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Apr 04, 2016

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konversi energi

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konversi energi

© All Rights Reserved

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MESIN REFRIGERASI

MESIN REFRIGERASI

9/4/2015

Principles of Refrigeration

Refrigeration means to

COOL AN OBJECT BELOW ITS

SURROUNDING TEMPERATURE

Basic Components of the vapour

compression refrigeration system

3

Compressor

Condenser

Throttling Device

Evaporator

2

CONDENSER

EXPANSION VALVE

COMPRESSOR

EVAPORATOR

PRESSUR

KN/m2E

CONDENSATION

Pd

2

CONDENSER

2

COMPRESSION

THROTTLING

EXPANSION VALVE

Pe

EVAPORATION

COMPRESSOR

EVAPORATOR

ENTHALPY

REFRIGERATION EFFECT

WORK DONE

KJ/Kg

COMPONENTS

REFRIGERANTS

CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS (CFC)

R-11

R-12

HYDROCHLOROFLUOROCARBONS (HCFC)

R- 22

R-123

HYDROFLUOROCARBONS (HFC)

R-32

R-125

R-134a

R-143a

INORGANIC COMPOUNDS

R- 717

R- 718

R- 729

10

Unit of Refrigeration

The unit of refrigeration is

TON OF REFRIGERATION ( TR )

1 TR = 12000 Btu/hr BRITISH UNITS

1 TR = 3.517 KW SI UNITS

11

The refrigeration cycle efficiency is known as

COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (COPREF)

(COPREF) = Refrigeration Effect KJ/Kg

Work Done

KJ/Kg

Work Done KJ/Kg

KJ/Kg

12

Refrigeration Equipment

Efficiency

The equipment efficiency is given as EER or kW/TR

ENERGY EFFICIENCY RATIO (EER)

Use for smaller capacity equipment such as Window type & Split type

equipment

(EER) = Capacity

Power Input

kW/TR

Btu/hr

Watts

Capacity TR

kW

13

14

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1.

2.

3.

Introduction of Quota for HCFC in

year 2015

Face-out of HCFC in year 2040

21

Refrigerant Safety Classifications

Lower

Flammability

No Flame

Propagation

INCREASING FLAMMABILITY

Higher

Flammability

Group A3

Group B3

Group A2

Group B2

Group A1

Group B1

INCREASING TOXICITY

Lower

Toxicity

Higher

Toxicity

22

Safety Classifications

REFRIGERANT

CHEMICAL

FORMULA

CHEMICAL

NAME

REFRIGERANT

SAFETY

CLASSIFICATION

AMOUNT OF

REFRIGERANT

PER OCCUPIED

SPACE (ppm)

TLV-TWA

(ppm)

R-11

CCl3

Trichlorofluoromethane

A1

4000

C1000

R-12

CCl2F2

Dichlorodifluoromethane

A1

40000

1000

R-22

CHClF2

Chlorodifluoromethane

A1

42000

1000

R-134a

CH2FCF

1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane

A1

60000

1000

Ammonia

B2

500

25

R-717

NH3

23

use

Higher refrigeration effect 474 Btu/lb,

comparison; R-12 = 50 Btu/lb , R-22 = 70 Btu/lb,

R-134a = 64 Btu/lb, R-404A = 48 Btu/lb

7- times higher refrigeration effect!!!

Specific volume of suction gas is high 8 ft3/lb

compare to 1.2 ft3/lb of R-22, needs larger pipes,

compressors

Higher delivery temperatures 210 F, needs water

cooled heads for compressor

24

INDUCED DRAUGHT

25

CROSS FLOW

26

FORCED DRAUGHT

27

WATER PUMPS

VERTICAL IN-LINE

28

29

compression to pneumatic

drives

Use reciprocating or screw

compressors with storage

receiver

Use pressure regulators at

the air user point to reduce

the air pressure

Use water separators to

prevent water vapour

entering the air user

equipment

30

ROTARY SCREW

COMPRESSORS

100% continuous duty

Quiet operation

Energy efficient at full load

Extended service intervals

Reliable long life

Improved air quality

31

and - 10 C. If the gas is dry at the end of compression, calculate the

coefficient of performance of the cycle assuming no undercooling of

the liquid ammonia. Use the following table for properties of ammonia

:

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equating equations (i) and (ii),

0.5443 + 4.934 Z1 = 5.04

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temperatures of 26 C and 2 C respectively. The vapour leaves the

evaporator saturated and dry. The average output of cold water is 100

kgjhr cooled from 26 C to 6C. Allowing 20% of useful heat into water

cooler and the volumetric efficiency of the compressor as 80% and

mechanical efficiency of the compressor and the electric motor as 85%

and 95% respectively, find (a) volumetric displacement of the compressor,

and (b) power of the motor. Data for R-12 is given below

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T-s

and p-H diagrams

are shown in Fig. 4-12 (a) and (b)

respectively. Since 20% of the usefJ heat is lost into water

cooler therefore, actual heat extracted from the water cooler

We know that

heat

per kg of the refrigerant

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First of all, let us 8nd the temperature at point 2 (T2).

entropy at point 2,

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We know that

37

limits of 5-3 bar and 2'1 bar. The, vapour is superheated at the end

of compression, its temperature being 37 C. The vapour is

superheated by 5 C before entering the compressor. If the specific

heat of superheated vapour is 0,63 kJjkg.K, find the coefficient of

performance of the plant. Use the data given below :

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The T-s and p-H diagrams are shown in Fig. 4-14 (a) and

(b) respectively

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works between the evaporating temperature of 8C and

condensing temperature of 30 C, The refrigerant R-12 is subcooled

by 5 C before entry to expansion valve and the vapour is

superheated to2 C before leaving the evaporator coils. Assuming

a two cylinder single acting compressor operating at WOO r p.m.

with stroke equal to 1-5 times the bore, determine (a) coefficient of

performance, (b) theoretical power per ton of refrigeration, and (c)

bore and stroke of compressor when (i) there is no clearance, and(ii) there is a clearance of 2%.

Use the following data for R-12

vapour R-12 is 0'733 kJ/kg K

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The T-s and p-H diagrams are shown in Fig. 4.26 (a) and (b)

respectively,

(a) Coefficient of performance

First of all, let us find the temperature of superheated vapour at

point 2 (T2).

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therefore equating equations (i) and (ii),

2,

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We know that the heat extracted or refrigerating effect per kg of the

refrigerant,

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compressor, i.e. at point 1. Applying Charles1 law

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We know that theoretical suction volume or piston displacement per

minute

= 0.0245 m3/kg

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THANK YOU

Prof.

49

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