, the algorithm provides that for each point of
outcrop (and so for each r in the previous figure) amongst all the possible
circular surfaces, the surface to which the maximum resistance value required
from the geosynthetic is selected, so as to stabilize the ground portion
overhanging it (by means of a safety factor equal to 1). Basically, it is
necessary to search for the maximum tn value for each equation of the unit
safety factor. In the following figure is shown once again a schematization of
the procedure:

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Figure: Schematization of the algorithm for the calculation of the stress in the
reinforcements

Schematization of the algorithm for the calculation of the stress in the


reinforcements

Mr Ms

FS :

Ms
Mr

Where Mr is the overturning moment and Ms is the stabilizing moment. As it


can be observed, the critical surface is such that the moment equilibrium
condition is checked under conditions of an incipient breaking (FS=1).
NB: The calculation of the stress in the reinforcement is performed on
the side of the flow chart (red boxed in the previous figure) where the
unit (FS(Tr)-1=0) safety factor (calculated according to Tr, which is the
stress searched for) is assumed. The solution to the equation can be
found through a classical method of numerical solution (Newtons
method aka Method of secants).

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2.4.2

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Calculation of the pullout stress


The pullout stress defines the extent of the limit stress to which the generic
geosynthetic can be submitted without the slipping off (pullout) phenomenon
occurring. The formula used to calculate the pullout stress is the following:

Tb

2 Lr Wr

f b tan( )

Where the symbols have the following meaning:


Lr is the length of the reinforcement section anchored in the stable ground
portion;
Wr is the width of the geosynthetic at the considered level;
sn is the effective reinforcement normal strain at the considered level;
fb is the pullout coefficient, for whose definition please refer to the
Geosynthetics archives section;
f is the angle of inner friction of the ground situated in direct contact with
the reinforcement;
For more clarity, it is advisable to refer to the following figure:

Figure

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Figure

Contact
GeoStru Software
Skype Nick: geostru_support_it-eng-spa
Web: www.geostru.com
E-mail: geostru@geostru.com

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