57 views

Uploaded by Pravesh S Nair

rotor Model With Offset Disc,Jefcott Model With Ofset Disc

- 3183X_02
- Frequency Huang-1 Validacao
- Unit 5 Vibration Absorbers_Tut
- Study of Wire Rope Systems for Seismic Protection of Equipment in Buildings 1993
- 2
- MID SEM_ MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS.docx
- A Study of Vibration Analysis for Gearbox Casing
- JAS001194
- Final Report
- 1742-6596_268_1_012022
- Vibration Absorbers
- MCG4303_FinalExam_W080
- Human Body Vibration22222222 _2
- A Variant Design of the Dynamic Vibration Absorber
- Exp 3 Force Vibration (Finalized)
- 515_ftp
- 005 Villarreal
- Icossar Sample Paper Stay Cables
- Dynamic Anlysis
- Vibration Analysis

You are on page 1of 27

Figure 2.20(a) show a more general case of the Jeffcott rotor when the rigid disc is

placed with some offset from the mid-span. With a and b locate the position of the disc

in a shaft of length l. The spin speed of the shaft is considered as constant. For such

rotors apart from two transverse displacements of the center of disc, i.e., x and y, the

tilting of disc about the x and y-axis, i.e., xandy, also occurs; and it makes the rotor

system as a four DOFs. For the present analysis, the rotary inertia of the disc is

considered, however, the effect of the gyroscopic moment has been neglected. In Fig.

2.20(b) points C and G represent the geometrical center and the center of gravity of

disc, respectively. The angle, , represent the phase between the force and the

response.

From Figure 2.20(b), we can have the following relations for the eccentricity

(2.66)

respectively (in fact these components of eccentricity are in the plane of disc that is

inclined).

From Figure 2.20(c) equations of motion of the disc in the y- and x directions can be

written as

(2.67)

and

(2.68)

where m is the disc mass, Id is the diametral mass moment of inertia about the xaxis, fy is the reaction force and Myz is the reaction moment. It should be noted that the

moment is taken about the point G. From above equations it can be observed that

equations are non-linearly coupled with the angular (titling) component of

displacement, x.

(2.69)

and

(2.70)

where Id is the diametral mass moment of inertia about the y-axis, fx is the reaction force

and Mzxis the reaction moment. Equations (2.69) and (2.70) are also non-linearly

coupled with the angular component of displacement, y. However, two transverse

planes (i.e. y-z and z-x) motions are not coupled and that will allow two-plane motion to

analyze independent of each other, i.e., set of equations (2.67) and (2.68) and

equations (2.69) and (2.70) can be solved independent of each other.

Unbalance forces can be simplified (i.e., by linearization) with the assumption of small

angular displacement (i.e., cosx = cosy 1) and equations (2.67) and (2.69) can be

simplified as

(2.71)

and

(2.72)

(2.73)

(2.74)

With

where [M] represents the mass matrix, {fumb} is the unbalance force vector, {x} is the

displacement

vector,

{R}

is

the

reaction

force/moment

vector

and

subscripts: L and NL represent the linear and the nonlinear, respectively. It should be

noted that the ordering of the displacement vector can be changed depending upon the

convenience and accordingly elements of other matrices and vectors will change their

positions. The reaction forces and moments onto the shaft can be expressed in terms of

shaft displacements at the disc location with the help of influence coefficients as

(Timoshenko and Young, 1968)

(2.75)

where

represent the displacement at ith station due to a unit force at jth station

keeping all other forces to zero. It should be noted that the displacement and force

terms are used as general sense so that displacement can be a linear or an angular

displacement whereas the force can be a force or a moment. The coupling of the force

and the displacement in two orthogonal planes has not been considered because of the

symmetry of the shaft. Equation (2.75) can be written in a matrix form as

(2.76)

with

where EI is the beam flexure, length parameters a and b are defined in Figure 2.21(a)

with . From the simple beam deflection theory, we can get these influence coefficients

(Timoshenko and Young, 1968). Equation (2.76) can be written as

(2.77)

where kij is the stiffness coefficient and defined as force at ith station due to a unit

displacement at jth station keeping all other displacements to zero. Similarly, since the

shaft is symmetric about its rotation axis, we can obtain

(2.78)

(2.79)

with

Noting equation (2.79), the nonlinear reaction force vector takes the following form

(2.80)

Above equation contains product of the linear and angular displacements, which makes

the system equations as nonlinear. The present analysis considers only linear systems,

so contributions from these nonlinear terms can be ignored with the assumption of

small displacements. On substituting reactions forces and moments from equation

(2.79) into equations of motion, i.e., equation (2.74), we get

(2.81)

with

system the determinant of the dynamic stiffness matrix, [Z] = ([K] - 2[M]), should be

equated to zero and solved for , which gives four natural frequencies of the rotor

system. It should be noted that since two orthogonal plane motions are uncoupled (i.e.,

corresponding to y and x, and x andy). hence, equations of motion of each plane could

be solved independently This would make the size of [Z] matrix to half. It will be

illustrated through examples subsequently. More general method based on the eigen

value problem will be discussed in subsequent sections.

2.5.2: Unbalance forced response: The unbalance forcing with frequency, , can be

written as

(2.82)

where {Funb} is the complex unbalance force vector and it contains the amplitude and

the phase information,k represent row number in vector

and N is the total DOFs

of the system (N = 4 for the present case). The response of the system can be written

as

(2.83)

On substituting equations (2.82) and (2.83) into equation (2.81), we get the unbalance

response as

(2.84)

where [Z] is the dynamic stiffness matrix. Similar to the force amplitude vector, the

response vector will also have complex quantities and can be written as

(2.85)

(2.86)

Equation (2.84) is more a general form of the Jeffcott rotor response as that of the disc

at mid-span. However, it is expected to provide four critical speeds corresponding to

four-DOFs of the rotor system. Most often it is beneficial to observer the amplitude and

the phase of response rather than the time history. The present method gives the

response in frequency domain. When the damping term is also present, the above

unbalance response procedure can easily handle additional damping term, and the

dynamic stiffness will take the following form

(2.87)

where [C] is the damping matrix. It should be noted that [Z] is now a complex matrix

and by the numerical simulation critical speeds can be obtained by noticing peaks of

responses while varying the spin speed of the shaft. The procedure for obtaining

damped natural frequencies will be discussed subsequently. The analysis of the present

section is equally valid for other boundary conditions. The only change would be the

expressions of influence coefficients corresponding to new boundary conditions (e.g.,

cantilever, fixed-fixed, free-free, overhang, etc.).

2..5.3: Bearing reaction forces: Bearings are, in the present study, assumed to transmit

only forces and not moments. Forces transmitted through bearings are those, which are

related to the deflection of the shaft as shown in Figure 2.22 on the y-z plane.

On taking moments about ends L (left) and R (right) of the shaft, we have

(2.88)

and

(2.89)

From above equations, bearing reaction forces at the left and right sides are related to

the loading on the shaft, fy and Myz. In matrix form equations (2.88) and (2.89) can be

written as

(2.90)

with

where subscripts: b and s represent the bearing and the shaft, respectively. Complex

vectors {Fb} and {Fs} are bearing forces at the shaft ends and shaft reaction forces at

the disc, respectively. On using equations (2.79) and (2.84) into the form of equation

(2.90) for both plane motions (i.e.,y-z and z-x), we get

(2.91)

with

It should be noted that equation (2.91) has been written for both plane motions (i.e., yz and z-x), however they are uncoupled for the present case. Similar to the unbalance

force amplitude vector, the bearing force vector will also have complex quantities and

can be written as

(2.92)

where nb is the number of bearing. This will give the amplitude and the phase

information, as

(2.93)

It should be noted that for the case of no damping the phase remains zero between a

force in one plane and a response in that plane. These procedures will be illustrated now

with simple numerical examples.

Example 2.5 Find the bending natural frequency of a rotor system shown in Figure

2.23. The disc is rigid and has mass of 10 kg with negligible diametral mass moment of

inertia. Consider the shaft as massless and flexible with E = 2.1 X 1011 N/m2. Take one

plane motion only.

1

Solution: Figure 2.23 shows the deflected position of the shaft. For a simply supported

beam, the influence coefficient is defined as (Timoshanko and Young, 1968)

For obtaining

(which is defined as the deflection at station 1 for the unit force at

station 1),we have z = 0.6 m, l = 1.0 m and b = 0.4 m. Hence, it can be obtained as

Considering a single plane (y-z) motion and neglecting the rotational displacement x,

the natural frequency can be obtained as (refer section 2.5.1)

which gives

Example 2.6: Obtain transverse natural frequencies of an offset Jeffcott rotor system as

shown in Figure 2.25. Take the mass of the disc, m = 10 kg, the diametral mass moment

of inertia, Id = 0.02 kg-m2 and the disc is placed at 0.25 m from the right support. The

shaft has the diameter of 10 mm and total length of the span is 1 m. The shaft is

assumed to be massless. Use the influence coefficient method. Take shaft Youngs

modulus E = 2.1 X 1011 N/m2. Neglect the gyroscopic effect and take one plane motion

only.

Solution: Influence coefficients for a linear and angular diaplacements

correspoding to a force (f) and a moment (M) acting at the disc are defined as

(y, )

For the present problem only single plane motion is considered. For free vibration, from

equation (2.81), we get

Since it will execute the SHM for the free vibration, we have

where nf is the natural frequency of the system. Above equation is an eigen value

problem. For non-trivial solution, we have

For the present problem the linear and angular displacements in a single plane are

coupled. Since natural frequencies obtained are system natural frequencies and hence

are not as such related to the pure translational or pure rotational motions. If we

consider these two motions are uncoupled, then corresponding natural frequencies can

be obtained as

and

It can be seen that there is a small difference in the fundamental natural frequency due

to pure translation motion (29.65 rad/s) with that of the fundamental natural frequency

of the coupled system (29.4 rad/s), and a large difference in the natural frequency for

the pure tilting motion (188 rad/s) with the second natural frequency of the coupled

system (290 rad/s).

(iii) For the flexible shaft and rigid bearings (Method 2): Now the influence coefficient

method is used. Bearing forces are given as

with

where

with

and

which is same as by previous method. It would be interesting to vary the spin speed and

plot the bearing forces with it. It should be noted since the disc is at the mid-span,

hence there is no contribution of the diametral mass moment of inertia on to bearing

reactions. If there had been couple unbalance then the diametral mass moment of

inertia would have affected bearing reactions. As an exercise take the disc location from

the left support a = 0.3 l and obtain bearing bearings for the same.

Example 2.8. Find the transverse natural frequency of a rotor system as shown in

Figure 2.29. Consider the shaft as massless and is made of steel with 2.1(10) 11 N/m2 of

the Youngs modulus, and 7800 kg/m 3 of the mass density. The disc has 10 kg of the

mass. The shaft is simply supported at ends.

Solution: Considering only the linear displacement, first we will obtain the stiffness (or

the influence coefficient,

) for Figure 2.30 using the energy method. On taking the

force and moment balances, we have

Bending moments are obtained at various segments of the shaft to get the strain

energy of the system. On taking the moment balance in the free body diagram as

shown in Figure 2.31 of a shaft segment for 0.0 x 0.6, we get

(a)

On taking the moment balance in the free body diagram as shown in Figure 2.32 of the

shaft segment for 0.6 x 1.0, we get

(b)

On substituting bending moment expression from equations (a) and (b), we get

where

which gives the natural frequency as

It should be noted that the tilting motion of the disc has not considered. For the coupled

linear and angular motions, natural frequencies of the system can be obtained as an

exercise by obtaining corresponding influence coefficients.

Example 2.9 Obtain the bending natural frequency for the synchronous motion of a

rotor as shown in Figure 2.33. The rotor is assumed to be fixed supported at one end.

Take mass of the disc m = 1 kg. The shaft is assumed to be massless and its length and

diameter are 0.2 m and 0.01 m, respectively. Take shaft Youngs modulus E = 2.1 X

1011 N/m2.

Solution: Let us assume for simplicity that there is no coupling between the linear and

angular motions. Considering only the linear displacement, the transverse stiffness for

this case would be

(a)

with

(b)

In the present section, an interesting phenomenon will be dealt in which a critical speed

will be shown to be eliminated by suitably choosing system parameters. For this

purpose, the Jeffcott rotor model with a disc offset has been chosen. Now, for a detailed

in depth analysis, a closed form expression for the response is obtained by defining

following complex displacements

(2.94)

(2.95)

and

(2.96)

with

where md is the mass of the disc and Id is the diametral mass moment of inertia. Let the

solution be

(2.97)

the

translational

and

rotational

whirl

amplitudes,

respectively; r and are the phase of the translational and rotational whirl amplitudes,

respectively (these are all real quantities); so that

(2.98)

get

(2.99)

(2.100)

(2.101)

(2.102)

On equating the real and imaginary parts of both sides of equation (2.102), we get

(2.103)

and

(2.104)

(2.105)

which means there will not be any phase difference between the force and the

response. On substituting phase information in equation (2.104), we get

(2.106)

which is the whirl amplitude and the condition of resonance can be obtained by

equating the denominator of equation (2.106) to zero

(2.107)

(2.108)

(2.109)

or

(2.110)

which gives critical speeds of the rotor system (the outer most negative sign has no

meaning since frequency can not be negative). Hence, for the case when the rotor is not

mounted at the mid-span, there are two critical speeds due to coupling of the linear and

angular displacements. The above solution (i.e., equation (2.110)) can be more critically

analysed as follows. It can be seen that terms inside the first square root is always

positive, i.e.,

(2.111)

It can be seen that the above condition be always true since all individual

terms r, , r, andr are the real quantity. However, if the following condition is valid

for terms inside the first square root

(2.112)

However, if the following condition prevails

(2.113)

then, it gives only one real critical speed since the other root will be complex. Figures

2.34 (a) and (b) give these two cases, respectively. It can be seen that for the first case

two distinct peaks corresponds to two critical speeds. For the second case only one

critical speed is observed, and since system parameters chosen are different hence this

value is different as compared to the previous case. However, there is anti-resonance

with very low amplitude of vibrations. The following data is taken for the simulation: the

disc mass = 1 kg, the unbalance mass eccentricity = 0.0001 m, the diametral mass

moment of inertia = 0.03 kgm 2, k11 = 1000 N/m, k22 = 6 N/m, k12= 100 N/m and k21 = 0.5

N/m. For the disc at the center of the shaft span, we have k12 = k21 = 0, so Eqn.(2.114)

becomes

(2.114)

which is same as discussed in the previous section for the Jeffcott rotor. The response is

shown in Figure 2.34(c). It can be observed that it has only one critical speed, which

may not coincide with the critical speeds obtained by equation (2.110) in Figures 2.34(a)

and (b). However, there will be another critical speed corresponding to angular

displacement and it is illustrated subsequently.

(2.115)

(2.116)

which means there will not be any phase difference between the rotational

displacement and the force also also since there is no damping in the system. On

substituting phase information in equation (2.115), we get

(2.117)

which is the whirl amplitude of angular displacement and the condition of resonance

can be obtained by equating the denominator of equation (2.117) to zero, which is same

as in equations (2.106) and (2.110) for the linear displacement. For the disc at the

center of the shaft span, we have k12 = k21 = 0, equation becomes

(2.118)

(2.119)

which is the case when the disc is at the center of the shaft span, and the linear and

angular displacements are uncoupled.

For the single plane motion from equation (2.91), we have

with

(2.120)

The bearing force amplitude and phase can be obtained from equation (2.120). Bearing

reaction forces will have similar trend in the variation with spin speed as that of the

response, since it has the same denominator, , as that of the response. It can be

shown from equation (2.120) that forces transmitted through bearings have also a

maximum at system critical speeds. These forces are dynamic forces and are

superimposed on any steady loads, which may be present, for example due to gravity

loading. In real systems which are designed to operate above their critical speeds, the

machine would normally be run through the critical speed very quickly so that very

large vibrations and forces associated with the resonance do not have sufficient time to

build up. Same is true during the run-down where some form of braking may be

employed. If the system is to run at the critical speed and vibrations are allowed to build

up then either the shaft will fracture and a catastrophic failure will result, or there may

be sufficient damping in the system to simply limit the vibration and force amplitudes to

some very large (however, tolerable) value

Concluding Remarks: The present chapter explains various simple rotor models in use to

describe some of the important rotor behaviour, especially natural frequencies and

critical speeds (i.e., the shaft spin at which the amplitude of rotor is maximum). Basic

terminologies generally used to describe the rotor dynamic characteristics are

introduced. For a single-DOF system the natural frequency and hence the critical speed

decrease by small amount due to damping. However, in the Jeffcott rotor model it is

shown that critical speed increases slightly due the increase in damping in the system.

Apart from the amplitude of the rotor vibrations, it is shown that the phase between the

force and the response is also important parameters to understand the rotor behaviour,

especially at the critical speeds, where it changes of the order of 180. The damping is

shown to be an important factor in suppressing the rotor vibrations at the resonance. It

is shown that the Jeffcott rotor is very a basic model to understand several important

phenomena of the rotor system. However, several other phenomena also emanate from

supports, and for this the basic understanding support dynamics is very important. The

motivation of the next chapter would be to find out dynamic parameters of the rolling

element and hydrodynamic bearings, and seals in isolation to the shaft. This will help in

understanding some of the instabilities, which occurs due to support dynamics.

Exercise Problems

Exercise 2.1: For a single degree of freedom damped rotor system, obtain an

expression for the frequency ratio

for which damped response amplitude

becomes maximum (i.e. location of the critical speed). Show that it is always more than

the undamped natural frequency of the system. What is the maximum feasible value of

damping ratio for under-damped system is possible.

[Hint: Differential the denominator of the unbalance response (Y/e) expression with

respect to the frequency ratio and equate is to zero. Answer:

Exercise 2.2: Let us define a new frequency ratio in terms of the damped natural

frequency, i.e.,

with

. Obtain an expression for the amplitude

ratio (Y/e) and the phase, , in terms of the new frequency ratio defined. Plot the

amplitude ratio and the phase versus the new frequency ratio and discuss the results.

Obtain an expression for the frequency ratio (

) for which damped response

amplitude becomes maximum. What is the maximum feasible value of damping ratio for

under-damped system is possible.

[Answer:

for

;

is a complex quantity. The maximum feasible value of damping ratio

].

Exercise 2.3: Obtain transverse critical speeds of an overhung rotor system as shown

in Figure E2.3. Take the mass of the disc, m = 10 kg, the diametral mass moment of

inertia, Id = 0.02 kg-m2. The shaft diameter is 10 mm and total length of the span is 0.2

m. The shaft is assumed to be massless and its Youngs modulus E = 2.1 X 1011 N/m2.

Neglect the gyroscopic effect and take one plane motion only.

Influence coefficients are given as

[Answer: With the diametral mass moment of inertia effect two natural frequencies will

exist:

uncoupled then

= 5.56 rad/s and

= 71.80 rad/s. In case diametral

mass moment of inertia is zero and no coupling between the linear and angular

motion

= 9.91 rad/s].

Exercise 2.4: Obtain the transverse critical speed of a rotor system as shown in Figure

E2.4. Take the mass of the disc, m = 5 kg and the diametral mass moment of

inertia, Id = 0.02 kg-m2. Take shaft length a = 0.3 m and b = 0.7 m. The diameter of the

shaft is 10 mm. Neglect the gyroscopic effect.

and

[Answer:

.

= 12.14 rad/s and

moment of inertia

= 5.98 rad/s]

Exercise 2.5: Obtain the bearing reaction forces and moments of an overhung rotor at

rotor speeds of (i) 0.5

, (ii) 0.5(

+

) and (iii) 1.5

; where

and

are

the first and second bending natural frequencies, respectively. Take the mass of the

disc, m = 10 kg, the diametral mass moment of inertia, Id = 0.02 kg-m2. The disc has a

residual unbalance of 25 g-cm. The shaft diameter is 10 mm and the total length of the

span is 0.5 m. The shaft is assumed to be massless and its Youngs modulus E = 2.1 X

1011 N/m2. Take one plane motion only.

[Answer:

= 15.60 rad/s and

= 203.76 rad/s.; (i) RA = 1.4568 X 109 N, MA =

12

-1.1008 Nm (ii) RA= -3.2363 X 10 N, MA = 2.4240 X 1012 Nm (iii) RA = -2.1125 X 104 N,

MA = 1.5831 X 104Nm].

Exercise 2.6: Find transverse natural frequencies of an overhung rotor system as

shown in Figure E2.6. Consider the shaft as massless and is made of steel with the

Youngs modulus of 2.1(10)11 N/m2. A disc is mounted at the free end of the shaft with

the mass of 10 kg and the diametral mass moment of inertia of 0.04 kg-m 2. In the

diagram all dimensions are in cm.

[Answer: For the pure translatory motion: 1200.7 rad/s and for pure rotary motion:

6561.9 rad/s. For analysis of combined translatoy motion refer Chapter 8]

Exercise 2.7: (a) While the Jeffcott rotor is whirling, with the help of the center of

gravity, the center spinning of the disc and the bearing axis, draw their relative

positions in an axial plane when the rotor is (i) below the critical speed (ii) at critical

speed and (iii) above the critical speed. (b) Define following terms: natural frequency

and critical speed of a rotor; synchronous and asynchronous whirls.

Exercise 2.8: In a design stage of a rotor-bearing system it has been found that its one

of the critical speed is very close to the fixed operating speed of the rotor. List what are

the design modifications a designer can do to overcome this problem.

Exercise 2.9: A cantilever shaft of 1 m length (l) and 30 mm diameter (d) has a 5 kg

mass (m) attached at its free end, with negligibly small diametral mass moment of

inertia. The shaft has a through hole parallel to the shaft axis of diameter 3 mm (di) ,

which is vertically below the shaft center, with the distance between the centers of the

shaft and the hole as 6 mm (e). Consider no cross coupling in two orthogonal directions

as well as between the linear and angular displacements; and obtain the transverse

natural frequencies of the shaft system in two principal planes. Consider the shaft as

massless and Youngs modulus E = 2.1 X 1011 N/m2.

[Hint: Find the equivalent stiffness of the shaft in two principal directions and then

obtain

natural

frequencies:

and

= 70.55 rad/s,

= 70.78 rad/s].

and

- 3183X_02Uploaded byjoyammclnlnclcl
- Frequency Huang-1 ValidacaoUploaded bytakenalready85
- Unit 5 Vibration Absorbers_TutUploaded byShivam Gupta
- Study of Wire Rope Systems for Seismic Protection of Equipment in Buildings 1993Uploaded bycisco
- 2Uploaded byAshok
- MID SEM_ MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS.docxUploaded bysumikannu
- A Study of Vibration Analysis for Gearbox CasingUploaded bycacca9876543210
- JAS001194Uploaded byDevesh Kumar
- Final ReportUploaded bybabyjakes
- 1742-6596_268_1_012022Uploaded by92alaa
- Vibration AbsorbersUploaded byAsif Khan Niazi
- MCG4303_FinalExam_W080Uploaded bythomas_mcmanus_2
- Human Body Vibration22222222 _2Uploaded byTushar Anand
- A Variant Design of the Dynamic Vibration AbsorberUploaded byDevarajan Kaliyannan
- Exp 3 Force Vibration (Finalized)Uploaded byFakhrur Razi
- 515_ftpUploaded bysanh137
- 005 VillarrealUploaded byTom Tampon
- Icossar Sample Paper Stay CablesUploaded byNagar Nitin
- Dynamic AnlysisUploaded byMuhammad Hassan
- Vibration AnalysisUploaded byAhmet Semih Parlak
- Detection of Structural Damage in Building using Changes in Modal Damping Mechanism (2012) - Paper (6).pdfUploaded byJulio Humberto Díaz Rondán
- 19-317Uploaded byPrabhumk07
- Vibration basicsUploaded byPreethi Rajkumar
- Fundamentals of Mechanical VibrationUploaded bySwami Nathan
- 10Uploaded bymellah
- Assignment - 1Uploaded byNitish Kumar
- Allen, D.E. - Building Vibrations From Human ActivitiesUploaded byHugo Verissimo
- Método Sulzberger - Fatigue Loading of Cantilever Sing Structures From Truck Wind Gust - Bruce M. Creamer Et All (1979) the U. of TexasUploaded byrapaig-1
- Modeling of the Damped Oscillations of the Viscous Beams Structures With Swivel Joints for Harmonic ModeUploaded byesatjournals
- Gate-VIB-ttUploaded byPrasenjit Chatterjee

- Acland User GuideUploaded byLucasHeronBritez
- P Francisco vs CAUploaded byGail Brz
- ata186sccpagUploaded bykermitt95
- Underestanding Bharatiya Janata Party ( BJP )Uploaded byhindu.nation
- Omala MSDSUploaded bymevansmetreel
- ASQ membership formUploaded byEddie Kuang
- United States v. Russell E. Spitler, United States of America v. Duane Carpenter, 800 F.2d 1267, 4th Cir. (1986)Uploaded byScribd Government Docs
- Sept2016Mod10PPTFinalUploaded byTian Njawani
- Agriculture-GI Brochure _CEEweb for BiodiversityUploaded byNancy Samargiu
- Tiger I and II from the Bundesarchiv Volume IIUploaded byJohnWinner
- Alternative Obligations Q&AUploaded byNori Lola
- MailGatewayAdminGuide-V3.5Uploaded byJean Pierre
- PRTG Network MonitorUploaded byCan dien tu Thai Binh Duong
- 10000000452Uploaded byChapter 11 Dockets
- Competency-Based Employee Selection MC (2) (3)Uploaded byaurelian
- Alm and Mckee (Jebo04)Uploaded byhenfa
- Manila Prince Hotel vs GSIS DigestUploaded byRosette G. Reyno
- Iso 2768 EnglishUploaded byfethiaktunc
- Notice: Record of Decision, National Interest Determination, and Programmatic Agreement for the Proposed TransCanada Keystone Pipeline ProjectUploaded byJustia.com
- Cement Production ProcessUploaded byca_akr
- Battery-Testing-Guide.pdfUploaded byNagaraj Ram
- CTSP.docxUploaded byMauri Politis
- Lecture 5 Project's ContractsUploaded byJoga Roxana
- Republic Act No 8551Uploaded byPrince Louie Morte
- mmW Design in silicon.pdfUploaded by66yunusk66
- volume i cts for mmr-0909Uploaded byapi-270998557
- knights tourUploaded byAnonymous 6kzneC
- Gamboa vs. CruzUploaded byJason Cruz
- IBM-Tivoli-Storage-Manager_TSM_DATASHEET.pdfUploaded byDens Can't Be Perfect
- Presentation on ODOJUploaded byAnkita Hooda