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ANXOTATEI)

TRANSLATION

ENdlJSlI

OF

ROZ-MAKRA

URDU

OR
"

A Y

RY-D

EVE

"

U liD U

TKXT-BOOIv

UK

FOR

rHK

EXAM

STANDARD

TjnVER

IN AT

[OX

HINDUSTANI

IN

BY

D? C. PHILLOTT,

I"iEUT.-CoLONEL

Secretary and

Board

Member,

Calcutta

of Examiners

University ; Author
Hindiistani

F.A.S.B.,

of Hindustani

Stumbling- Blocks

Fellow

Manual,

etc., etc.

CALCUTTA:
PRINTED

AT

THE

BAPTIST

MISSION

1911.

{All rights reserved.)

PRESS.

of the

INTRODUCTION.

The

in

literal, except

but

special uses,
than

harm

and

thought

of another.

the

is

guilty

of

stated

that

quoted

every

greater absurdities.

An

'

to

express

**red

be

paraphrased

phrase should
is

bandar

equivalent
would

dates

though
A
used

but

it

one

may

is

translation,

well

as

word

ordinary

and

idiom

being

should

English

translation

sentence

the

aid

be

then

of

or

Munshi,

Difficult paragraphs

To

munahl^

vulgar

use

etc.,
aa

to

say

singular
after

or

in

be

of

the

such
and

aid
to

i.e.

read

in

the

of

you

paraphrase
of

are,

candi.

perfection

even

or

'

these

then

be
twice

the

of

aloud
very
and

words

respectable

the

ing
correspond-

is done

such

any

of read-

clause

be made

is '.

with

method
or

after

of

names

is

The

be marked

Hindustani

through

together

If this
can

should

translation, every

sentence

should

'

read

the

firstand

revision

proper
'

the

its Hindustani

by

Standard

of

memory

Urdu.

phrases

verb

English

it

translation

be

construction.'

should

is

English

Higher

should

committed

reversed,

clause

of

it

coarser

orginal text-book,

the

peculiaritiesin grammatical

ing

the

with

way

If

which

former

the

much-

it oneself.

to
as

this

beet-root,"
a

standard

text-book

intelligently. The
the

and

have

to

attain

not

niceties

Lower

from

well

as

lal, though
Such

are

has, indeed,

but

translate

to

I missed

"

Hindustani,

in
as

the

idiom

explanation.

however,

better

sa

incorrect.

expected

not

course,

in

be

not

Were,

be

it would

expression used,

"red

by

more

candidates

authority

lobster"

idiom.

Hindustani

good

as

of

month

of

do

and

thought

translation,'

probably capable

is

statement

desired

is not

paraphrase

their

expressing

Hindustani

into

obviously absurd, yet

even

in

in the

language

one

literal translation

A
"

train

of

idiom

consists

Translation

good.

not

indeed

ordinary beginner they usually

the

to

made

have

translations

Literal

places.

been

purposely

has

translation

present

with

rapidly.
remarked

as

people,

mhih,
19

a"

iv

at

INTRODUCTION.

portions,

so

original,

he

text-book.

the

High

the

aid

may

be

of

If

the

Elnghsh

passage

passage

of

'a fund
in

into

in

thanks

Yusuf

are

this

of

Chatterji,

Chandra
in

the

of

The

it

as

made

'

the

due

1910.

tht-

exercises

with

his

well

he

tongue

for

Bahadur,

translation,
Clerk,
of

the

will

and
Board

acquired

must

well

as

as

Mawlavi
valuable

also
of

to

any

unknown

have

he

the

Urdu

the

as

however

Shams-ul-'Ulama

to

into

ease

as

which

indicated,

manner

Further

train

to

Khan

2nd

the

in

examination,

English.

correction

and

with
of

book

is

notes

practise
his

ear.

mad
Muham-

help
Babu

in

the

Nibaran

Examiners,

who

proofs.
D.

Calcutta

had

course

indicated

manner

largely

use

translate

to

order

Ja*fari,

preparation

assisted

in

set

conversation,

My

able

colloquial knowledge,

of

been
to

Persian

into

gymnastics.

student

without

way

(He

the

have

passed

Afghans).

or

mental

is mastered

be

Urdu

of

duction
intro-

who

translation

the

directed

is

this

hall.

English

the

attention

in

of

use

in

with

the

Urdu.

book

will

candidate

first

the

the

into

text-

and

translation

inducing

retranslation

worked

the

resemble

candidate

Persian,

Persians

forms

this

in

references

object

best

the

and
One

with

from

dealt

examination

the

in

was

it.

in

Munshi,

any

been

difficult

proper

Enghsb

more

closely

made

Manual^

in

Proficiency

have

the

up

the

of

any

phrases

also

has

contained

wrote

of

to

Hindustani

Translating

for

said

practised talking

one

difficult

pick

can

readily

matter

my

of

ever

also

the

remarks

the

he

that

This
to

to

translate

and

translation

student

the

When

revision.

each

C.

P.

TABLE

OP

CONTENTS.

TABLE

VI

OF

CONTENTS.

PART

Vazib

Trb

II.

of

Lamkubam.

Aotl
U

Aotn
Act

III

i-I

Act

IV

27

PART

HiSTOBiOAL

Naair-ud-Din

Amir

Sult^an

Muhmud-i

Zahir-ud

Din

The

Oevotion

The

Bravery

III.

Events.

Sabuktigin
Ghaznavi

Babur

of
of

the
Partab

13

Nurse

14

Singh
.

PART

MOTHERLY

1.

The
is

his

smoking

The

child

Its

mother

thou

is

huqqa

and

perturbed.
lulled

infant

sleep.

If it

it

carrying

washes

its face

and

them

Indian

An

Kachchi

"

Note

nifyd,

2.

How
He

is

quickly
thinking

Direct

How

half-sleep

the

repetition

THE

BOY

he

walks
himself

to

**

What

of

in

made

before
in

as
'

'

of her

mother,

up

awake,

when

the

is up,

she

moon-Uke

face

'

original

the

the

not

are

reproduced.

text.

swing.
going

adhi

adhl

GOING
so

nice

the

sun

pretty

takes

poor
sit

the

gets

out

morning

When

up.

lithographs

will

the

In

she

the

out

If it has

starts

light sleep,^

nice, how

is often

the

of

it,

she

old.
The

mother

her.

night

affection,

sit

occasionally

is

cradle

force

to

At
up,

midnight.*

says

The

picture.

before

be

it sticks

the

is

when

too."

When

hanging

and

come

me

maternal

will

and

cry,

wakes

it

its thumb.

I shall

up.

to

in its first

she

grow

it.

looks.

affection

about

it in

happy

day

delighted.

is

If

of

that

thyself

were

places

cry

now

to

if it

till

open,

become

Reference

is

great
up

eyes

to

her

even

the

mother

her.

begins

child's

In

feed

father

sucking

full

wilt

The

lap.

with

and

will

Thou

she

them

looks

When

swing-cradle

with

by

overcome

it has

it with

her

in

open

and

as

sleep,

to

bed

to

the

Its

eyes

life!

looks

tiny lip and

its

wages

child

her

regarding

is

regarding

earn

smiles

be

and

prattle sweetly

wilt

child

with

with

lying
is

wilt

Thou

to

is seated

lovingly, "My

saying

its

'

mother

AFFECTION.

to

that

rat

TO
arrive
he

into

must

sound

sleep.

tak.

SCHOOL.
in time

and

repeat

not

be

properly

late.
the

narration.

Note

this
"

one

of

meaning
must

"

."

auriana.

Suha.iye

would

be

impersonal

perative
Im-

lesson

learnt

him, and

be

him

knows

gets the
with

the

to learn.*

He

be

to

anxious
marks

After

respect.
limbs

the

mmd.

work

[lit.makes

gain knowledge

in

and

will

the

method

it is
hands

the
he

acquire

feet

wealth

be

and

his master

treats

which

strengthens

active] and

refreshes

aUve

will

He

honoured

greatly

keep

too

class and

promising boy.

and

time

master

is first in his

play,

to

be

to

The

He

and

seems

short

good

asked'

questions

boys.

in examinations.

Certainly

people,

all the

answer

distinguished amongst

highest

the

and

yesterday,

the

by
of his

name

ancestors.

Note

Shauqln,

the

school.

They

they

are

bright

are

Look

at

boy

over

can't

their

faces!

boy

well

is

but

don't

who

think

of

hain
p.

85

"are

the

the

all
all

their

by

and

get up

day

day

play
play,

might signify "play

playing now'';

and

vide

and
look

Note

Miyan

"

Note

this signification of the


shows
the

force

they
of

were

M.

Muslim

run.

That

ungainly
he

begin

to

and
has
run.

play, jump, skip,

play only. *
foolish

Boys,

when

but

Hindustani

Conjunctive Participle.
boys.

and

see

(2).

and

ground.

habitually."

Phillott's

happy

fresh

But

again

of

parents, they

is

one

Miyans,^

of

but

this

gets about.

Well

How

jump,

the

on

active, but

great thing.

Tense

never

the

out

come

How

They skip, and

? he'll

think

have

play-ground.

loved

are

refresh

to

body supple. Look,

thought

are

feet

runs

day

and

lessons

anxious

very

nothing

Present

means

is

matter

run;

The

his

sportsman."

PLAYING.'

make

in

keenness,

eagerness,

keen

the

their homes.
:

is a

during

and

They

still he

"

What

Childhood

too

their

free from

he

*'

ARE

Umbs

How

there

hai,

playing

are

this

run

fallen.

the

darlings of

the

are

play

finished*

have

boys

afiauq "desire,

BOYS

to

stretch

and

from

THE

It is necessary

passive.

shikari

shauqin

3.

mind

forming

adjective,

Bara

hobby.**

of

they

khel-rahe
Manual,

repeat their lessons

to

come

with

angry

great riches

is

What

fine

moving

See how

like

along

In

travel, and

it is such

forced

of

march

rider

going ?

Where

there

desert, and

He

alone

and

deliver

"

they

Le-jata hoga

"

THE

5.

beast

the

in

be

exact

loaded'

on

keeps on

CAMEL

Perhaps

it is

"Which

Lit.

i!s

carry

its mouth

hundreds

of
cious
pre-

state

they

receive

escape

the

glareof

during

the

dark, and

better.

LOADED.

placed on
While

the

ground

they load it, the

wide

and

sometimes

complaint,

be

"

This

crying out.
it bends

they
poor

times
Someits neck.

cruel camel-man

is

unjustly."

they
lifts up

camel.

this

They

etc.

halting-place.

BEING

head,* and

making

maltreatingme
1

the

opening

it raises

to

carrying'* would

Gunny bags,full of grain, are


will be

immemorial,

gold jewelleryand

reewjh the

must

sandy

silver and

they get through their march

it is still cool

is

of rupees,

them

camel-

thousands

heavy

very

there

time

transport letters,

exchange,

use

it makes

this

is

where

bad, there, from

are

for

somethinsj important.

and

railways or daks,

can

lie down

good camel,
'

with

carts

alone is of

Where

They generally travel by night


sun;

while

started

is

! it dances

nor

lose lieart and

it

praise of the

ekhaa

neither

fiftyk^s.

as

have

roads

stones, and

the

much

no

bills of

gold mohurs,
them.

in

say

that, if it is

goer

must

are

the

Mahajans'

deserts

Bravo

one

can

ponies,too,

as

camel-sawars

the

What

and

back

knowledge

smoothly

rising. In such places,the camel

without

moreover,

How

is thrown

gets

it.

riding-camel!

sandy

horses

from

AR.

its neok

peacock.

riding-camel?
hours

female

master

them:

CAMEL-SAW

THE

4.

; the

love

excluded

remain

they

parents don't

their

them;

their master

to

will

its neck.

load."

Note

Note

the

this

Urdu

method

idiom.

of

forming

the

sive.
Pas-

doesn't

Why

camels

Some

people
lie

they

it

lags

do

sand

to

of its

days

Nakel

nose-

peg.
*"

Ek

it

can

that

ahead,'*

but

in

easily in

water

in those

do

can

useful

travel

scarcity of

alone

is

"

on

go

age

nose-string and

short

the

long

is !

without

age

ja,o is

water

'"

keep just

includes

perhaps

Shutur

rope.

the

be-mahar,

met.,

Pandit
other

the

; on

breeze.

work

of

let down

has

side he

has

skilled

the

turned

bullocks, too,

The

CART.

it is in

coloured]; the

[i.e.,not

the

BULLOCK

handsome

How

It is the

too.

is white

side

JI'S

PANDIT

THE

light it

It

are

curtain
up

to

is

The

workman.

curtains

it
are

shape

white.
ward

off

(on the roof)

fine and

appear

to

how

the

Nagor.^
Great

The
has

place,

is very

let in the

be from

camel

dusre

nicelypainted

sun

she

can

for her nose-string* is


still,
The

is

if

refractory, uncontrolled."

How

the

first

is, I think,

3/ a/tar

6.

one

her.

beast

think, the

is, I

to

bedding

affection

even.

ja.o

age

looking

on

me."

of

the

it is this poor

Similarly

of

of

one

young

keeps

looks

female

are

The

she

it with

Whether

There

young.

them,

on

sides.

on.

while

stand

second,^ there

in the

for several

On

In

countries.

front

their

put

gets "perturbed. What

can't

in front

goes

mother,

its

behind, she

camel

; and

means,

behind

helplessand

is

parts and

dog

One

are

both

on

camel

line, with

the

in

Kajdwas

them

in

sleep, the

least

the

She

sandy

to

it escape

can

laden.

continually regarding

tied to the

not

go

close

and

back

in

are

How

comfortably

too,

follows

away

sit

or

camels,

"

run

is tied.

knees

and

it

bounded

however,
1

Nagor,

Pandits,

stand
in

Pandit
forward

and

still

without

Gujerat,
etc.,

are

Ji is

is famous

addressed

sittingin
is

any

for
as

barking

the

at the

concern.

its bullocks.

Maharaj.

cart.

See

bullocks, which,

Formerly

the

slowly and

pro^rress

introduced,

i?a"/i,m.,

Bahll,

is

Mahajan,

Baratt f., the

Hindu

house

ekkd

the

has

hand.

his
him

up

' *

'

'

do

Where

'

' '

* '

and

marriage

cessions.^
pro-

also

war-chariot

too

what's
'

'

across

one

up

too.

them
?

bag

; he
or

taken

two

"

'

passengers' shoes

' '

'

bag.'

in the

passengers

your

"

A;o5."
you

much

"What

Ohora^

Hijqqii

Sawari,

do

twelve
does

'

the

general

is the
""

one

seat

'

'

' '

and.

or

for

charge

you

in

earn
'

one

day

'

'

'

anas.

horse's

term,

water-bowl

conveyance,

the

up-keep

includes
and
a

cost

you

"

pony.

chilam

passenger

is the
;

also

earthenware

riding

or

his
in

will take

Mir."

do

to

another

and

his pony

comes

this

in

has

man

in his oxter

stopped

If he

off.

take

goes

is that?"

How
Ten

One

bundle

put your

you

Mian

What
One

the saray.

has

chilam.

will you

''Four
'

EKKA.

road, he will take

huqqa and

"Howfar

'

start

one

come,

the

on

put them

"To

Baniyas

bridegroom

the

when

IN

from

ekkawdld

then

Where

"I

carriage;

were

ceremony.

DRIVING

Ekka-wala,

My

railways

into

too

They

carriage.

marriage

has

and

"Mr.
'

and

valued.

enter

bullock

procession

started

The

passentrers

'

they

wheeled

marriage

for

; another

seat

less

times.

bankpr.

7.
The

and

bullock

small

.,

bride's

two-

olden

of

other

horses.

by

drawn

become

raths,^ but

in

jolty. Since baggis

them,

large

about

vehicles

are

have

still use

drive

to

These
are

Ihey

Mahajans

'

bahlis.

used

people

used

this country

wealtliyof

top,

driving."

more

"Five
for grass,

d7ia8

six

or

two

gram,^

for

anas

that is, two

day,

two-and-a-half

or

one-and-a-half

and

anas

two*

or

for

nihdri.^^^
' '

How

much

did you

for the pony

pay

* '

"Forty rupees."
How

"

"It

does

destination

used

For

good enough,

on

besides

is most

Ekkds.

tied bells

you

ornament;

"Which
"

Dana,

it takes

to

us

our

"

'*

nice.*'
ekkds

Panjab,

*'

ha}Hl8%

or

is

of conveyance

this sort

certainlyvery shaky and jolty/'

it is

properly

in the

sound

they

people, Sahib,

poor

but

its neck

on

grain,"

vulgarly

is

Ekkawalds

gram.

feed

always

gram.

order

Note

Niharl

do

derh,

quantity of

Listen

Oh

it.

bit !

Oh, oh
how

! what

handsome

plume
and

it

There

its head.

on

is

always

hain
^

Baithte
"is

look

that

But

sit

hain.

seated,

Latakta

is

rahna.

Present

at

The

long

binding.
sound

back, in which

the

sits

Perhaps

How

is

can

he

habitually

us

hnt

is

There

heard.

we

Sahib

Raja
up

into it ?
the

makes

obedient
*'

look

of its sides,

get

the mahdwat
very

an

it's got, and

tusks

clanging

elephant
"

equal

ao.

swings along towards

the side and

Tense,

sitting."

it

both

high !

journey.

(enjoy a)

slung on

the

and

bells.

of

let's go and

are

ELEPHANT.

What

bells

on

feed.

their brass

its

ponies

I lb. of gur^

to

morning

How

made

it's very

down.

up

sound

with

on

and

horses

come

"

Large

always * hangs

elephant

the

it is.

silver hauda

sits.'

ladder

these

was

English.

SAHIB'S

this way

they

to

the

big elephant !

in

aa

means

hear

there

see

also

RAJA

THE

elephant is coming
at

do

of turmeric,

oz.

Nihari

ata,

8.

derh

not

pick-me-up given

is the

ordinary receipt is

An

pakkd road,

by noon."

have

"For

On

pretty well.

goes

"Why

"

it go ?

baitfie

to

its

(hu,e)

raahawat's
I.e., it

commands,

gets up, sits down,

When

mahawat

the

and

This

salutes

horse

When

is

it goes

coachman

horse

and

he

THE

'

'

tongueing'

has

quieted

it

it turns

How

it

is

it

for

whipped
pupils

young
with

well

kindness

trots

of the

Of

reins.

It

them

treats

write,* but

those

Baggi,

Note

this

only

is

who

two-wheeled

Pluperfect

it

patting,

gentleness.
then

well ;

misbehaves,
he

just like
For

few

by degrees

boys

and

it lifts its

when

first

at

my

learn

sets

this,

days

the

child

to read

and

get punished.

light trap

Tense

on

coaxing it,

well

when

good

way

shirk

By

teacher, too,

[lit.affection]and

improves.

is this

and

its wildness

How

course,

now

the

working pretty

now

explains things encouragingly, and

he

and

tied

When

of it, and

straight];

clever

work,

to

it.

much

The

great deal

devil

the

and
It is

ghasita.

his business.

Look, it is
'

it well.

plunged

baggt].

baggi.

the

What

making
it

for
[lit.

in

lunged

put in

knows

feeling

its forehead

to

piece of ground

open

"

it, and

disappeared.

feet !

an

itself,

to

[lit.made

mere

harnessed

first time, it

frighthave
by

be

will be

coachman

to

its trunk

in harness

to go

to its bridle and

the

the

But

still.

Sahib.

it into

said

sign,

mere

BAGGP-HORSE.

and

and

at

stands

it raises

it,

it will

well,

it works

and

on

trained

being

of rope

alarmed

neck

9.

harnessed

was

was

Raja

subdued

quiet and

moves

the

that

so

orders

first took

longish bit

much

so

with

le-giyatha

to

hood.

indicate

anterior

time

the

to

Preterite.
S

OJiaffita,

horaes;
*

Note

from

the

wooden

rough

the

verb

is

Hindustani

these

are

going

without

wheels,

ghasitriaf to drag along


idiom

10.

What

frame

on

write

and

breaking

in

ground.
read.**

TENT-PEGGING.

here

preparations

is "to

the

for

for

Why

is there

tent-pegging;

such
for

crowd

this

reason

Ah,
the

drawn

people are
back

in

horses.
has

the

up in line.

line, otherwise

Look, there is a

let his horse

close to the

ground.

carriage there

officer of the

writingthe
pegging is
exercise

is

well.

activity and

This

CROSSING

the

river

the boat
The

boat

has

left

is not

deep

water

sinking
the

But

In

He

is

by

Tent-

strength and

and

of

the

make

will

soon

haste

last to disembark.

is

reach

been

has

become

boat,

The

when
is

the boat

has

the bank.

Be

one

are

that.

propelling

the boatmen

happened
the

boat

The

reaches

felt,and the boatmen

clamor,

to

is !

has

What

current

People

go

Look,

mid-stream.

"

heavy

very

nor

boatmen

the boat

No

Qhofa hhi

has

river

excited, each

mistake.

these

BOAT.

there

the

yell.

FERRY

Native

tilingsthe

such

gallop."

crammed

shouting. Look,
and

full

at

bank.

hope

by

increased, and

is

an

he is

to the winners.

out

of

front

hand, in which

not, for

flood ;

our

to

force

again get flurried and


first.

and

peg

of need.

IN

reached

now

boat

too, join in

the

him.

carried

sepoys

t"o go

How

suddenly begun

their

the

broad

have

exert

why

is in

poles.
has

mid-stream,

the

touched

at

often

this side without

to

cross

with

*'

How

boat

See, the

and

U.

now

aim

in his

given

practiceis

tr.,is

somewhere.

cannot

book

useful in the time

Sarpat dauramit

rain

good

! it's now

foot, in uniform.

will be

alertness of

qualities
prove

To-day

belly

will cheer

on
a

Look

the

military accomplishment, combining play

as

has

Prizes

Cavalry Regiments;

Sahib

Risdla, and

names.

take

now

more*

What's

its

he

tightand

How

arrow.

thougli

as

everybody

it off clean, and

carry
the

will

rider

The

an

of the

How

us.

rider too.

good

keep

get in the way

in the saddle.

looks

It

peg.

is

just Hke

comes

Chum,

on.

gallopingtowards

moving

It

is fast.

look

us

may

you

sawar

He

go.'

close he sits without


horse

Come, let

and
now

The

the

got beyond the


passengers

trying to

the first to

passengers,

will

disembark

embark, but

the

10

that

help longing to exercise one's strength. Look;

cannot

one

they slap their biceps and


shaken

hands.

drives him
Each

At

back

trick and

throw

has been

fair and

The

his

there

unable

who

is thrown

What
and

hard

the sawdust

Oh

**

in

himself

produced
What

sawyers

been

able to

wood

one

slow

through it,

way

' '

is this ?

this

only four

saw

the

is little.

too

'*It*8 5o/,'^'dhib. Since

but

will

WOOD.

makes

saw

clap.

shame.

SAWING

The

it is!

will

the other

throws

through pride;

from

wrestling

If the

dispute, people

address]that

SAWYERS

wood

and

his head.

with

his back.

no

his head

hang

THE

14.

been

contain

to

other

the

opportunity to practisea wrestling

has

terra

will

There; they've

pushes

one

adversary flat on

Miydn [a MusHm

swagger,

other.

another, the other drives him

gettingan

on

each

moment,

one

; at

is intent

face

morning

five*

or

till

up

planks, and

now

we

our

arms

have
are

quite tired."
'*

To

what

"As
"

''

rule

What

is this kind

uses

planks,beams,

other

expensive.

for boards
wood

and

from

beams

to

is generallyused.

Hence

it is much

workshops.
of it.

useful

thing,and

Sal,

Punch

Shisham,

the

these

it ; but
be made

are

ahlsham

used

for

don't

of it."

found

here ?

small

wooden

In the

Panjab, diydr*

it,and it is cheap.

attack

and

in

Diyar,

ifimarl,(from

livingby

railway

tables, are
is

very

it."

tree.

char, generally char


the

our

boxes

abundant
sufficiently

buildingpurposes,

earn
especially,

we,

"

strongest and

is the

it is not

of it.

Weevils

made

are

of wood

'

Sahib, the fact is, in this world, wood

teak

the

chairs

'

Quantities of chests, almiras,^ and

made

Of

put ?

Chairs, small chests, and

generallymade

are

and

different kinds

Shtsham^"diyar.*

most

of wood

sisso

deodar

",
;

Port,

punch.

Dalhergia sissoo.

the

Himalayan

almario),

*'

Cedar.
wardrobe

press

; a

book-case."

11

This

is

is

hem-stitch

His double
is that

him

if

even

he

givesit back

heap

work

out

to poor

well.

good clothes certainly,but


deliver in two

to

days

"Sahib, what
workers.

I do

Lit. "he

Laga-rahnaf

clothes

cuts

remain

to

'*

Bitha-rakhna

has

he has

shop.

tices.
appren-

too, and

gives
make

time

promise

; you

only

and

work

few

best but stillI fall behindhand."

very

my

long

much

I have

I do ?

can

his

eight.*'

take

but

over,

is famous.

lying in
:

about

Well, Mr. Darzi, you

"

take

you

too.

remains

work

them

makes

as

women

cloth

alone

by himself

himself, and

sews

good point

always

is

made,

be finished

cannot

He

be

to

well

sews

qualitieshe

for these

; and

to you

Another

bit of your

small

very

He

anywhere.

fine.

figure'well,

fits the

and

cuts

left

is very

of clothes

work

His

He

bagging

no

CLOTHES.

SEWING

clever workman.

there

and

DARZI

THE

15.

well that

so

."

they

always.
sat

and

down

them

kept

"

them

force of

both

verbs.

There

is

dragging

it.

See ; how

spread

net

It

dear

life is to

enmeshed

in the net, but

thing from

which

is

carried

of the net, and

out

them

How

men

bewildered

do?

possible. They

will

market, and

hawked

to

they

can

are

into it.

come

they

are

they

they leap,they jump;

what

escape

three

lot of fish have

of escape;

they seek

river, and

the

in

that

seems

means

NETTING.

FISHERMEN

THE

16.

are

is not

net

be taken

now

about

the

streets.

Are

there

any

There

Yes, many.

baskets

big

water,

people]catch
"What's
It's

thin

the

other.

the

bamboo,

other methods

that

and

used.

In

of nets.

kinds
Some

shallow

[lit.keen

sportsmen

rods.

[a rod]?"

stick
One

several

are
are

fish with

catching fish

of

of

end

bamboo,
of

thick

at

line is fastened

at the other

end

end

one

to

and

the

of the line there

thin
end

thin
is

at

of

hook.

12

fishermen, when

Tlie
or

small

very

throat, and
the

the

bit

look

He

what

has

they

never

'

boy

seen

doing, and

are

paring its hoofs.

feet; the horse

Well, just tell

i/tyan,

"

We'll

put

isn't

me,

when

has

Oho

draw
*'

'*

!^ what

blood

one

on

This

It's

*'

would
with

horse

'i

For

[pierce]its

We

pare

the hard

nails."

your

Won't

in.

they
If

part of the hoof.

hard

blood."

draw

standing quietlyon

vide

'

been

doesn't

legs. Why

three

and

ears

Hind.

that

been

there
have

vicious

What

are

horse, you

about

jumped

with

managed

Asks

**

Indian

An

Had

it would

how

seen

let

and

fly

great difficulty."
you

doing

'

"

form

For

tumbling-Blocks.

barber

cuts

hair, nails, and

corns;

also

and

circumcises.

surprise.
18.

The

Baniya,

customers

are

is !

are

painful?"

hoofs

driving

part, they would

narration.
'

the

feet.

hard."

work

pares

are

he

These

hurt

quick.

to

cutting its feet,

not

can

into the

quiet horse.

Direct

cleans
3

is

its heels, and

Nofi.

cuttingits

are

won't

the

you

begun

Wonderingly

shod.

paring the

nails

and

near

[implant]shoes.

and

The

leading rope.

leg ?"

have

kate-dalna

f^lls Into

and

?"

into the soft

it free its

long

the

drawn

stones

pares

Miyaii, they're driven

driven

fish's

SHOD.

we're

part of the hoof, just as the barber


'^

pierces the

why they

feels comfortable

Miyan, only

"

pillof dtd,

powerless

horse

great protection; gravel and

**

hook

holding

there

hoof.

replies:

farrier

we're

with

BEING

HORSE

standing

paring the

on.

The

The

becomes

thing

THE

is

sais

asks

of meat.

poor

17.

farrier is

tlie hook

of the fisherman.

power

One

bait
fishing,

Every

scales

standing

kind

of

BANIYA'S

THE
in

SHOP.

hand, is weighing out

in front

of him.

What

his
a

thing is exposed for sale, and

wares

; his

large shop

it

whatever

is

13

there,is good of

its kind.

of dal, rice, and

ata!

Lala

'"

worth

J% !

it is

"At

"

'

of ata.

"Here

"'

Give

what

Give

me

somewhat

All

This

sell ?

quarter

qJiiand

shop.
rupee's

one

; ask

fifteen seers.*'

ata

this."

than
'

overcharging

"

the rupee;

seer

more

where

like."

you

right;weigh."
a

very

smart

crowd

of

buyers,

he

never

serves

everybody

in

worth

of

here, he

encamp

loses

grain

every

he

man;

the

least; he

him

his own,

small

for it.

and

his

by

thousands

buys

Should

year.

(mansions) of

large houses

great the

judge

unaided, supply rations

can,

how

in

Don't

wealthy

matter

his head

moment.

dirty,soiled clothes; he's


of rupees

No

shopman.

is

many

of

this

at

baskets

take]."

will you

and

"

rupees'wortli

two

[lit.Please

rate

not

purchase

us

the

are

'

one

I'm

piled up high

let

Come,

me

Gh%,

'"

How

army
He

shops

has

let

to

others.
1

Lit.

*'

there

is

difference

no

works

He

morning,

hard.

he

Sometimes
is the

and

noon

clothes.
His

his bullock

he works

in the

the
he

is still
his

busy flyinghis

of

play

and

that

your

How

much

him.

is your

home

bullock?'*

did you

pay

for it r'

"

If it

it is

near

his dinner.

hungry

?"

there

ghat.

sorting the

brought
feel

the

if it is the

See,
and

water

In the

river.

kite.

"Yes."
"

cold ; and

forgetsto

Sahib, that villagein front of you

"Is

nirkh)."

to

in the

[the dhobin] has

"Well, Mr. Dhobi, where


"

the

the

in

load

the

ndld, sometimes

standing

wife

is fond

son

takes

and

sunshine] scorches
\lit.

sun

the

WASHING.

suffers from

he

and

charge

my

evening he boils the clothes.

loads

See

small

the

In

cold weather,

hot season,

DHOBI

THE

19.

(between

I hve."

; he

is

14

Fifteen

**

"See

the

"

Sahib

*"

dog

he's

"

dare

ground;

professionis a good

one.

give people clean clothes


Note

TAKING

20.

spread

are

near

the

THE

One

morning.

chaukl-dar.

my

them

come

It is

pilferer;he's

anyone

dirt and

from

lying there watching (your dinner).'*

not

Dhobiy your

"

is

gentlemen's clothes

the

see;

rupees."

use

of the

AIR

IN

to

green

how

of dew

drops

some

beauty
waving

are
"

"

and

with

is

planting out

'*

Come

"

Ancient

let

us

Young Sir, from

**

In how

MORNING.

'*

They

"*

What's

will

let

Aha !

the

sight!

AKd

Note

look

of embedded

appearance

peculiarto

with

fruit.

very

at the

Green
The

pearls.
;

branches

working.
plants."

have

the

brought

you

Pddshdht

will these

these

plants?"

Bdgh.^*
seeds

germinate

?"

sprout quickly."

in the

verb

ghard [earthen pot, globularand porous]

Zara,

Note

the idiom.

Note

the

verb

in the

Hindustani

idiom.

in the

Hindustani

idiom

[not

'*

is

"].

here.

themselves

The

for admiration.
the

carpet of green velvet.

for?"

What

What

Just

is to

for

go

of flowers

sorts

"Water."
"*

us

him."

days

many

clothes

doing ?"

whence

*'

aU

the trees is

young

watch

man,

the

on

'.*'

wear

entered.

flowers,others

well is

; the

it's
the

delightof

is this 7nal%

What
He

it have

on

laden

are

Rather

"

cleanse

Come,

are

moment

You

THE

refreshing(or resting)it

call it ?

grass you

There

to

causal.

feels cheerful.

is !

delighted the

was

The

there

dry

out

*'

littlewalk into the garden and take the air.


nice cool breeze

Please

"

16

I'll

"

the

water

with

plants

it, and

will then

they

soon

revive."

Come, let

*'

you

you

[lit.tell

in it

see

show

me

CAMEL.

THE

21.

What

'

me

Tell

picture.

all ' the

me

things do

various

things

you

in

see

itr]."
There

*'

fpot of

is

the tree,

him.

There

camel-man

is

in the

sirln.

sitting.^A huqqa

camel-man

is another

Panjab

the

is in front of

but

standing up,

At

his back

is

us.'*

towards
"How

camels

many

"Seven.

One

towards
a

it, one

one

side

has
is

camel

is

one

has

with

and

standing up,
its head

lowered

where

[back]

turned

has

; one

leaves, and, behind

the

is

the two

is

one

and

the

lying down.
and

eating grass;

small

loads

picture], too, the

[of the

its tail

tied to its muzzle

rope

eating

lying down,

is

?"

down

lying

one

right,one

near

there

are

branch, and

camel-man,
the

is

and

us,

broken

On

siris'^ tree, called

trees

On

are.

of the camels

are

lying."
Did

notice

you

fashion

high in

camel, oh

the

on

is restrained
small

very

Kya

Siris, the

"'

by

the

kya

and

and

nose

by

(yet)such

the nakel.
a

sider
con-

could

how

water

Oh

benefit

some

of trees

"

if you

long,

it drink

the leaves

it eat

But

not

could

neck,

saying,

is without

were

strange

legs and

common

bridle,but the camel

is in its
direct

thin

straight?"

point

no

How

could

the

what

If its

A horse

See,

great animal

narration.

siris tree, Albizzia

Lebbek

or

Acacia

Kal

"Had

is

'

'

generallymachinery,
long";

not

been

Past

Conditional

or

piece

"could

Tenses.

of

have

Sirissa.

machine.

grazed*';

"could

as

Is seated."

drunk

ground

rope

is

See, if its neck

short, how

legswere

of you

(you will see) that

it graze

Hence

Of

head, long and

smallish

part

camel.

the

of the camel

shape

the middle.

! what

well
to

it is !

the back

the

have

16

powerless.

this is

sand abounds, and


made

and

thick
In
and

these

and

glare.

nostrils

will, and

at

and

carried

this is

It has

two

of bushes
catch

of

them.

constructed

so

on) do

its mouth

pierce it

not

generally found

are

bitter

whether

it for five

astringent,

six

its back

On

the strange

there

two

broad

are

days

If you

are

toes

and

"

at

look

future

it such

Note

Lambe

Bhana,

Jab,

In the

the

at

*'

it

meets

that

time, it is sufficient for

will

attentively,you
"^ furnished

with

reason

that
":

where

"

Vide

'

intr.
when."

originalthe

Ka,l

ka,t.

singularis used.

and

and

The

that
feet

like the cushions

they grip "^ the

note

the

Urdu

idiom

to

its

forms

perceive

nails.

Stumbling-Blocks.'

Hindustani

hump,

gets nothing

the camel

springy underneath,

countries

the

plural.

lambe.

these

stomach

translation.

has

(itfeeds

it],and

to

time, this fat dissolves

its feet

on

soft and

those

to

God

bushes

whatever

of fat called
if

it is that

baggi (carriage). This is the


1

to

partialto thorny

is

short

given

shapelessheap

thing about

nutriment.

has

Grass, the leaves of trees,

in

water

twigs

days.

is

for several

eat

has

of the

thing

the

if it

of it.

pleasing"

very

is lifted

poor

off

means

the

in

of the sand.

break

camel

close

can

heaps

this

Then

by

so

The

largequantitiesof
or

in whole

the thorns

are

it

to it ; for

it can

the desert.

God

that

lipis divided

do

can

the heat

from

the discomfort

that

upper

all.

at

in

or

with, is its fodder.


if it drinks

from

that

[lit.
thorny bushes

bushes

The

anything, it

thing'seyes

sand

desert

in the

is intense

place.

long lips,so strong

with

hold

arise and

is saved

has

See, its eye-lidsare

great comfort

God

reason,

constructed

anotlier

along to

closes its nostrils and

glare

so

are

this

where

countries

great protectionto its eyes.

the poor

eye-lidsprotect
The

are

'

to

country.

the

desert violent dust-storms


up

the

and

season,*

hot

For

scarce.

to

hanging down,

the

them

is

water

suitable

body

its

realityit belongs

In

of

sand
for

18

under

date-trees.

the

In

lying and

is

hind-legof

colt

the

his skirt, while

grain in

mare

it, there

colt

supporting a child.

is seated

woman

the

giving

the

Near

looking round.

and

of

front

the

standing

saddle

is

The

child

is

father, spear in

hand, is standing by looking on."


Arab

horses

about
In

them

hot

knock
tents

and

the

them

horses

and

and
that

horse

knows

is

witli them

and

There

and

once

habit

back

to

of

she

house

There

in

children,

as

with

fondle

children,

the

have

power

at

The

out.

The

they

like.

bugle calls

parade, their
For

this

^dmOy

Pichhe

the

had

shock,

ptchhe.

she
fallen
some

mare

road

it

do.

blow,

au

"*

go

came

neigh, and
The

close

it and
and

that
mare

behind.

it, it

to

came

could

had

the

was

not

foal

much.

is that you

If

to

her.

to

into

she

day

the

in

was

understood

master

men
on

Hindustani

ever

with

train it to do

can

Artillery horses

and

vide

One

men

very

the horse

men

she

followed

master

riderless horses

of karna

use

"

about

as

Her

happened

summoned

Cavalry

well

as

stall,

own

forcrets a

never

gallopand began

When

petted the

good point
you

her

foal

master

taken out, and

had

near.

her

that

recognisesits

her foal.

with

other

or

ndld

was

discovered

not

pitch their

children

village and

distressed.

was

It
it

certain

gallopedoff neighing,and

fl

they play

more

to graze

her master's

misfortune

some

on

do

twice.

in

going out

evident

was

what's

or

mare

was

'

what

The

injury [lit.what

any

thirst.

and

them

treat

children.

intelli"rent beast.

an

its master,

has traversed

get

and

their houses, and

are

They

thing

?].

The

it

horses.

oflfer them

never

long stages

tents

live like

too

play

enduring hunger

in

Their

their

they keep

best

the

wilderness, the people of Arabia

the

live in them.

and

but

beauty,

cold, they make

or

In

up.

them

hardiness

is their

weather

for their

noted

are

understand

the

fall off their horses


the movements

Manual,*'

accident, injury, etc."

p.

71

just
(a).

19

the

same.'

and

advance

When

and

the

take

and

somehow

that
other

or

the field to

it, it

rejoinedits
together as
and
When

it

as

always

to

grain

before

It remained

brought and

after three

lose

or

rider*

has borne

dropped

down

dead.

and

soon

the

as

it,

Usi

off and

is

returned

safe.

to look

horse

all

used

pair. When

its

Another

it.

still it wouldn't

thirsty.

The

horse

result

be, it won't

may

Somehow

heat.

It often

escaped,

and

was

in

thing

has

dumb

animal
*

THE

"

To

it

that

arriving,has
when

would

be

riders."

ELEPHANT.

large basket.

squirtingwater.

other

happens

danger, for (otherwise)who


a

if

only happened

going along the road.


is

or

shirk

this faithful beast

destination, wliile it,on

tflrah.

there

its

service

on

This

it, but

journey'send.

go overwork

to

Such

been

people are

women

tance
dis-

rider with

touched

even

and

in the intense

23.

its trunk

the other

beside

hungry

safe to his

'

of the

As

sent

was

with

never

placed

wearied

heart

the rider's Hfe has

Several

from

days.

galloped

him

as
pitiless

into

always harnessed

were

battery

company

it,it

its rider to the

has

it

There

came

stall,being alone, it began

in

thus

tired and

However

30

in its

placed

eat.

the

killed, but

was

grain

was

will carry

it, and

bearing its

horses

two

day

its

eat

that it died

force.

bugle.

his

on

certain

horses

horse

ridden,

mounted

though searching for somebody.

was

with

come

off his horse, which

join the enemy's

to

the call, and

to

ran

tied up

was

around

bugler fell

summons

pair. One

of the

one

left

force.

own

lines,they

buglerrecognisedhis horse

battery,once

battle

The

sounded

heard

rightand

turn

their stalls.

happened

fight.

and

In

in

its

to

returns

sipdhi caught it, and

other

horse

bugle they

retire.

place in

their

of the

sound

regiment

It is stated

some

the

At

The

On

the head

elephant hae

of

one

hfted

20

The

darzi

[in the picture] is seated

and

the

both

his hands

the

water?

is

water

liis scissors, but

in the

how

they keep

can

He

they have

balcony

fellow has put

poor

soaked.

is

chap

poor

with

The

of his face, but

in front
The

something

his face.

fallingon

work

at

off

cutting

was

slipped from

his

grasp.

Come, let

tell you

me

the story about

this

elephant and

the

darzi.
It is related

that

mahdwat

the

There

used

was

put its trunk


and

he put

the

chapdti and

had

put by

way

used

to

chandti

it

give

to

The

elephant

day

the

used

darzi

was

put in its trunk.

up

to

take

in

it

bad

lot of

muddy
and

trunk
with

mud.

were

all

cast

form
It

can

1
2

it

Sewed

"

to

came

or

fruit.

some

came

and

his needle.

The

its way.

the

shop, it

The

darzi

covered

was

swinging away,

with

lifted its

being made.*

were

One

go away.

silentlywent

the darzi.

darzi

They

too

while

the

looking foolish.
;* what

too,
to

great shape

mere

at

What

all deficient in

sign,just like

an

Meaningless appositive; vide

"

Qvdrat also

Nature.

Manual,

p. 157

Hindustani

man.

{d).

Manual,

p.

170

gainly
un-

activity.

hesir."

"; vide Hindustani

means

the elephant

shop, the

elephant

it with

near

has ; still it is not

cause

In this

the river, it filled its trunk


it

over

He

When

into the

and

elephant went

power

understand,

Sunaria,
*'

The

behind

God's

pricked

day,

next

it that.

two.

The

took

remembered.

he gave

temper.

good clothes

spoiled.
at

lot

the

Many

darzi remained

Look

When

water.

there

veo^etable.

its trunk

returning from

was

darzi too

some

chapdtis,

elephant

it,well pleased,and

darzi

The

The

the

elephant

eating

back

between

the

day

was

came

put its trunk

elephant quickly withdrew


When

The

chapdti, or

One

darzi

it

elephant which

bathe in the river.

to

road

for it, and

and

come

day

The

its trunk.

some

favourite

elephant's trunk.

friendshipsprang
used

the

on

ofif. When

went

every

shop.

into the

one

again extended

it

shop
the

into

had

man

take

to

darzVs

rich

(c).

Its

21

throbs

tiger'sheart
Its

of

power

joined together. It has

From

sight

great, but

not

if it discerns

distance

is

trumpets, the

it

When

; it looks

at its head

Look

fear.

with

water-melons

two

fightsthe tiger.

that it

is such

courage

small

two

foot-fall,it

at

Once

year

eyes.

is acute.

hearing

its

Hke

becomes

once

alert.
Its tusks
third

every
You

have

How

ivory.

fourth

or

must

handsome.

long and

are

year
'

seen

they

"

handsome

they

these

(in the picture). Besides

other

teeth

Hence

the

Look

hand

full of water, and


and

which
in its

On

throws

By it,it

is

"^

end

finger.

as

of the trunk
When

there

for hours.

When

up earth

on

the

hke

in

there

is

this.

eats, drinks, lies down,

gets up, stands

object that
t

Mainne

Sira.
'

the mahawat
dekha

lena

hoga

vide

**

'

may
I must

Hindustani

this

its

mashk

into its mouth


and

fans

quite small thing

(the elephant)lies down


of

It

water

when
be

can
a

At

for itself.^

trees

It dives

play, but

special words.

action

and

of trees

of the

are

every

tongue.

whole

on

into

the other
the

and

elephant is standing in

to its head

the dust

scatters

up

branches

out

set of

one

his

on

water

things [lit.by teaching it learns

many

another

suck

elephant delightsin water.


of its trunk

its food.

is cited when

side, it puts the bedding

to another

over

has

everything, and by

can

it
or

elephant

this is its nose,

lifts up

In it, it

stall,it first spreads grass

never

and

like

has

proverb

by it,it dischargesthe

sticks the end

under

it

it

The

side.
and

the

serves

If it turns

This

from

it eats

elephant

By it,it seizes small branches

drinks.

itself.

long it

its fodder.

it eats

means,

it.

to

The

in his heart

how

'

tusks

have

males

of which

means

for show.'

thing

one

its trunk

at

is

boo

proverb

common

has

man

by

its head,

eating,another

teeth for
a

in

again

out

manufactured

are

tusks, the

these

sometimes

"

grow

! Most

are

but

cut

are

things that

the

its

river

remains

stall,it

being ridden
taught

to

do

great deal]. For

special sounds,

it

still,
picks up any fallen
indicate,and salams.

have

seen."

Manual,

p. 80

(c).

22

When

they

make

them

the

food

round

in

the mahdwat

is

it is, and

The

his feet

elephant

who

rifles.

with

of

artillery,
they

in

many

the

band.

act

as

move

they sleep,one

1
*

"

Dharia.

Dhona,
8

Feed

to

*Vide'

wander

as

or

This

carry,

is

not

each

war

In

each

family
wide

RcUib.

especiallyon

the

Man.,

p. 164

(6).

the

force, in
^

in

war.

there

are

Elephants
In such

trees.

herd, there
families

forms
in the
One

are

mix,

separate

jungle,but
goes

old female.

ahead
When

acts

as

quits

do.

female.

Chotta,

header

petty thief.
shoulder,

wash.

Hind.

from

own

keeps alert and

generallya

though

as

but

Sometimes

generallyan

of them

the

but, in

Dakan.
dense

are

far and

for

They drag

used

now

well-organizedbody.

other

too

it."
to

tigers

things

drops

of its

the

about.

this is

in

use

Panjab;

in

family.

one

scout, and

chaukiddr.

and

the

ndlds.

men

the

there

where

elephants wander

The

they always
to

foot

in

alarm, then

an

people. Those
shoot

beast

elephantsare

forests

in

elephants of
is

neck

also if it flees in terror

Behar, and

herds

if there

but

and

reason

Bengal,

whole

forests

for

fire,and, in the second

shot, the poor

elephant forest

generally five
only

round

this

no

need

nor

heavy

and

is terrified of

falling;

house

is

large animal

rich

many

of great

were

it tramples under
artillery,

There

by

rivers

across

place,tliisanimal

flight. For

its

and

it out

elephant's

by kings and

them

place,if struck by

roar

wat
mahd-

the

transport the baggage of troops. Before

of

the

only.

bear

introduction

were

the

sits upon

If

and

it takes

nakel,

food,*

wrapping

when

See what

was.

necessityfor

no

is ridden

and

great guns

it

it

it, then

Elephants transport*

buildingsand

the first

as

and

mouthful

ride elephants and


tiger-shooting

out

go

for

of

in the trunk.

throat, and

in its

exactly

allowance

placing them

on

asks

mahdwat

guides it by
Tlie

and

yet there is

bridle.

keep

daily

big mouthfuls,

very

concealed

him

it to

it the

he points out
pilferer,^

alone

comes

into

grass,

elephant keeps it
returns

give ^

mahdwats

the

""

Ki

tfiraf,or

men.

as

23

If

herd

Many

join and

men

elephants live, and


in

them

enclose

cover

of dense

go.

They make

double

'

they dig

several

are

elephant, and

ele'phant the

each

the wild

elephant

and

when

from

here

elephant and
When

spot for
the

two

The
*'

In

au4ih

Sira.

I do

Zady

qil*aki

not

mar

one

spot

know

f., is the

side of the

machdn,

doing this, they


into

to

the

about

to

it

cross

that

elephants
noosers

wild

of the

and
a

remains

herd

During
becomes

river, the

the

on

this

time

fit for

mother

stays

dear.
'

what

relne-wala

Persian

(or zad) ke andar

for mary
hai='*

keeps in front of her, supporting

means
'

whole

the mother.

run

which
no

the

on

When

thing.

with

days

thrower

noose-

neck

the

on

nooses

ride

men

the
casting-distance,^

the

to

(each)

the tail.

near

it

chase

the

Three

neck, the

the quarters

born,

is

is tied to

noose.

they

great risk

with

one

rope

the

within

cast

descriptionis by

on

If it is necessary

its young

is

on

near,

begins

one

journey.

one

three

or

end

the poor

snare

young

behind

there

young

comes

they get
and

something like

elephants with very thick

of the

mahawat

"

the back, the relne-wala

on

end

other

the

it is

four trained

or

One

at

to

up

elephants come

the

following,but

strong ropes.

and

catchinga singlesohtary elephant,

of

means

is the

under

Leading

finished

close the door.

once

They take three

life.
and

at

is made

wide.

the inner

When

noise.

This

elephants come

yards

have

they

hours

this circle, is made

spot where

on

in

circle is six

This

fiftyyards, they make

of

"

where

three

or

fencing.

in it four

When

make

and

'^

elephants are

in two

Inside

(par),and,

ditch.

of which

one

'

machan

in

distance

circle,they

There

and
door

fire off guns


the

circle of bamboo

trees

the door from


a

them, and

^
smallish, circle of poles.

and

second,

learn that the

they

in circumference.

miles

seven

or

when

forest

part of the

the

into

go

spot, they surround

certain

captured, the followingplan is adopted

has to be

**

butter,
f., H.,
the

fort

or
'*

shover

"

means

here.

striking-distance." Shahr
commands

the

city."

24

it with

her

swims

trunk.

unaided

The

attains

thirty-five
years

See, there

the

24.

THE

is

standing
'

buffalo

at

herds

and

backs

and

them

take

them

ride them,

all home

comes

stands

in

up

hides

its whole

it sticks out
for this
with
The

awkward

rest of the

appears.

The

in his hand

and

animal

distance.

Boys

jungle; they

mount

and

can't

drive
^

whole
their

on

evening they bring

it is

as

into

It

much.

very

If

it.

the

with

exception of

Grod

that

as

has

to

is

be

its

able to

given

it

mud

or

tank,

or

it

deep,

lies down

immediately

body

so

canal

water

it

the

deUghts in

whether

water,

shallow,

and

muzzle, which

breathe, and it is
neck

long

compared

cow.

is

stream

with

Note

stick

it ; if

buffalo
a

head

the

back,

of the water.

out

any

of the water

reason

the

with

soon

as

across

rushes

immediately

cross

and

The

again.

If it

water.

only,

the

tank

visible ; the

are

short

to

more.

the

in

one

one

buffalo feels the heat

The

it

of

get it

even

in

in cJiarh-leta hoi.

ungainly and

is a very

[from fear] for

run

even

buffalos

to

and

BUFFALO.'

the land

on

one

or

of leha

of

water:

throwing bricks
The

force

several

are

is in

herdsman

the

part of the head

horns, and

body

Note

hundred

it

shoulders.

its mother's

on

old,

months

strong; and it generally attains

very

live to

'

four

or

maturity in twenty-fiveyears,

becomes

Some

this age.

it is three

else mounts

or

elephant

When

that

powerful

very
a

If it is necessary

to

strong current, they* drive the buffalos

the

bhai1^8

beast.

generic word

is feminine.

Bkainaa

is

bull-

buffalo.
*

Liye

the

Hindustani
stick
8

was

in his

hand

before

p.

as

indicates

Stumbling-Blocks)

Charh-bctithna; meaning

Manual,
"

participle (inflected
he

came

of

on

both

the

verb

state,
the
verbs

is

transitive,

vide

signifiesthat

and

scene.

retained,

vide

Hindustani

80(5) (2).

People, i.e.,the villagersor

herdsmen

the

note

this

colloquialism.

'

26

It

ing.
animal

that renders

milk,

us

us

drink

to

so

not

Bullocks

be.

work

makdn)

smeared

made

are

from

maqdur

cow's

the

with

body

land

for

people

and

from

The

horses,

milk
for

any

the

is milked

is boiled

made,

In

other

in various

The
also

given

meat

nor

and
chew

1
*

the

cud

UplZL is
In

the

the

litter and

eat

cows

dung

quantities, as
3

Not

pet here.

eat

parts of
hide

the
for

haggle,

dinner-knives,

and

If

yield

the

bones

etc.

The

is then
has

and

used
to

becomes

and

{makkhan

be
to

dah%.

made

into

nikdlnd)

do

form

tfiaptM

of

oil-cake

milk.

know

not

that

making
dates
in

will

the

buy

not

with

its

the

inside

of the

eat

shape

animals

that

(mi'da).^

of stomach

is

{kkall)are

It does

is familiar

one

if found

gwalas

and

it

by patting.

are

given

jungle.
up

to

horses

Buffalos

litter from

fodder.
means

its

evening.

butter

is made

locusts, fish, and

freely, and

Mi*da

are

things: from

vessel

Grain

grass.

and

dry

ha

everywhere by shaking.

pecuUar

Gulf,

too

(sour curds) is added

earthen

people

dung cake,

Persian

Indian

cows.

have

From

it curdles

butter

but

many

Many

aside, and

set

livingthing.* Every
but

make,

burning

these.

and

dah%

of

an

to it to increase

any

for

afford

desired.

covered

generallyeats

cow

and

be

into

ways,

{kachche

cannot

other

would

loads, draw

houses

cakes

daily, morning

countries

some

drink

furniture

many

quantity

put

and

things

glue.

may

is then

is then

dahl

butter.

in

small

very

and

necessary

vessels

that

purpose

food

penknives

twice

in earthen

milk, which

The

for

its sinews, eto.,

cow

our

will

Cream,

If these

it dies.

after

use

handles

combs,

cow.

burn

wood,

saddles, whips, bridles, and


horns,

the

who

an

that
?

him

{zamin par), carry

cow-dung,

poor

of

are

there

oil-presses.Mud

burn

to

from

for

First of all it gives

is before

one

well

care

girl is

or

tasteless

and

it,'and

harness

made,

when

the

wells

na-hond)

boy

obtained

plough

carts, and
are

What

had, how

be

to

to

return,

benefits.

many

cup

curds, butter, ghi, are


were

in

us,

fresh.

and

sweet

wish

not

on
oblijDfatory

is

stomach

only.

and

will

stables

27

See

it

ae

The

God

will

that

from

It suffers from
abased

On

roads

and

and

in

the

where

beast

alone

foot

misplaced
that

well.
on

It is very

The

cared

of

play.

at

When

the

great

that is

[hota hai and


soon

the horse.

downs,

It is this poor

its load

in

safety to

hai] pretty, and

not

calamity

the

as

beauty

are

would

bad

ful,
chieflyuse-

and

ups
^

death.

instant

places bears

and

of work

destroyed.

not

be

the

active

If it

destroyed.*

thought of recreation, no

no

that

On

stretch.

in

gives birth, she produces only

trace

foal

one

time.

If there
creature

is

is

ever

any

named

swift.

One
and

the

gor-khar,^ It
Two

"^

Khak

For

Preterites
men

for

speciesof
on

talk

first.

baggage-ass only,

ass

at

difficult passes,

day;

shown

sure-footed than

more

as

standing.
under-

will love him

too

it is this animal

means

of

slowly,still in spiteof

for, its good looks


all

bund.
mori-

seems

it has

it, it

for hours

on

frisky,but

fact is,it works

the

to

it,its promising shape and

well

it

devoid

it

{maqdm),

is kind

in such

Its foal is

stage'send.

were

occasions

often

of

Certainly its

beautiful.

created

not

travels

are

state

true

back.

own

is not

is that it is

In the hills there

falls

has

hillycountry

reason

the

of

creature

it

tyrannies, and it is these that have

its master

hhl)it

is par

{magar

this

understand
his

that

overladen

so

! is not

It lifts its feet somewhat

return.

is

mercilesslyhe

general appearance

men's

several

intelUgence. If

as

its

Still God

it.

on

donkey

the

long, and

are

What

then

only

the load

he bears

Admitted

beast

poor

along.

comes

Miyan

things when

ears

The

donkey.

his

stumbles

how

unsympathetic {be-dard)man,

this

beats

ASS.

THE

26.

wild

ass

coupled by

aur.

milna.

the Persian

ass

gur-i-khar.

is

is found

border

handsome

have

we

wild

the

one's

some

What

western
is

of

of the

and

folly, this

said

refers

poor

to

the

different; it is very
in Sindh

Panjab
reddish

and

chistan
Balu-

; it is called

{surMii liye)

28

kbaki in colour, but its face, breast


and

the

down

Horses

and
^

whole

are

that

chew

its back

length of
asses

(uncloven) and

parts

brown

cloven

white,

are

stripe.^

(sum-ddr) animals.

not

Called

aeli by horse-dealers;

Their

like the hoofs

hoofs

of animals

Wherever

surely be found,
be

cannot

presence

but

regarded

Sdbit.

as

the

its

that

It is the

door-keeper,the shepherd's guardian,

dog

animal

No

afiFectionate.

so

such

are

boon.

there

found,

are

its excellences

and

intelhgent, and

gentle, so

list.'

habitations

human

ten

DOG.

THE

27.

will

under

the cud.

too

it has

hoofed

are

and

is

so

man's
gentle-

sportsman's

assistant.
Its

is excellent:

understanding

and

anything it is taught. Poverty


whom

it has

sticks to anyone

to

get badly fed

dry crusts,

on

which

it

food.

In evil times

belongs or

arise,^it will

occasion
animal

it; should

it]call it,it will


will Uck

See;

the hand
it

her child
The

that

asleepon

Jiakd

ho-raha

Why

rahia

him

note

hai

and

not

Waqt

pare

par

note

it.

done

to

It

itself.' It may
the house

rich to

to

and

should

This

it and

after

good

forgets

injury (too) to it, it


[immediately

to

get good

wagging its tail. A minute

does

injuring
later it

it.

picture that
and gone

by

it, as

somewhere

its clothes

house-dog
related

is

in the

has

mother

and

business-

on

has

coming

left

dragged
to

save

it
it.

following story:

"

idiom,
hai

XXXI.
S

then

the

save

alike

to its master,

any

the faithful

certain it will

am

he

seized the child

little ; but

to

desert

of the

good

does

char-pa^%

houses

the

beat

from

appears

wolf has

away

to

come

it will not

do

trained

give up its life for him.

even

If its benefactor

remember

not

are

attached

comrade

remembers

always

the evil.

it is

be

can

riches

once

but

to the

go

it

idiom.

'

Vide

'

Hindustani

Stumbling-Blocks

29

certain

which

he

was

wagging

its tail as

When

soon

he

went*

it

as

and

The

house, he

the

enjoy
him

noticed

with

blood.
blood

spots of

saw

dog

to

ran

master

covered

were

paws

the

into

him.

saw

panion.
com-

he did not

returned, the dog

of

dog

left

and

dog's absence,
he

'

kept

his constant

was

shooting^

out

of the

do^'s mouth

the

which

and

evening when

In the

He

sportsman.

went

account

liimself.

that

he

day

On

home.

at

fond

very

One

keen

was

person

everywhere.
This

had

person

there, but
it did

could

not

make

not

he

thou

the

at

ran

heart.

in another

began

lying

it.

It

with

the

beside
house

the

was

bed

Pal-rakhna.

"SAtJ(-aris any

the

the

evident

justdied.

kind

his

the

had

blow
child
the

astonished
child

and

is aUve
wolf

wolf

the

devouring

had

the

saved

is

my

though

as

become

The

sword

it

black

with

his

ing
sleep-

was

dog's yell
and

went

and

well,

lying dead
'**

entered

child, and

the child's

the

that

life.

it

(The

Tcarna.

Pyar

of

certainly

darling of

at him

sleepat

was

killed it and

had

still

{lit.tyrant)!

the

such

of

out

that

of

"^

world

dog

master

intention

that

dog

But

{lit.bedding),

was

had

dog

cruel beast

and looked

started

The

the

and

but

shouted,

devoured

and

looks, behold

he

its

on

and

cry.

When

it.

to

cry and

one

room,

to

"Oh

out,

deed

for it here

grieved. Drawing

he struck

eyes;

that it gave

and

much

Pity, Pity!"

"

He

thought

dog lay down

poor

in its master's
sword

He

was

awful

an

The

saying,

were

He

looked

He

anywhere.

sound.

dog crying

hast done
"^

it

see

any

killed the child.

child.

smallish

sport;

bird-catching is

even

included

in the

term.
"*

After

t"

'

"

Came

"

*"

^Mzah,

vide

'

it

as

Hindustani

Knleji (lit.

*'

'"

Dam

Ohusna.

stranger'shouse.

narration.

For

with

idioms

common

to

and

tear

to

liver ") is

*'to

tornu,
*'

for

Qaya

ijJiazahand

Manual.

Phar-khana,

10

"

wrath.

**

house.

own

direct

thought,"

his

was

die.

enter

"

eat

"

meaning

metaphorically
Note

"

of

both

heart."

idioms.

by force, or hurriedly."

verbs

retained.

hata

30

man)

quickly took

what

he had

long and

thick
God

for

many

foxes

are

scent

from

swift wild

distance, and

of the

; but

ground

things. In

various

with

and
*

'

quarry

(shikar)by

the snow,

by

rescued
if you

show

and
some

and

search

countries

Hotd

Waiae

Lit.

Ko,i

tha

as

not

"

Bu-dar

Direct

'

Tistls.

would
hat.

and

that

dogs

harnessed

"

have

are

why
this

kiUta, any

"

use

it, and

throw

it out.

Some
of

dog

that

in

hi is

are

up

make

its

something
dogs

miles,

and

harnessed

"

scent.

that,

several

dog

it may

carts

have

such

in

Shikar.

will go
be.

draw

colloquial.

singularverb.
by

fox,

article

article, the

) ?"

hunts

the

the

secretlyhide

article,wherever

waise

of

some

will follow

given (if

dog

hunting

If you

the

thirty* dogs

as

Ko,t requires

narration.

then

find out

ikd

for

for

is best

watch-dogs,

breed

one

bring

breed

in

but

them

train

later, having walked

go

these

if travellers get swallowed

will fetch
is

dogs,

wliat

Hound

out.

There

many

hi aaman
**

them

dogs

and

it flees from

when

hour

an

are

by

animal

do

it to

about

are^

The

hare.

article and

order'' to

an

pretty well;

Some

and

Hares

digs the

train

dogs

wonderful.

up its quarry

scent

discovered

have

things

poor

quarry.

to

of

mountains,

men.

it any
and

somewhere

the

dogs get

drowning

'

'

It tracks

sheep, some

scent

liglitinto the water,

give it

breeds

they

In the

it.

are

bothers

one

various

hunting

catch

master

up

no

the flocks of

for

some

its
it.

from

particular purpose.

any

running

it is necessary

and

purposes,

the

suitable

gives him

of

are

regret ?

hair.

give ^

followingup

country

our

England people keep

remain

animals

lucky if they escape

short

would

power

of

use

for

sorry

very

countries, dogs have

live,He

to

was

the

countries

in cold climates

mattresses

Very

was

who

dog's activity and

Tlie

for

in hot

; for

He

lap.

in cold

that

places anyone

living there

quiltsand

out

hair, and

his

then

generally see

Wherever
means

child in

done, but what

will

You

the

In

them
cart.

31

THE

28.
The

has

cat

it
dog (pi.),

becomes

too

boldly,and

heart-felt

without

attachment

play with

it.

bit of meat,

and

on

It is

that.

is

its

for it, water

its paw

and

that

tongue

its

be

cannot

its

reached

has

cat

coats

by

Kabul

silk.

colour

There

and

The
the

is

and

animals

gentleit
fine

hand

; how

harmful

which

Badan

Note

Narm

"

Many
'

'

it.

pure-white {yak.
soft

differingin

cats,

are

from

can

see

2J

and

soft

Persian
"to

this

note

way

construction

think

don't

of

but

look

yet.
a

quiet

tiny teeth;

httle in your

is

nothing

If it is at

reflexive

original,and

the

opportunity

there

that

expressing

if

at its

its paw

let go

in the

When

by day.

purring;

well

rats, mice

eyes,

(sunshine), how

sun

Hold

will

bit"

out

come

in the

are

they

of these

{sher). Just

You

Wait

order

n%rm,

Thamna,

{Wildi^ati)

Some

kind

means

its low

sharp they

stdfkama

fur

costly.* This breed

handsome.

do not

ferocious

soft it is !

the

wetted

{pashm, lit. "wool"),

unusual

an

with

appears

and

in

'

catch.

of

are

lying dozing {unghna)

how

whatever

Kabul

rule it is

hair

very

parts

countries

some

species of wild

They hunt, by

offers,it becomes

are

wets

length.

dark.

other

Some

is

reason

As

long

several

of cats

eyes

Persia.

and

other

ears,

(post). The

for this

much

are

size.

3 feet in

cat

and

safed): it has

rang

and

and

and
or

In

hair.

of its skin

made

animal

Its mouth

ears

rubbed, cleans (them)*].

and

narm)^

or

It licks and

face

its
[lit.

gentle

so

tongue, it having licked and

its

{narm

handsome

from

comes

as

soft

{Tpostm)are

is very

cat

in

reach

cannot

and

its face

houses

clean

very

very

the

fallen bone

towel.

and

liand, by it, having rubbed

The

to

it cleans

with

eats

always

It is

always cleaningitself.'

and
[threeadjectives]
are,

and

It takes

(pi.). Like

man

It lives in men's

{lit.
danger).

fear

that children

rough tongue

to

familiar.

very

hves

CAT.

learn

all

verb.

by

heart.

throughout.

cats

hold

'

are

in

brought
the

hand."

to

India

by

Pakarna,

Kabulis.

generally means

**

to

32

these soft paws

worried, then from

parnd)

suddenly (

out

Its claws

projecting like

remained

they

for the cat

puts them

It

sharp.

is

It

strange sight to

How

hushes.

sound

has
has

pounced

on

intention
tiger's

that

in the

without

is!

the

behind

See, its prey

There
has

how

see,

ambush

(m7m^),the

cat

caught it (jd-liyd).

thing flutters

poor

expression is !

Look

How

first.

it

It

the

at

changed

It

evil.

cUmbed

once

taught

of the

its

It

Cat; is there

gathered

cat

that

the

humbly replied, That's all,my


'*

The

attack.
up

The

tiger,'

tiger all its skill

the

tiger said (asked),"Aunt

the

to

ran

school-mistress

be learnt ?"

to

was

the

nothing more."

there's

at

or

spring

one

its

cat

last the

anything remaining

cat

See,

paws,

lyingin

mar).

the

story about

{kartab).*At

cat

it is

(zad

How

the

name

tell ^ this

son;

it

are

Indians
and

so

when

{dabe pd.on se) it stalks

bird

in

distorted

cat's face ; how

keep

not

bird.'

simple

it, and

Oh, oh {ay hay) !

eyes

poor

its reach

within

come

it hunt

foot-fall. There

What

trunk.

the

difficult

be

would

too

quietlyit placesits soft

very
of

even

would

points. If

necessity arises, and

see

silent foot-fall

quietly with

the

at

dog's, it

claws

when

out

sharp

in a^^ain.

them

likes draws

and

the

get about, and

to

come

long, and crooked,

are

lancet-like claws

what

tigerwished

There

it, and

was

the

to prey
tree

The

near.

left

tiger was

the

on

looking

foolishlyon.
animals

Many
they

animals, and
Their

prefer the

teeth

Note

Chhatang

the

Gha

"

Kariahy

na,

to
m.,

deeds.*'
Retractile.

meat

of the

construction
,

at

concealed
will.

(mama)^

make
'"

up

(of

in

These

of prey

speciallysuited

are

protrude

to

cause

claws

have

for

their
are

killed

paws,^ which

all

meat-eating

by

themselves.

preying.

Their

tongue

original.

long jump.
news,

achievement,

reports, ptc).
deed;

skill*';

but

karttU,

ra..

**

bad

34

THE

30.

that

fine

hunts

This

by great strategy.*It spins many

the

spins:

the

in

Right
has

centre

is

spiderwill
will

will rush

like

on

helplesscreature
Listen!
where
she

The

By

trees.

fro, and

They

is

'

evening

don't

Shikar

Note

Khobar,

Note

Lit.

the web

see

spider,on

knowledge^ that,
?"].

and

get entangled, the

entangled

[lit.whatever

it

in the

web, this

end

an

the

one

of

the

poor

to

the

spot

to
'

begins
'

to

branch

stretched

descends

thread

the

When

up

she

as

woof, makes

fly

them

to
[lit.
*
"

about

the web

Ghat

lagaria,to

is

of another
between

tight

to

and

her web.
^^

for

does

pleasure.
appear].

not

lie in ambush,

Janrvar.

"information."
and

this construction

The

"

imitate

spider,wJiereahe

it.
"

sits,there she attaches

Note

construction.
8

Lit.

Ja-lagti hai.

10

Urna

one

yard, half

phirna, note

use

yard.
of two

verbs

for

an

swing, and

thread, the spidergoes

and

idiom.

and

stops and

clothes-line

khelna.

little gum

down,

thread.

she

very

tiny insects

many

it

corner.

what

web

herself

of

means

tigerand hug

out

web

tjrant is thirstingfor

is seated

the

thus, weaving warp

In the

that

swinging, swings
there

Now

in its

spot.

length,

in

continued

two

know

blood

lets

paying

so"

or

tree.

"

spider attaches'^

on

Another

in
waiting (sitting)

will be

the

sits, and

she

keeps

yard

enjoys eating it !

"

on

beautiful

tiger ], and will make

flyis snared

web, this spider is sitting. It

our

flying and

come

some

of the

it like

on

pounce

There, in

so

is bewildered.

anything fly into

Should

webs

brain

tiny insects

tyrant thirstingfor

or

What

[lit.to tiny tiny animals

their blood
A

moth

coon).

it

for prey,

should

How

by

one's

caught a fly. How

the look-out

**

(a gone

seeingit

on

If

crouching.

net, it is dead^

them.

discover

cannot

eye

it remains

comer,

SPIDER.

English

verb

and

adverb.

35

As

soon

they

as

have

must

skip about.

and

crouch

and

As

as

soon

If

slowly begins to

move,

time^

so

advances,

flyis

within

tiger,and
off and

hunt

it, the

the

close to the

the

the

flyis

it like

on

flies or

other

and

"smallish,"

various

aware

When

the

it like

on

spring'sdistance
and

like that

is found

very

ground all the

tiger

watch.**

spider

spiderpounces
a

they

the least

not

flyremained

spiders a poison

some

they

where
[lit.

it

the

of the movement.

nahih)

spider pounced

the

When

bh%

springingdistance,

hugs

it]. In

keeping

that
stealthily

khahar

ko

{makkhl

and

hungry,

are

settles before

and

fly comes

they

small*

very

ground, keeping on

the

on

spider, sitting

spiders are

some

(or when*)

lie flat^

The

day.

every

that

seen

'

snared.

are

e;etsfresh prey

quietly at home,
You

they

come,

hugged

in snakes.

small

insects,the insects

mahi

itself is small, smaller

die of their bite.


1

idiom.

Note

'"

Very small"

than

makra.

Uchalna
'

If

'

Chipakna.

Tak

Note

The

not

Hindustani
'vide

phirna;

and

"

'

when

'

two

of the

force

the

What

Hind.

of itself.

it exhausts
it

marvellous

It is devoted

things. See

Jan

It does

its

earn

signify concomitance;

vide

to

khapana*

With
!

avoid

work

what

great labour

See

God's

or

Ufts

shirk

labour.

tune)
misfor(lit.
What

power.

far afield it travels

load

and

still does

things,but

to sweet
a

It

perseverance!

not

Uving

back.

; there's

'

How

way

they cling^

"

and

ANT.

THE
What

itself.

memory

forgetthe

"

Stumbling-Blocks.

tiny body!

does

How

particles."

repetitions.

coupled by

Preterites
and

the doable

not

34.

conditional

**

31.

How

iumbling-Blocks
10, page

note

both

are

as

laga,e baithna.

Man.

Hind.

'

Vide

wasp

One

it !
*

stillit doesn't

lyingdead.
pullsat

Thikana

nahlii

To
the

pass

ants, it is

by
a

shikar.

wings, another

bhulna.

other

Preterite.

drags

the

at

body

leg. One

it's well
their

is

and

'

peared

and

whole, and

important

they

move,

not

?]. Just

thither

fine track.

This

it had

though

the

ri|i|of

is

the

it

it had

stopped

bit and

look.

they

it takes

Come

bed

How

off and

is

will

how

they

they

lying here

is

grass

all have

avoid
this

the

are

clods

large branch

See, they

cross

over

line

leave

travellingas
to the

moves

to

the

It is
us

leaves
that

one

though

as

ahead

go

will

the

from

certainly be

keeping

to the

plants

that

open

vanished

and

bered.
unencum-

Bhd,%\ in the

going

Look, they

avoid

are

let

still, they

on

flower-beds.

See

beds.

of the

the

in

little further

visible in these

here

some

again.

Come

on

hither

left,but it never

its way

all these

are

but

the

something.

say

Where

visible

were

sight.

to

joining its face

road

It sometimes

to

and

stops,

the

tiny, so they

eggs

army

is there any
[lit.

opposite way,

sometimes

that

straight

road

very

forgottensomething.

qcUdr^ and

together."

though going

as

stray from
are

it tells the

how

what

the

carrying

going

{samne-wdld)

it

; in

should

are

look

of
trait

good

eat

See

ap

boasts

and

them.

They

their feet

Some

it/^ometiraes
meets

watch

any

as

that

one,

'

Have

wings have

anything,

they divide

strajringfrom

one

^' When

them.

him.

finds

expedition.^ Look

that
possibility,

power,

find

file.^

in

Ant's

overtakes
them

and

garden

the

some

very

they

PAWhy,

near.

for

near

The

is

it will die V

is

hugs

another

{lit.where) anyone

of

one

marching

is

ants

death

whatever

into

proverb,

and

and

know

of death

when

if any

head

thing's death

you

said

power,

in d,nts is that

Come

is

do

day

the

This

wealth

or

the

the

to

poor

; how

strong

heard

never

the

flying;

wings appear,

you

of

clings

one

has

edge

in

been

branch

the
cut

pretty

easily.
clear

by
1

it ?

"

straight road

There

is

]c% sairkarna

Qatjar, file; or

Muhimm.

pool

of

of inanimate

line

one

before

lay

them
and

water

things ; hnt

behind

the
"

"*

why

did

they made
sair

dekhna,

have

forgotten."

not

detour

of animate

other,

May

they

go
in

things.

37
order

to

of

old tree, and

an

follow

descended

has

There

are

the

Nigah
eye

kam

our

nahlh

Jahah

kartl.

is before

and

him

'

seller

sugar-cane

is

In

he

hand

while

with

There

is

small

The

sugar-cane.

one

is

with

Mdgh

in

girlhas

hand

His

tree.

is seated
his

is

there

purchase.
ganderls,

full of

sucking them.
and

woman,

the sugar-cane

seen

towards

her mother,

at

of the

it.

very

and

With

entreating her

is
the

to

buy

(January) and

buried

(February)
of

lengths

planting field.
and

attack

about

it, and

too

in

quarter of

planting {lit.sowing)
pit to protect it from
(March), each
a

yard, and

joint several

become

rats

for

Chail

or

each

From

branches

those

IndijMt

great blessings(ni'mat) of
intended

Phdgan

into

insects

as

(sarotd). He

and

out

lap of

sugar-cane

Panjab,

In

out

far

as

sugar-cane.

In the

the

here.

the

completed

handkerchief

hai) one

tugging

Sugar-cane is one

cut

ants, but

karti hai='^

is the cutter

has

the

in

The

her.

she is

some

cold.

kam

picking them

tiny child

very

hand

is cut

nigah

the

omitted

(ganderi). A boy

holding

extending {phaiidrakhd
her

been

go home.

us

sitting under

other

he is

the other

girlis

other

Let

have

in his hand

cutting joints of sugar-cane

buying

travellings
"Jong it.

are

SUGAR-CANE.

32.

basket

tak

root

disappear (also). All have

strange things about


hence

the

at

reekjh.

can

See,

arrived

can't see.'

eyes

explain;

difficult to

they are

will

splitand

more

many

have

they

they

narrow

and

come

Now

here

this

into

Evening

'

its brink.

do

buried

White-ants

great deal

of

in

spl?i4]^|

branches

sugar-cane.

is

cane

and

mischief

to it.

There
is most
The
in

are

many

used

for

cane

varieties of sugar-cane

of which

paundd

is then

crushed

eating.

ripens in eight or nine months

Every day

press.

the

Oanderlf

joint of

"

Paunda,

thick

the

juice that

sugar-cane,

kind,

of

good

and

is

and

expressed

ganderya^ a

flavour.

is

seller of it.

boiled.

38

If gur

has

be

to

made,

the

juice is dried.

'

If rah

has to be

made, they keep it thick (and don't let it dry).


From

the

khand

they

3,qand,* and
which

made,
1

rdb

misrt ; ^ and

and

from

by all,rich

eaten

are

shakar'^

make

Rab, Hind., "inspissated juice (of

or

from

these

the

again

ahakar,

sweets

are

poor.

the

sugar-cane), treacle,molasses,

syrup."
Shakar, f., and

of sugar

chinl

in different

Khahd,

Qand,

brown

loaf sugar

look

side

the

trees.

On

head
The

is useful ; the

even

of dmchur

are

it and

it, or

eat

In the
the

When
1

Kitne

Past

Sahara

f"

Achar

sure,

its

See

shady

is useful.

too

look
the

of

season

at

and

de-rakhna.
or

Note

Perfect

hanaria

When

he

end

One

has turned

its

unripe fruit

; the

If it is

unripe,chatni

is

of niaunds

hundreds
it is

lences
excel-

its many

ripe,people slice

'

(March and

it is laden

falls,many

pi.

top

enjoyment [lit.Spring]begins

Baisakh

the tree

maur

it

it.

Participleto signify state


dalna

it is

by drying it.

Chait

bottom

other

in India.
and

else suck

of

iphir),if you

made

Panjab

months

; the

the

goats also.

two

are

the far

steadying"
With

The

and
picklesand preserves,^

of it, and

made

is

stick.

the bundle.

common

ripe

He
a

on

him.

the tree is handsome

bundle.

eating grass

those

going along under

too

is

there

trees

mango

large,but

There

watching

fruit is

mango

'

many

man

his hand.
down

is

Misrt, f.,sugar-candy.

his shoulder

keeps supporting

and

round

is

On

bent

How

side appear

head

his

righthand.

its head

kinds

MANGO.

There's

keeps depressedby
has

THE

near

small.

of it he

end

the

on

appear

his

with

in front of you.

Those

are!

different

to

sugar.

(in cones).

33.

Just

applied

terms

parts.

f.,common
ra.,

confused

are

maur

tiny green

are

and

pakarna.

Tense.
vide

'

Hind.

Man,.,

p.

157

Then

som).
(mango-blos-

fruits

(vulgar for ware),

ure
:

with

April).

in

(d).

visible.

pare.

39

When

they

Most

falls

fruit

[jharna) that

Still the trees appear

begin

lest the

them,

fall to the
The

small

bears

mango

support it

can

and

men

animals

other

every

called

are

The

; the

is

If you

youths.
infant,

will

it

arrives.

countries.
sounds

give

As

the

rainy

Diiclh pita {hu.a) bachcha.

{ho jafa hai);


"

in

the

mm

that

appear

all the year

round

and

only
these

children

by

old

by

as

alone.

the

As
koel

The

and

begin

mangoes
are

over,

it

it

the

to

an

sees

twelve,"

and

colour, the

koel's

other
voice

Muslim

practice often

month."

S., *'a

masa,

children

are

suckled

up

till two

till four.

up

the

Indian

bright crimson

Ko.el,

houses
tree
1

Nlm,

species of

Cuckoo.

The

male

is black

eyes.

of Indians
takes

the

the Neem

NEEM.i

THE
are

seldom

place of
or

an

airy {liawa-ddr).For them


airy

^largosa Tree,

room.

Melia

mango

departs to

pleasantthe

how

to

one
as

soon

and

men

m.

34.
The

mangoes

difficulty

daurana.

Ko,el,
has

it with

ground.

distance.

and

the

fruit

you

season

Barah,

Hath

touch

pound

trees

mangoes

'2

of

lick) of
slighttaste {lit.

as

Bichauna

"

few

Each

own.

Some

its hand.*

soon

When

In the

from

and

branches

for them.

leave

never

years,

(and they

six mangoes

or

very

liked

much

as

once

together.

come

of their

fruit that

bear

some

it will stretch out

mango

koel

long

while

five

so

year

'

pellet

'

harah-masya}

mango

next

tainly
Cer-

die.

much

so

of parrots

mail

things get broken

weight the

year

both

year,

carpeted.'

flocks

heartless

peculiarbeauty

their

one

comes

property, still don't

flutter and

have

by

is

ground

Oh

poor

plant bearing

and

storm

fruit,whole

them.

of the

ground), and

weight each,
The

(fall)on

wings

graftedtrees

quite

the

on

comes

parrots do injureyour

the

is

settle

to

the

when

them.

on

be laden.

to

(jahdn) colour

When

parrots feed

produce quantitiesof fruit, but

trees

much

so

size, squirrelsand

in

grow

Little
Azadirachta.

sunsliine

40

filtersthrough into
is

dense

so

nim

is

well

as

known

Bugar-cane

for its sweetness

has

qualitiesto

sweet

wood, when

it is

leaves
attack

collect the mad


1
*'

and

Pashmlna.

soft

the

perfume.
the

as

it is bitter it

as

its bitterness.

Its leaves,

whit inferior to shisham


is that

books

chests

made

tree

of it,or

gets very
and

if its

will not

old,

moisture

this

they

pots (handi)underneath

call
and

in bottles.
of

made

stuff

for

attack

not

pashmiiiUy^insects

or

earthen
it

do

weevils

of its branches

one

keep

birds

freelyand

for its bitterness

kept in

are

tie small

People

foliage

; the small

just as much

no

the nim
of

out

ooze

Its

tree

all useful in medicine.

old, is

with

When

them.

begins to
mad

placed

are

the

with

; but

are

if clothes

moreover

hidden

India

in

hardness, and its chief excellence


it ;

are

counteract

bark, blossom, and fruit


Nim

It blossoms

pervaded

are

nim

by

concealed.

remain

neighbouringhouses
The

cast

its small branches

that

chirp loudly but

tlie shade

fine

goat-hair. Paahm,

P.,

wool."
2

Mad,

Bhar-rakhna

another

for turi

name

hharkar

rakhna.

35.
In

the

too

THE

dry, sandy,

in

DATE-PALM.

and

quicklyin

places where

{us jagah

beams
difficulty.In villages,

from

this tree.

matting, and ropes


the

cooked

and

Come,
the

arch

too

eaten

let

me

over

leaves

as

fruits

ly
quick-

of kachcha

houses

of it.

In many

opening,

are

made

hand-fans

are

baskets

and

into

woven

are

parts of India

gathered

and

greens.

36.

THE

show

you

the

India, this

jahdn) other plants survive

is

made

are

soil and

leaves, matting and

leaves,before

central

young

of the

fibre of the

The

made.

such

"

with

Out

of

{banjar)parts

waste

It grows

abounds.

tree

toddy.

or

WEATHER.

HOT
a

picture of the

doorway

weather.

hot

parrot-cage

is

In

suspended.

42

is

cup

In

no

sooner

no

Those

to

whom

At

night they sleep

on

their beds.

(W), "Oh
1

Lit.

Tan

badan

The

both

Rains

tanks

the

have

hot

to

The

cold

Just

weather

down

They

hill

look

the

at

look !

are

and

other

birds

pleasing

will sell them

hair

Their

horses

and

the

obtain

1
for

men

always

Wilayatt anar

These

make

of course

Kabuli,
means

and

the

all

red

people
very

hence

but

Kabul

is

over

settling
marching
fruits

of

Just (to)

How

and

jheels.

big towns.

many

fierce
very

"

sell horses

as

they
dirty
well.

strong.

Officers make

their tours,

(sundna) their complaints and

Inspectorsof Schools,

foreign country,
means

but

Government

most

villagecultivators

Wilayat^

face

"

small in size

justice. The

in

ing
migrat-

cranes,

bringing

are

in the

taking their place.

are

(sural)of these Kabulis

long

season

Kabulis

snakes

are

picture. A line of camels


The

faces

are

birds

nights

neither

The

long lines,

in

coming in,
the

at

Now

{bhana) geese,

to

the

and

skulking

are

of

become

and

worry.

the lizards

kinds

flowing garments.
this

mosquitos

many

loose

At

the

Now

road.

Much

shortened

The

come.

down

gone

have

days

has

jungles,the streams, and

the

Afghanistan,and

burnt."

being

(air)is gettingcooler.

nor

is

(2am) look

is

Weather

have

rivers

weather

croak

{dbdd kamd)

sprinkled
about
crying

WEATHER.

the Cold

The

countries

water-fowl.
in

; the

up

of the walls.

crannies

cellars.

into

are

toss

body*

by day

' '

into their holes and

gone

They

whole

body.

and

ornalas.

frogs

Flowers

swung.

COLD

over

lengthened. The
will

'

THE

are

streams

have

they plunge

roof.

My

mean

drying

are

are

sometimes

air is hot."

the

Ho,",

"

the

hot it is!^

how

else

or

on

Punkahs

37.

mere

given,

sprinkledwitli water,

tattis

for water.

cry

quenched.

has

God

lips than they

their

their thirst be

can

way

from

away

Kabul,

wilayati chiz

too, at this season,

hence
means

pomegranates.

England.
"

Wilayati

English goods."

43

make

their

too, regiments marcli

this season,

day

fresh

and

make

they

become

cold

down.

and

long marches.

many

it has

stage

one

dailyexercise

benefits

health

become

let

Come,

the

[lit.they

repeat

(sabaq ydd karnd), and

and

learnt
for

lessons

our

has

sun

light the

lessons

our

prepare

the

moment

sit indoors

us

ourselves, and

toast

the

By

At

strong].

how

gone

village children.

in relief,marching

(hawd khdnd) their

air

very

See

the

examine

and

tours

fire,

in class

to-morrow

{mutdla'a dekhnd).
Some

creatures

poor

remain

squatting round

shiver with

the cold

some

life comes

In these

days

out,

months

many

by

'it.

When
bare

falls.*

time

walk

about

their

in their

out
trees

The

and

fly^

wasps

cultivators

much

are

or

2
*

In such
hard

so

that

the

to

sight. Spring is
the

Ko^el

Rice

is

drops

of

How
ever
Wher-

eyes !

everywhere.*

seen

They

their

with

heart

blossom.

Flowers

appear

and

air"^'The

is felt in the

singing

are

the

on

are

sweet

many

mango
notes.

their combs.

here and there and make

about

Pahinna

orhna.

boots, hats,
Parti

hai.

begins^

wheat

sown.

The

rain

fall now,

The
to

zamtn-ddrs

the

Bahar

hi

not

Pakne

par

kitab khatm

wear,"

to

par-rahl hai

bahar. Spring

Expressed

"

only

refers to ct*/ garments

otc.

Why

Yih

white.

pleased.

Kammal

to

one's

few

become

fresh.

colours

Shdmd

The

plough.

ripen. If

covered

returning to the birds.

life is

ravish

remain

passes

and

green

glee.

mountains

sUght warmth

lovely

hke

For

light.

them.

on

you look it is a beautiful

Something

and

th^-supcomes

(springs)freeze, and become

become

beautiful

When

is^ very soft and

high

the

Spring comes,

trees

Snow

many

even

streams

can
}^eople

their blankets

under

into their bodies.

Sometimes

places the

bonfire

They

the open.

nightsin

their teeth chatter.

snow

at

these

pass

ana

hone

"

to
par

be

by
"

Why

hoti hai

and

not

hai

verbs.

two

about

a,l

i*

only Spring.

and

in Hindustani

this

to

"

,"

book

not

is

usually

"

to

nearly finished."

begin

to

"

."

44

THE

38.
The

Hot

Weather

black

what

rain

[lit.will

open

the

outside
is

cloud

has

without

door; there is no

hot wind

and

what

see

very

thunder;' there, now

it

begun

mtn) the

cats

to fall.

Just

has

season

To-day
How

should

one

Our

the

dogs ;

souls have

for the first time


in comfort

rain

how

see

about

must

be.

has

rainbow

all in

Just

now.

blowing.

come

Ah, there
of rain

moment

(an hi

of the

cultivators.^

the mind

an

nasib

raining

now

breath of cool

months

some

Sir! it is

Look,

longingfor

for

now

To-night

Just

Just

has.

shall be

we

hoga). If this

of

state

air; to-day

able

to

sleep

rain)
things (i.e.,

(aahza hi sabza) will

the
will

Rains

look

at

Oarjd from

'2

Mails

Plural

"

Preterite

"m

sky

What

various

be

in

seen

sing. Hallo!
*'

has

colours

it

songsters of

That's

that?

frog.

croaking and

are

clean

they

been

have

part {kindra) of the sky. Who

garajna

Oh,

their din.

How

trees!

walk

become.

all the

repentance") ! they

junglewith

that

what's

for

go

ko.el is '*kuking."

and

twitter

us

{kya kya)

jpyously the

papihds "' will

wliole

the

the

how

the
filling
at

cloudless

"

[tauhaylit.

Look

let

look !

listen"

too

stopped. Come,
how

Bother

Just

is

means

flowing profusely.

gutters are

jungle.^ See

in the

the

all

jungle.

The

the

certainlybrin^j

raining]. By
blowing

See,

come.

lightens;there, too, drops

continues, * nothing but green


the

have

this will

breeze

cool

think

been

sona

"

Rains

changed.*

delighted they
and

arisen

remain

not

have

the

and

is gone

heavy

RAINS.

washed.
can

count

understood.

; badal

phirna.

in Urdu

idiom.

Tense

in

condition.

It

the

assumes

completion^pf

the

condition.
6

but
"
T

Jangal
aUo

sair

karna.

Jangal

not

means

wilderness, i.e., anything opposed

Sunria.
The

ki

Why

papihd

Infinitive

says,

pi kafian

*'

Vide
where

'

to

only

habitation.

Hindustani
is my

forest

master

Manval.
?"

and

jungle,

45

clouds

tlie coloui'riof these


have

and

eatingso

'

birds

The

out.

come

look, the red- velvet

Just

'

will tire

themselves

insects

by picking up

insects.

many

But

Physically tired.

khdne

am

I'm

**

jl hhar-gaya

se

tired of eating

mangoes."

cock

The

is

along

swaggers

'

he well knew

hke

he

was

"

world

^
fight.

with

spurs

5hest, and

heartless

as

habits.

mound,

fills his

all his

might,

he is.

He

(sunand)

is death

themselves

at

not

are

i.e.,his spurs,

he

He

to tell

They

release him

he

as

though

people amuse

weapons,

iron and

or

with

cries

hero

and

quarrelsome

sharp

stone

or

*
Thirty-at-a-Blow.'

dandy

his natural

with

even

what

his

When

though
swaggeringlyhe is

how

and

"

{kukurun-kun)

Sometijnes
of

expense

of

bird.

of his hens, it is

wall

on

his

out

Cock-a-doodle-do

the whole

sits

hero

very

head

Somebody

he

handsome

and

the

at

erect

throat, throws
"

brave

very

When

walking !
looks

COCK.

THE

39.

but

in front of

on

the

content

the

mount

adversary

an

similarlyequipped.
The

She

hen

domestic

patientlysits

them.

dogs

or

for

her eggs

on

She

defends

cats

approach

feathers

eggs, which

lays many
her

twenty-one days and

with

young

the

up

her

her

terrifyingaspect {dara,onisural), it
ready

were

would
she at

once
"

'

be

or

hides

If

them

hairy

of

coats

them

killed ;
a

kite

under

pink legs" round

soft

in

kill

at

runs

face her.

now

pretty

to

and

8
*

Direct
"

clucking*
only

seems

as

"

Ever

spoilingfor

Kurkuranay

to

"

wings.

The

eyes

shining

yellow

and

white

cluck.

fight."
Kuruk

Fairy
Note

"

like

they

Tales.

idiom.

mvrghl^

"

though

broody

hen."

she

animal
her young,

chickens

black

Grimm's

If

From

adventurous

hovering over

comes

her

an

in anger.

neurration.

Seven-at-a-Blow."

hatches

greatestboldness.

cheeping.'
1

eating.

(darba fowl-house), she puffs

house

her

excellent

are

are

stars
run

very
"

clad
about

46

look

Just

ahead

of

dirty brown

beaks, and

approach

our

when

round

such

on

flesh

we

are

What

They

{khdfU)and

'^

filled

{pattJiar).It

shuts

sits

that

in size,

heads, curved

broad

tree

on

and

till its

settle

should

food

on

of

know

don
they aban-

but

bird is

They

wings they
on

not

nity,
opportu-

an

great glutton

its nostrils.

to

'

Then

they get

This

they

relish !

they only

beloved

its eyes

looking half-dead (ddh mUyd-sd)

tionable
objec-

Huge

with

eat

When

to fill itself up

carcass

disgustinganimals

their

back.

full,it goes and

How

great distance

their view.
come

this.

top of them.

no

that

so

once

wants

go to

the

is!

Spreading their

regret.

about

will at

they

the

or

necks, bald

{^izd)

on

as

collected

are

there

appearance

food

from
{ojfial)

be screened

rock

subsist

their

on

silentlytake wing.

bellyis

bullock

feathers, bare

their feast with

the trees

dead

vultures

filthy(jtAo^?)
things they

engaged

so

are

many

widely-opened eyes.

What

are

How

terrifyingtheir

and
with

is

! there

for vultures

ass,

an

of you.

Hallo

together.

VULTURE.

THE

40.

some

When

its

very

high

sitting there

remains

objectionablenutriment

{ffkizd)is digested.

Very
eats

many

meat

birds

Note

Sparrow-Hawk,

Jabhi.

Direct

narration.

Bahut

86

are

well-known

The

males

is the

THE

shikdr.

the

The

Peregrine,the Lagar

all birds of prey.

are

who

and

Sparrow.

or

Whatever

'

tiercels

'

have

different

names.

baaha.

SPARROW.

bird, all know

in his childhood

in India
Mrs.

it than

dead

all females.

41.

is

though

"

English Sparrow-Hawk

This

vulture

of prey,

pleasing to

more

the

idiom.

The

bird

Kate,* the Owl, etc.,

Falcon, the

These

are

the Indian

Goshawk,

"

It is

only {goshthi).

things {murddr)

insects ; but

grain and

eat

has
season

it.
not

you

There
heard
look

can

be

stories

no

one

of

Mr.

for it, you

will

47

about

find it round

the

attachment
[qudratl)

crowds,
Its

is not

plumage

stillit has

but

in the open

outside

or

is not

The

sharp.

very

cock

Look
and

sometimes

black

back, too,

its

wings

too

is

these

is worth
to

put

beak,

very

begins to eat,

them

into

its young

being
but

the

bird

It

is

of

The

young
become

the

point
is
is

crown."

'"

big

and

and

By

with

and

white

curved.

or

its beak

bring
to

and

feed

it

makes

beaks

of

necessity for

any

food

this

When

and
the

say,

This

in old and

slowly.

to

But

of*

means

ground

they

begin

; on

beauty {hahdr).

in the

have

Its flame-

Look

black

long, thin,

nor

tree

stripes. Its broad

are

Strange

of the

(sunshine). How

three black

insects

'

it is !

sun

in its

parent birds

feed

them,

themselves,

so

curved.

auspicious [mubarak)

Solomon.

the

how

(dhit),there

branch

thoughtfullyand

dough.

grow

CARPENTER.

purposes.

crooked,

not

are

the

additional

useful

of

colours

bird, but still he

one

them

its beak,

pounds

kind

their beaks

it

{sunaan).

at its eyes,

handsome

in

are

an

It works

'

on

How

On

it

small

THE

the insects concealed

crooked.

as

give

look

impudent

it is

them,

many

trees.

amongst

of the

strong beak

the feathers

seeingis

it extracts

decayed

OR

handsome.

are

stripes,and
what

'

match

to

Just

and

(tdj)is shining
point of

is each

in bazars

to

of.

other.

the

on

crest

dwells, there is it

blending

quitea

bold

so

this ; sometimes

at

coloured

is

sparrow

HOOPOE

THE

the

What

are

it is afraid

scarcelyanything

natural

amongst desolation

unpleasing.

and

pugnacious,

42.

he

it has

(shokh)but monkishly plain (sufiydna)


;

gay

brightand shining they


is

air

style{shdn)jand

in its feathers

(pi.)
; where

man

happilyeverywhere,whether

It lives

be found.

to

(pL). In fact

house

Translators

and
,

of

reverenced
the

Qur'an

by Muslims.
have

confused

It

is

the

it with

the

pieces:

and

Lapwing.
2

VVhy

ba-daulat

Oale

save

sarna,

to

rot.

very

rotten,

from

galna,

to

dissolve,

go

to

48

The

hoopoe

furnishes
It

in hollow

nests

its home

{sajand)
four to

lays from

People have

seven

made

Egyptians

call it the

story about

it, that

bits of grass

with

their colour

eggs;

of

son

King
its

formerly

and

through greed (Idlach)people

it.

It

its

case.

complained
Solomon
that

life,and

(flewaway)
about

continue

made

its

its

that

remained

kill

'

ask

It is

noxious

this
are

their

spells,they

They

at

play, have

*
'

been

verse

ka

gold departed
previous

one

worth

is

feet in this

bare

stated.

long grass,

on

snake.

poisonous, but in India


be cautious.^

should

their small

by

foot

your

size

;^they

there
Don't

are

very

generallydies

cobra

is

The

caste

people who

of

claim

that

poisonous snakes

play with them,

and

mantrl.

in the

to

crown

in
with-

fact is that the

and

snakes

by
out

state

virtue

that

{zor)of

of their holes.

the snakes
with

which

do

not

they

tamed.

Par-jana.
Sarvp

one

They

draw

can

all.

the

hour.
there

them,

tease

bite them

are

bitten

snake-charmers.*

they

pest of its

already been

accidentally put

man

an

country

has

as

with

na-jdnd)by
A

{muz%).

^aru^arhi) half
In

walk

all snakes

par

"

forward

SNAKE.

poisonous snakes, so

them

judge

killing

of

truth, what

'

ki) you

fact that not

many

are

ho

{aisdna

lest

its

gold,

(in the Future).

THE

Don't

care

time

head, greedy

its

ordered

the

me

Marta-rahna

43.
a

of real

the

on

tell

they

stories like the

noticing (khiydlkarnd)^ is its beak,

Have

crown."

"

brought

was

He

it.

other

many

If you

crown

that

from

and

its

habit

in the

were

white.

took its place.

up

crown.

was

that

to

feathers

and

have

People

as

feathers, and

into

turn

long

as

would

people

knew

crown"

Sulaymdii

Hazrai

to

and

; it

feathers.

is bluish

Solomon
**

in walls

and

strange tales about

many

up

in holes

and

trees

Vedas."

Hoshyaty alert.
Mantar

is

"

charm

Note

that

is

idiom.

repeated ;*' originally

60

tigercubs

Four
a

sahib ;

they carried

remained
them

The

(dqd).

master

were

she

and

tigresswith
the cubs.

the

off two

and

presented

them

them

sent

came

full of rage

so

stable.
but

The

that

the

cubs

where

it seemed

killingher

witliout

their

to

they

mother

did not

master

of

servants

stable

last

At

obliged to let the

was

the

to

nights.

young

He

jungle by

several

whole

the

destroy

in the

master

crying

out

found

traced

she would

like to shoot

he

could

keep

not

go.

of preying on
cattle ( kd shikar
tiger is very fond
karnd), but it also kills wild pigs, sdrnbhar deer, Mial, and
The

"

animals.

wild

other

The
kills

tyrant and sometimes


but

once,

old

the

full-grown tiger

young
as

of

animal.

wounded

when

for its pre3%

pond,

or

and

rips it

Sometimes

when

fall a prey

not
a

once

grew

thin.

very

it

Once
dead.

sahib

He

the dead
was

and

returned

The
The

and

returned

day,

wild

boar,
tusks.

the herd

does

It is stated

the

boy.

many

have

stuck

it

whole

and

days

(saw) that

cupine's
por-

caught

in its

throat,

tiger prefersthe flesh of


it will eat

dead

thought (knew^
sent

and

with

The

boy.

It must
have

The

sometimes

next

the

found

quillmust

tigress and

men

it down.

grazing and

was

anything for

in its throat.

to his tent

stream

shot it and

But

ambush

prominent

tigerand released

swallow.

not

shot

still alive.

at

retire.

not

at

of cattle

herd

able to eat

but
by itself,

tiger.

tiger rushes

tiger seized

the

stuck

could

slain

animals

at

shikari

porcupine somewhere
so

to drink

of buffalos

The

not

quillhad
and

herd

son.

tigeris

lies in

by night

comes

to its

it,it retiree.

long, sharp, and

its

tigerwas

and

the

tigerattacks

of the bufifalosrushed
Once

is the

it,but faces it and drives it back.

herdsman's

was

to

that

book

that

with

up

at

cows

spring and suddenly knocks

one

happens

truth

enraged, it does

or

animal

any

it makes

It sometimes

which

when

The

confronts

one

any

lies hidden by day,


generally

It

in

When

{hdn)

course

five

or

great

generallykiUs only according

tiger

requirements {bhukh ke mutvdfiq).

cowardly

four

as

many

is

an

that she

was

elephant to bring in

reported that

the sahib

carcasses.

went

the

himself.

tiger
He

51

another

that

saw

half.

sahib

The

the Dakan

It

one

two

attack

that

who
villagers

were

blunt

become

and

tiger has

and

come

lyingasleepin

an

to wild

compared

man,

carried
shed.

open

old and

tigergrows

parts of

some

strength departs, that

its

only, because

men
killing

In

man.

sometimes, too, happens that when

teeth

about

tigertoo.

usually

not

Iiad eaten

it ofiCand

dragged

happened

it has

or

this

shot

tiger does

The

off

tigerhad

its

it takes

to

animals, is

an

easy prey.
You

certainlyknow

must

of the doomed

that

mard) tigerscapture, scarcely one

ka

but

it has

have

got

{mayqi^) of
reached

{thakd mdnda) and wanted


did

sooner

no

rifle. He

started

and

up

than

come,

when

sepoy

in

jaws, bounded

sentry immediately fired.


and

rushed

ofiF. The

who

sepoys

came

for several hundred


had

one

about

fiftyyards

they advance

and

"

What

"2

/gboZ-u^aia

What

is the

are

the

report of

of his tent

and

out,

making

sentry, and
the

the

and

the Muslim

other

tracked

moment

heard.

sepoy

hachiia

and

some

resound.
^

was

The

there ; but

that

hills

shout

chhiitna

had

foreward

tigerand

At

sepoy.

shot

bound

the blood here

poor

the

crossing his front.

the

the

between

prosperous.

was

big tiger, carrying a

very

after

ran

look,* behold

all the

tiger gave

off in the bushes

difference
"

The

yards, by

men) the tiger roared

heard

direction

past him

all

hope about

and

quite weary

was

entrance

which

Commander,

up,

march

suddenly {ki itne men)


its

occasion

There

night.

he

the

to

ran

questioning the sentry from

was

death

{dochar)hours* sleep;

few

the
the

on

Commander

to have

lie down

he

were

late at

The

the camp.

On

tyrant.

soldiers

halting-placerather

their

largejunglenear
but

of this

six hundred

war,

escapes

lucky persons*{qismat-wdld)

some

clutches

of the

out

ever

that

happened

{maut

persons

comes

it
no

{itne
Then
When

limp-

* '

of

meanings

lalkarna

Frame

short

sentences

illustratingthem.
"

Aorist

XXXVI,

for Historical
7

(a).

Present

vide

'"

Hindustani

Sturabling-Blocks,"

52

them.

ing towards

fellow had

learnt that the poor

and
and

returning, when

was

could

round

turn

heard

shot

too, but that he is in

tigerand

his

and

tiger returned
could

at

the sepoy

that

itself to him

The

ground.

wounded

tiger gave

wanted

to seize its prey

the

its heart

{lit.
liver).

In

and

devices

and

passes

for

are

followingdevice
Note

Direct

Paltu

at

so

of

arrows

path

that

are

and

strike
a

rope

is resorted

to

many

he

his

to

turn;

also

to rebound

when

over^
into

are

deep pit is

Sometimes
is

men

the

very

and

tiger

by

Presidency the

collect and

to

heavy

just (zard)touched

surround

narration.
"

the
safe

was

bayonet

idiom.

kkana

Tlie

turning

that when

falls. In the Madras

beam

He

tigerhabituallytakes,

it.

blow.

Asia, too, there

placed

so

sented
pre-

ordinary ground {khasl

to appear

as

sepoy

springingforward

thrust

once

countries

arranged that if

so

and

side, and

its

poor

justgettingup,

was

rose,

fell on

The

shoulder.

that

to

jaws, but the

The

the

catching tigers. Sometimes

come

foot, the
tiger's

other

in the

poisoned

by, they

beams

but

over,

Sometimes

tamin).
bow

in

covered

dug and

and

roar

sepoy's feet, who

India

several

tyrant, and

as

In

struggle(flutter)
on

to

see

fired at the

mortal

thought

now

he

opportunity now

an

behind

began

its

again.

deliver

times

sepoy

terrible

reached

the

he

of the clutches of his

the

could

fell and

tigerstaggered and
out

him

seized

violentlyseveral

it

does

tiger'sbody.

freed from

scarcelybreathe, but such

now

stabbed

and

once

to, he

came

karke)^managed

it into the

was

he

in its mouth.

other {jun tun

or

with

injured him

not

pouch-beltwere

bayonet, and plunged

tigerleapt aside

he

when

he

moments

pain in his thigh. What


had
tiger's
one
jaws. Some

somehow

short, the sepoy,


out

several

him, but luckilythe tigerhad

hit

picquet

down

him

yet, for only his clothes and

get

For

insensible.

the

to

rustling. Before

happened,' but

felt

and

heard

food

look,^ a tiger knocked

and

of what

nothing

carried

(ki) he

such force that he became


knew

[haldaryaftkarna),

questioned him

They

ricochet.'

'

53

drive

tiger and

with

then

despatch it

into

the half-eaten
to which

left and

it

'

kill

In

spears.
of

tiger,which

following plan
rnachan

when

the

over

tiger;^

sometimes

the

tigercomes

Chinese

they fasten

is

method.

on

tries

rub

it

the
to

them

the

leaves

with

the

itself,some
and

tiger.

The

roll

shikaris

of the

or

the noise of the

and

to

at

left

by

and

to

reflection

comes

they employ

leaves, and
to that

leaves

stick

ground,

last,unable

bear

to

are

on

the

it

its

on

Enraged,

it

body gets

stuck

itself and

rubs

gets into the eyes too,


the

neighbourhood, and

roaringthey

its

stick the

its paw

too.

it scratches

bird-lime

poisoned

in

When

paw.

its whole

when

them

lay

the leaves

paw,

its face

to

and

lime
like bird-

place and puts

stick to

the other

its

different

sticky substance

it goes

two

fro, and

trapped.

once

where

with

When

then

hid in the

are

{kal)} They

tiger,getting irritated, rubs

At

or

live bullock

strange device

of broad

leaves ; and

blinds it.

the

tree

bullock

tigerseeingits

The

with

the

on

sit in

or

tie up

tigerpasses

number

leaves,one

begins to
over

the

poison

it.

and

face

tigerby

mirror.

on

remove

tighterto

the

mix

the track of the


feet

cow

themselves

country called Malaka

They

and

Shikaris

tiger returns

Sometimes

it dies.

chest, and, entering it, is

close to the
There

of

the

it is shot.

where
a

'

temporarily

it has

When

(ki):

to

kill

'

they

catch

place a largebox
side

fresh

or

The

resorted

is

they

it:

snare

places they put poison

some

to return.'

means

and

net

feeds, the poison takes effect ani

and

pain, it
as

soon

spot, and

The

roars.

as

they

hear

finish off the

beast.

poor
In

the

officers

Note

learn

northern

districts

of India, the

India

the

they generally slioot


order

in

the

original sentence

by heart.

What

Chahta

are

the

hai.

proper

lueanings of

knl

English

in Southern

foot, but

on

and

Sardars

shoot tigersoff elephants,but


generally

Central

gradually into

it

translut*'

and

this is very

it

literallyand

54

risky.
The

Tlie

is
following

elephants,formed

when

tigeris

see

the method

it is at

wounded, it usuallybecomes
it

oomes

on

shows

it

clean

shootingstand
accord

own

pair of

firm.

and

the

into

If

was

so

its

life too

Once

it

his

from

it and

and

sahib

straight

go

left

he

quick ;

very

dragged

out

reared, it becomes

and
There

was

was

to stroke

came

tiger of

playfulas

as

and

it did
who

Jamadar

it, and

near

this

kitten.

its head
The

its cage.

snap

and

foldinghis

the

that

he

used

the

was

day

self-same

off his hand


his life
to

come

and

the

kind

same

boy

tiger made

eat it up.

the

fed

who

standing with

was

The

{ghanlmat yih hai ki).


"

and

to

words, stillit

person

tiger. The
and

Saying

led it back

understand

not

One

it.

of that

ofifwith

boy

'^

along."

along, come

its neck

tigerdid

wrenched

lucky to get

Come

pagfl round

fondled

in the cage

It

to

the

an

for life.

lamed

Zoo.

escaped

the

hand

one

boy
After

visit the friend that had

his

was

this

given

keepsake.
hiljdta hai

Why

hila ?

chanced

was

danger.

is

and

tiger'smouth,

was

danger.

known

daily and

Still he

{haude

"

cast

have

sahib

in the

the Lahore

Though

him

his foot

The

his shoe

will be in

this he

even

tiger-

to

hauda

in the

this manner,

in

bravery

keeper followed

come

it

elephant

endangered. Once

sometimes

are

still there

said,

must

the

Son, through you I earned my living; if you do


If you injure anyone,
back, I lose my bread.
my

hands

Zoo.

Sometimes

charges.

people

tame, that visitors used

nothing.

tigeris

elephantstrained

tiger is caught quite young

descriptionin

not

its

by force.

was

for the

tiger*8jaws.

tame,^ but

It

but

fell forward, and

nothing except
his foot

When

Some

lives

evinced

in the havda

heels

awkward

sawdr) whose

elephant

and

enraged

jungle,and

elephantscharge the tiger of their


try (chdhtehain) to crush it with their knees,

but this is very


ke

fired at.

once

the

through

threateningly(buUyingly),that

so

shootingfrom elephants.

line,advance

in

a,

of

Vide

Direct

*"

and

Hindustani

narration.

not

hilta hai ?

What

is the

meaning

Stumbling-Blocks,*' IX, Supplement.

of

hila

65

The

whiskers

if the

piercehis
whiskers
have

to the necks

on

and

evil

and

are

becomes

to be

toes, and

THE

and

the

than

big dog,

much

; it chews

must

see

it

falls

on

the

the

it to

bones

that

it is

crooked.

are

shoulders, are

shape.
gait.

It is

that of

Tliis animal

It

subsists

extracts

and

cave,
on

dead

and

ndlds,
in

or

body,

eat

up

carcasses

head

its

at

it has

so

people

Its hind
the

to

that

in holes and
it is

legs
and

ungainly
rolling

its

Sometimes

from

out

It

the graves.

even

be

By day

to hunt

it is

ways;

polluted.

it

for food.

digs down

Though

useful in many

the air would

in the low

caves

cowardly.

comes

carcasses.

disgustinganimal, still it is

did not

shape

by night it

decayed
bodies

this

are

hence

only.

is astonished

one

one

laughing loudly.

person

lives in

joints of its neck

bone

very

that

ease

stiff,and

one

are

great strain (zor)

(kara)and unpleasing.

Though powerful

sleeps in its

of

of

account

on

the

taller

astonishing

with

of the cat

neck

such

four

much

very

parts, compared

that

Its voice is harsh

cry is Uke

hills.

hind

fact.

remains

composed
small

so

realize the

always

with

ox

an

in the

have

like those

bones

In the

and

animal

is not

hard

up

of its neck:

The

ornaments.

as

of its chest and

thigh-bone of

doing

silver

gold and

in

this

height it

chews

joined that its neck

fancy

in

bound

the evil eye

from

five toes

retractile

not

are

sons
per-

tigerare

worn

are

of

paws

stillthe muscles
It

keeps a tiger's

fore part of the feet.

all four

stronger.

ease

the

but

too

so

HYiENA.

on

tiger. Although

are

dogs, etc., there

its claws

of

encased

are

and

cats

hind-paws four;

claws

amulets, and

walks

will

they

eat,

parts of India the

some

they protect them

45.

fore-pawsof

In

that if the

of children

too

to

person

wonderfully strong. Some

spirits. Tiger's claws

animal

he will die.

beHef

considered

This

to

belief,too, that if anyone

he

firm

given

are

this

by him,

superstitions
(wahm) ing
regardtiger'sbody ; for instance, they fancy

the

entrails that

people entertain

several

have

portionsof

certain
that

India

people of

and

filthy

for if it

56

stick

kind

karnd)

is to be

When

nothing is to
and

If it

wanders

comes

even

Kiwuh

Note

habitations

dog,

children.

kab
this is

ecpressed

is

foot; tiny ears,

to

fitted for
there

feet

is

hair

the

no

the

on

have

It is

the

and

ground
same

that walk
a

on

on

flat,and
and

him

hence

When

legs.

it

as

an

It seizes

chest

to its broad

feed

principallyon

By day,
bushes.
a

the

amongst

very

the bear
At

strange habit:

Digitigrade.

"

Ghutna,

"

his.

so

placesits

its

footprints

and

man,

Between

it and

animals

dog, hysena, etc.,there


bear's foot is broad

it

hugs

itself

rears

him

to death.

in

comes

when

out

confronts

the

Although

the bear

animals, still most

in hollow
hills,

in search

of food.

breath:

For

be

be-chara.

strangled."

and

helpless
is

species

honey.

trees, and
Bears

sittingidle, especiallyafter

to lose one's

in

caves

and

its hands,

that

is

its hind

on

and

up

by

its enemy

carnivorous

hides

from

bear

roots, grains, fruits,insects, and

night,it

like

enemy,

{bichara) is squeezed ^

included

long hair

The

easilyerect

'^

enemy

with

long and strong claws


climbing. In most
species

sole of the

by

fightswell.

."*

of the foot.

somewhat

can

easilytamed

will

covered

like the cat,

The

attacked

pressinghim

sole

appearance

great difference.

be

can

long snout,

expert in

'

It attacks

even.

BEAR.

progresses

their toes

it

original.

THE

digging.

ous,*
danger-

master.

ungainlyanimal,

very

and

seeking for strayed sheep.

'When

in the

{guzara

palm-trees.

infuriated

young

"saying that,

46.

head

The

of

meat

no

of small

it will devour

great affection for their

how

This

leaves

young

remain

for it to

subsist

to

found, it becomes

round

and

show

be

across

women

the

'

When

it.

obtained, it manages
and

roots

on

wounded

or

in its mind

great patience, eager


lifeless,so that it may devour

become

sick

follow it for miles and

it and

to

across

it with

watching

and

coines

jungle,it

it will

animal,

any

the

in

When,

in

have
feed-

58
it does
of

not

flesh.

eat

Its powers

its powers

course

its direction

approach

alert.

ofif;but

of

If you

if the

of vision

scent

up- wind

from

of escape

blocked,it

is

second

those

where

bears do

one

it off

her back.

ants, various
Sometimes

small

of

the

often

harry birds'

of

with

termites

mutilates

his

snout

and

nests

ants, whitefruits.

other

They

the eggs.

the

They dig up
blow

the

away

hole, snuff

their larvae

and

When

by carrying

on

and

the

on

in the

found

'

eat

paws

in

caves.

wood-cutters.

bear subsists

their

from

with

up
drawn

are

up

distance.

The

white

Arctic

bear

the

whole

too

sea

where, and for miles


dwell.

bears

they

in the water

but their food


a

is

too, and

is the

fish and
chiefly

animal

delightedat

the

that

meaning of,

47.
This

dive.

is

ease

THE

seals

there

these

frozen

on

hahut

with thick

covered

are

slipperyice.

their nests

and

[lit,sea-calf '].
'

kfiana

They

they catch hares,

will be described
Wuh

ground,

the

on

of the

every

Sometimes

of birds from

strange animal

What

with

feet

the shores

of ice lie about

remains

their

of

On

always

mountains

run

the young

extract

too is

can

is

snow

water

soles

The

hair, and hence

the

all.

largestof

is the

regions,far from here,

in

in

are

their breath.

sucking in

violence that the white-ants

and

Many

her young

saves

such

swim

head

in abundance

is found

attack

speciesof

earth, and then placingthe

and

so

run

confront
fiercely

man's

insects, honey, dates, and

bears

the

will

hills,and rocks, and

low

are

They
This

great powers

abodes

bear

the female, she

pursues

on

have

there

hills.

comes
5e),it be-

frighteningobject.

great deal of damage.

Vindhiyachal
any

species of black

places

Such

at

his scalp,and
whips off {ura-lend)

face that he becomes


The

ke rukh

{huwd

(itsadversary). It generallystrikes
attack, and

anyone

it,it usuallydoes nothing but

attack

way

Should

acute.

are

great, but

not

are

later

eat

them,

This last

on.

charha-gaya hai

PALM-SQUIRREL.

wonderfully sportive and

quickness of

its movements.

restless.
It is very

One

is

impu-

50

dent

artful ; very

and

fearless and

mischievous.

It

it,but feignsignorance (an-janhannd)


stalking

; when

it

gets quite

near,

trunk

tree, climbs

of

powerlessenemy
When

it

holdingsome
to

how

see

was

hare

and

the

sharp chisel-like

blunted.

sharpens its

teeth."

but God

made

surface

(rt^M) is

Indian

the

will

its teeth

this would

grow

teeth of other

trated
pene-

other

always gnawing

are

must

get

down

worn

you

and

thin.

cunning

animals

side

very

but

case;

the

as

at

once

only, and

Uves

animal
the

to

teeth

the

size

but

ing,
slant-

mend

you

an

the other

"The

by wear."

shorter

the

slowly ;

become

will say,

you

outside

The

the teeth

one

Again

grow

sharpen them,

manner.

down

wears

tinual
con-

squirrelnever

sharp. When

and

long

the

; but

[hdn) it doesn't

pare it on

shorter

as

in

sharp edges by

with

blunt

remains

ordinarilybe
to

be

squirreland

If the

*'

it gets worn,

as

outside

sharp

hard

However

it cannot

their teeth, and

hard, and

very

gradually get

continue

that,

It's true

reed-pen,see,

side grows

that

all instruments

the inside is soft, and


and

rodent.

teeth.

(ghisnd)become

has

is

too, like the

maker
carpenter sharpens his chisel and the shoe-

The

wear

off the

remember

you

animal

substances, their teeth

awl, and

his

surprising

manner

left. Do

be, it is seldom

of hard

at its

brand)

it gnaws

paws,

This

the mouse,

always working

looking back

on

in

are

hare

certainlysay

are

all kinds
and

its

the

and

the

grain gnawed {kutarna) by it, and

of its teeth

may

will

rodents

teeth

about

rat

substance

You

long sharp
or

dog

it.

tiny

fruit

keeps

its

marks

said

by

fruit in

the

{ukrun * baithnd) on

its heels

on

its

up

the

what

the

with

Pick

see.

'

hard

peel

outer

it and

up

dog

chattering; and, clingingto

though jeeringat

as

squats

off

runs

sees

teeth

Certainly
of rodents
whereas

they

have

the
to

attain.
The

squirrellives chieflyin

Note

that

Vide

under

Note

the

in the

originalboth

the article
order

on

the

of this clause

It makes

trees.

verbs

are

Mongoose
In

its nest

of grass,

habitual.
for another

Hindustani.

expression.

60

wool, oottoa-wool, and


hollows

the

in

thatch,

of

Frequently, too,

bread, and
and

ground

then

them, feedingthem

tame

listen !

What

some

animal

behind

stick

your

Uff, uff

off.

mice

and

It is

animaL
animal

smell

this very

This

have

must

snout

at

its

grinders {dafh,f.) there


animals

has

given them

the

3rd Part

that

"

the field-rat.

Its

insects.

feet

The

also progresses
the bear.

glands, and

are

is

This
a

and

smell
scent

musk-rat

once

not

is

of the

after

the

walk

not

the

it is from

cat

is

kills

cowardly
it attentively,

long its snout

{kah-dena) that it is
On

of rodents.

sharp projections{JMr).^
eat ; for this

God

reason

read

it in

animal
insect-eating

like

are
are

"

you

useful for

small and

preying on
fine,and

animals
insect-eating

it

like

the fore- part of its feet like the

on

hyaena.

and

examined

like those

an

of

manner

this weak

recollect

musk-rat

The

ning
run-

at the evil-smell of this

fact

they

grinders. You

it is
This

is.

conical and

small

are

the musk-rat

like musk
has

are

! there

there

must

noise with

kill it.

ever

sharp-pointed teeth

It does

dog, the cat,

too

whatever

grind
flat

how

proclaim^ the

once

not

These

that
have

discovered

Its front teeth

rat.

smell

disgust

protects itself. If you


you

is.

'

by

on

the young

There

make

! look

it won't

cat;

it feels

but

rats

the

pounce

catch

noise

Just

Look

nasty

call the

Don't

musk-rat.

children

squealing

away.

What

sometimes

the ward-robe.

frightenit

and

to

MUSK-RAT.

is this

Just
be

of food, it descends

bits

milk.

on

THE

48.

buds, kernels,

on

for

Small

it off.

carry

the

in

or

the houses

into

comes

search

eaves,

It lives

(now) birds of prey

(jhapcUnd)it,and
and

In

seeds.

it

the

in

of the roof.

its home

generallymakes

trees, sometimes

in the beams

or

fruit.

and

of

It

rags, etc.

On

them

both
that

in its scent, but

its sides, under


the scent

the skin,

issues.

stinking and

,There

unpleasing.

which
peculiar property; anything over
If
pervaded with its smell.
passes becomes
1

ba-daulat.

61

it

runs

that

it

smell

if

it,

then

flour

colour

is

found

the

heat

By

houses.

animal],
but

at

for

it

insects.

in

night
preys

are

that

it

day,

too

is

commonly

musk-rat

runs

become

touched

by

comes

is

this

hides

stinking.
the

it,

out

crickets,

cold

to

[matyala

inclined

in

is

stench

bright

heard

animal

is

drains,

dung-beetles,

cold

is

useful

mosquitoes,

and

too,

You

weather.

and

[bil,

boxes
It

musk-

it.

to

more

holes

underneath

hunt.

the

the

their

The

trying

found

and

red,

hght.

in

but

sd),

to

very

rarely

in

or

earth

little

it

closets,

dark

on

bottle

the

perceived

increases,

it

of

countries

noticed

have

must

hairs

hot

in

and

is

that

distinctly

be

can

eatable

like

very
the

of

{nok)

tips

As

is

cork

the

it

more,

the

support

time.

long

with

of

other

is

stinking

so

can't

people

What
closed

is

becomes

water

fastidious

and

contents

any

colour

Its

rat

the

for

remains

bottle

the

water,

distance.

or

of

drunk,

from

that

over

If

be

can't

even

said

vessel

any

over

in

more

hole

of

matting
in

and

way,
other

an

TRANSLATION

ENGLISH

OF

THE
A

OF

VAZIR
PLAY

IN

ACTS, TRANSLATED

FOUR

URDU

INTO

PERSIAN

LANKUMN

AND

COPIOUS

WITH

FROM

EDITED

NOTES.

BY

M AULA

SHAMS-UL-'ULAMA

MUHAMMAD

YUSUF

BAHADUR,

KHAN

JA'FARI,
Head

VI

Maulavi, Board

of Examiners,

AND

D.

LiEUT.CoLONEL

Secretaryand

C.

PHILLOTT,

Member,

Board

Fellow of the Calcutta

CALCUTTA
PRINTED

AT

THE

BAPTIST

of Examiners;
University.

MISSION

1911.

AU

F.A.S.B.,

rightsreserved.

PRESS.

Plaintiffs

Petitioners,

Farrashes

of

Officials

and

the

and

fendants.
De-

Khan
Nobles

of

the

individuals.

Four

Several

individuals.

Several

individuals.

Province.

Fifty

Guards

Aqa

Timiir

The

men.

nephew
Lankuran,

of

the

Khan

of

Khanom's

Nisa

lover.

Foster-brother

Riza

Haji
A

Salih

Doctor

Merchant.

of

Timur

Aqa.

ACT

[The

is laid

scene

the

Caspian,

some

the

Wazir.

The

his harem,
Wazir
that

and

Haji Salih

I have

for

Be

soul,
Well

Wazir:

made
"^y^acket

This

me.

Salih:

and

to

bigger

the

for

Pay

; but

entrance

of

RashtJ

Is

to

Excellency.

must

one

is

ready,

Have

ever

have

you

must

smaller

them

round

sewn

return,

bring

paper,

before

than

it with

you.

Haji

Salih.]

gold.
up

if the

in

You

another

month

short, I will settle

is

money

here.

In

to

return.
it would

tight

or

too

will

Excellency
Wazir:

Rasht,

of

ready,

am

blue, gold-embroidered

jacket

you

return

business

now,

is famous

sir.

back

coming

are

soon

"

then

tight or

When

and

everything,

important

jacket

the

must

for you.

no

pigeon's.

coins, wrapped

^dlih

silk and

than

jacket.

your

You

you.

twenty-four gold buttons,

the

you

Haji

get

When

for

of Your

remember

fiftypieces

on

you

aren't

It

going

me,

orders

must

these

[He puts

Habib,

there.

command

to

you

make

to

of the

take

Here,

it too

the

of

him.]

are

I sent

why

was

out

carry

Kasht

in

egg,

collar

with

before

shores

of Mirza

at

commission

pleased

Haji,

goldsmith

hen's

the

the

on

house

room

you

going

/dbeen its like in Lankuran.


a

heard

; I am

Yes, sir

it out

Haji

get

in

standing

is

Haji Salih, I have

Wazir:

heart

Salih

Hajl

in the

ago,

seated

is

Lankuran,

so

carry

Wazir

of

town

fiftyyears

Haji Salih,

the

at

I.

It

does

in

Gilan.

for

But,

sir, if you

be

or

with

matter.

not

It

too

let them.
is

its embroidery.

on

the

be

back

taking ready

am

well.

as

fault

loose, well

too

do.

loose,

find

shall

The

long

tailor
or

me

gave

too

in

; I

have

buy

to

money
the

no

size of

Rasht

short, and

the

may

make

then

Your

me.

If

they

It
southern

can

make
be

shore

it

little

too

put right here.


of

the

Caspian

Sea,

the

be

'

Oh

making

tell you

should

if I

that

know

about

the

much

with

questions ?

j/Waz%r WeU,

I must

you

abroad, and
down

and

with

such

then

I shan't

have

it will be New

I must

make

Shu* la Klianum

here, Zeba
like it.

one

How

Khiinum

in the

chatter

Hdjl Sdlih:
be

But,

won't

given
Wazir

will

It

you

Klianum

too

Zeba

give

Oh

Allah

what

I have

what

Listen

it

as

won't

is that

give

little present

be able to

Naw

the

Roz,
of

If the

is

coat

ing
demand-

of money.
a

day

not

fightshy

the

jacket

the

of

then

jacket

Carry

yours

to Shu

the

2^

Tufyfa, any

Mard-i

Khuda

aocuse

Shu'la
of

me

Persian
year.

to

woman

bance,
distur-

of that

to

Shu'la

demand

to

creature

of

of

orders.

your

I will make

Rasht, has
Zeba

Year's

Everyone

Day,

expects

the

also

mardri

21st

present.

adml.

of

sent

Khanum

carelessness,or neglect. But

New

sometimes

out

then

Khanum;

rarity or curiosity.
and

I O

'la Khanum

sister,the wife of HidayatKhan

my

festival

the

business

; when

that

out

occasion

shall I be free

put up with

to

God,

sit

that

every

it, and

see

to

is this

waste

be

gets

matter
on

when

trusted
en-

matter

like this suit

will

would

sir, when

and

one,

has

be allowed

mere

coat

it ?

lest when

WazIr

the

present.^

it's

give her
?

the

or

Day,'

one,

nagging

about

just like it ?

one
:

and

that

here,

pestered

naturally persistin

day quarrelling. Who

every

Khanum,

Devil

if I don't

and

her

her

give

of the

name

like that ?
from

If I

will

too

be

you

up

matter

friend, the

little

the

peace,

dear

made

anything

service, and

any

is that
Don't

I shall

with

Year's

months

and

how

one
a

can

talking and

of

intention

out

I know

such

in two

made

and

some

quiet. My

in

moment

be cut

acquaint you
tell

coat

private affairs.

my

should

bazar, you

the

to

go

Your

about

Hdjji"dlih: No, sir,how

habit

curious

jacket to

The

have

figure.

wisdom.

it will be talked

how

you

have

! you

openly
give

all here

the Khanum's

to

of your

display

bring them

men

you

do, sir, if I buy the cloth, and

and

made

and

cut

Wazir

it not

made,

buttons

then

Will

Sdlih:

Hdji

March.

have

It is

account

no

; on

care

such

Would
Wazir
the

Well,

Zeha

the

Zeba

startled

Khanum

Well

So

sir !

jacket for

?"

Khanum

before

Uttle

rubs

her

eatmg

it.^

to

Old

All that

after

sent

behind

and

stood

my

suspicions

for
was

that

the

the

gold-buttoned embroidered

beloved

darling. I Won't
*

form

Timiir

of

' '

such

teach

me

skin-flint

of cheese

bit

overflow

with

you

You

turned

glass
rosity
gene-

I knew

at

doubt.

letter.

saying
"

pretences if you

once
came

all.

Now

may

it all,

heard

beginning rightup

I heard

are

Haji Salih, I

to

the end.

to

what

learnt
God

potatos and

eyes

point.

sparkle ?

you

tiptoe

on

jacket auspicious for

Aqa's

as

no

"

in

I become

Have

believed

brain

filled with

to

'

Shu*la

to

of the

of yours

Haji Salih,
door.

yes

fiftyor sixty tumans

have

saying

very

true

were

so

stop inventing
were

mind

my

your

Oh

outside

frighten me.

letter,from

you
"

Has

Now
you

word, every
moment

You

up

the

on

now

I should

that

wife

yours.

startingto

shuts

bread

darling wife

woman!

Khanum

she

that

for

order

an

present

who's

sister

she

alarm.]

darling of

your

are

you

jacket worth

ass

giving

little

jacket ?

? what

please.

does

And

sends

she

complete

every

Your

"

then

Zeha

that

is like!

as

So

and

Wazir:
what

God

to

Isfahan

present
a

it

sent

opposite

sister,the wife of Hidayat

"

of

that

were

you

moment

in

him

generosity of

your

traders

like the

bottle

The

Glory

sister

your

that

me

has

I"h;in of Rasht,

such

'

great uproar.

behind

were

you

for this sort of

tell

would

you

that

see

the

open

in, making

noise, looks

the

by

bursts

rushes

and

hands

I be sacrificed

what

me

The

out.

goes

Khanum

gold-buttoned, embroidered

and

let

; now

go

and

his obeisance

room,

both

with

Wazir,

May

by blabbing

me

may

you

I get

do

good

of

worthy

good-bye;

"

makes

of

is out

The

of what

singleword

move.

[Hajl Salih
door

be

thing

; what

forbid

Haji ^'dlih: God

he

one

any

tolcl you.

I've

on

to

repeat

that
make
your

Let

us

An

"

say,
She

order has been

will put it on,

and

issued for

jacket Cor

his sweetheart.'*

peacock-Uke, will strut, and dance, and

posture before him.


Wazlr
you

What

rubbisli

In

me.

Tm

Zebd

Khdnum

honour

often

Aqa

Tliniir

keeps

and

in Lankuran

can

who

have
A

see.

Khanum

know

Zehd

Khdnum

to

smart

throws

maid

has

her

seen

eyes.

like

and

I don't

lieve
be-

it ?

chakor^

is there

Everybody
and

think

for you

and

says

nobody

the world

rest of

bad

Who

blind.

think

the

either.
you

You

this.

say

all the
and

good

who

all about

eyes

of Ttmiir

talking about?

Aqa

When

What

has

she

him

yourselfpointed

does

ever

Shu* la
him

seen

to her.

out

You

to her.

him

Khdnum:

i.e., like
like

you,

twenty-four hours

My

own

wife who

believe you

only

thinks

are

Yes, yes.

didn't, who

eyes

something,but

/ showed

him

her ?

to

pointed

her ?

festival and
1

your

his voice] :
[raising

out

you

know

can't

yourselfshowed

Zebd

doesn't

what's

see

What

Wazir:

him

side.

I don't

we

man

rest of the world

Wazir

honour
dis-

and
fascinating

darlingof

this,with her

It isn't

shut

blind

can't

You

You

dishonour

to

for the whole

her

Such

maid.

Khdnum

that you

for

counts

of these

beloved

by

[turningpale]:

your
Zebd

like

often

Wazir

close

presence

I wished

to one

winds, who

the

to

in my

shame

no

y"m.

Had

right.

It's your

you

Will

woman

Have

modesty

touched

love

made

fellows ?

world

even

All

I have

wouldn't

your

not

consort, and

this

sorry it has

young

old
chattering,

you

stop your incoherencies

never

calumny against my

are

did

tell your
an

chakor

ostrich
and

"

/?

You'^

pointed him

didn't

Now

darling that by
sticking

stick one's

its

head

head
under

you

out

the

Khan's

in the

sand.

the

the

on

come

orders
"T4
"

is

snow

If

her.

to

shut
a

^Id
the
the

Persian

idiom.
*

Note

Manual,"

that

page

the
182

Hindustani
enxphatio-hin equals italics ; vide
Stumbling-Blocks," VIII, 15.
(e),and "Hindustani
"

outside

the

Khanum

to

with

and

rug

come

there, and

Timur

all the young

threw

she fell

madly

she

ensnared

has

such
she

in love

from

you

the

well, it

serves

Waztr:

business
Zeha

To
for

then

the

hke

misses

by

Why

as

to

devices
reached

now

to

day

one

didn't

"

I tell

for

marry

listen

ever

what

improper

yours,

him,

saw

seeing him

most

was

you

get

Now

me

old

an

skittish

out

quite enough;
; go

idea

out

impress

upon

thinks

Hell

to

"

stop your
have

; I

have

some

Shu

this

calumny

Timur

rmnd, and
go
see

to

They

"

After

were

mere

the
what

even

Kiian.
1

can

"

let his
On

By

my

and

she

return

this

will
her

cross

and
to

spite
dig

put
must

strong

those

were

boys."

other

really as

all,who

to

I must

case,
or

is not

name

and

envy

the

Somehow

Aqa's importance,
not

pluck,

her, wishing

be

Aqa

"

at

may

Tlmiir

I will say

Khanum

possibleshe

is

and

through

woman,

'la's mind.

that

threw

and

old

It's

thoughtlesslypraised him

Well, whatever

her

I must

have

Shu'la

that

to

of that sort."

(hah) it

course

/ go

paramour.

with persons

Aqa's strength

may

cast

of

I will lessen

Of

should

Why

her

believe

I cannot

this

so

* '

and

to do

to have

Timur

he is.

Aqa

darling

thing.

child

and

pitfallfor her.

Kiianum

all went

they

have

chicken.

age

your

you

such

simple

(hasad),may

Now

with

admired

people,

of

knows

[going out muttering]

man

done

have

out

alone

me

Hell

have

Timur

it

did

[to himself] :

may

she

spread

right.

KJ^dnum

Wazir

the

and

Nisa

to do.

Hell ?

few

and

Kiianum

Matters

if she

an

Shu'la

as

right, all right, that's

leave

Well

Who

dying

when

you

All

quacking

can

But

?
filly

young

'la that

such

at

soon

love

first that

very

like you,

person

proper

Shu

their eunuch

show

him.

in her

flutter like

begins to

As

with

him

the

wrestling

tell her

you

and

have

to

fascinating,smart, good-looking fellow,

nobles.

pitch with

didn't

watch

Aqa,

going

were

their maids

and

sit there

place

fort, and

matches

the

of

gentlemen

young

as

whom
means

put him

lips again.

I will visit Shu'la

do.

[He gets

up

to

go.]

Zehd

Khdnum

[enters]: Please
'

like for breakfast


cooked

Enough, enough

filled me

thought, his

his foot
a

the

on

is this sieve
Zebd

How

load

of

Wazir

nice words

Farrash

What

your

veils

Wazir

is

Karim

sieve here
Wazir:

to

this

The
There

SubhanO'

Certain

servant

seen

in the

went

are

mihtars

'Uah, lit.

with

basket-

else may

are

"

morning.

or

wear

into

bows.

Zeba

comer.]

! this sieve

why

"

is it

the

room

this

morning,
He

said

that he left the

seems

to

of

sais here

and

room^

imagine whose
with

I meet

that

nahar

is taken

at

I'll

to

see

sais.] Good

the

summon

"

what

face

God

is
saw

nothing but

him.

!^

sieve

when

disaster.

noon.

in Persia.
Holiness

lucky

lucky

and

arms,

It

away.

I can't

dejeuner

faces

Whenever

sieve in his hand.

sais in my

morning

no

about

out.

out

has

room

in with

bastard

goes

Persian

and

that

got up

them.

Haidar

sweeping

came

Call

my

What

/ know

one

and

room

was

he went

doing in

! I

retires

rage] :

when

business

and

of the

me

farrash

What

face

the sais

something

{The

her

Huzur

face

bring a

you

Some

me.

catches

the middle

Haidar

Curse
do

presence,

and

ting
put-

killed !

lying here

listen to the abuse

[gettinginto

lyingin

the floor.

wry

I*m

"

What

[Haidar the farrasli enters, folds his


Khanum

rascals !

this sieve

too, for

/ must

flies up

wife.] Ah

his

for ?

lyingon

with

sits down

to

screams

place with

this

He

/ tell why

tlie jacket,but

when

it

hune^ryagain for

door, he goes straighton,

[in astonishment]

can

honour

you

have

reproacheshave

sieve

of the sieve which

knee.

lying here

Khdnum

the

is

and

to feel

expect

There

on

eyes

edge

the

on

rap

hugs his knee, and

it ?

would

you

that I may

abuse

Your

[He begins to go.

in

him

to-day, so

I don't

satiety,and

to

month.

Lost

dinner

what

me

for you.

Waztr

and

inform

face

and

to

God.*'

certain

sleepnear,

unlucky.
so

that

his

Some
may

Persians
be

the

make

first face

10

of my

has

body

foot in this

FFozir

sinned

!^ you,

Aqa

[The steward
bundle of withes
all

you.

will

again

never

set

room.

Curse you

against

bastard-spawn,you

Bashir, and

under

his arm,

Haidar

tlie farrash

with

enter

carryinga

three other farrashes

bow.]

Wazir
fasten

the farrashes]
:
[addressing

his feet to

the

One

hither

the

and

steward

pole.

[The farrashes throw


noose.

Throw

the

and

steward

and

fasten

thither, hold

one

his feet in the

the

pole, and

two

pick up the withes.]


Wazir

Beat.

Steward
What

Oh, oh

is my

Waztr
middle

[The farrashes
I'm killed

fault ?

Oh

why

of my

Waztr:

When

What

sacrifice !

For

God's

outright

me

"

Wazir

fault

their

duty.

It is your

business

me

that I can't
"

me

ass,

Lit.

my

whack
move

"

and

its

on

the knee.
my

leg.
even

I be your
if you

Aqa

may

you

be

robbed,"

work.
is and

his work

his foot outside

set

to be left in my

The

blow

/ manage

and

Bashir,

servants

the other

keep

edge

was

so

whole

house

one

hence

like

servants

and

?
'*

your

room.

left his sieve behind

and

edge

on

be

May

little.

what

not

are

the out-door

to

of

again.]

Then

the outside
one

beat

sort

me.

taught

each

room

fool, can't you

in order

kill

Rest

to make

that sieves

what

May

fault.

my

the sais^s business

to fall

yet

even

not

explain to

to-day into

caught

begin to
fault is.

my

libertyto

have

duty

Recollect

came

ajid you

to

It is not

My foot happened
and

tell
at

are

you

It is your

stable.

Karim

what

sake

is this ; you

it is.

in the

lying

you'll know

[addressingthe farrashes]:

your

sieve

Justice, justice!

Pity, pity!

Please, only tell me

sacrifice !

the

beaten

[The farrashes

Stevxird:

of sieve ?

sort

you've been

sieve.

where

is this

sacrifice !

room

Huzur

be your

they beating me

are

[pointingangrily]: Why

Steward

kill

quite! May I

beat.]

'*

ruined."

him-

flew up
violent

Province
its

vants
ser-

11

with

Steward:

Waztr

; let him

! I ^

in my

Steward

look

that

it will be

Rest

Tlmur

Aqd

1 should

do ?

Thee

to the

place

brain

he
Nisa

be made

Tlmur
you

say

kiya.

mu^af

Khanum's

Room.]
Tell

Khanum]:

is this that

taken

has

possession

that he wants

dead

what

me

to marry

to

get himself

his

object is

good will it do him

don't

you

what

know

honour, dignity.^

from

the

Oh

yes,

honour, and

and

power,

Ivlian sufl"cient for him

they

them

on

this

the

not

are

dependence is there
with
relationship

Hah

"

But

Khanum:

"^

What

What,

has

now

again found

for you.

worse

Aqa

II.

I then

Am

else ?

object is power,

Aqa

well

promised,

of that.

qusur

ne

Shu'la

disorder

Khanum:

Tlmur

in

What

Khan

has

falls.]

curtain

hu'h=Maifi

Karta

one

the

assured

[standingfacing Nisa

of the Wazlr's

if

this

fault.

sieve is

God, I thank

[Takes

His

such

he

But

ACT

Nisa

vie

away.

; go

[aside]:

related

Forgive me

this time.

out, for

Go, go

some

sacrifice !

Now

[The

to

you

can

for this time.

[gettingup] :

Waztr:

you

earth

on

to

Enough punishment

go.

forgiveyou

room,

Sais

how

again will your slave commit

Very well, stop.

good

Honour's

I be Your

May

Never

Bashlr

compared

[to farrashes]: Beat, beat.

Waztr

and

be

you

once.

I to

am

of this age

is the Plato

Honour

Your

sir ! what

noble

Oh

Steward:

are

He

enough
and

end, that his power

for him,

to

wants

nity,
dig-

bring

but

what
the

about

dignity,etc., may

lasting.
Aqa

He

(isse) one

'^

Khdht.

Izzat, gen.,

"

is

would

strangely foolish

honour.

that he had not

suppose

disorder,disarrangement
Hurmot,

person.

"

honour

From
seen

(not madness).
and

also chsistity

what

with

his

12

own

all the

eyes

other

relations.

exert

ourselves

for

nothing

this matter

by

some

give up

Well, whatever
to

get

that you

and

be

To-morrow

settled

his foolish

projects.

Khdnum:

For

of

from

me

him

his

to

must

we

It is

it.

want

toe

as

I will send

him

done

has

the reason,

long stopped

so

inform

Khan

may

business

our

have

to him.
one

the

things(kyd kyd)

mentioning
oral message

an

he

that

everything, so

If he won't, it won't

may

go well with

him.
Nisa
of yours

Wazir

Klian

is

it is not

"

he

has

his

Aqa
the

that

ends

he will go

carryingon

an

more

likelyto

do

Aqa:

The

father's

this

for the

Nisd

^duum

side.

I have

and

Of

Timur
of the

me

on

afraid of his
done

Nisd

Khdnum

former

Lit. 'Timur

Ishq

"

"

You

Wazir, your

Why

Uke

Khan
marhum

like him
?

him

How

live
can

tell

made

would
do

harm

be

and

the

Wazir

"

sincere
no

words

be,

Hindus

is

to

the

express

"

'

late

'

gets
Most

ment
attach-

rat

with
son

thinks

indicate

jaisa

he

be

to

(qumr) have I

annoyed
Salim,

Mirza

ness
kind-

life.

my

I'm

father.
what

me

synonymous
'

he.

claiming

narration.

direct

'

day, not
take

in his

with

you
forbid

never

thorn

God

"

Is not

of your

treat

if

but

late

Secretary;

note

he ha"

rights:

as

you

all the nobles have

have

Aqa;"

muhihbat

on

that he should

Wazir

is all

He

life too

my

obligedto

let you

But

mewing.

to the

is

of my

account

he wants

people ;

people {ri'dyd)and

to

ever

Khans

Aqa:

of my

that he is in dread

territory. He
won't

Timur

**

say,

with you.

is angry

he looks

heard

opportunity,he

an

that

course

courtesy before

attachment, for

{gaddihereditaiycushion).

Khan,

often

father's

your

throne

the

about

intended."

your

the K^an

WazIr

and

the !^an

Klian has deprivedme

usurped my

enough

great

cup

intriguewith
as

the

consulted

straightto

this

{kdb se) that

(pretence)to kill you.'

excuse

often

the

to

matter

time

some

learns of

Wazir

is

Timur

for

some

has

the

mention

remarking

he

If the

so.

own

been

this intention

sake, sir,give up

possible to

seeking for

ever

know, too,

doing

God's

excess.

me

of the
that

if

13

get into power

you
old

he

place:so

will put Mirza

you

to induce

wants

now

Sallm

into his father's

the Khan

banish Mirza

to

Salim.
Timur

Aqa
Such

Secretary is

My

ideas with

regard to

father's salt that he has eaten,

body

lasf^

at

God

Please

attain

all his

say that the Wazir

must

me

plans will
of

grant it

'

naught

his

on

and

I will

right to

are

mutual

tachment.
{bahami) at-

I have

my

"

{hdn) you
our

ding.
his bid-

at

leprousspots

to

course

is Shu' la Khanum

Where

God

"

in

come

learn of

not

banished

M"y

out

come

But

end.

my

be

to

not

something

to

say to her.
Khanum

Nisd
Tlmur

Aqd

Nisd

Khdnum

Let

Tlmur

Can't

Aqd

All

Have

Has

the

and

of

where

is

whore

gone

Aqa

Aqd:

Note

this

idiom.

Note

how

'at

Note

of

with

her

head

last

wipe

out

such

evil

days

upon

when

is

this

is

all

she hears

[She

now

Ah

about.]
the

ing
cry-

house

of

[She is

me.

man's

voice,

Oh, oh, this is the

I can't

and

Oh, oh, he's going

go out.

to

in

come

Oh! oh

"

myself ?
and

room

Shu'la

expressed

expressed

in

at

^anum

quickly your

'

much

God

vide

Hindustani.

last goes

behind

the

from

the

enter.]

mother

(6).
how

so

maid

my

screaming

May

man

abuse

looks

go.

prostitute, you

she

empty

the

and

How

86, end

both

that you

bold

shall I do

all round

Timur

later")

frightenedsits down.]

Allah, what

[She goes
Timiir

live in this house.

little

your

brought

has

shall I annihilate

parda.

not

We'll

life out
turned

strange

some

Oh

here !

my

getting very

voice

here

along.

so

point of going out

the

just on

does

room

who

Wazir

mother

become

you

the

the

has

call them

both.

Wazir

the

notices that
where

and

go

:
You,
[entering quickl^^]

her worry

make

darlingmother.

right,come

Khdnum

(kahin ki) !
and

you

Darling

(Exit
Zehd

is with

go to her,

both

us

She

'

returned

Hindustani

Manual."

pace

14

baths

things

many

into this

Set

Khanum:

Why

Shu*la

Khanum

you

suppose

One

Shu'la

are

tell the Khan.

and

door

God

to

the

us,

be

to-day and

how

can

told Nisfi
that

it,*and
and

once

be

afraid?

to

suddenly.'^

have

at

face

trust

one

might enter

of those

one

he

if she

warn

the

"

us.

whom

here

me

But

for

and

to

to

do

opportunity
carry

matter

out.

be known

not

must

tell the Khan

would

he

see

Of

fear.

who

an

I must

plans that
course,

to

has

then

the

in at

the

and

puts her head

now

my

stay and

is the

literal

can't

What

is the

force

force

this

use

of

meaning

of pnrnd
rahna

of

vide

! Timiir

"

to go.

Hindustani

the door

Wazir

Aqa,

is

cries

coming

you

can't

Sumbling"

Blocks."

salatvat ?

of
in

going to

(to)the

manage

compounds

in this

lagna;

and

Ay, hay

of kahih;
signification

What

the

door.
you

this

refuge ! why

our

4.

[gettingflurried

Note

XXII.

come

the WazIr

WazIr

Note

turn.

"

straighttowards

Note

I"hanum's

cries]

out] : Allah

He

[Nisa Khanum

Shu'la Khanum

"

can't

indeed.

be out

save

manage

but

to leave

not

not

otherwise

Khanum

Nisd

WazIr

here

frightened.

Before

Of

KJianum:

would

well

should^

want

several

are

WazIr,

secret

?*

is to

am

I don't

go and

the

she

why

No;

reasons

to

come

afraid ?

several

Shu'la

abuse

be

hall and

coming

Aqa:

that, there

come

very

Don't

I be afraid ?

should

won't

the

ease;

is Zeba

to

still be cautious.

should

you

Txmur

dare

all

to sit in the

What,

at

to-day it

would

That's

the WazIr

sees

Because

^anum:

Klianum

I had

he ?

brawling and

Aqa:

that ?

and

room

to-day.

can't

he

Khanum's

Ttmur

in her

the Wazir

hope

mind

your

apartments

Aqa

Zeba

to you.

say

Timur

Do

all to chat

at

to these

come

time

no

to

room

Shu* la

had

We

vide

compound.
"Hindustani

Stumbling-Blocks,"

15

Timur

Aqd

{to)what

Then

I do ?

must

has told him

of my

being here.

being liere,1

swear

by

of mine, and

feed the kites and

If any

I'll cut

God

Perhaps

in

'

then

[He placeshis hand


Shu'la

Khdnum
hide.

parda ;

This

By

the time

is not

pretext

some

[Itmur Aqa quickly goes behind

hope you're well

doing ?

Shu' la Khdnum
health

thing for

unusual
you

limp so

^s

it not
Wazlr

and

Ugh

me

him

in

'*

there.

202
2

For

my

It's a very
And

do

why

Every thing is

all right

(d), and

no

Hartf.

obeisance
Now

would

take

; it

take

The

long.

with

the

there

Kjian

Timur

Khan

and

never

! go

too

out.]

goes

just tell

me

what

long and

would

The

fact is I

other

nobles

no

his

admit
mere

agree

dignity;

partieleaahl,

vide

match
it.

tests
wrestlingcon-

Timur

asked

were

to

superior strength,

boys."
and

could

this, but I denied

several

won

the subject

when

who

one

dittoed

Aqa

sittingin

was

Everybody began

up.

was

too

didn't

befitting
my

emphatic
204-5.

me

Aqa Mas'ud

sit down.

opponents'^ were
The

ask

God

thing. May

manner.

an

'Id, still I don't

It's not

the

don't

"

you.

Although

his

"*

you

prayers

are.

you

to-day.

Aqa's strength cropped

the

because

said,

to

strength.

at

no,

in all Lankuran

said,

was

but

of the Khan

of Timur
that

your

happened

of such

such

in

Please

No, it won't

the presence

has

Mas* lid makes


:

worry

Wazlr:

say

are

of coffee.

cup

happened,

dreamt

even

Shu'la Khdnum

only be

how

here

come

thing

even

never

[Aqa
has

what

Through

frowning ?

you

Such

enemy

my

get

that

get rid of him.

Khanum

God

to

to have

are

behind

it.

punish

Why

I'll

knife.]

Thanks

you

his

on

parda.]

always good. Kindly tell me

is

about

the

Shu*la

[enters limping]:

Wazlr

you'llsee.

to talk ; go

other

or

of my

this knife

pieceswith

and

crows,

one

has told him

one

him

some

it

""Hindustani

me

so

Aqa
to

too

prove

it.

(wxirwa),then
Manual,"

pages

16

in

of my

spite

would

see

so

would

fond

of

witnessingfeats

with

Aqa

there to wait

was

actuallyclosed.
elapsed before
broad
him

; but

The

'

(loins). It

pains

laid

know

less than
when

me

minute

he

throwing him,
much

we

the

on

thrown

lying senseless

hour

an

then

I had

fellow

half

still very

Then,

flat

out

how

know

me.

Not

him

you

powerless,

was

hands, and

the poor

saw

effort I made

emulation.

even

and

he ordered

gymnastics ;

shook

and

not

looked, I

him

Khan, you

the spot.

on

We

him

In somewhat

sudden

back

The

of

seized with

I did

with

got ready and faced

too

tripped

when

Aqa

for ?

was

of his back

his back.

on

him."

throw

Timiir

Timur

got up.

what

wrestle

wrestle

to

I would

how

{to),is very
me

fiftyyears

to.

came

strained

and

my

I can't

walk

of my

head,

erect.

3hu*la

Khanum
done

liave you

what
would

Of course,

what

But

is the

use

Shu'la Khanum
and

you

Wazlr

Oh

have
of

So

the

farrashes

was

died, what

was

left

was

to

be, happened.

lying there

"

skill ?

of your

me

afterwards.

sorry

What

fellow

poor
tell

crown

fellow had

poor

too

regrettingnow

to

of

The

no.

done

course.

here

away

came

Supposing the

mother

his poor

Wazir

out
[laugliing
loud]:

dragged him

ofE to his mother's

house.

[Hearing this

jumps up, lifts up

Wazir
Zeba

"Rmur

My

Aqa

Aqa hangs
mouth

why

in

God
a

his head.
; shake

What

and

with

The

is your
no

Wazir

Langi

is any

The
with

Shu* la

Khanum.]

you

is this !

[Addressing

doing here
at

tongue.

your

[Timur

least, open
You

here,

behind

the

here ?
out

comes

tries to make

throw

Aqa

amazement.

again]. Well,

He

laughter.

Timur

sees

thing
are

business

reply.

his

with

; loosen

hang-doglook

and

seeing Zeba

! what

head

your

pirda

strange

shriek] Sir

smother

dumb

at

! What

[Timiir Aqa makes

pardu

the

stands

is astonished

too

Wazir

and

and

Khanum,

^hanum

your

Aqa can't

Timur

with

the

from

off.]

leg.

18

just about

was

head,

them.

they

when

and

he too
time

Wazir:
from

might

you

as

behind

Zebd

the

Do

to hide

that

parda just to
all about

tell you
stand

When

before
drew

you

the

parda

didn't

you

behind

instant

very

near,

till such

I could

he would

sound

out

come

'(

that

suppose

you

if I uttered

that

the

I couldn't

came.

I lost my

go away.

parda

J^dnum

threatened

I could

Khanum

man.

that

you're teUing the truth, why

If

Shu'la

some

behind

that you
it but

help for

no

behold

1 went
so

trace of her.

any

with

veil on,

my

It chanced

had

so

about,

were

see

lo and

laughing

out,

go

I hadn't

As

nd-mahram.

finish

He

out

come

off with

me

dagger.
[reflectsa little and

Wazir

! tell me

Shu'la Khanum
see

Khdnum:
notes.

falsehood

she

is

nor

do

the fellow

what
to

come

Zeba

him
!

is

this

come

man

You

and

know

could
him

send
rubbish

it is

say

nightingaleof

and

weaving
never

heard

never

how

What

Oh
to

come

Khanum
that

my

bring her

could

knew

that

room,

so
no

Did

^"hanum]

tissues

of

heard

of

even

by sight.

have

But

Khdnum:

Knowing
she

you

Aqa

Timur

Shu'la

of

him

Timur
very

Timur

Aqa,

well

Aqa

by sight.
here?

come

off to his mother's

talking!

are

you

clearlyevident

you

house

Answer

that Timiir

me.

Aqa

had

you.

Shu'la

me.

Faugh

him

by sight?

throw

you

From

I know

Khdnum

Shu'la

of yours

wife

fabricatingtales

you

liim

know

Wazir

truth.

just perfection. I have

What!

Waztr:

Didn't

the whole

This
In

thousand

don't

addresses

then

you

Shu'la

was

return

I couldn't

"

what

see

to

along joking

comes

his

to

couldn't

came,

When

names

to-day

see

me,

knew

you

that

be

lover here

and

was

the
take

in the baths

my

would

I would

would

room

she couldn't
water

pardon

no,

turn

him

impertinence.

Had

found

with

have

go to the baths

empty, it occurred
make

merry

for Your
there.

to-day, so

him

with

Honour
It chanced

came

back.

to-day.

to her that

him.
to

She

visit her

that
As

there
I

came

19

had

suddenly, they

in

there, while

waiting for
If you

out.

went

Zebd

lies you

what
crimes^

to

on

You

Oh

me.

God,

hid

when

Pull

is it.

yourself

of this shameless
any

reason.

Khanum]

shall

Wretch

putting

are

what

they

get away

without

me

concocting !

are

this

at Shu' la

[shriekingout

Khdnum

to

tlie words

by

get suspiciousof

Don't

creature.

be deceived

don't

togetherand

truth

the

out

enjoying themselves

opportunity

an

want

been

have

parda. Tiiey must

the

behind

opportunity of going

no

own

your

do?

I'll kill

myself !
Khdnum

Shu'la
If you

be such

can't

There

of Lankuran.
out

kill

to

want

doing

or

Thy

hands

you

give
at

another

He

is

can

crying

care

in the whole

can't
Your

for himself

see

do

you

you

gentlewoman.

Pity, pity !

make

self
your-

husband

whether

has

this business

? But

good

hard

God,

slap for castingsuch


there

in

You, sir, why don't

myself !

stand

too

you

Oh

Justice, justice!

I will kill

justice!

this whore

me

what

trickytrollopas
and

the whore.

you

"

yours.

Khdnum

Zehd

the wretch

are

yourself,kill yourself;

be chaste, and

to

who

By screaming

eyes in his head.


is my

It's you

nies
caluming
look-

doing nothing but

on."^
Shu' la Khdnum
he

were

Were

caught

with

you

to

of your

Zebd

'^

up

into

to the

Khan

Tamdaha

Lage

kama

vide

"

might entail

gives an
Hindustani

idea

of

is

doubt

no

But

as

tho

penalty

enjoying

about

just give me
business

spent the

well.
Of

crime
of

I'm

course;

in the raiment

jurm)
the

into little bits.

You've

you

rage]:

If

I ?

was

you.

I know

clad

slap me

first settle the

after

he

up

There

and

I'll look

all of you,

it

or

you

little bits.

[gettinginto

proved,

cut

man

should

why

K^ianum]

Bala, lit. ** calamity," (and not


it been

Had

strange

"

Khdnum

(must)

life telling
lies

only liar, while


1

go

lover; then

your

whole

be cut

must

(muhlat)

time
of

he

[addressingZeba

Wazir
it that

harlot

would

man

you

You

of truth,
not

was

death.

spectacle.

Sturabling-Blocks," XXII,

4.

the
came

proved.

20
God

straightfrom
shown

truth

us

Wazir
Shu'la

Tell

that you

this matter

Wazir

Mas'ud

coflfeeis
mind

upset

haste

Your

Honour's

the

least

to blame.

and

enters,

says

and

quickly
an

that

in

[While this is
behind

the

"

the eunuch's

Mas'iid

with

the

his hand

and

the

sees

clothes]: Get out, fool, ass

Mas'ud

retires

to

take

clothes].
Go, quick. Order my
cloak

chesnut

coflfee i

clear

and

corner

the

up

begins

to

[in the greatest perturbation]

Wazir

scarlet

immediately.

horse
Make

Certainly,certainly! By

commands

Honour's

all

tell them

haste, make

to the letter.

Shu'la Khanum

is Great

God

Well, I've escaped.


is

Nisa

Khanum.]
too,

Zeba

Khanum

[Exit at

and

Shu'la

earth

Is that

:
*

Zeba

was
:

the

Sack

each bay an

Note

the

of the matter

behind

fact ?

Khanum

parda, but

positionof kya.

out.]

goes

Thee!

[While

addresses

Nisa

strange thing has justhappened.

don't

karo.

run.]

ment.
strange predica-

She

enters.

Aqa

Timur

Khanum

got behind

very

in

was

too

I thank

OGod,

Khanum

anything

Khanum
on

! A

know

you,

Nisa

Nisa

speaking

I'll carry

means

[After this the Wazir

and

head

out Your

What

know

too

standing

flipwith

angry

coflfee oflfhis

Aqa Ma8*ud

she

even,

Khanum.]

me

Why in the devil should I


oflf {chald)to the lijiian. He'll

I'm

saddle my

to

Let

upset.

is

the

[Exit Zeba

truth.'

of coflFee and

cup

over

difl"culty.[Aqa
wipe

in

cup

gives the

right;

All

the

by

swear

[turns round

cofifee ; he

My

just now

CoflFee,sir.

Wazir

but

the eunuch

out

pours

have

the matter.

not

am

Mas'iid

on,

"

all about
:

You

bitch !

sight

nothing

Khanum

world.

speech.

of my

me

know

Shu*la

going

in your

Gret out

into this

know

this
What

The

you

doing behind

she saved

the
my

found

parda.
are

when

Wazir

Do

me
telling

the

parda

whore

life.

But

came

?
?
in

there is

21

doubt

no

devise

plan

any

Khdnum

Nisd

Aqa

Now

the

askingafter

and

such

darbar

to

thing had

all the

find out

Khan

pened.
hap-

not

mother

DarUng

I will send

her.

see

lias the

power

stop here.

won't

pleasego

Khan's

What

wish

But

case

you,

to the

now

I cannot

him.

save

be afraid.

Don't

kill Tlmur

to

all to

at

Aqa.

will kill Tlmur

the Khan

that

now

was

Mas'ud

Aqa

news.

[Exit both.]
[The curtain

falls.]

III.

ACT

[Takes place in the diwdn-khdna


of

Lankuran,
^

in the tdldr

the sea-shore.

on

or

The

of the diwdn-khana.

the ministers

are

Samad

Below

seated

are

Khdn
for

boatmen
'Aziz
Khdn

to

with two

On

Salim

Beg

of the

On

sides,

both

up

Aziz

Aqa, the

of the

tdldr,]

I should
'Aziz

diversion.

head-

ence.
the Pres-

to

side of the

darhdr

line.

in

body-servants.

summons

one

throne

Master

drawn

three

or

Khan

like to go

Aqa,

tell the

'

peacock-boat ready.
head

my

on

After

day.

It will be

get the

Aqd:

farrashes,and

collected

are

It's a fine clear


sail.

mace.

on

Qadir Beg, the Deputy Master

near

farrashes

short

Beg, the

petitionersawaiting the

are

The

with

is seated

Lankuran

of

the door

at

the tdldr and

Ceremonies,

nobles

chief of the

Beg, the

servant,

and

Khan

Salim

Ceremonies, is standing before him

of the

court-room

and

Order

[Exit.]

eyes.

complainants

the

to

be

brought

up.

of the Ceremonies

Master

:
Qadir Beg
tdldrl

Bring

[Qadir Beg brings up

They

make

their

two

[in
up

loud

voice

inside

from

the

complainants singly.

the

complainant

men,

and

defendant.

obeisance.]

Complainant : May

be

the

Kiian's sacrifice

have

petitionto make.
1

or

The

(alar is

court-yard.

large

It has

open

room

or

verandah

plinth, sometimes

opening

several

feet

on

to

high.

garden

22

Khan
what

Make

the

you

have

news

petition

horse

off.
'

'

I be the Ktian's

to the river to water

This

man

up

the eye

threw

and

stone

and

He

'

it ?

Khan

tooth
and

is

now

good

no

on

for

horse

Fellow

talking

Is this

for wounds

give it.

I be your

up

own

retaliation."

Samad

Beg,

remain

there until this person

order

farrash

and

stone

no

thrown

not

or

had

had

of the

eye, and

an

This

is

go, and

has

ear

for

an

compHcated
'

'*

"

an

no

exacted

do you

defendant,

go to the defendant's

to

your

sacrifice !

the horse

eye for

an

so

right,but

If you

picked

of your

blind

and

tooth, and

in

purpose.

have

do, may

stone

out,

less.
; it is use-

he won't

and

loped
gal-

hit the horse

[addressingthe complainant] : Fellow,

throw

too

I took

To-day

stooped, picked

sacrifice ; it is

you

you

possess

Defendant :

see

I called

stone

for the horse

your

are

could

you

The

horse

the stone

stuff

how

Do

I be

throw

What

intention

He

:
plaintiff]

the

[turningto
Defendant : May

slave did not

me

me.

Khan

stop the horse."

compensation

disputeswith

Ehan

me.

The

it.

Let

horse broke loose and

towards

it at the horse.

blinded

I want

sacrifice !

The

it.

coming

was

Sir ! For the sake of God

make.

to

fellow.

brought, you

Complainant : May
my

have

you

ear,
case.

place and
'

retaliation

for his

horse.

[Samad
hands

them

Khan

over

Salim

to

farrash

Beg

obeisance, and, leadingboth

an

the air in

and

Be

other

quick. To-day

we

Beg

Qadir Beg

If there

is any

other

two

other

individuals.]

Oh

Is there

anything in

petitioner?
would

take

boat.

bring him up.


[Qadir Beg brings up
Khan

away,

returns.]
is there any

Tell me,

is, produce him.

If there

Salim

makes

Beg

troublesome

Karia, blind

'2

Dominion
thou

than

in

misquotation

one

from

eye,
the

Other

one-eyed.
QuVyan.

people

have

complainant,

the world

merety

to

more

think

each

God's

of

creatures

of Our

rule

turned

away

ScUlm
of God

truth, all this


of Your

present moment,
Our

people

is

blessingof

Your

Honour's
Your

sick.

was

This

him.

cure

the

blood

the

brute

As

to,

my

had

you

not

happen

I not

bled

months'

him

In

in the

hght

is all due

bed

does

been

hopes

him, what

I be

the

I ask

does

not

Had

"

Set

aside
I ask

me.

sacrifice !

Your

Sahib

could

worse

did

but,

say

Hakim

defendant] :

would

he

he

from

I be

two

when

still."

more

justice. May

bled

he

him

sooner

no

Now

worse

he demands

the

in

money,

m}^

brother

My

fee'd

died.

What

liave

bow.]

him, and

bled

back

me

and

sacrifice !

brother

back.

and

By

from

Khan's

the

would

he

time.

complainant

exertions.

Lankuran

doctor.^

he

my

afflicted with

was

creatures

have

posing
Sup-

"

happened

Defendant; May
brother

Khan's

came

money,

help

yet

never

Honour

forward

brother's

my

than

[addressing

did

he

giving it

Honour's

than

as

to

least,give

at

back

Khan

him

him, it would

giving me
Your

is

out

come

bled

I not

individual

soon

talk about

even

the

brought

rupees.

I be

May

day

justice.

[The petitionerscome

Complainant

first

of all these

prosperity of

The

the

door.

Your

regarded by

thousands

have

We

prayers

all

of

offspring.

own

the

to

the

reward

the

are

for

care

justice. From

blessingsand

The

to

give them

petitionerfrom

any

Beg

have

and
to

up

We

whereas

for himself,

one

doubt

without

relievinghim
useless

the

of

deadly malady

of

Had

dropsy.
in

died

have

blood, I have
and

expense

person's

This

sacrifice!

six
the

saved

worry

of

six

months.
Khan
have

you

Doctor:
Your

'
'2

further

Yes,

Honour

Khan
Note
lako.

Sahib

Hakim

claim

sir,^ may

gives me

what

From

against this
I be

this

man

that

it appears

?
sacrifice !

Honour's

Your

If

justice undoubtedly.
"

[addressing the courtiers]:


that

say

you

villagers'sspeech

Oh

is full of
8

Allah

I do

provincialisms.

Ji hafi huziir.

not

in

24

the least know

how

parties. Never
heard

of, a

in

case

Courtier

to settle the

physicians is

incumbent

community.

Let

devoted

it be

as

farrash

^vith

hand

over

it

it

them

He

consider

it is

Khan

May

disturb

son

honour

He

i.e., he
case.

look
Your

person

of yours

Samad

let

then

Give

! send

Beg

this

sician.
phy-

and

person

to

door

me

puffing
and

lays

done

rewarded

you

this country

to

Why

thus

To-day

all

of Your

poor

broad
makes

is

the face of

over

Higlinessis publicly
subjects dare

in the dominion.

man

of You

is Timur

daylight he
an

what

me,

of Your

one

fearless

In

for my

whomsoever

Well, tell

no

the

with

door.

to

of any

and

have

been

Sahib!

this,how

like

bid farewell

now

humanity

brother.

pocket

office to

the

sacrifice !

even,

of his

I have

of You

awe

enters

Aqa,

enters

the

against the

attempt

of his wife.

Khan
1

Your

skilled

the Wazlr
out

happened

I be Your

of
of

has

From

then

me.

I must

singlehair

kindly

house

for

entrust

justiceand

the

proclaimed.

the

enough

What

Wazlr
the earth

is

from

sacrifice !

[astonished]: WazTr

He

Khan.]

wretchedly from
?

But

the

please

the matter

cloak

his pencase

be Your

fitted for it.

wander

well.

claims.

Just

takes

Now

services.

claims.

satisfyhis

so

bestow

to

man

acquaintance

an

obtain

to

withdraws.

May

Wazlrship ;

and

this

to

the

on

the doctor.

to

given

benefits

confer

satisfyhis

and

groimd before

the

Wazlr

and

is

even

towards

Respect

cloak

blowing.

on

thej^

this doctor

doctor

or

seen,

[Addressing the complainant] Go.

[Samad Beg
and

knows

sacrifice !
;

be

ever

suggest.

you

tlie doctor

us

the doctor

on

If the

on

'

of both

tliis.

as

Your

order

an

servant

Khan

be

May

robe of honour

life have

comphcated

as
:

whole

my

the satisfaction

to

case

[in
uses

has

the

Sahib

passion] : Wazir
Pluperfect to

just

seen

indicate

(Preterite

in

time

Urdu)

! What

are

anterior
the

to

you
the

present

saying ?
Preterite,

complicated

26

Do

want

you

be

to

me

like

vagabond nephew

hke

nephew
the neck

with

The

of this shameless

[The farrashes
The

Kashmir

Now

you

Farrashes

you.

themselves

disgraced everywhere through having

Master

of the Ceremonies

be the KhSn's

[Severalfarrashes present

He

him

the

cast

to

fillwith

is young.

the

ground.
his neck.

round

shawl

round

shawl

on

tears.]

all the Khan's

and

sacrifice !

the

shawl.] Cast

throw
ill-doer,

get ready

longer require a

no

rope

of all present in the darbar

eyes

servants

Please

this

him

pardon

May

time.

Khan
never

the

blessed

swear

by

will I

forgivehim.

never

soul

of

father,

sainted

my

[Addressingthe farrashes]Cast

the shawl.
farrashes

[The
control

and

begin

Khan

life of Timur

Khan

ask

I ordered

Haven't

with

quickly puts

Under

let him

farrashes

[seeing him

down

who

little

never

can

of

pigs!

off him

Timur

nearer.

him, produces

shy

it

behind

wail.]

and

be,

an

is the

He

farrashes] Sons

move

confusion,

going]

one

This

in

pistoland

perturbation.

Aqa springs aside and

Tlmiir

Take

pursuit.] [Scowhng,

worthy of Our favour.

him

be

there

weep

It cannot

him

[Allprecipitately
pretend *

go !

goes in

[No

'

] Mercy,

"

off.]

Khan

is

hand,

his hand

of this

cover

makes

one

the

it at

God

rage, to the

in

Let

self-

then, abasing

sacrifice for You.

to throw

you

[The farrashes, shawl

aims

of

their

humbly

[They

pardon

[Besidehimself

Aqa

as

Aqa

of his mother.

only son
be.

the Khan

they entreat

the

lose

All

nearer.

unrestrainedly,and

weep

to be released

for him

order

to

Spare

little

in the dust,

themselves
Oh

come

exclamation

Beg

is used

in

the

did you

Why

answers.] Samad

to

Seize

to rush

him

at him

nobles] Not

one

let the bastard

[Samad Beg

comes

denials, refusals, and

when

Don't
but

no

of you
escape

forward.]
expressing

disbelief.
4

the

ChafUe

hain

here

gestures of attack

means

but

*'

make

refrain

from

show
the

of," i.e.,they go

reality.

through all

27

Quickly

take

fiftymounted

Aqa.

Trace

arrest

him, and

liim out

slay him,

for my

in whatever

bring him

tliere will be

no

Beg

"on

cock-boat

Aqa

Khan
Have

Aqa

ready

*Aziz

rest

no

Lord

my

: Wazir
[rising]

yourself with
Waztr

[Makes
Aqa get

all

By

I sent

they chose

the pea"

mind

your

at

to-day
brought this.

the

rest.

Take

men

and

preparations for
I will carry

means

and

this
to

the

Busy

Within

marriage.

[Takes place in Shu'la


Khanum

great perturbationand
I

Khan

'Aziz

and

sail.]

falls.]

IV.
Khanum

Shu'la

room.

each

talking to

in

other

state

expectation.]

Khanum

has

yet returned,

not

go for

KJjanum's

seated

are

orders.

The

out.

curtain

ACT

Your

out

goes

peacock-boat and
[The

Mas'ud

Set

now.

shall be redressed.

wrong

obeisance

into the

Nisa

forward.] Is

[All

be celebrated.

his

Nisa

dismissed.

are

ready.

Khanum.

Nisa

to

the

it must

You

comes

; it is

Depart

anxiety. Your

no

Go.

and
jeweller'sespecialty,

of

Till

[Goes out.]
['Aziz Aqa

Yes,

ring and give it

and

province and

obey.

[addressingthe nobles]:

off.] *AzIz

week

be,

handcuffed.

presence,
for this

peace

of Timur

of the earth he may

corner

into my

search

in

go

heart.

^amad

go

and

men

what

know

don't

has

has

nor

to him

happened

reached

news

any

!
us.

My heart beats.
Shu'la

Khanum
.

has

the Khan

Nisa

I fear is
rather

injurea

to

Khanum

Why

are

you

hair

even

It's true

separation between

die than

endure

so

do

him

any

Aqa

and

myself.

would

ka

Un
not

means

take

his

Timur
name.

power

harm

?
:

what

I would

that.

[Aqa
1

What

Aqa*s head

of Tlmur

he can't
Timur

nervous

Aqa.

NisS

Mas'ud

KhSnum,

now

being

his

enters.]
betrothed,

'

28

Shu'la

Khdnum

Mas'ud

Aqa

Just

say

has

what

"

pened
hap-

Aqd Mas'ud
the
wanted

to

farrashes
ordered

The

Khan.

and

them,

be

to

all about

Shu'la
here
of

and

"

moreover

"

Timur

Aqd

fear for my
Shu'la
What

did

How

You

way

keep

killed.

has

is

would

that

Aqd

prevent

no

have

for your

life.

here

then

one

arrest

do you

Shu'la
not

India

Did

and

you
here

come

sake

played with

to-night,to

for

instant

an

think

you

just

other

to

by

now

goes

and

out.]

being killed
?

Khanum

Nisa

see

I have

not

come

carry

off

{bhagdkar)

place.

liusband

your

I cannot

me.

life.

my

intention

some

in

imper-

out

go

you

carry

in this

that fear of

coming to-day to

It is my

has

I cannot

leave

now

ously
treacher-

behaved

leave

means

any

now

my

in his house.

Khdnum

well for you

In

I should

that

here.

come

may

from

me

towards
betrothed

the heart

KJjan has despatched men

and

out

you

What

reason.

Nisa Khanum
her

You

something happening

Mas' ud, for God's

For her sake I have


without

this

At

this ?

You

[Aqa Mas^ud
Timur

running

are

men

happened

about

The

Why

Aqa

watch

doubt

happened

not

all directions to track

turbed

bring him

life ?

has

be

What

:
[smilingly]

Khdnum

off to

nothing

care

you

and

Aqa.]

come

you

has

Khan

What

the

The

deep sigh.

He

Aqa.

house.

Timur

awful

how

Oh,

why

'

Hon

Khdnum

in walks

and

opens

of

searching every

great distress heaves

in

the door

bodies

Now

city and

the

Aqa

tioned
peti-

pistolat

escaped.

find Timur

beheaded.

[Nisa Khiinum
moment

file to

and

and

Wazir

Tlmiir

Aqa pointed

Timur

fiftyrank

The

summoned

Khan

scattered

happened

have

strangle him.

handcuffed
about

should

What

Persia
after means

to

shir
**

You

come

(in India

tiger.*'

are

right

here in

"

I too

broad

pronounced

agree.

But

daylight. Why,

sher)

is

"Hon";

it

was

don't

but

in

that

yourselfknow

you

everywhere

me

life and

your

do

to

sound

asleep, be

I will

punctually bring

here

witli

charge

your

has

At

door

Nisa

best

with

Klianum
her

Take

"

The

the
and

she takes

for you

to

everybody

horses
hand

bear

and

watch

to

'

thing

when

midnight,

the

at

people

set

opportunity and

utterly.^

away.

go

Khanuin

her the least

Give

disgracesme

is

now,

Zeba

and

her

her

men.

to

over
on

away

is

your

horse."
Ttmur

Aqd

Nisa
other

Khanum

[At this

Shu' la

See

The

calls

Wazir

Sahib

has

Nisa

Khanum

God

heartily.

What

this ?

and
!

agree

most

agree

'udAqa

Khanum

awful

but

too

you

Mas

moment

protection

Do

Certainly, I

is there

course

Oh, how

Kiianum

Nisa

protect

I will concoct

arrived

plan

some

the

their

behind

! hide

get this tyrant

to

God's

door.]

[losing

Aqa

us

through

heads]:

tlie

parda.

out

of the

room.

Aqd [looking quite undisturbed

Timur
Never

will 1 go

again *

coming, let him


Shu'la

soul

of

Ttmur

Aqd

sainted

your

Aqd

Mas'ud

VVazIr

[putting his

Tlmur

[He

May

here

you

Aqd

WazIr

! the

Khdnum

sees

and

behind

see

the

here.

me

order]
dis-

utmost

danger

parda

this

If he is

curtain.

in

into

run

he

in

the

By

door,

calls

again

is here.

will

parda.

the

the

at

sacrifice"
let

never

us

Pity
remain

If the

us.

alive.

sakes.

I go for your

well.

Very

head

I be Your

now,

behind

goes

feet

don't
go

the

-.

Never.

out] : Alas, alas


Shu'la

father

speaking calmly]

here, he unll

me

his

of God

the sake

For

sees

[fallingat

Khanum

If he

come.

behind

hide

and

and

later

moment

the

Wazfi

enters.)
Wazir

It's well

to

say

Khanum

You

Note

the

Dekhiye

use

to

both

know
of

is here

ki for
an

both

are

you

of
how

you
much

aiir.

interjection.

here
;

; I

listen
my

have

something

attentively.

positionand

'^

Two

Ab

synonyms.
to.

portant
im-

Shu'la

yours

will

30

be

bettered

Ought

be doubted

that

to say

with

the

strange

Shu* la
inform

I have
then

not

you
to

name

when

Why

do you

not

allow

to

I"Iian.

good

your

give people an opportunity


has

communications

men

with

[slowlyand
nd-mahram

what

Let

careful

the

sister to

your

sister-in-law of the l^an

with

Wazir

be

to

Khdnum

me

married

us

great calmness]
I have

men

Aqa,

Timur

suppose

Kindly

communications.
I

whom

in your

saw

room.

Shu'ld

Khdnum

with
Waztr

fault must
the

Zeba

you

this

ring as

the

is

now

ordered
take

present; Nisa

Khdnum

fit for the

girla

goes

Wazir
I

of

mention

conduct

your

so

should

heart

much

enamoured

busy myself about

to

me

The

saying anything

very

week.

place next

Kiianum,

girlwhose

Take

Kiian.

fit match

[She throws
and

tain
cur-

He

take

come,

has

sent

it,put it

on

finger.

Nisa

merely

lest his

Klian,

He

has

is to

Shanum.

Nisa

[Placesthe ring in
be

this

suspect you.

opportunity

an

He

marriage, which

behind

in the least

keep rightin

may

Kfeanum.

the

your

with

before

Klianum.

don't

have

name

Nisa

that

may

your

from

of Nisa

been

hiding

was

J^anum.

is true.

to you

one

no

against
turn

It

have

matter

that

wife Zeba

your

; he

Yes, yes

for the
the

back

put

the

on

this
it

ring, and
her

on

when

you

find

finger.
of the

in front

ground

palm.]

respected,cannot

sister is not

Khan

ring

I^anum's

WazIr

out.]

[calhng after her] :

suspiciousof your

Here
I

sister ?

listen,come,

merely

gave

her

girl;how
a

small

was

piece

of advice.^
Shu'ld
to

your
Wazir

Khdnum

wife Zeba
:

could

Khanum

Yes ; of

greater harshness

But

have

given this advice

I will

speak

not

To-morrow

course.

than

you

this.

Nasihat

"

admonition."

to her with

31

Shu^la

Khartum

Why

tomorrow

Cannot

you

to her

go

to-day?
Wazir

Aqa

Timur

that

there is no

To-day

her

was

of two

thingswill happen

in the

presence

and

wander

for you

necessary
must

Kiianum's

Khanum

and

Khanum

Nisa

Khanum

glimpse

[At this

it

before

me.

is not
We

darling mother's
do with

darhng

have

mother

happened

to

here ?

We

and

opens

Wazir

The

room

me.

the door

moment

enter.

May

of you

Pari

addresses

Pari

here.

come

that I

get

Of

Come,

to

me;

want

to

tell you

busy

man

you.'
have

pleasetell me

But

even.

I shan't get

such

are

you

This

me!

on

now,

go off

EspeciallylatelyI

course.

head

my

If you

of God

glimpse of

calamities

your

Listen

again.
the grace

never

take

sittingdown.

By

scratch

Now

preparations for Nisa

to

call your

you

something.

Wazir

the

nothing to

Khanum

for

time

name

country

down.

pleasesit
is not

has

It is well you

Khanum.]

don't

Why

Pari

with

please go

This

talk to her here.

can

his

killed

and

will flee the

miserably.

mention

to

Then

to her.

speak

Wazlr

door

to

One

marriage.

Shu^ld
and

else he

or

ourselves

busy

now

Khan,

ever

he will be arrested

; either

door

admitting

even

friend,'he has got his deserts.

'

of the

from

for
great necessity,

had

what

time

no

it is you

to

really

want.

Khanum

Pari

matter.

wills

God
in

'

Cook

head

and

cook

that

Wazlr
Dear
know
1

its

house.

your

said,

by

The
khir

the amount
"

that

get

to

be born

may

an

to

and

amulet; if

an

ShuMa

Kbanum
for

times

long as

taken

my

head

upon
is

on

at once

is

khlr,for the auspiciousmoment


have

passing.

yourselfa strange
my

body,

and

me

the Wazfr's

I must

needy."

great

no

was

amulet

of three

amount

it to the poor

Well, you
as

the

to

of

amount

son

Qurban

soothsayer wrote

distribute

mother,

Lit.

blessinga

It

sacrifice!

your

the diviner

to

went

I be

May

how

task.

can

of it ?

long

for

sight

of

you

(and

can

-itL

n;.

Khlr.

you

32
Pari

Khartum

take

must

diviner

The

matter.

pot which

and

contains

your

head.

placed

there

cover

and

easily,will

KJianum
small

Part

I^anum

One

objection.

any

pot

Khanum

follow out

God,

the
the

pot.

Aqa

Mas'ud

gently puts

her

out

hat.]
make

cannot

of soothsayers.

instructions

desire may
be fulfilled !
Nisa ^anum,
place the

top,

to make

both

[hfting up
doing

you

You're

it go

his

[Nisa KJtianum
Dear

runs

Pari

No, my

be

don't

lost.

be

Let

have

; I

Shall

child

leave

in

his

head.]

pot.

pot in haste.]
ness
busi-

this vexatious

something

now

wet

with

tears, she turns


head.

be.

very

without
*s

to

You

Nisa

arms

on

to

have

upon
I

moment.

your

having
{god) ?

account.

seen

in my

[Her eyes

Child, reverse

Khanum.]

ought

auspicious

calamities

of but

(koshishen)merely
this world

The

your

work

Shu' la Khanum

age

his

take

me

It is the

vexed.

old

over

another

This can't

son

taking all this trouble

[Crying].

What

tell you.

to

will

myself ;

! horrible

the pot from

Kindly postpone

givesit

nose.

my

fetches

other time

some

Khanum

moment

IQiftnum

down.]

removes

off and

mother

(bakhera)to
important

Nisa

head, but

[quickly]; Daughter, bring another

Khanum

Wazxr

the Wazlr's

over

hands] : Oh

hurting
[He

Part

pot

liis eyebrows.

below

the

on

Wazxr

pot

fetch

pot which

the

amen

it, and

considered

foolish,*still I

is

the

reverses

come

thump

am

be

said I

his head.

over

it will not

are

must

Oh

[Nisa Kiianum

fuss

grant Shu 'la Klianum's

God
Pari

this

Although

He

me.

and

! go

hand, and quickly takes off the Wazlr's


Wazxr

to

difficult

no

well with

head

bringsa

ready.*

It is

method

your

head

Nisa

[Nisa Khanumgoes
had

sacrifice !

your

explained the

deep pot

of your

measure

I be

May

the

brought

this

Manual,"

p. 86

(d).

that

would

pot

at

first.

not

Note

Fuzul
be

the
a

force of rakhna
milder

politeto

term

than

mother-in-law.

vide

"

Hindustani

hiniaqator

hewuqufi,

words

34

behind

but

fiftysoldiers.

me

are

of them.'

But

such discussion

appeased.

He

has

promised

You

can't

is idle.

that he

possiblykiU

The

Khan's

will not

all
is

anger

injureyou

in any

nor

his deed.

When

should

believe

way.

Aqa

Timur
has he

moment

Beg,

contrary wind

the

of the throne
Ttmur

Aqa

Riza

themselves

Spare

:Samad

to

p. 25

May

there

you

live

Suddenly

the

and

justice-hall,

take

possession

father.

so

sacrifice!

forward

If it be

your

and

prostrate

Honour's

be Your

we

rise and

that I

your

sister-in-law
accordance

the

denial

stand

sacrifice !

sacred

expressed by

with

query;

command

the
the

vide

*'

for

reason

and

Khanum,

law, and

"

still have,

had, and
Nisa

[Samad

aside.

side.] Wazir, Our

one

was

Prophet,

Emphatic

sail.

round

come

house

intention, in
the

Beg

Beg,
to

goes

to your

attachment

and

Beg

Samad

rises and

Our

may

entreaty.]

Aqa

coming

*Ali

lives.

our

Timur

Beg

Samad

and

in
and

Wazir

Riza

all go there.

us

Wazir

[The

Aqa,

for

I be your

Yes, sir,it is, may

will,let

Well, Riza, is this

court-yard

upset and sank, taking him

approach. Please go
of your late {marhum)

awaiting your

mise
pro-

any

the room.]

assembled

people are

the

Ceremonies, and

went
boat

the

from

Timur

^an,

and

arose

Now

it.

of

Master

uncle, the

Your

long !

is heard

uproar
the

one

I said.

Beg, back

jBc^ ; Samad

5a/im

that

enter
Aqa'sfoster-brother,

Beg, Timur

with

an

Sallm

outside.

his word

I stick to what

of his ?
this

neither

his word

by

stood

ever

[At

I trust

girl'sown
Hindustani

great

it
of

was

God

desire,

Manual,"

(/).

"

Timur

Sijda

would

believe

his

foster-brother.

own

properly prostration in

is

prayer;

vide

'*

Hugh's

Dictionary

of Islam."
"

Timur

speech

at

is very

once

pompous.

assumes

the

Royal plural, and

throughout

this

35

for

bond

the

into

enter

to

unhallowed,^ and

suspicionsof
Heaven's

But

"

desire.

heart's

evil

Divine

Justice

accordingto his
evil

the

with

former

which

justlyrewards

works,

the

good
Our

again

be

and

held

by

country into hands


State

and

peasants

the

commit

and

give

the

into
1

over

the

is used

Christians

also.

"

Man

proposes

but

poor,
trated
frus-

entrust

in your

propensities
in

can

wise

no

that he will
have

you

been

of your

But

family.
the

are

the

bring

to

improve

must

of

the

of the

humanity

affairs

of

aside

set

the

of the

condition

necessity

ever

will

Wazir

from

is remote

ease

inasmucli

State

office of

ever

entirely

eyes

remainder

and

the

and

incompetent and self-interested people,

administration
person

any

and

since

the

to

the

competent, and

for

remain

to

for the

you,

dead

(rod

State

in whose

by

and

upright

of the

Qluxir-marlnim, a phrase invented

blessed,"

'2

and

well-beingof

again

give the administration

wishes

gentry,

keeping of

or

regard to

close Our

people

peoplelike

and

experienced,and

not

of your

of

uninformed

remove

The

pensioner, spending your days in

; for to

the

must

We

House,

you

good order,

into

with

But

expect that

justice. Whoever

and

you

habits

people.

of the

never

eyes,

rich

be entertained

can

bosom

welfare

man,

"

right-doersand

you

evil

Henceforth,
Our

in
tranquillity

before

of the

shall remain

life,
you

men.*

person'snature, they

hope

no

past offences.

to your

the

in

root

the salt of Our

by

allow

or

for when

welfare

strive for the


nourished

by

power,

office of Wazir

deep

killingme.

of

of

plans

of

you

We, seeingthe mal-administration

of your

design

the

the late

entertained

you

every

free

set

Now

time

be eradicated, and

as

has

the

vain

yoa,

inform

not

reason

the

practices committed

the

taken

fell into

makes

employment

have

and

and

me

the

but

lier with

could

we

was

her

unite

to

decree

peasants in the
you

This

intentions.

your

and

desired

this account

on

with

matrimony

imaginary hope,

some

Our

of

'

disposes.

Nation
let him

men

affairs of God's
nature
Timur.

MarhUtn,
and

to
not

creatures

greed and

by Muslims,

Muslim

the

corrup-

pitied or

sometimee

for

36

tiou

merely

and

rights
Should
the

act

one

and

about
We

the

brought

to

Ma

for

will

be

Occupy

must

set

now

the

tions
instruc-

and

matters
and

mother,
in

there

marriage.

given,

yourselves

in

days

present,

week,

dear

Well,

their

^anum's

coming

and

inhabitants,

We

Nisa

the

ceremony

.adieu

j^anum,

in

the

the

discourse.

conclusion.

speedy

Our

profits.

peasants

spend
for

events

and

the

and

will

all

at

') that,

marriage

of

persons,

preparations
Allah

interests

own

regularity,

prolonging

necessary

for

with

Well,

for

his

to

peoples'

to

contrary

administration

the

then

quietness.

{in shd

hope

view

private

the

Shu

judgments

gives

or

time

no

w'th

proceed

officials

whether

is

who

so,

will

country

peace

one

engrained,

are

your

sister

respective

affairs.*

ilighness's

reign

Khdnum

Shu*la

and

Khdnum

Pari

God

grant

God

May

rule

your

prolong
last

may

Your
hundred

years

[Ttmiir

Aqa,

the

and

Wazir

accompanied

attend

Prosperity

behind

remains

[with

Soldiers

by

loud

in

shout

nobles,

the

state

in

the

of

leaves

the

room

court^yard

without]

[Curtain.]

Lit.
The

A.qa*8

"'

if

whole
increased

pleases.'*

God
of

this

speech

importance.

is

purposely

verbose

dismay.]

St^an.

Timur

on

all

to

indicate

Timur

HISTORICAL

In

the

named

Alptigin
a

Amir

approved

name

of

his

When

saw

and

chased

fell

into

them

Sabuktigin
started

went

him

few

though

as

voice

hadst
the

pity
order

for

Remember

When

boy
{ht).

same

the

year

with

and

smart

by

step

he
at

step,

treat

God's

her

"

looking
one.

The

young.

Sabuktigin

noticed
round

That

mother,

young

and

looked

animal

been

has

sovereignty

then

night

she

that

towards
he

heard
thou

Sabuktigin!
God

was

pleased

against thy

written

(t.e. thy

creatures

of

proceeded

him

the

fawn

pommel

the

that

He

jungle,
the

had

young,

him,

dumb

poor

but
the

on

of

shikar.

of

in the

following

him.

to

fond

he

saw

her.

and

saying

it

released
her

thanking

dreams

and

and

stopped,

name.

subjects)

kindness."

Alptigtn died,

and

the

Gradually

escaped,

account

on

watching

were

that

and

about

When

closely

her

on

doe

city.

was

and

(dekJi) to

the

with

on

The

him

gave

very

it, tied

round

forest

and
she

his

in

looked

the

paces

The

the

was

grazing

secured

for

pity

for

fawn,

disturbed

standing

horse.

started

took

remained

his
He

very

and

advancing

slave, he

affection,

him,

at

slave.

work.

his

in

GhaznI.

daughter.

hands.

her

Turk

ruler

called

intelligent

and,

he

Panjnb,

city

him,

was

faculties

with

on

distance,

through

doe

boy

was

doe

his

short

up

The

Amir's

saddle, and

purchased

and

the

darbar

his

him

thinking

the

in

to

Sabuktigin

once

Ms

capital

Commander-in-Chief,

married

of

brought

Sabuktigin.

exercised

He

of

SABUKTIGIN.

North-West

his

made

merchant

became

the

to

country

Once

last

NASIR-UD-DIN

AMIR

1.

EVENTS.

duty
later,

of

his

son

ruling
the

boy

succeeded

with

remained
too

him,

died.

but

he

was

Subuktigin

Subuktigin

only
by

his

goodness
all, he
and

had

became

Ruler, and

this

period,

Lahore.

When

marching

of

the

other

to

him.

time

meet

heavy

the

blood

rain

The

began

froze

lemained

they

in

India

people of

horse

the

and

country

veins

cold

it.

stem

He

elephants, and,
of

Sabuktigin's

advanced

with

By chance
was

{badan

power

at that

intense

so

an

that

jamrgaya)^ and

men

were.

experienced (seen) such

never

much

were

and

borders

the

rulingin

Muslim
to

fought.

was

they

had

foot

the

f^U, and

as

the

Sabuktig'n

battle

peoples'

of

it necessary

hand

to

inactive

things, and

of

of

consent

Jaipal, was

name

attack, reached

territory. On
army

by

India, he deemed

the

to

last,by the

administer

to

tlie advance

saw

great army

began

Brahman,

he

(Islam) towards
collected

At

his forces.

strengthen

At

peoples* heartsJ

won

distressed

and
ighabrd.e)^

state

despaired

of life.

Jaipalsent
Mahmud

son

the
a

wished

and

condition

cold

and

without

the

said, and

they

dust.

instead

Such

Dil

and

if not,
and

ghar

men

Man.,"

Samjhaya.

p.

86

(d).

to what

be

his

Raja

fight

arrived.

If you

will

regret

Rakhna

gives

till

heap
the

they

of

of

idea

life,

; blind

and
bite

peace,

it, and

the

not

women

make

had
word

sent

know

their

cast

lost

son

they despair

cattle;

spoil,only

kar-rakka.

would

'*You

When

won

got off, all the

The

then

you

his

swords; that

possessions they have

and

now

agreed

effect:

they had

their

them

with

India.

of

but

peace,

and

of peace.

following

has

time

of

that

and

peace

father

overtures

fire ;

wealth

of

vids "*Hind.
*

the

into

clemency;

your

The

elephants, horses,

children

offer

their

remonstrated,* saying that

were

fire whatever

by

consume

their

the

braves

of the

custom

that

the

(kahld'hhejd)to

he

(harif)made

[mujl).

declined

the

necessity of drawing

resources

reason

accept

heavenly aid,

adversaries

wealth

8abuktiglnhad pity on

him, and

was

victory without

if their

to

with

was

intense

of peace.

message

will

the
it

find,

ashes."

of

is

beforehand

On

Mahmiid

whom
He

against him

marched
but

him,
Mahmud

annoyed

was

placed

all sides.

One

an

army.

round

he gave

of several
The

besieged in

his army

day

account

with

last

at

was

on

for

the

be

driven

at the

the

against

ran

came

his

white

Sulj^an

Mahmud
write

Forgive.

In

what

I have

liked

address

lesson of India

two

reasons

collect the
of India

wealth
was

off

carried
and

his

Mahmud

and

it

had

first,to

learnt

several

ill."

began

from

his

times.

Islam

spread

of India.

tu

The

table

of

father,

For
the

place {idhar h%)

that

was

**

farmans.

India

stores

"

Sullen

'*

loot, cash, jewels, ornaments

this, he

second,

of the

wealth

(jab) he

got

invaded.

he

gold

to

He

and

silver,

costly stuffs.

invaded

India

invasions

was

sixteen

That

The

and

its

the

the

wealth

billowed, and

waves

of
that

was

{abdd thd) on

filled full of

was

loftlyfortress

twelve

greatest invasion
situated

city was

prosperous,

very

times, but

seventeen

or

famous.

are

Under

mat).

invaded

done

spread in his sight. Whenever

againstSomnath.
and

that

and

ever

as

many

He

in his

saying,

done, I have

(word)

"

the

opportunity,

an

he

forgot ;

never

had

of

Sull^an Mahmud

**

The
he

hoof

the

out.

came

horse

Mahmud's

the

on

them
sooner

no

Sardar

the

and, dismounting, placed (rubbed)

Mahmud,

beard

ordered

had

elephant

alarmed

the

gates, than

before

He

first

The

gates.

had

He

elephants'hea-ds {mastak) protected by shields, and


to

opposed

ai^proacheson

assault.

an

his.

{qiVa-hand hond).

closed

it and

orders

old Sardar

fort

of

acts

sea,

{mdlddashed

against its lofty ramparts.


V

Inside

the
of

hundreds
and

these

flowers

add

on

Hindus

akarif.

add

with

jewels.

In it
the

J\

noble

only

one

jewels ; by
to

the

names

and

spacious {waaV) temple,

Fifty-six columns

decorated

studded

Jl.^
fell

was

old.

years

were

of

Somnath

light

fortress

paintings,

Such

(this)

and

was

of

lustre

all their

sacred

the

and

creepers
the

lamp burnt, night and


their

its roof,

supported

temple
day.

whole

places, while

Of

Its

building
Muslim

On

scintillated.

3rd
There

hundred

to

and
At

pilgrims.

Maharajas

used

to send

and

also

to

used

ostly stuffs.

their

send

In

for

'

lakhs

two

presented

daughters

the

to

to

wealth

of the

'

pilgrims
temples,

in the

serve

five

barbering
of

offerings of ornaments,*

short, the

worship.

villages.* Rajas

thousand

two

of

oflficiating
priests;

than
had

Rajas

[tr. verb,

time

barbers'

eclipse,more

there.

the

was

hundred

church-property,nearly

as

it

bells, and

shaken

were

Brahmins,

three

an

collect

to

alt;that

thousand

women,

these

wuWy

warn

two

were

used

worship

pi.]

pers.

the

of

time

the

at

suspended

golden^i^min were

and

temple,^

jewels, and

temple

was

heroic

sawars

and

were

sands
thou-

beyond

computation.

yMahmiid

equipped

intrepidly brave
of
Faith
the

that

thought
of

cause

it

drop

of water.

that

determined

had

People
did

not

reached

his destination.

Faith
So

and
the

; on

that to count

lost heart.
else but

Mahmiid

Why

Translate

the

several

was

hot.

still

and

mountains,

Rajas with large armies

On

offered

side

one
a

fought

stubborn

killed

were

fought

by

the

resistance.

the

sword

(kate)

task.

place

the Muslims

desperately that

so

He

lost his head.

army,

nor

head

his

on

could
the

do

nothing

ground,

and

na,*

literally,and
better

; or

And

"

ZevHiTy ornaments,

Note

be

Here

easy

even

in

army,

of grass

blade

crossing forests

Dharam

no

Brahmins

quit

was

of the

way

the

lives in

point of death, ^ but

the

Muslims

and

them

last the

the

not

their

give up

the

for

merely

waver.

and

fight

other

Hindus

many

At

the

him

sword
to

in

was

at

were

passed through it,


him

the

lay

marches, there

He

met

drawn

desert

man

With

started.

holy martyrdom

Islam.

which, for many

choosing

array,

soldiers,and

Muslims

and

an

write

still learn

prostituted by the

the

idiom.

it

out

by

this

sentence,

heart.

Brahmins.

specially of gold

and

silver.

and

mark

its

struction
con-

'

pray

God.

to

exhorted

and

The

hot

and

good

fortune

suddenly

Muslims

tumultuous

Muslims

the

garrison in

the

fort

embarked

the

them, raised

in

had

India, he

Ghaznl,

so

made

city.\

art

(jann)*

The

palace

He

built

of the
*

from

were

there.

lack

to

such

similar

cultured

What

The

Note

Fann

"^

Jami^

".e.

FazU

He

"

built

its

decoration,

Alongside
and

appointed

is the

difference

meaning

is that

it

fort and

hunar

(or jum'a

it

like

was

an

of

it the

named

built

and

on

"
"

spread

Note

and

craft."

as

the

collegeof

[sajdnd) its
learned
the

abroad

and

light

namaz

his knees
the

land.
fairy-

account

on

known

furnished

He

of

one

became

it, he

to

du'a

remained

parna.

and

of

mountain

maHum

phiki

costly books,'

between
he

of

dignity.

were

Maajid

barren

lojt

the

By

it reminded

in

men

art,"

in

k% rangat

and

"

remaining in India

hotl thi).

of

with

of

lustre

rare

idiom

far-off cities Id

very

country, skilled craftsmen

every

with
^

city,

(?)jewel?

dimensions

libraries

The

some

time.

positionof agarchi.
6

Qaar.

Masjid).

MSS.
is

more

"

"; compared with its enamel-work

Heaven.'

of

kept

place, fell into

congregationalmosque*^ that,

spLmdour

Bride

situated

darbar-chambers

and

of the

(dhdd),that
flourishing

Men

Turquoise Palace

appeared

fled,and

Aid.

Lahore.

in

governor

and

prosperous

enchanted
every

enemies.

Thpy had

anchor, and

intention

no

{yahdh), but settled

tract,

and

the far side of the fort

on

vanquished

India, still {magar) he had

had

swords

Mahmud

order

battle-field empty,

all the wealth

hands.

Although

an

the Hindus

all heart.

in the sea,

fort, the temple, and

IVfahmud's

lost

knees,

length Mahmiid'R

At

the

Seeing

too

ready (lagd-rakhna)boats
They

effect

i's usuil

victorious.

were

raise.i their

p'ace.*

his

gave

{tut.papid)their

upon

fighttook

(iqhaX)hid

the

got up from

and, raisingits courage,

liorses burst

gallopingtheir

time,* he

short

his army,

charge.

to

After

than

'alim;

the

former

is

an

M.A.

to

the

latter's

B.A

and

erais,

iiere

monasteries
wealth

was

'ahd) Ghazni

lave-men
Features

to

of God

were

got

had

him

fellow

and

reasury

In

orthodox

spte of these

magnanimity.^
fort, and

and

weeping

came

and

lodged

How

is it

Mahmud

the

fort from
with

man

that

has

effect

that

this
of

not

the

in

Royal

he

didst
an

orders

robbers, and

exhibited

was

His

into

Mahmud's

canst

that

an

caravan

old

mother
darbar

can

far

so

not

take

thou

I do ?

distant

it and

"

rule

to

manage

keep it?"

{kuchh jaivdbtia han-aya).

answer

for

seized

Once

killed.

royal

had

said, "What

array

until

negative*),a cavalry regiment

every

heard

of it, but

roads.

brea^

If thou

why

gave

replied ('arz H),

properly places

Sultan!

left without

was

He

then

the

Mahmud

govern

country,

have

Baluchis

some

her

complaint.

immediately

He

and

now

young

beating

possibleto

great

so

poor

person.

fine

and

the

We

wealth

the

to

When

me^

his

placed

of his

wealthy.

crime, but he

Deprive

instance,

replied,"Oh

She

this

by occupying it, harassed

robbed

was

from

defects, he

For

unorthodox."

certificate

**

be

to

this

of

the end

him.

before

(these)

mention

some

reputed

said

is great.

wrote

and

good

ery

brought

Mahmud

name."

good

tny

even

Towards

person

is free

slave

his wealth

that

defect

and

irreligiousand
devoted

Thy

'"

that

book.
history-

him, Ma.imud

before

came

are

ou

arrested

of

bazars

each.

rupees

wealth

certain

his time

During

Gliaznl

the

In

for two

of

fond

of

news

{ghar ghar)

India, for in the houses

found.

in every

is made

colleges,

house

riches.

noble

many

of mosques,

for

Hindustani-speaking slave-girlsand

sold

so

was

life he
He

be

were

{^hauq}

time,

every

of

store

mind

to

four

or

In

arose.

great

recalled

Mahmiid
defect

and

three

men

poor

'

short

Hundreds

into existence.

came

Sulfcan's fancy

in

furnishing, and,

Hiildingand
'aansions

the

followed

All

knowledge.

to go

fort

the
should

and

capture the
taken

was

continue

to

(Aor.
escort

caravan.

What

Haumla,

is

Khanqah
lit. crop.

?
*

Vide

*'

This
Hind.

change
Man.,"

of person
p. 212

is incorrect.

(6) and

p.

132

(6).

He

invaded

once

and

rightfulheir
Mahmud's
that

of

me,

'

that

(fatahndma)
he

be

wrested

has

gave

was

her

given
all

he

be has cast

poetry

stain

he

that, when

promised

of

him

his

on

he

thirty years,

but

in

instead

of

aahrafis. Fridausi

all his

labour

had

he

wast^.

sent

Fridausi

to

Fridausi 's
dead

and

Now

that
the

quit

must

that

the
A

day
this

wealth

the

This

should

that

fatah-nama

by
3

city,they

mean

met

to

to
a

satire

him

the
bier ;

and

work.

give

When,

him
at

fled from

seeing
he

lieved
re-

the spot.

of his

verse

aptly

regretted what

he

that

cash

account.

money

reached

learnt

in

rupees

MahmGd

on

that

when

that

should
But
the

be

alas,

gate of

Fridausi

magnificent monarch

His

he

acquired by quenching

had

written

does

couplet.

couplets, and

world.

kill the

each

correct

they

he

was

his corpse.

was

Fridausi,

to

great shock

nikdlnd) and

the

to

arrived

is

He

Shdh-Ndma,

thousand

spot, he directed

chief ruler.

metaphor

his

received

with

men

did

the

wanted

smote

according

Mahmud's

when

'

the

her, and

QhaznI.

in

quoted {pafhnd) a

one

heart

On

he

By writing a

Mahmud's

done.

what

compose

Mahmud

his feelings{dU kd buUidr

in darbdr.

men

composed sixty

days, some

But

him.

understood

composing

the

some

Should

it is, all will say

as

erudite

by

to

presented

After

will write,

to

for
gold piece (ashrafl)

book,

victory

reputation for appreciation. It is said

old

had

and

him

in reward

of

the

expedition.

too

ordered

poet grew

poor

the

country

If

**

woman.'

disgrace

Mahmud

learned

many

fond

very

her

crown."*

widow

abroad,

"

cities he

to

great

preserve

thoughts of

collected

The

territoryfrom

noised

proclamations

out

of

news

follows:

as

the

was

When

became

all the

in

him.

word

will send

he

the

should

up

He

/"

then

boy

young

for

army

him

defeated, it will be

however,
he

an

sent

sense

Sull^an defeats

have

ruled

his mother

having assembled

woman

*I

territory. A

some

eldest

seem

son.

opened

were

to

the

the

fact

light^

of

victory sent to all governors


in the original.
Direct narration
apt. To quench the lightof a family

proclamation
"

not

eyes

too

of

of families, has all to be abandoned.

thousands
three

of age

years

him, he ordered

to

them

with

furnished

them

with

The

and
Mahmud
for

had

eyes

full of

by

bring

to

jewels,
and

rare

the

derful
won-

palace

The

museum.

and

one,

surer
trea-

he

kept

regret, shedding bittei

empty-handed

he had

as

On

the

death

length the Panjab,

Muslim

several

massacred

dynasty

rose

Zahlr,

like

the

in

Delhi

Babur,

"helper."

Denison

rhyme

Ross,

the

in Turki

Zawal, decline

Timiir-i

and

correct

; but

After
to

came

and
Turki

this

Panjab,

whirlwind.

many

{ki) Amir

inhabitants

the

long (" Timur

sun,

the

not

he
his
an

world,

)=Tamerlane,

down,* till
Other

big provincesof
and, after ruling

world.

For

Timur^

came

long

from

Delhi, looted
like

came

storm

departure,another
end.

pronunciation,

' *

to go

Babar^ is, I

etc.

lame

the

reached

verse.

of the

him

offer

lost to it.

were

Delhi

at

till

dynasties ruled

departed

the

too,

conquered

Turkistan, and, layingwaste


it, and

family began

generations, departed from

these

time

who

BABUR.'

themselves

established

India, and

from

at

and

adherents
could

departed

Ghazni

and

dynasties arose

gazed

it.

his

and

pings
trap-

palace weeping

faithful

or

he

entered

of Mahmud

the

to

ZAHlR-UD-DlN

3.

{nalki) and

perilouswars,

last

At

now.

litter

chiefs
h's

all their

saddle-cloths.
(glittering)

returned

in

private elephants,

with

paraded

open

his brave

bis comrades

companionship

be

an

then

of

all his

that

gorgeous

in

brought

None

been

by

things,one

and

ornaments

long, and

wailing.

Dr.

all the

into

the

should

camels

was

them

"

treasurers

court-yard of

made

Jie ordered

day

next

horses, and

and

of life remained

ashrafls,ornaments,

The

and

hope

no

sixty-

was

the while.

tears

at

and

rupees,

him

showing

on

looking at

on

his stewards

collected.

had

things he
kept

When

clothes, royal raiment, and

rich suits of

was

fell ill.

bags of

his eyes, the

before

he

when

He

Another

am

informed

was

by

point established

10

King Babur,

ruling when
Tuikistan, and
who

he

was

with

the

in

arose

into India.

army

It

dynasty. Now, please,

of Babur.
he ascended

of age when

years

an

Cha^hata,!

account

an

twelve

was

mled

to

of

the head

at

founded

{zard)listen
He

marched

of Tfmur,

descendant

great energy.' If

we

the throne

his

peruse

story

and

cannot

we

fail to be astonished.
At

moment

one

we

him

see

sounding) and rulingover


mountains

twenty-two
Fortune

he

years

claimed

Timur

(has) taken

had

sword

favour

him.

At

it

it

Amfrs

Several

opportunity {niauqa*).
fightingand
and

head

the

at

there.

thousand

of

thousand, and

battle-fields of
battle

was

India.

and

began

Ibrahim

He

started

the

at

force

he

After

Babur

this, he won^

sovereignpower
1

The

Naqqara

beaten

at

means

dawn

and

These

two

What

is the

got

lit. the
sunset,

historical

facts

difference

the
are

between

past

and

men,

twelve

only

Certainlyhe
cut

At

even

the

last
such

was

up

by

the

up

when

noon.

battles

him,

to meet

This

firmlyestablished

till today.

which

his

{jam-jdnd).

here.

naqqar-khana
at

an

and

army,

never

lasted

other

to

for such

an

him.

victorious.
has

Babur

to

with

till

the

plain of Panipat

of Delhi

had

cruel,

was

early morning

hot
was

little mixed

of

Amir

managing

of

the

opposed

was

several

was
(saltanat)

has

author

because

word

come

present

important battle that its fame

an

thought

thousand

had

Blbur

fight was

slain and

he

head

out

hundred

Well, it

the

but

watching
to

up

came

till the

up

North,

of

sent

was

that

with

which
artillery,

had

Darbar

Babur, he

elephants.

war

the

len^h

for

than

in

incapable

of the

Ibrahim

more

For

ruling in Delhi,

then

skirmishing advanced

encamped

hide.'

the sword.

was

(bula-bhejnd).As

come

by

to

hereditarycountry

ease-loving,and

oarele88, and
country.

his

as

kettledrums

fleeing through

place

the

Ibrahim, who

Sulj^

finding no

wielded

did not
{iqb^'tl*)

India, and

with
(lit.

millions, at another

forests and

and

famous

or

g ite of the
stated

navbat-Miana^

drams

palace.

in the wiong

iqbaland

the

qiamat ?

order.
^

Note

idiom

12

was

poet, and

he

have

we

composed {kahna) in
from

marvels

the

at

of

people

of him.

has

He
that he

wherever

saw,

'

Dlwdn

Persian.

it appears

littlething he

every
he

which

Turki

India

and

the

bank

other

of sorts

out

too

avail.

At

learned

and

for
(*a/i/))

last

most

written

valued

replied,'*To
him

the

that

and

hence

diamond

be

the

can

round

he

that

the

had

taken

"'I have

His

the

prince.

be

the

of

much

that the

so

In

Pura

means

his

object.

on

dlwan

and

rare

King said,
;

"

it."

In

priceless

bed

article

No

only

short

to

while

God,
ing
think-

,2said,

Babur's

began

life

my

himself

upon

sickness

given,

times, and

three

his sickness

taken

be

short, having prayed

got up from

son

himself
prostrated

the

The

rapidlywhile Humayun's

increased

to

petitioned.

valued

price of Humayun

taken

it, I have

then

most

that

sacrifice

'a

of

among

occasion

property should

prince'sbedstead

now

son

companions remonstrated

'sacrifice'

sacrificed for him."


^

the

am

men

an

Almighty

his

assembly

an

as

had

tried without

learned
such

He

meaning of the saying of the ancients

should

belongingto

he circled

costly article

he

worldly goods

sion
impres-

time

were

offered

the

life for his."

most

that

be

that

king, in

regard to

Humayun

urging that

was

with

{sadaqa)^and

I will sacrifice my

and

the least

at

remedies

Many

object should
'

misfortune

Babur

so

are

facing the

of Babur.

religious
people {huzurg),that

the

can

passage

they encamp

tents

not

and

days

said to the

someone

ancients have

with

one

chance

the death

some

ill.

very

was

the

avert

to notice

"They

says,

make

strange story is told about

Humayun

of

of Nature

charms

biography,
auto-

them."

on

been

In

river, they will pitch their

; the

way

of

his

omitted

went.

peoplestrangelylackingin taste, for,if by


on

written

never

he

Sometimes

illness

decline,

to

the father

went

his death-bed.

'

or

collected

poeticalworks

'

are

found

complete.
"i
as

And

well.

dying
*

took

so

It

his

is also

out.

Direct

narration.

calamities

customary

upon
in

himself.

Persia

and

This

Arabia,

is

but

Hindu
seems

custom
to

b"

13

Tlie
The

DEVOTION

THE

4.

Chaghata,! dynasty

Rajputs

far

were

army,

freedom

of their

like lions.

boldness

and

and

women

faithful

Udai

of

nurse

fruit and
and

disturbed

the

She

it be

well ?

as

the

so

overcame

asked

blood
the

came

no

might
1

Lit.

intrepid

thought,

time

for

open

at

her

The

done

hands

(from fear or grief).

and

moment

feet

how

He

cut

been

to

that

sitting

was

suddenly
of
How

"

(Aorist;

found

in her

will

admit

Terror

you

to cut

body.

those

swelled," i.e., ahe

was

With

her

killed,how

too

be saved."
was

soon

'

spot.

has been

the
can

As

were

kill him

eaten

guessed

remains

her

of

and

when

the

was

weeping

for the Rana."

the Riina

They

had

replied,

to

the

basket

She

the

were

child,

nurse

deliberation,for the danger


any

men

woman,

the

happen,

rivetted

was

was

them.

plan his life must

some

both

(aqa), and

of

well.

When

"

His

war.

the children

clear away

were

one

have

In

men.

days

side

sound

would

have

that had

In

women.

another

one

her.

to

this she

of the

foster-brother

of

Both

the

what

if all

would

By

'*

their

palace.

befallen

came

prince escape

moments.

had

the

On

reached

see

they

nothing

masters

mother

meal.

enemies

heard
her

will the

was

of

him

His

nurse

her), no
fear

the

calamity
servant

meal.

the

their

say

small

very

little ones.

Ranis

waiting to

{itnemen)

preserve

of trouble.

asleep. Suddenly

terrible

some

of

in those

their

his

prince and

her loved

wailing of

the

Raja of Me

how

see

to

and

the remains

were

to

their honour

told

the

was

out-buildingof

some

with
sitting

Just

one.

Singh

the

Singh

in the time

they were

sleepingin

fightto

preserve
are

RajputB.

numbers

performed by

were

devoted

were

Prince

of

point

intrepidity).To

Udai

strange

to

with the

war

faithfulness, they fullyequalled their

Raj piitana, Rana


story is

and

at

fear tp

stories

Many

great deeds

many

in

not

; and

country

bravery {lit.
bravery
men,

inferior

NURSE.

THE

often

were

still they did

Muo^al

fought

OF

in

there

But

that

the door

The

butchers.

unable

few

to

move

14

prince lay asleep. Slowly the


in the fruit basket

laid him
child

slept heedlessly on.


this basket

'*Take

placed
The

her

had

servant

had

dertermined

Udai

Singh

speech ;

she

had

sooner

dagger.

{dekhd raht) and

neither

for fear lost she should

faithful

The

hair stand

and

{jawdn huta)

By

the

of
fidelity

to

only

for

hidden
very

few

Partab

sons

known

that

suffered

much

{milkar)and
crown

the head

on

royalqualitynor

any

throne

of Delhi

and

became

all the

enemies

who

had

to

there there

Rajputana.
was

very

and
After

from

was

bravery

fought
Chittor

up*
such

out

SINGH.
life

was

the fact

was

some

saved.
known
came
it be-

years,

(is)alive.

People

Sardars

to

bined
com-

placed

relate,he had

had
He

no

In

those

ascended

the

Rajputs.

him, and

strong and famous


Li^diya.

turned

Sad

the

our

grew

throne, and

of India.

was

He

The

of the

with

makes

the

Singh.

king

tear

Akbar.

Singh's

of Banblr.

him

of the

shed

saved.

Shah, the grandson of Babur,

Akbar

attention

Udai

the hands

of Udai

her

all the

on

nor

PARTAB

Rajputs.

removed

prince.

despatched

Singh

the heir to the throne


at

of

afifection

looked

oppositionto

long time,

of the

all power

to the

word

He

where

nurse

maternal

mother

prince was

nurse

lost

come

the

blood.

the

the butcher

OF

the

quickly

her secret.

BRAVERY

THE

remained

days

of his

one

5.

He

the

the

servant,

she

which
(that)sacrifice,

but

to

uttered

that he offered continued

hero

had

made

nurse

end

on

betray

had

The

the

to

asked

harm

than

pointed

The

then

Although
no

leaves.

the Rana's

nurse

son.

his

child with

beloved

her

to

her, still she allowed

overcame

time

pointed

and

prince.

prince,and

faithful

arms

{nikald hi thd) when

out

red with

dyed

The

said

the

her

in

with

fort," and

place of

kill the

to

him

nurse

only justgone

was.

she

The

child in the

own

covered

of the

out

tyrant arrived, his hands

No

and

him

took

nurse

had
had

defeated
turned

capitalof

Me war,

fortress.

Akbar

his
and
be-

16

sieged it.

Singh abandoned

Udai

chiefs remained

to

for their lives.

When

and
into

sword

out

came

Udai

of Me

war.

This

is that
the

he

When

he had

that time

the

When

and

keep alive the

had

to face

He
all the

great matter?

the throne
his

no

such

hands, and

{in iadbiroh

most

with

pride

the freedom

of his

That

fought

man

in the

conclude

offer of

of

his
an

honour

had

and

him

took

bravery and

honourable

of the

he refused

straightanswer

with

to

to

(Hi.
had

Rajas,

out

accept such

everything.

see

otlier
to

fight

sometimes
Akbar

much

wished

even
a

but

hills.

He

him, and

to

reason

came

the

pohcy

bear

not

determination.

peace

defeat

this

By

For this

to

on

tributary. From

could

and

sat

territories

wives.
many

up

him

to

Their

had

and

suffered

submitted

away.

sometimes

of

of the

ever

great heart for twenty-fiveyears

marriage,but

back

him

to

He

surge.

at his command

took

enraged with

and
field,

admitted

bound

his

in

Akbar, who

remained

Akbar

country taken

Rajput Rajas became

like

well treated.

they

royalty.

ancestors."

had

acknowledgehim

to

of

to

the

Rajput Rajas

but

royal famihes
se) ho had

Empire

of them

been

them

to

refused

Partab

Several

had

and

restored
of their

gave

the throne.

politic{bdtadhtr)king had

wise

of India.

obeyed him)

to

capital

hands, is the release

monarch

powerful

continued

of my

name

of the Indian

resources

tillthat time

blood

I will maintain

Rajputs

even

city

relations,but

his

is in one's

sword

him.

ascended

spot.
Arbali

is still the

accompaniments

spiritof

(wuht) Rajput

**

to say,

some

in the

is still mentioned

of the

none

broken

had

the true

been

the

on

founded

and

Partab

son

name

Chittor

at

settled

which

Udaipur

whose

themselves

pieces

to

cut

his residence

died, his

Partab

Daily defeats
used

is the

that

cesses,
Ranis, five Prin-

Rajputs opened the gates and

were

palace for

regard

any

Rajputs.

At

veins

\ The

nine

HajpOt

the

palace turned

abandoning Chittor,

it, and

around

of the

women

hand, and

in

built

He

hope remained,

ashes.

after

Singh,

hills.

by

of burnt

fled, but

They fought without

it.

no

many

very

heap

defend

it and

sent

an

disgrace and

Even

to-day

his

16

victories

are

battle of Haldl
hands

by

Rajput tongues. Amongst

on

Ghat

in which

with

stopped

him

mounted

on

in
his

seemed

death

covered

this

end, with

Sallm*

He

wounds.
he

was

three

was

times

but

wished

This

"i

Note

Suraj-muhhl

"

appears

Direct

there

The

time

have

rearing up

on

is about

calamityfellon

the poor

this

have

to

and

infuriated

Partab

surrounded

and

own

life.

He

drew

away

that

comrades

been

to

king's
seven

took

he

the

from

Partab
standard

the

fight.

Partab; all

was*

denly
sud-

fightwas

less
luck-

jd-'pard).The

defeat for Partab,

not

last

of affairs

save

slain,but

was

the

state

of the

udhar

zor

away,

received

other

or

ran

'escaped:the

Seeing the

the heat

and

ka
(lara^i

all his

with

translation

spear.

the

is

energy.

flower,^ and

sun-

transferred

Sardar

It

he

somehow

risk to his

in his direction

away

horse

his

knew)
king'stroops thought (lit.

burst

with

box

escaped.

elephant, and

for.

nearly done

of Jhalawar

Partab, i.e.,a

The

he

it; but stillthe Rajputs and

fightwith

the

at imminent

even

directingthe

paintersof

His

the

danger

with

very

the Sardar

hence

last

reached

sittingin

kill him

to

elephant became

the

troops continued

time

in

off Sallm

bore

and

and

the

At

foot, he

was

was

prince with his spear.

and

mahawat,

he

The

restingon

life was

try

follows

as

foot

strike the

to

to

its rider.

scene

one

but

certain

and

and

Wherever

of the army

centre

him

his horse.

on

king'shorse

Par-

Partab

Chatak.

appeared

and

Ghat.

hot.

was

named

plates of steel

with

well-bred horse aided

depicted

battle

in the very

was

useless * for Partab

was

he
the

of veterans

Rajputs opposed

The

pass.

through

who

fight. His

of

thousand

hottest, there

the Prince

large army

in the field of Haldl

high-bredhorse

cutting his way

hauda

his enemies

"

encamped

twenty-two

ihv

was

Sallm, taking

son,

was
heavy artillery,

fightwas

into
escaped falling

strange circumstance

Akbar's

tab

he

them,'

Partab

got

victory.

difficult idiom.
is

sun-flower, but

here.
narration

Partab

yihi hai.

am

not

sure

that

it is the

correct

17

clean

the spot where

from

away

fought desperatelybut
left the

now

faint from

wounds.

Muslim

Two
horses

about

were

the way.

The

too, after

Chatak

and

evident

was

reached
round

at

saw

he

only

also

was

Partab

go.

the hard

on

Suddenly

the

one

had

Rajput

and

it

voice
looked

He

that

him

stones

iron-grey!"

pursuer

well

as

with

as

had

tillthen

up

having witnessed
filled with
he

the

he

his

was

lifetime

(*Mmr), the
this

At

Iropping died.

erelysaying
again,"
1 This

is

*'

and
not

his

He

the

bear

had

both

were

sight,and
their

gave

If

opportunity offers I will

he took

an

his heart

he

wounded.
rushed
so,

at

after

and

arms

em-

out, dropped, and

worn

brother

pursuing him,

Sakat

his

people; but

own

{mdr-girana),and

Chatak,

moment

joined Akbar's

enemies

opened

while

disgusted with

intrepidbra very,
horse,

brothers

two

become

two

saw

killed them

and

left his home

his brother.

He

could

pursuers

had

his brother's

pursued,

the two

he

had

fought against his

emotion.

Brotherlyaffection

iraced.

something,

estranged tliat

so

was

and

while

on

up and

toilingafter

were

feet

moments,

Sakat.

country

now,

vv"u

rider

Sakat, annoyed

army

was

"Oh
was

boy ;

enemies

quite close.

were

there

brother

his

they

his ears,
and

His

in

came

again pursued.

done

was

Their

his enemies

few

and

liisstrengthbegan to

clatter of their horses'

the

by

day's work,

left.

of escape

hope

110

flew it clean and

nald

him.

chase.

hill nala

was

under

was

gave

when

of the

out

whole

Chatak

respite{muhlaf)of but

came

He

companion.

and

him

Chatak

puts
Raj-

twenty-two thousand

faithful horse

overtake

was

like his rider

wounded

field without

courageous

for his adversaries

of

recognised him

to

left,but this

were

'

The

left aUve.

were

This

Sardars

surrounded.

was

in vain;

jatodnsonly eightthousand
Partab

he

his

horse, and

own

and

come

see

his leave.

of

colloquialuse

which

na-haqq

properly

means

un-

justly.*'
5

and

For

tliis

74 (6).

meaniog

of chahiia
3

vide

Translate

"

Hindustani

by

two

^'anual,"

substantives.

pp.

7l(o)

18

The

king's

sawars'

The

Prince

reply

said,

was

killed;

the

Sirdar's

aside

and

will

Sakat,

and

joined

p.

43

Note

but

his

this

back

Sallm

too,

dismissed

him

to

man

of

from

his

too

took

him

done

whole

did

Sakat

of

one

have

you

word,

army.

on

He

the

his

The

horse

huh)

of
'

of

Vide

hahna.

(c).

End.

also

"

Hindostani

the

notliing
went

brother.

meaning

see

Prince.

own

my

If

related

to

the

this.

truth.

Sakat

aya

credit

the

see

Sardars?"

my

ofif

got

not

whole

you.'*

before

(chafh-kar
did

the

me

Sallm

circumstances.

to

forgive

and

to

surprised

were

straight

happened

them

ridden

Tell

They
him

has

What

horses."
**

took

killed

have

said,
I

wrong

**

Partab

"

was,

bound.

and

alone

returning

expecting

moment

every

Partab

with

return

Sakat

were

army

Manual.**

ofiP

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