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Unit of Competency GCIT404A

2012-2013

LAB SESSION 9

Topic TWO: Statistical Software

Learning Content:

(A)

Introduction of Statistical Software

(B)

Introduction of PSPP

(C)

(D)

(E)

(F)

Data Handling

Displaying and Summarizing Data

Modifying Data

Review on Statistics

(G)

Analyzing Data

1.

One Sample T Test

2.

Paired Samples T Test

3.

4.

5.

6.

One Way ANOVA

Chi Square Test of Independence

Bivariate Correlation

7.

Page 1

I.T. Essentials Applied Science (ITE3004)

Unit of Competency GCIT404A

2012-2013

1.

2.

Paired Samples T Test

3.

Independent Sample T Test

4.

One Way ANOVA

5.

Chi Square Test of Independence

It tests the association between two categorical variables.

variables are independent, there is no relationship between them.

When two

If there is a

one group than the other group in a category.

e.g. The relationship between gender and preference of car model

e.g. The relationship between education level and monthly income

Assumptions:

The level of measurement for both variables is scale, ordinal or nominal.

It is the most useful for nominal variables for which we do not another

options.

Hypotheses:

Null: There is no significant relationship between the two variables.

Alternate: There is a significant relationship between the two variables.

Example 1

Lets read the output of Crosstab Chi Square Test of Independence

between gender and their preferences on Pepsi, Coke or Spirit.

Page 2

I.T. Essentials Applied Science (ITE3004)

Unit of Competency GCIT404A

2012-2013

We often need to identify which cell or cells are the major contributors to

the significant chi-square test by examining the pattern of column

percentages.

Based on the column percentages, we would identify cells on the Pepsi

row and the Spirit row as the ones producing the significant result

because they show the largest differences: 30.1% on the Coke row

(53.2%-23.3%) and 19.3% on the Pepsi row (46.7%-27.4%)

As the significance value (p-value) is .001 (< .05), we would reject the

Null Hypothesis and conclude that there is a significant relationship

between the two variables.

It is better to follow up the analysis with a post hoc test.

Step #1

Open the System File (Lab07_Answers.sav).

Step #2

From the menus, choose Analyse

Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs.

Step #3

Select Marital Status, and move it into the Rows list. Then, select Gender,

and move it into the Columns list.

Page 3

I.T. Essentials Applied Science (ITE3004)

Unit of Competency GCIT404A

2012-2013

Step #4

Click Format and a dialog box is prompted.

Step #5

Select Print tables, Pivot, Ascending and Label, and then click Continue.

Step #6

Click Statistics and a dialog box is prompted.

Step #7

Select Chisq, and then click Continue.

Step #8

Click OK to run the procedure.

As the significance value (p-value) is .46 (> .05), we cant reject the Null

Hypothesis and conclude that there is a no significant relationship

between the two variables.

Page 4

I.T. Essentials Applied Science (ITE3004)

Unit of Competency GCIT404A

2012-2013

6.

Bivariate Correlation

Ittests the correlation(Pearson R) between two categorical variables, by

showing the magnitude and the direction.

e.g. The relationship between head circumference at age 6 to 14 months and

the cerebral grey matter measurement at age 2 to 5 years

e.g. The relationship between the lead content of soil and the distance from a

major highway

e.g. The relationship between the vocabulary size in English and age in early

childhood education

e.g. Consumption of hot chocolate is negatively correlated with crime rate (high

values of hot chocolate tend to be paired with lower crime rates), but both are

responses to cold weather. (CAUSATION / CAUSALITY)

Assumption:

The level of measurement for both variables is scale or ordinal.

Both variables should be normally distributed.

It is a measure of linear association ONLY.

If the relationship is not approximately linear (e.g. complicated curved

relationship, such as quadratic, exponential), we need to examine the

scatterplot.

Hypotheses:

Null: There is no association between the two variables.

Alternate: There is an association between the two variables.

The correlation coefficient is a number between +1 and -1. This number

tells us about the magnitude and direction of the association between

two variables.

The MAGNITUDE is the strength of the correlation.

If the correlation is 0 or very close to zero, there is no association

between the two variables being tested.

For the correlation coefficient between -0.5 and +0.5, there is a weak

correlation and usually means there is not really any relationship

between the two variables being tested.

Page 5

I.T. Essentials Applied Science (ITE3004)

Unit of Competency GCIT404A

2012-2013

For the correlation coefficient between -0.5 and -0.8 OR between +0.5

and +0.8, there is a moderate correlationoccurring between the two

variables being tested.

For the correlation coefficient between -0.8 and -1 OR between +0.8 and

+1, there is a strong correlation occurring between the two variables

being tested.

The DIRECTION of the correlation tells us how the two variables are

related.

If the correlation is positive, the two variables have a positive

relationship (as one increases, the other also increases).

If the correlation is negative, the two variables have a negative

relationship (as one increases, the other decreases).

Example 2

Letsread the output of a Pearson correlation between the Rosenberg

Self-Esteem Scale and the Assessing Anxiety Scale.

Three pieces of information are shown, the Pearson correlation

coefficient, the significance value and the number of cases (N).

Pearson correlation coefficient (-0.378)shows that there is a moderate

negative relationship between Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and

Assessing Anxiety Scale.

As self-esteem increases, anxiety decreases.

Page 6

I.T. Essentials Applied Science (ITE3004)

Unit of Competency GCIT404A

2012-2013

Step #1

Open the System File (Lab09_Children.sav).

Step #2

Background:We conducted a study on the relationship between Age (month)and

Height (cm) of children; in other words, predicting Height (cm) from Age (month), if

the two variables are correlated.

Step #3

From the menus, choose Analyse Bivariate Correlation.

Step #4

Select Age (month)and Height (cm) (both variables), and move them into the list

on the right text area.

Step #5

Select Two-tailed (OR One-tailed) in Test of Significance.

Step #6

Click OK to run the procedure.

Interpretation:

The Pearson correlation coefficient (0.68) shows that there is a positive,

moderate relationship between Age (month) and Height (cm).

As age increases, height also increases.

Page 7

I.T. Essentials Applied Science (ITE3004)

Unit of Competency GCIT404A

2012-2013

7.

Simple Linear Regression

Ittests whether there is a linear relationship between two quantitative variables.

Assumptions:

The data are linear (If you look at a Scatterplot of the data, and the data

seem to be moving in a straight line, it's a good indication that the data are

linear).

The dependent variable should be normally distributed.

When the two variables are perfectly correlated,the prediction is perfect; the

less correlatedthe variables, the less accurate the prediction.

It takes the form y = a + bx where y is the response (dependent)

variable, x is the explanatory or predictor (independent) variable and a

is the intercept term of the model, b is the slope/gradient of the linear

model.

Hypotheses:

The hypotheses for regression focus on the slope/gradient of the regression

line.

Null: The slope/gradient equals zero (there is no slope/gradient)

Alternate: The slope/gradient is not equal to zero

Example 3

There are 3 key pieces of information in the output:

The R Square value

The significance of the regression

The values of the constant and slope

Letsread the outputs of a simple linear regression between Assessing

Prejudice (independent variable) and Comfort with Inter-Ethnic Situations

(dependent variable).

Page 8

I.T. Essentials Applied Science (ITE3004)

Unit of Competency GCIT404A

2012-2013

coefficient (R = 0.382) shows that there is a positive, moderate

relationship between Assessing Prejudice and Comfort with Inter-Ethnic

Situations.

The R Square shows how much of the variance of the dependent

variable can be explained by the independent variable. In this case,

14.6% of the variance in Comfort with Inter-Ethnic Situations can be

explained by differences in levels of Assessing Prejudice.

It is preferably to be greater than 65%.

As the significance value (p-value) is .000 (< .05), we would reject the

Null Hypothesis and conclude that at least one coefficient is not equal to

zero.

There is a significant linear relationship between Assessing Prejudice and

Comfort with Inter-Ethnic Situations.

plug into y = a + b x equation. In this example, a = 5.474 and b = -.530.

The t-value is -6.058 and the significance value (p-value) of the gradient

parameter Assessing Prejudice is .000 (< .05). It provides a strong

evidence of a negative association between Assessing Prejudice and

Comfort with Inter-Ethnic Situation.

Page 9

I.T. Essentials Applied Science (ITE3004)

Unit of Competency GCIT404A

2012-2013

Therefore, the regression model is

Comfort with Inter-Ethnic Situations = 5.474 0.53 Assessing Prejudice

Step #1

Open the System File (Lab09_Children.sav).

Step #2

Background: We conducted a study whether there is a linear relationship between

Age (month) and Height (cm) of children.

Step #3

From the menus, choose Analyse

Linear Regression.

Step #4

Select Height (cm) (at least one dependent variable), and move it into the

Dependent list. Select Age (month), and move it into the Independent list.

Step #5

Click Statistics. Select Coeff, R and ANOVA.

Step #6

Click OK to run the procedure.

Model Summary

ANOVA

Coefficients

Interpretation:

In the Model Summary table, the Pearson correlation coefficient (0.68)

shows that there is a positive, moderate relationship between Age

(month) and Height (cm).

The R Square (0.46) shows 46% of the variance in Height (cm) can be

explained by differences in levels of Age (month).

In the ANOVA table, the significance value (p-value) is .00 (< .05), we

would reject the Null Hypothesis and conclude that at least one

coefficient is not equal to zero.

Page 10

I.T. Essentials Applied Science (ITE3004)

Unit of Competency GCIT404A

2012-2013

(cm).

The Coefficients table gives us all the information we need to plug into

y = a + b x equation. In this example, a = 100.43 and b = .35.

The t-valueis 5.67 and the significance value (p-value) of the gradient

parameter Age (month) is .00 (< .05). It provides a strong evidence of

a positive association between Height (cm) and Age (month).

The equation is: y = 100.43 + 0.35 x.

Therefore, the regression model is

Height (cm) = 100.43 + 0.35 Age (month)

References

IBM SPSS Statistics 20 Brief Guide

Lind,D.A., Marchal, W.G., &Wathen, S.A. (2012),Statistical

Techniques in Business & Economics, 15th ed., McGraw-Hill Irwin,

New York, USA.

Peck, R., Olsen, C. & Devore, J. (2008), Introduction to Statistics &

Data Analysis, 3rd ed., Thomson Brooks/Cole, USA.

----- THE END -----

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