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Bridge and Structure

Inspection Program Manual

MnDOT BRIDGE OFFICE

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION


PROGRAM MANUAL

Minnesota Department of Transportation


3485 Hadley Avenue North Mail Stop 610
Oakdale, MN 55128-3307
Phone: 651/366-4500 Fax: 651/366-4497

OCTOBER 2014

OCTOBER 2014

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION
MNDOT BRIDGE OFFICE BRIDGE INSPECTION CONTACTS
ABBREVIATIONS
REVISION HISTORY
CHAPTER A POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
CHAPTER B BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL
CHAPTER C STRUCTURE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (SIMS)
CHAPTER D RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE
CHAPTER E QC QA PROCEDURES
CHAPTER F MNDOT INSPECTION VEHICLE POLICY MANUAL
CHAPTER G INSPECTION PROCEDURES FOR HIGH MAST LIGHT POLES

APPENDICES
APPENDIX A STATE WIDE POLICY: APPROPRIATE USE OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY
APPENDIX B STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT REPORT
APPENDIX C CRITICAL DEFICIENCY INSPECTION REPORT
APPENDIX D MNDOT CITY CENSUS CODES (MNDOT ITEM)
APPENDIX E MNDOT TOWNSHIP CODES (MNDOT ITEM)
APPENDIX F USERKEY (MNDOT ITEM)
APPENDIX G FIPS CODING FOR MINNESOTA CITIES AND TOWNSHIPS
APPENDIX H HIGH ANGLE RESCUE EQUIPMENT
APPENDIX I OSHA REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO WORK NEAR OVERHEAD POWER LINES

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

State of Minnesota |

OCTOBER 2014

INTRODUCTION

Introduction

APPENDIX J CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS TITLE 29 1926.502(d)


APPENDIX K MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY DIRECTIVE NO. 08-03
APPENDIX L COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE PRE-TRIP AND POST-TRIP INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS
APPENDIX M SNOOPER TRUCK AND BASKET ACTIVITIES WAIVER AND RELEASE FORM
APPENDIX N BRIDGE SCOUR PLAN OF ACTION (POA) CHECK SHEET

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this Bridge and


BSIPM User Note:
Structure Inspection Program Manual
Text in this format indicates that another
(BSIPM) is to compile the policies and
Chapter of the manual may contain
procedures of the Minnesota
additional information regarding the topic.
Department of Transportation
(MnDOT) in a comprehensive reference
to promote consistent and uniform
methods of inspection and
documentation of bridge conditions throughout the state. This manual facilitates:

Public safety on bridges


Compliance with Federal and State Regulations
Accurate and consistent information to manage bridges as a critical infrastructure asset
Inspector Note:
Text in this format
symbolizes an important
note that is applicable to a
bridge inspector to alert of
an item to verify in the field.

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Introduction

| State of Minnesota

The BSIPM is divided into multiple Chapters containing all


applicable bridge inspection program information in one
location. The Chapters are divided into separate manuals
including Policies and Procedures, Bridge Inspection Field
Manual, Structure Information Management System (SIMS),
Recording and Coding Guide, Quality Control (QC) and
Quality Assurance (QA), MnDOT Inspection Vehicle Policy
Manual, and Inspection of High Mast Light Poles.

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
MNDOT BRIDGE
OFFICE BRIDGE
INSPECTION
CONTACTS

Introduction

INTRODUCTION

Below are the MnDOT Bridge Office Bridge Inspection contacts. For the most current contacts,
please check the MnDOT website.

STATE BRIDGE ENGINEER


TITLE

NAME

PHONE

EMAIL

STATE BRIDGE
ENGINEER

Nancy
Daubenberger

(651) 366-4501

nancy.daubenberger@state.mn.us

BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION & MAINTENANCE ENGINEER


TITLE

NAME

PHONE

INSPECTION
PROGRAM MANAGER

Tom Styrbicki

(651) 366-4507

EMAIL
tom.styrbicki@state.mn.us

BRIDGE STRUCTURAL EVALUATION ENGINEER


TITLE

NAME

PHONE

BRIDGE STRUCTURAL
EVALUATION
ENGINEER

Jihshya Lin

(651) 366-4490

EMAIL
jihshya.lin@state.mn.us

BRIDGE INSPECTION & FABRICATION ENGINEER


TITLE

NAME

PHONE

BRIDGE INSPECTION &


FABRICATION
ENGINEER

Todd Niemann

(651) 366-4567

EMAIL
todd.niemann@state.mn.us

BRIDGE ASSET DATA MANAGEMENT UNIT (BADMU)

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TITLE

NAME

PHONE

BRIDGE DATA
MANAGEMENT
ENGINEER

David Hedeen

(651) 366-4528

| State of Minnesota

EMAIL
david.hedeen@state.mn.us

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

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INTRODUCTION

Introduction

BRIDGE INSPECTION
TITLE

NAME

PHONE

EMAIL

INSPECTION ENGINEER

Jennifer Zink

(651) 366-4573

jennifer.zink@state.mn.us

ENGINEER SENIOR

Joe Fishbein

(651) 366-4537

joe.fishbein@state.mn.us

ENGINEERING
SPECIALIST SENIOR

Eric Evens

(651) 366-4570

eric.evens@state.mn.us

ENGINEERING
SPECIALIST SENIOR

Pete Wilson

(651) 366-4574

pete.wilson@state.mn.us

ENGINEERING
SPECIALIST

Bill Nelson

(651) 366-4575

bill.nelson@state.mn.us

ENGINEERING
SPECIALIST

Ken Rand

(651) 366-4576

ken.rand@state.mn.us

ENGINEERING
SPECIALIST

Scott Theisen

(651) 366-4475

scott.theisen@state.mn.us

ENGINEERING
SPECIALIST

Farrell Potter

(651) 366-4471

farrell.potter@state.mn.us

TRANSPORTATION
SPECIALIST

Rodney Carter

(651) 366-4454

rodney.carter@state.mn.us

BRIDGE MAINTENANCE
TITLE

NAME

PHONE

ENGINEER SENIOR

Sarah Sondag

(651) 366-4529

EMAIL
sarah.sondag@state.mn.us

BRIDGE LOAD RATINGS


TITLE

NAME

PHONE

PRINCIPAL ENGINEER

Yihong Gao

(651) 366-4492

EMAIL
yihong.gao@state.mn.us

BRIDGE HYDRAULICS

TITLE

NAME

PHONE

PRINCIPAL ENGINEER

Petra DeWall

(651) 366-4473

| State of Minnesota

EMAIL
petra.dewall@state.mn.us

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

Introduction

INTRODUCTION
STATE AID BRIDGE
TITLE

NAME

PHONE

ENGINEER
ADMINISTRATIVE

Dave Conkel

(651) 366-4493

EMAIL
david.conkel@state.mn.us

STATE AID
TITLE

NAME

PHONE

COUNTY/LOCAL
UNDERWATER BRIDGE
INSPECTIONS

Paul Stine

(651) 366-3830

EMAIL
paul.stine@state.mn.us

INSPECTION VEHICLE POLICY

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TITLE

NAME

PHONE

ENGINEERING
SPECIALIST

Scott Theisen

(651) 366-4475
(651) 274-8145

scott.theisen@state.mn.us

SNOOPER RENTAL
CONTACT

Farrell Potter

(651) 366-4471
(651) 336-1265

farrell.potter@state.mn.us

| State of Minnesota

EMAIL

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
ABBREVIATIONS

vii

INTRODUCTION

Introduction

The following is a list of abbreviations used in all Chapters of the BSIPM.


AASHTO

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

ADT

Average Daily Traffic

BADMU

Bridge Asset Data Management Unit

BIE

Bridge Inspection Engineer

BMS

Bridge Management System

BR

Bridge Rater

BRE

Bridge Rating Engineer

BSIPM

Bridge and Structure Inspection Program Manual

CFR

Code of Federal Regulations

CoRE

Commonly Recognized Structural Elements

DN

Do Nothing

FC

Fracture Critical

FCM

Fracture Critical Member

FHWA

Federal Highway Administration

FIPS

Federal Information Processing Standards

GPR

Ground Penetrating Radar

GPS

Global Positioning System

HCADT

Heavy Commercial Average Daily Truck Traffic

HEC

Hydraulic Engineering Circulars

HPMS

High Performance Monitoring System

ISTEA

Inter-Modal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act

IRT

Infrared Thermography

LEL

Lower Explosive Limit

LRFD

Load Resistance Factor Design

LRS

Linear Referencing System

MBE

AASHTO Manual for Bridge Evaluation

MNDOT

Minnesota Department of Transportation

MT

Magnetic Particle Testing

MUTCD

Manual Of Uniform Traffic Control Devices

NBI

National Bridge Inventory

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

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INTRODUCTION

Introduction

NBIS

National Bridge Inspection Standards

NCHRP

National Cooperative Highway Research Program

NDE

Non-destructive Evaluation

NDT

Non-destructive Testing

NHI

National Highway Institute

NHS

National Highway System

NRHP

National Register of Historic Places

OFCVO

Office of Freight and Commercial Vehicle Operations

PA

Program Administrator

PCA

Plan of Corrective Action

POA

Plan of Action

PPE

Personal Protection Equipment

PT

Liquid Penetrant Testing

PTFE

Polytetrafluoroethlyene

SBE

State Bridge Engineer

SI&A

Structure Inventory and Appraisal

SIMS

Structure Information Management System

STRAHNET

Strategic Highway Network

TH

Trunk Highway

TL

Team Leader

TTC

Temporary Traffic Control

UBIV

Under Bridge Inspection Vehicle

UT

Ultrasonic Testing

UTG

Ultrasonic Thickness Gage

UTM

Universal Transverse Mercator

UW

Underwater

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
REVISION HISTORY

INTRODUCTION

Introduction

The MnDOT Bridge Office has completed its first iteration of the BSIPM. Individual Chapters in the
BSIPM will be updated as needed as procedures are updated and new information becomes
available. The BSIPM is available on the Bridge Office Web site at:
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/inspection.html
Revisions to Chapters with a brief update can be found below:.

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2014 October, Bridge And Structure Inspection Program Manual: Revisions included
updating, creating, and combining Policies and Procedures, Bridge Inspection Field Manual,
Structure Information Management System (SIMS), Recording and Coding Guide, Quality
Control (QC) Quality Assurance (QA), MnDOT Inspection Vehicle Policy Manual, and
Inspection of High Mast Light Poles Chapters.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

Bridge and Structure


Inspection Program
ogram Manual
Manua

Chapter A

POLICIE S A ND
PROCED URE
URESS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
A.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................1
A.2 ABBREVIATIONS..............................................................................................................................1
A.3 ADMINISTRATIVE .............................................................................................................................1
A.3.1 PROGRAM SUMMARY ............................................................................................................1
A.3.2 DEFINITIONS ...........................................................................................................................3
A.3.3 APPLICABLE SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS .............................................................. 4
A.3.3.1 Federal Highway Administration Requirements ...........................................................4
A.3.3.2 State Requirements .....................................................................................................4
A.3.3.3 Inspection Specifications .............................................................................................5
A.3.3.4 Other Inspection Manuals and References ..................................................................5
A.3.4 RESPONSIBILITIES FOR BRIDGE SAFETY INSPECTIONS .................................................. 6
A.3.4.1 State Program Manager ...............................................................................................6
A.3.4.2 Program Administrators ...............................................................................................6
A.3.5 HIGHWAY BRIDGES ................................................................................................................7
A.3.5.1 Owner Responsibilities ................................................................................................7
A.3.5.2 MnDOT Responsibilities ..............................................................................................7
A.3.6 DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES BRIDGES ......................................................... 8
A.3.7 RAILROAD BRIDGES OVER PUBLIC ROADS ........................................................................ 8
A.3.8 OTHER NON-HIGHWAY BRIDGES OVER PUBLIC ROADS ................................................... 8
A.3.9 NON-COMPLIANCE WITH NBIS ..............................................................................................8
A.4 INSPECTOR TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS ................................................ 9
A.4.1 INSPECTION PROGRAM PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS ................................................... 9
A.4.1.1 Program Manager ........................................................................................................9
A.4.1.2 Program Administrator Qualifications ..........................................................................9
A.4.1.3 Bridge Inspection Team Leader Qualifications ............................................................9
A.4.1.4 Assistant Bridge Inspector .........................................................................................10
A.4.1.5 Fracture Critical Bridge Inspector Qualifications ........................................................10
A.4.1.6 Underwater Bridge Inspector Qualifications ...............................................................10
A.4.2 INSPECTION PROGRAM PERSONNEL RESPONSIBILITIES .............................................. 11
A.4.2.1 Program Manager Responsibilities ............................................................................11
A.4.2.2 Program Administrator Responsibilities .....................................................................11
A.4.2.3 Team Leader Responsibilities ....................................................................................12
A.4.3 CERTIFICATION AND APPOINTMENT PROCESS ............................................................... 12
A.4.3.1 Program Administrator ...............................................................................................12
A.4.3.1.1 Appointment ...............................................................................................12
A.4.3.1.2 Renewal of Appointment ............................................................................ 13
A.4.3.1.3 Denial Process ...........................................................................................13
A.4.3.1.4 Re-appointment .........................................................................................13
A.4.3.2 Team Leader Certification ..........................................................................................13
A.4.3.2.1 Renewal of Certification ............................................................................. 14
A.4.3.2.2 De-Certification ..........................................................................................14
A.4.3.2.3 Re-Certification ..........................................................................................14
A.4.4 CERTIFICATION AND APPOINTMENT TRACKING .............................................................. 15
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State of Minnesota |

A-I

A.4.5 BRIDGE SAFETY INSPECTION TRAINING COURSES ........................................................ 15


A.4.5.1 NHI Training Courses ................................................................................................15
A.4.5.2 Bridge Safety Inspection Refresher Training Seminars .............................................17
A.5 BRIDGE SAFETY INSPECTION TYPES ........................................................................................18
A.5.1 INITIAL INSPECTIONS ...........................................................................................................18
A.5.1.1 Scope of Initial Inspections ........................................................................................18
A.5.1.2 Frequency of Initial Inspections .................................................................................19
A.5.2 ROUTINE INSPECTIONS .......................................................................................................20
A.5.2.1 Scope of Routine Inspections ....................................................................................20
A.5.3 IN-DEPTH INSPECTIONS ......................................................................................................22
A.5.3.1 Scope of In-Depth Inspections ...................................................................................22
A.5.3.2 Frequency of In-Depth Inspections ............................................................................22
A.5.4 FRACTURAL CRITICAL INSPECTIONS ................................................................................ 22
A.5.4.1 Scope of Fracture Critical Inspections .......................................................................22
A.5.5 DAMAGE INSPECTIONS .......................................................................................................23
A.5.5.1 Scope of Damage Inspections ...................................................................................23
A.5.5.2 Frequency of Damage Inspections ............................................................................23
A.5.6 SPECIAL INSPECTIONS ........................................................................................................24
A.5.6.1 Scope of Special Inspections .....................................................................................24
A.5.6.2 Frequency of Special Inspections ..............................................................................24
A.5.7 UNDERWATER INSPECTIONS .............................................................................................25
A.5.7.1 Scope of Underwater Inspections ..............................................................................25
A.5.7.2 Frequency of Underwater Inspections .......................................................................25
A.5.8 INSPECTIONS OF RAILROAD BRIDGES .............................................................................. 26
A.5.8.1 Scope of Railroad Bridge Inspections ........................................................................26
A.5.8.2 Railroad Flagger Requirements .................................................................................26
A.5.9 VERIFICATION OF CLOSED BRIDGES ................................................................................ 27
A.5.9.1 Frequency of Closed Bridge Verification ....................................................................27
A.6 INSPECTION REPORTING PROCEDURES...................................................................................28
A.6.1 GENERAL REPORTING TIMELINES .....................................................................................28
A.6.2 CRITICAL DEFICIENCY REPORTING ...................................................................................29
A.6.2.1 Critical Deficiency Process .......................................................................................30
A.6.3 FRACTURE CRITICAL INSPECTION REPORTING .............................................................. 32
A.6.3.1 7-Day Fracture Critical Report ...................................................................................32
A.6.3.2 Fracture Critical Report ..............................................................................................33
A.6.3.3 Structural Assessment Report ...................................................................................33
A.6.4 UNDERWATER INSPECTION REPORTING ......................................................................... 34
A.6.5 SPECIAL INSPECTION REPORTING ....................................................................................34
A.6.6 MAINTENANCE RECOMMENDATION REPORTING ............................................................ 34
A.6.7 INSPECTION UPDATE REPORTS ........................................................................................34
A.6.8 HAZARDOUS DEFICIENCY REPORTING ............................................................................. 34
A.7 INSPECTION RECORDS AND BRIDGE FILES ............................................................................. 35
A.7.1 PURPOSE OF INSPECTION RECORDS AND BRIDGE FILES ............................................. 35
A.7.2 MAINTAINING BRIDGE FILES/RECORDS ............................................................................ 35
A.7.3 COMPONENTS OF BRIDGE RECORDS ............................................................................... 35
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A-II

A.7.4 INSPECTION ORGANIZATION UNIT FILE ............................................................................ 38


A.7.5 ARCHIVING BRIDGE RECORDS FOR REPLACED STRUCTURES ..................................... 38
A.7.6 ADDITIONAL BRIDGE RECORDS FOR NON-HIGHWAY BRIDGES..................................... 38
A.8 LOAD RATING ................................................................................................................................39
A.8.1 LOAD RATINGS BASIC REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................ 39
A.8.2 GENERAL RE-RATING GUIDELINES ....................................................................................39
A.8.2.1 Changes in NBI Condition Ratings ............................................................................40
A.8.2.2 Changes in Structural Element Condition Ratings .....................................................40
A.8.3 ROLE OF THE TEAM LEADER ..............................................................................................41
A.8.3.1 Documenting the Condition of Primary Structural Elements ......................................41
A.8.3.2 Identifying and Reporting Additional Dead Loads ......................................................42
A.8.3.3 Verification of Load Posting Signage .........................................................................42
A.8.3.4 Verification of Member Sizes and Steel Type ............................................................42
A.8.4 ROLE OF INSPECTION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATOR ........................................................ 43
A.8.4.1 MnDOT District Program Administrators ....................................................................43
A.8.4.2 County/Local Program Administrators .......................................................................44
A.8.5 LOAD RATING RESPONSIBILITY .........................................................................................45
A.8.5.1 Procedures and Qualifications ...................................................................................45
A.8.5.2 Responsibility for Performing Load Ratings ...............................................................45
A.8.5.3 Load Rating Responsibilities of the MnDOT Bridge Office ........................................46
A.8.6 LOAD RATING FORMS ..........................................................................................................47
A.8.7 QUALITY CONTROL/QUALITY ASSURANCE ....................................................................... 49
A.8.8 LOAD RATING REFERENCES AND LAWS ........................................................................... 49
A.9 SCOUR ANALYSIS AND CHANNEL CROSS-SECTIONS ............................................................ 50
A.9.1 SCOUR CRITICAL BRIDGES .................................................................................................50
A.9.2 CHANNEL CROSS-SECTIONS ..............................................................................................50
A.9.2.1 MnDOT Criteria and Minimum Frequency for Performing Channel Cross-Sections .. 50
A.9.2.1.1 Bridges Requiring Channel Cross-Section................................................. 51
A.9.2.1.2 Bridges Recommended for Channel Cross-Sections................................. 51
A.9.3 CHANNEL CROSS-SECTION PROCEDURES, EQUIPMENT, AND DOCUMENTATION ..... 52
A.9.4 FOLLOW-UP ACTIONS FOR CHANNEL CROSS-SECTIONS .............................................. 53
A.10 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING ....................................................................................................54
A.10.1 STEEL STRUCTURES .........................................................................................................54
A.10.1.1 Ultrasonic Thickness Testing ...................................................................................54
A.10.1.2 Liquid Penetrant Testing ..........................................................................................54
A.10.1.3 Magnetic Particle Testing.........................................................................................55
A.10.1.4 Ultrasonic Testing ....................................................................................................56
A.10.1.5 NDT Certification ......................................................................................................56
A.10.2 CONCRETE ..........................................................................................................................57
A.10.2.1 Chain Drag Survey ...................................................................................................57
A.10.2.2 Ground Penetrating Radar .......................................................................................58
A.10.2.3 Infrared Thermography ............................................................................................59
A.10.3 TIMBER ................................................................................................................................61
A.10.3.1 Sounding ..................................................................................................................61
A.11 BRIDGE SAFETY INSPECTION EQUIPMENT ............................................................................. 63
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A-III

A.11.1 INSPECTION TOOLS EQUIPMENT .....................................................................................63


A.11.1.1 NDT Tools ................................................................................................................63
A.11.1.2 Visual Aid Tools .......................................................................................................63
A.11.1.3 Inspection Tools .......................................................................................................63
A.11.1.4 Documentation Materials .........................................................................................63
A.11.2 INSPECTION ACCESS ........................................................................................................64
A.11.3 CONFINED SPACE ENTRY .................................................................................................65
A.11.3.1 Permit Required Confined Space ............................................................................65
A.11.3.2 Non-Permit Required Confined Space .....................................................................65
A.11.3.3 Air Monitoring ...........................................................................................................66
A.11.3.4 Pre-Entry Checklist ..................................................................................................67
A.11.4 TRAFFIC CONTROL.............................................................................................................68
A.11.5 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT............................................................................. 69

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State of Minnesota |

A-IV

OCTOBER 2014
A.1 OVERVIEW

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES


The Policies and Procedures Chapter of
the Bridge and Structure Inspection
Program Manual (BSIPM) is intended to
provide detailed guidance of the
purpose, requirements, and procedures
of MnDOTs Bridge inspection program.

Chapter A
BSIPM User Note:

Text in this format indicates that another


Chapter of the manual may contain
additional information regarding the topic.

This chapter is intended for use by all


persons involved in bridge inspection
activities and will provide guidance on the following aspects:

Responsibilities of various parties for bridge safety inspections


Technical standards and specifications for bridge inspections
Administrative requirements to meet State and Federal regulations regarding recording and
reporting inspection information
Inspector Note:
Text in this format
symbolizes an important
note that is applicable to a
bridge inspector to alert of
an item to verify in the field.

A.2 ABBREVIATIONS

A.3 ADMINISTRATIVE

A.3.1 PROGRAM
SUMMARY

Provisions are not included for bridges used solely for


railroads, rail-transit, pedestrian, or public utilities that dont
cross a public road.
This chapter is not intended to be a training manual on bridge
inspection and only provides the minimum requirements
necessary for compliance with Federal and State regulations.
The Owner or Engineer may have to implement additional
requirements that exceed those outlined in this manual based
on engineering judgment or when presented with unusual
circumstances.

The abbreviations and acronyms for Chapter A Policies and Procedures are located in the
Introduction section of the BSIPM.
The administrative section is intended to provide guidance of the bridge inspection program for
the state of Minnesota including applicable standards and specifications, responsibilities of
agencies involved, and the type of structures included in the program.
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) Bridge Inspection Program is federally
mandated and has been in effect since 1971. The policies of the program are based upon the
Nation Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). Bridge inspection reports and records are housed by
MnDOT in an electronic database. These records are also forwarded to the Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA) on an annual basis.
MnDOT has a decentralized Bridge Inspection Program that delegates bridge inspections,
reports, load rating, and other requirements to the District Offices and also to the public
authorities that own bridges. The MnDOT Bridge Office is responsible for the overall supervision
of the statewide bridge inspection and inventory program, statewide bridge load posting
program, statewide training of structure inspectors, and fracture critical inspections. This
includes ensuring compliance with Federal directives regarding bridge inspection and
maintenance, making sure that all bridges are inspected at proper intervals, and that bridge files
are kept current and accurate.
The organization of the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Program shown below. Refer to the MnDOT
website for a current organization chart.

A-1

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Nancy Daubenberger
State Bridge Enigneer
Prin Admin Engr Mgmt

Tom Styrbicki

Construction & Maint


Sr Admin Engr Mgmt

Jihshya Lin

Fabrication Methods
Principal Engineer

Todd Niemann

SM/FC Inspection

Jennifer Zink

Bridge Inspection
Principal Engineer

Barry Glassman
Structural Metals
Senior Engineer

Ed Lutgen

North Region Const


Admin Engr Prof

Paul Pilarski

Metro Region Const


Principal Engineer

Yihong Gao

Dustin Thomas

Ratings
Principal Engineer

South Region Const


Principal Engineer

Sarah Sondag

Bridge Op Support
Senior Engineer

A-2

| State of Minnesota

David Hedeen

Data Management
Principal Engineer

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

A.3.2 DEFINITIONS

A-3

Chapter A

Bridge See Section A.3.3.1 for the NBIS definition and Section A.3.3.2 for Minnesotas
definition.
Bridge Inspection Includes any routine, special, hands-on fracture critical, or underwater
(UW) inspection performed on a bridge.
Bridge Inspection Team Leader (TL) Personnel certified by MnDOT to conduct inspections
of in-service bridges and culverts on the state, county and local highway system throughout
the state of Minnesota. A MnDOT certified Bridge Inspection Team Leader must be present at
the bridge site at all times during a bridge inspection.
Bridge Owner The entity listed on the MnDOT Bridge Inventory as the Owner of the bridge.
MnDOT Bridge Inspection Engineer (BIE): Refers to the State Bridge Inspection Engineer who
is the primary statewide contact for reporting Critical Bridge Deficiencies.
Program Manager (PM) - At the highest level, the individual appointed by MnDOT with
statewide responsibility for bridge inspection, reporting, inventory, and policy as designated
by the Commissioner of Transportation in accordance with Minnesota Statute 165.03 Subd.2.
Currently this title is held by the Bridge Construction and Maintenance Engineer. For the NBIS
definitions see Section A.3.4.1.
Program Administrator (PA) A certified Professional Engineer appointed by an agency or
jurisdiction to oversee the bridge inspection program and have quality control responsibilities
as delegated by the PM. Typically, the PA is the City or County Engineer, a consultant, or the
District Bridge Engineer. In accordance with Minnesota Statute 165.03 Subd. 2, the County
Highway Engineer is designated as Program Administrator for all bridges located wholly or
partially within or over the right-of-way of any county or town road, or any street within a
municipality that does not have a city engineer regularly employed.
Public Road See Section A.3.3.1.
Structure Information Management System (SIMS) MnDOT's bridge management system
(BMS) where inspectors enter inspection data and Bridge Owners can review data. SIMS
contains all bridge data including inventory, inspection findings, reports, pictures, sketches,
and more.
Structural Evaluation Engineer A certified Professional Engineer, or others under
supervision of, that conducts a structural assessment of a bridge based on inspection findings
of fracture critical inspections and other inspection types as requested. A standard template
of the Structural Assessment Report is provided in SIMS and is located in Appendix B of this
document.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.3.3 APPLICABLE
SPECIFICATIONS AND
STANDARDS
A.3.3.1 Federal
Highway
Administration
Requirements

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Other inspection manuals, design manuals, or specifications that can be used as further guidance
for inspecting bridges or structures are listed in the following sections.

The NBIS were developed after the 1968 Federal Highway Act became effective and were first
published as a notice in the Federal Register, Volume 36, No. 81, Page 7851 on April 27, 1971. The
NBIS have been amended several times by the FHWA to include new provisions for fracture
critical inspections, scour evaluations, and underwater inspections.
The NBIS are, therefore, mandated by Federal Law and are intended to ensure the proper
inspection of the nation's bridges more than 20 feet in length on public roads. The NBIS are
included in subpart C of Part 650 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 23 Highways.
The FHWA administers the NBIS under the guidelines outlined in their Recording and Coding
Guide for the Structure Inventory and Appraisal of the Nations Bridges (Federal Coding Guide).
The NBIS applies to all structures defined as highway bridges located on all public roads. The
following definitions have been taken from the Federal regulations:
As defined by NBIS 23 650, subpart C:
Bridge. A structure including supports erected over a depression or an obstruction, such as
water, highway, or railway, and having a track or passageway for carrying traffic or other
moving loads, and having an opening measured along the center of the roadway of more
than twenty (20) feet between undercopings of abutments or spring lines of arches, or
extreme ends of openings for multiple boxes; it may also include multiple pipes, where the
clear distance between openings is less than half of the smaller contiguous opening.
As defined by 23 U.S.C. 101(a)(27:
Public road. The term public road means any road or street under the jurisdiction of and
maintained by a public authority and open to public travel.
The FHWA gives policy guidance and established criteria. In addition, the FHWA utilizes a set of
metrics to review the results of each states program for compliance with the Standards through
its annual compliance reviews of State and Local Agencies.

A.3.3.2 State
Requirements

Minnesota has additional requirements governing the inspection of bridges within the State,
which are found in Statute 165.03, Strength of Bridge Inspection. The following definition is taken
for this Statute:
As defined by MN Statute 165.03, Subdivision. 3:
Bridge. Bridge is defined as a structure including supports erected over a depression or an
obstruction such as water, highway, or railway, having a track or passageway for carrying
traffic or other moving loads, and having an opening measured horizontally along the center
of the roadway of 10 feet or more between undercopings of abutments, between spring line
of arches, or between extreme ends of openings for multiple boxes. Bridge also includes
multiple pipes where the clear distance between openings is less than half of the smaller
contiguous opening. This definition of a bridge includes only those railroad and pedestrian
bridges over a public highway or street.

A-4

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.3.3.3 Inspection
Specifications

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

The following specifications, unless otherwise modified in this Chapter, shall govern the safety
inspection of bridges:

Minnesota Statute 165.03 Strength of Bridge Inspection:


https://www.revisor.mn.gov/statutes/?id=165.03
Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Title 23, Part 650, Subpart C National Bridge Inspection
Standards: http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/textidx?SID=eadb0f3dc61e36c8db52dede38c5be31&node=23:1.0.1.7.28.3&rgn=div6
MnDOT Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Manual
The Manual for Bridge Evaluation, Second Edition, 2011 with 2013 Interim Revisions,
published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
(AASHTO).
AASHTO Manual for Bridge Element Inspection, Second Edition, 2013
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Customary U.S. Units, 6th Edition, with 2013
Interim Revisions
AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 17th Edition, 2002
FHWA Bridge Inspectors Reference Manual, 2002 (Revised February 2012)
FHWA Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD)

Manuals can be purchased at: https://bookstore.transportation.org/


A.3.3.4 Other
Inspection Manuals
and References

Other inspection manuals that can be used as guidance for inspections are as follows:

A-5

Recording and Coding Guide for the Structure Inventory and Appraisal of the Nations Bridges
(Repot No. FHWA-PD-96-001): https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/mtguide.pdf
Culvert Inspection Manual (Report No. FHWA-IP-86-2):
http://isddc.dot.gov/OLPFiles/FHWA/006625.pdf
Inspection of Fracture Critical Bridge Members (Report No. FHWA-IP-86-26):
http://isddc.dot.gov/OLPFiles/FHWA/009349.pdf
FHWA Highway and Rail Transit Tunnel Inspection Manual, 2005:
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/tunnel/inspectman00.cfm
USFS Timber Bridge Manual: http://www.woodcenter.org/docs/em7700_8--entirepublication.pdf

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.3.4 RESPONSIBILITIES
FOR BRIDGE SAFETY
INSPECTIONS

A.3.4.1 State Program


Manager

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

MnDOT has federal and State statutory responsibilities for the safety and inspections of all
bridges on public roads, as defined in Section A.3.3, within the State of Minnesota. Some of the
more critical of these responsibilities include assurance of NBIS compliance, proper bridge
restrictions for vehicle size and weight and the reporting of NBI bridge data to the FHWA. In
addition to public road bridges, the safety of non-highway bridges and structures over public
roads is a Department responsibility.
The FHWA directs that each State transportation department must have a Program Manager
who has been delegated responsibility for statewide bridge inspection policies and procedures,
quality control and quality assurance, and preparation and maintenance of a bridge inventory.
The State Program Manager is also responsible for the proper conduct of all bridge inspections,
inspection reports, load ratings and other requirements relating to these standards.
As defined by NBIS 23 CFR 650, subpart C:
Program manager. The individual in charge of the program, that has been assigned or
delegated the duties and responsibilities for bridge inspection, reporting, and inventory. The
program manager provides overall leadership and is available to inspection team leaders to
provide guidance.
In Minnesota, the Program Manager duties have been delegated to the State Bridge
Construction and Maintenance Engineer. Specific responsibilities for the State Program Manager
are located in Section A.4.2.1.

A.3.4.2 Program
Administrators

In Minnesota, every MnDOT District, County, City (or other agency with inspection jurisdiction
for a bridge), must appoint a Bridge Inspection Program Administrator to oversee the bridge
inspection and inventory. Program Administrators must meet minimum qualification
requirements, which are outlined Section A.4.1.2.
The MnDOT District Bridge Engineer (or District Bridge Inspection Engineer) will typically serve as
the Bridge Inspection Program Administrator for State owned bridges. For Local Agency bridges,
the County or City Engineer will typically serve as the Bridge Inspection Program Administrator cities which do not employ an engineer may elect to designate a private consultant engineer as
the Program Administrator. Specific responsibilities for Program Administrators can be found in
Section A.4.2.2.

A-6

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.3.5 HIGHWAY
BRIDGES
A.3.5.1 Owner
Responsibilities

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Under the NBIS, state transportation agencies are responsible for the inspection program for all
highway bridges located on public roadways except for bridges that are federally owned or
tribally owned. The state transportation agencies, i.e. MnDOT, may, in accordance with the
regulation, delegate responsibilities.
The Bridge Owner has an overall obligation to ensure that its structure does not present an
unacceptable safety risk to the public. The acceptable level of safety is defined by MnDOT
standards as presented or referenced within the BSIPM. The Owner must perform maintenance
and repair activities or take other actions (i.e., closing or removal) to ensure public safety. In
order to demonstrate that a structure is safe, inspections by the Bridge Owner prescribed by law
and State regulations and in some cases best practices.
In this context, the term Bridge Owner applies to that party with overall maintenance
responsibility for the bridge or structure. Thus, Bridge Owners may include MnDOT, counties,
municipalities, or other State, local and federal agencies with assigned maintenance
responsibilities.
For highway bridges, the Bridge Owner responsibilities include:

A.3.5.2 MnDOT
Responsibilities

MnDOT responsibilities include:

A-7

Management of the bridge safety inspection program for bridges within their jurisdiction
Inspection of the bridge in accordance with the NBIS and MnDOT standards
Reporting of bridge inventory and condition information to MnDOT in accordance with NBIS
and MnDOT standards
Installation and maintenance of proper bridge restriction signing for vehicle weight and size,
including barricades for closed bridges
Maintenance of the bridge file including inventory and inspection records in accordance
with MnDOT standards
Ensuring their bridge inspection staff is properly equipped and trained
Maintain a central inventory of highway bridges within Minnesota and border bridges where
Minnesota is listed as having inspection or maintenance responsibility, including:
o All NBIS highway bridges including those owned by Locals Agencies
o All other highway bridges meeting the State definition of a bridge (10-20 length)
including those owned by Local Agencies
o All bridges that go over public roadways
Ensure compliance with NBIS for all highway bridges as noted above that meet the NBIS
definition of a bridge
Determine the safe load carrying capacity of all highway bridges meeting the NBIS and/or
State definition of a bridge
Ensure Owners post bridges in accordance with the posted load assigned by MnDOT
Maintain a Bridge Management System for all bridges as noted above that meet the NBIS
and/or State definition of a bridge
Reporting of all required NBIS bridge inventory and appraisal information to FHWA on an
annual basis
Quality Control/Quality Assurance of the bridge inspection program.
Provide FHWA an updated critical deficiencies list annually or as requested by FHWA

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.3.6 DEPARTMENT OF
NATURAL RESOURCES
BRIDGES

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Minnesota Statute 165.03, Subdivision 7 requires that the Commissioner of Transportation and
the Commissioner of Natural Resources negotiate a memorandum of understanding that
governs the inspection of bridges owned, operated, or maintained by the Department of Natural
Resources. This memorandum of understanding must provide for:

A.3.7 RAILROAD
BRIDGES OVER PUBLIC
ROADS

A.3.8 OTHER NONHIGHWAY BRIDGES


OVER PUBLIC ROADS

A.3.9 NONCOMPLIANCE WITH


NBIS

A-8

Chapter A

The inspection and inventory of all bridges meeting the NBIS and/or State definition of a
bridges
The frequency of inspection of bridges described above meeting the NBIS and/or State
definition of a bridge
Who may perform inspections required under the memorandum of understanding

Minnesota Statute 165.03, Subdivision 2 requires that railroad bridges over public roadways be
inspected by the agency with roadway authority. General guidelines for highway agency
inspectors conducting these railroad bridge inspections are located in Section A.3.5.
The Federal Railroad Administration was created by the Department of Transportation Act of
1966. Its purpose is to enforce rail safety regulations, administer railroad assistance programs,
conduct research and development in support of improved railroad safety and national rail
transportation policy, provide for the rehabilitation of Northeast Corridor rail passenger service
and consolidate government support of rail transportation activities. The railroad track owner is
responsible for ensuring that the bridge is capable of safely carrying all railroad traffic operated
on that track, and for specifying the maximum loads that may be operated over the bridge.
Where a non-highway facility (a bike/pedestrian pathway, utilities, sign structure, etc.) exists
over a public road, the bridge/structure needs to be inventoried and inspected to ensure public
safety. The NBIS does not require a structural safety inspection as it does for highway bridges.
However, Minnesota Statute 165.03, Subdivision 2 requires that bridges over public roadways be
inspected by the agency with roadway authority. Bridge Owners of public roadways with these
types of structures within their jurisdiction need to be aware of the general safety of these
facilities. The scope of these non-highway bridge inspections may be tailored to fit the individual
bridge type.
When the Local Agencies responsible for bridge inspection cannot or will not inspect their
bridges in a timely manner in accordance with NBIS and MnDOT standards, State Statute 165.03
requires MnDOT to perform the necessary inspections. If the Bridge Owner has not taken
appropriate actions in a timely manner to have a bridge inspected to meet NBIS requirements,
the State Program Manager will notify the Bridge Owner in writing of MnDOTs intent to have
the bridge inspected and that the Commissioner of Transportation will assess the Bridge Owner
for the cost of the inspection.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.4 INSPECTOR
TRAINING AND
QUALIFICATION
REQUIREMENTS

A.4.1 INSPECTION
PROGRAM PERSONNEL
QUALIFICATIONS
A.4.1.1 Program
Manager

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

MnDOT recognizes that the quality of an agencys inspection program is dependent on the
performance of the individual in charge of the agencys inspection program, and the individuals
leading the inspection teams performing the field inspections. These individuals must be
adequately qualified to perform their duties.

Certification in Bridge Safety Inspection (the inspection of in-service bridges and culverts) is
coordinated by the MnDOT Bridge Office, and is separate from other MnDOT technical
certifications. The requirements listed below have been developed by the MnDOT Bridge Office
to comply with Section 650.309 of the NBIS, as outlined in the Federal Code of Regulations.
The Program Manager for the State of Minnesota is the Bridge Construction and Maintenance
Engineer, who is appointed by the State Bridge Engineer to administer the Bridge Inspection
Program statewide.
The NBIS requires that the Program Manager must:

Be a registered professional engineer (PE); or have a minimum of ten years of bridge


inspection experience, and

Have successfully completed an FHWA approved comprehensive bridge inspection training


course.
A.4.1.2 Program
Administrator
Qualifications

Agencies, such as MnDOT Districts, Counties, Cities or other public or private entities designated
with inspection jurisdiction for one of more bridges must designate a Program Administrator
to oversee the inspection and inventory program. The Program Administrator must be a
registered PE in the State of Minnesota.

A.4.1.3 Bridge
Inspection Team Leader
Qualifications

A Bridge Inspection Team Leader can conduct inspections of


in-service bridges & culverts on the state, county, and local
highway system throughout the state of Minnesota.

Inspector Note:
A MnDOT certified Bridge
Inspection Team Leader must
be present at the bridge site
at all times during a bridge
inspection.

The NBIS outlines five methods to qualify as a Bridge


Inspection Team Leader, all of them require the successful
completion of a FHWA approved comprehensive bridge
inspection training course (see Section A.4.5.1 for approved
courses). MnDOT recognizes all five certification options, but requires an additional field
proficiency test for all Bridge Inspection Team Leaders.
1.

2.

3.

4.

A-9

Be a registered professional engineer in the state of Minnesota, successfully complete a


FHWA approved comprehensive bridge inspection training course, and pass a field
proficiency test (administered by the MnDOT Bridge Office).
Have five years of bridge inspection experience, successfully complete a FHWA approved
comprehensive bridge inspection training course, and pass a field proficiency test
(administered by the MnDOT Bridge Office).
Be certified by NICET as a Level III or IV Bridge Safety Inspector, successfully complete an
FHWA approved comprehensive bridge inspection training course, and pass a field
proficiency test (administered by the MnDOT Bridge Office).
Have a bachelor's degree in engineering from an accredited college or university,
successfully pass the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE or EIT) Examination, have two years
of bridge inspection experience, successfully complete an FHWA approved comprehensive
bridge inspection training course, and pass a field proficiency test (administered by the
MnDOT Bridge Office).

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Have an associate's degree in engineering or engineering technology from an accredited


college or university, have four years of bridge inspection experience, successfully complete
an FHWA approved comprehensive bridge inspection training course, and pass a field
proficiency test (administered by the MnDOT Bridge Office).
A.4.1.4 Assistant Bridge
Inspector

While the FHWA and MnDOT have no minimum requirements for who can assist in a bridge
inspection, MnDOT encourages completion of the 1-week National Highway Institute (NHI)
training course Engineering Concepts for Bridge Inspectors prior to assisting in bridge
inspections. Any NHI training course can be taken in conjunction with gaining bridge inspection
experience. Training courses do not have to be taken prior to starting the 5 year experience
stipulation stated in Section A.4.5.1 of this manual. MnDOT does not issue certification cards for
Assistant Bridge Inspectors.

A.4.1.5 Fracture Critical


Bridge Inspector
Qualifications

Fracture critical inspections shall be conducted by or under the direct supervision of individuals
which have been certified as a MnDOT Bridge Safety Team Leader in accordance with Section
A.4.1.3 above. They must also meet one of the following additional requirements:
1.

Have taken the NHI Course: Fracture Critical Inspection Techniques for Steel Bridges, or

2.

Have or obtain experience and/or classes related to fracture critical inspection that may be
substituted in lieu of the NHI Course, but at the discretion of the Program Manager.

Only qualified American Society for Non-Destructive Testing Level II or III technicians shall
conduct NDT services, by ultrasonic methods. See Section A.10.1.5 for additional information
and requirements for inspectors performing NDT.
A.4.1.6 Underwater
Bridge Inspector
Qualifications

A-10

Underwater inspections shall be conducted by or under the direct supervision of individuals


which have been certified as a MnDOT Bridge Safety Inspection Team Leader in accordance with
Section A.4.1.3 above. They must also meet the following additional requirements:
1.

Have at least two years experience in Underwater bridge inspections, and

2.

Conduct diving operations in accordance with requirements of the most current revision of
29 CFR Part 1910, Subpart T Commercial Diving Operations, published by the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and

3.

Successfully completed FHWA NHI Course No. 130091A, Underwater Bridge Inspection

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.4.2 INSPECTION
PROGRAM PERSONNEL
RESPONSIBILITIES
A.4.2.1 Program
Manager
Responsibilities

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

This section identifies the responsibilities of the Program Manager, Program Administrator, and
the Bridge Inspection Team Leader.

For Minnesota, the PM duties have been delegated to the States Bridge Construction and
Maintenance Engineer. The PM is responsible for statewide bridge inspection policies and
procedures, quality control and quality assurance, inspection reporting, preparation and
maintenance of a bridge inventory, load ratings, and other requirements relating to these
standards. The PM provided overall leadership and is available to inspection team leaders to
provide guidance. The Program Manager responsibilities include:

Review Inspection Plans*


Review Specialty Equipment
o Condition of current equipment
o Acquisition of new equipment
o Calibration and certification requirements
Review Inspection Access Equipment
o Condition of current equipment
o Acquisition of new equipment
o Calibration and certification requirements
Review Inspection Reports
Review of follow-up items to inspection findings*
Determine Program Administrator/Inspector Qualification Requirements
o Enforce De-certification and Denials if Requirements not met
Establish Program Administrator/Inspector Training and Certification
o Annual refresher training seminars
Critical Deficiencies review and follow-up*
Statewide Inventory Data Reviews
o Accuracy of inspection reports
o Late inspections
o Critical Deficiencies Smart Flag
o New ratings or postings requirements
o NBI Condition State 2 review

(*Items that may be delegated to a Program Administrator)


A.4.2.2 Program
Administrator
Responsibilities

The Program Administrator should be familiar with the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Report format
and the NBI and structural element condition ratings (as outlined in the MnDOT Bridge
Inspection Manual) and of the resources available on the Bridge Office website,
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/index.html including bridge inspection and inventory
reports, inspections due and inspection frequency reports, bridge scour reports, bridge load
posting and rating reports and bridge roster reports. The Program Administrator responsibilities
include:

A-11

Review and sign all routine bridge inspection reports.


Review in-depth inspection reports (fracture critical or underwater reports).
Respond to recommendations made in reports.
Identify and follow up on repair or rehabilitation identified from the inspection.
Report Critical Deficiencies to the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Engineer and follow-up to
resolution.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

A.4.2.3 Team Leader


Responsibilities

Review Condition Ratings for accuracy and changes from previous year.
Determine reduced inspection frequency (i.e. 24 months to 12 months) and/or need for indepth inspection based on inspection findings.
Report changes in load ratings and inventory data to the MnDOT Bridge Office.
Maintain Inspector Qualifications.
Submit annual certification of inspector qualifications to the MnDOT BADMU (Local
Agencies Only).
Report and/or schedule necessary maintenance.
Maintain bridge files.
Report Bridge inspection date to MnDOT Bridge Office within 90 days for Trunk Highway
bridges and within 180 days for non-TH bridges.
Act through the State Commissioner of Transportation in regards to bridges owned by cities
or towns/townships to enforce bridge safety and maintenance.

A MnDOT certified Bridge Inspection Team Leader must be present at the bridge site at all times
during a bridge inspection. Their duties include:

A.4.3 CERTIFICATION
AND APPOINTMENT
PROCESS

Chapter A

Assure that inspection equipment and required inspection tools are available during
inspections.
Observe proper safety and traffic control procedures.
Accurately record and report field conditions in accordance with the MnDOT Inspection
Manual.
Use photos and sketches to document and quantify element conditions are deficiencies.
Properly report Smart Flag conditions.
Update plans and inventory data based on observations during inspections.
Document deterioration of concrete, timber or steel elements for load rating updates.
Document and report Critical Deficiencies found during bridge inspections as outlined in
Section A.6.2.

The requirements listed below have been


developed by the MnDOT Bridge Office to
comply with the NBIS, as outlined in the
Federal Code of Regulations Part 650.309 and
Minnesota Statute 165.

Inspector Note:
The certification levels defined below refer
to the inspection of in-service bridges and
culverts. This should not be confused with
bridge construction inspection certification.

A.4.3.1 Program
Administrator

Designation as a Bridge Inspection Program Administrator does not also qualify that individual as
a Bridge Safety Inspection Team Leader. If a Program Administrator also wants to perform bridge
inspections, they must be certified by MnDOT as a Team Leader.

A.4.3.1.1 Appointment

Any agency with inspection jurisdiction for one or more bridges on the MnDOT structure
inventory must designate a Program Administrator to oversee the bridge inspection and
inventory program. To designate a Program Administrator, an appointment form must be signed
by an appropriate supervising individual employed by the agency (in many cases this will be the
same individual designated as the Program Administrator) and submitted to the Bridge Office.
The MnDOT Bridge Safety Inspection Appointment Form for Program Administrators can be
found at the MnDOT Bridge Inspection website:
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/inspection.html
The District Bridge Engineer will typically be designated as the Program Administrator for
MnDOT Districts; the County Engineer will typically be designated as the Program Administrator
for counties; the City Engineer will typically be designated as the Program Administrator for
municipalities. Smaller cities which employ a consultant to perform bridge inspections may
choose to designate a consulting engineer as the Program Administrator.

A-12

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.4.3.1.2 Renewal of
Appointment

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Program Administrators are automatically renewed every four years unless the Program
Administrator does not meet the required training, the Program Administrator is replaced, or
the Program Administrator is denied reappointment by the Program Manager. To maintain
appointment the following two minimum requirements must be met:

A.4.3.1.3 Denial Process

Chapter A

Be registered as a PE in the state of Minnesota.


Attend a minimum of two MnDOT refresher seminars or other bridge inspection related
training during the four year appointment period.

The Program Manager can deny/revoke appointment to a Program Administrator for a variety of
reasons, not limited to the following:

Failure to attend refresher seminars or bridge inspection related training at required


intervals
Failure to maintain registration as a Professional Engineer as applicable
Continued lack of proper follow-up for critical deficiencies, critical scour, or other items that
could adversely affect the performance of the bridge or the safety of the public
Failure to correct findings from NBIS Quality Assurance Agency Compliance Reviews,
including failure to respond to repeated compliance review inquiries
Lack of follow-up for correcting load posting deficiencies
Failure to submit inspection data into inventory in a timely manner
Failure to follow or comply with any MnDOT, State, or Federal Policy, rules or law
Failure to inspect bridges within the required frequency
Dishonest or unethical behavior that adversely affects the inspection program

A.4.3.1.4 Reappointment

A Program Administrator denied appointment may re-qualify, if they indicate in a written report,
or plan of action, how they will correct their deficiencies. Upon approval by the MnDOT Program
Manager, the Program Administrator agency shall be re-appointed but monitored for 1 year
under the NBIS compliance review process.

A.4.3.2 Team Leader


Certification

In addition to the training and experience requirements outlined in the NBIS, MnDOT requires a
separate field proficiency test to become certified as a Bridge Inspection Team Leader. The
purpose of this test is to ensure compliance with the NBIS standards, to improve the quality of
bridge inspections, and to increase the statewide consistency of bridge condition ratings. To
schedule a field proficiency test, an application form must be submitted to MnDOT Bridge Office:
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/pdf/insp/fieldtestapplicationform.pdf
The test consists of a routine inspection of an in-service bridge (based upon the MnDOT Bridge
Inspection Manual and Inspection Report Format). The inspector is given 2 hours to examine a
bridge, take notes, and determine the NBI & structural element condition ratings.
Grading of the field proficiency test is determined by comparing the candidate's inspection
report to a reference inspection report. Emphasis is placed on the overall completeness and
accuracy of the report, and on the proper documentation of any critical structural or safety
conditions. Scoring is based on a percentage scale of 0-100, with a passing score being 75% or
higher. Applicants who fail the field proficiency test may apply again after 6 months. The score is
weighted using the following criteria:

NBI condition ratings 30%


Structural element condition ratings 30%
Smart Flags & other items 10%
Inspection Notes 30%

A certification card will be sent to MnDOT certified Team Leaders with a four year expiration
date.

A-13

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.4.3.2.1 Renewal of
Certification

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Certification must be renewed every four years (renewal forms mailed out prior to expiration
date). To maintain certification, a Team Leader must meet the following requirements:

A.4.3.2.2 DeCertification

Attend a minimum of two MnDOT refresher seminars or other bridge inspection related
training during the four year certification period.
Actively engage in bridge inspections during at least two of the four year certification period
(must be verified by Program Administrator).

The Program Manager can decertify a Team Leader for a variety of reasons, not limited to the
following:

A.4.3.2.3 ReCertification

Chapter A

Failure to attend refresher seminars or bridge inspection related training at required


intervals
Failure to maintain registration as a Professional Engineer as applicable
Continued lack of proper follow-up for critical deficiencies, critical scour, or other items that
could adversely affect the performance of the bridge or the safety of the public
Failure to correct findings from NBIS Quality Assurance Agency Compliance Reviews,
including failure to respond to repeated compliance review inquiries
Recurring miscoded critical items, such as structural elements and smart flags
Lack of follow-up for correcting load posting deficiencies
Failure to submit inspection data into inventory in a timely manner
Failure to follow or comply with any MnDOT, State, or Federal Policy, rules or law
Failure to inspect bridges within the required frequency
Dishonest or unethical behavior that adversely affects the inspection program

A de-certified Team Leader may recertify by completing the 2 week NHI training course Safety
Inspection of In-Service Bridges and achieving a score of 70% or better on the examination at
the end of the course. Attendance in the entire course is mandatory for re-qualification. In
addition, the disqualified Team Leader must complete the MnDOT Field Proficiency test and
achieve a score of 75% or better.
If a Team Leader is decertified only due to failure to fulfill training requirements within the four
year certification period, he/she may be recertified by re-taking and passing the MnDOT Field
Proficiency test. If the de-certified Team Leader does not pass the MnDOT Field Proficiency test,
he/she must complete and re-pass the 2 week NHI training course Safety Inspection of InService Bridges.

A-14

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.4.4 CERTIFICATION
AND APPOINTMENT
TRACKING

A.4.5 BRIDGE SAFETY


INSPECTION TRAINING
COURSES
A.4.5.1 NHI Training
Courses

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

MnDOT maintains a database identifying Team Leaders, Program Administrators, and anyone
having taken NHI bridge safety courses and/or a MnDOT bridge inspection seminar. Certification
information tracked by the MnDOT Bridge Office is as follows:

Name
Address
Certification Number (if applicable)
Agency Information
Certification Expiration Date
Test scores
NHI Bridge Safety Inspection Training Class Attendance and Scores
MnDOT Field Proficiency Test Date and Scores
Inspection Refresher Seminar Attendance

FHWA and the State of Minnesota both require mandatory inspection training courses prior to
becoming a certified Bridge Inspection Team Leader. This section identifies the different classes
available to satisfy this qualification.

The FHWA approved the following courses developed by the NHI to qualify as a certified Bridge
Inspection Team Leader include the following:
1. NHI Course #130054 (Engineering Concepts for Bridge Inspectors (also known as Bridge
Safety 1)): This one-week course provides instruction on elementary concepts in engineering
for use by bridge inspectors. It is intended to prepare individuals with little or no
background in bridge engineering for the more intensive two-week course. This course is
optional for technicians, inspectors, or engineers who have an adequate background in
bridge engineering concepts.
2. NHI Course #130055 (Safety Inspection of In-Service Bridges (also known as Bridge Safety
2)): This two-week course provides detailed instruction on the inspection, evaluation, and
condition rating of in-service bridges. This course is mandatory for anyone intending to
become certified as a MnDOT Bridge Inspection Team Leader.
Together, these two courses meet the definition of a comprehensive training program in bridge
inspection as defined in the NBIS. MnDOT hosts two Bridge Safety Inspection training courses
each year, typically in February or March at the MnDOT Arden Hills Training Center.
In 2012, the FHWA and NHI added new prerequisite requirements for the 2-week course Safety
Inspection of In-Service Bridges. Anyone who wants to register for this course will first need to
successfully complete an online assessment on the NHI web site. Two course options are
available. There is no cost and only considered valid for two years. Upon successful completion
of NHI Course #130101A or #130101, you will be issued a certificate with your name on it
through the NHI Training Page on the NHI Website. You must bring a copy of your completion
certificate to the first day of the 2-week course.
1.

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NHI Course #130101A (Prerequisite Assessment for Safety Inspection of In-Service


Bridges): This is an online assessment consisting of three quizzes of 15 questions each.
You need to pass each quiz with a score of 70% or higher. This assessment should take
approximately 1 hour. You should only take this 1 hour assessment quiz if you feel
confident in your knowledge of the topics listed in the outcomes for NHI Course
#13101 (see course description on the NHI web site) - if not, you should instead take
NHI Course 130101. If you do not pass this course, you will need to take the NHI Course
#130101.

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

2. NHI Course #130101 (Introduction to Safety Inspection of In-Service Bridges): This is an


online tutorial and assessment that should take approximately 14 hours to complete. It
includes essentially the same quiz format as NHI Course 130101A (three quizzes of 15
questions each), but you have the option of taking the quizzes as you go, or taking them all
at the end. You need to pass each quiz with a score of 70% or higher.
Other NHI Classes periodically offered by MnDOT are the following:
1. NHI Course #130078 (Fracture Critical Inspection Techniques for Steel Bridges): This is a
3.5 day course for inspectors to identify fracture critical bridges, fracture critical bridge
members, and fatigue prone details. Tasks include: categorize contributing factors in the
initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks; perform an intensive, in-depth, and thorough
fracture critical member inspection; identify various crack types and access their impact on
the performance of the member; evaluate, select, and facilitate the use of available NDT
methods; and recommend a necessary course of action based on inspection findings.
2. NHI Course # 130053 (Bridge Inspection Refresher Training): This is a 3.5 day course for
practicing bridge inspectors to refresh skills in fundamental visual inspection techniques;
review the background knowledge necessary to understand how bridges function;
communicate issues of national significance relative to the nations' bridge infrastructures;
re-establish proper condition and appraisal rating practices; and review the professional
obligations of bridge inspectors.
3. NHI Course # 135046 (Stream Stability and Scour at Highway Bridges): This 3-day course
provides participants with comprehensive training in the prevention of hydraulic-related
bridge failures. Course participants will receive training in conducting a stream stability
classification and qualitative analysis of stream response and make estimates of scour at a
bridge opening.
Material for the course comes primarily from two Hydraulic Engineering Circulars (HEC),
"Evaluating Scour at Bridges" (HEC-18), 5th Edition (2012), and "Stream Stability at Highway
Structures" (HEC-20), 4th Edition (2012). The effects of stream instability, scour, erosion,
and stream aggradation and degradation are covered. Quantitative techniques are provided
for estimating long-term degradation and for calculating the magnitude of contraction scour
in a bridge opening. Procedures for estimating local scour at bridge piers and abutments for
simple and complex substructures are also provided. A comprehensive workshop integrates
qualitative analysis and analytical techniques to determine the need for a Scour Plan of
Action for correcting stream instability and scour problems.
Registration for NHI courses is through the NHI web site:
http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov
Click on Register for a Course
Click on Find Training Courses
Enter the course number and click Search.
You will need to register on the NHI site and get a password.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.4.5.2 Bridge Safety
Inspection Refresher
Training Seminars

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

The NBIS requires periodic bridge inspection refresher training for bridge inspection team
leaders and program managers. The intent of this training is to improve the quality of bridge
inspections, introduce new inspection equipment and techniques, and maintain the consistency
and reliability throughout the state-wide network of bridge safety inspection programs.
MnDOT conducts annual one-day bridge safety inspection refresher seminars. These classes are
typically held in February and March in various locations throughout the state. For seminar
locations, dates and registration information visit the MnDOT Bridge Office training portion of
the website:
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/training.html
To maintain MnDOT certification as a Bridge Inspection Team Leader, attendance is required at a
minimum of two bridge inspection seminars during each four year re-certification period.
Engineers who are currently designated as Bridge Inspection Program Administrator are required
to attend at least two of these refresher seminars every four years.
Seminar topics will vary each year, but will generally cover bridge inspection condition ratings,
structure inventory coding, bridge load capacity ratings, bridge hydraulics, and a variety of topics
related to bridge inspection.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.5 BRIDGE SAFETY
INSPECTION TYPES

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

This section describes the procedures for determining the required inspection type and
frequency for individual bridges and culverts. It also establishes the process for request and
approval of any changes to inspection frequencies.
There are seven types of bridge inspections: Initial, Routine, In-depth, Damage, Special, Fracture
Critical and Underwater Inspections. The scope and frequency of the various types of bridge
safety inspections are described here to provide an understanding of the purpose and use of
each inspection type. These inspections are performed at intervals that are influenced by the
individual bridges structural condition, structure type and details, site conditions, load capacity
evaluation, and scour critical evaluation.
Complex bridge structures such as movable, suspension, cable-stayed, and other bridges with
unusual characteristics must have published inspection procedures and inspection team
qualification requirements for the structure(s). These procedures should cover the inspection
frequency, scheduling and requirements for the In-Depth inspections, traffic control, special
equipment, methods of access, and specific components on the structure where hands-on
inspection is required for each inspection. The requirements for any special inspection
techniques such as non-destructive testing should also be identified including the locations
where applicable.
As defined by NBIS 23 CFR 650.305:

A.5.1 INITIAL
INSPECTIONS

Initial inspection. The first inspection of a bridge as it becomes a part of the bridge file to provide
all Structure Inventory and Appraisal (SI&A) data and other relevant data and to determine
baseline structural conditions.

A.5.1.1 Scope of Initial


Inspections

All new and newly rehabilitated structures must receive an initial inspection. This type of
inspection may also be required when there is a change in the configuration of the structure or
change in bridge ownership. The initial inspection is to verify the safety of a bridge, in
accordance with the NBIS and MnDOT standards, before it is put into service. It also serves to
provide required inventory information of the as-built structure type, size, and location for the
State database and to document its structural and functional conditions by:

Providing all SI&A data required by Federal regulations along with all other data required by
MnDOT standards and/or the Bridge Owner
Determining baseline structural conditions
Clearance envelopes (for features carried and those intersected)
Determining the channel cross section for structures over waterways and identifying the
reference point for future inspections.
Identifying and listing any existing problems
Identifying maintenance needs, including preventative maintenance activities
Noting the existence of elements or members requiring special attention, such as fracture
critical members, fatigue-prone details, and underwater members

Coinciding with the initial inspection is the creation of the bridge file for the structure.
Documents including, but not limited to, photographs, drawings (design, as-built and shop
drawings), scour analysis, foundation information, hydrologic and hydraulic data are to be
inserted into the bridge file. Selected construction records (e.g., pile driving records, field
changes) may also be of great use in the future and should be included. Include maintenance
records for existing bridges.
The level of effort required to perform an initial inspection will vary according to the structures
type, size, complexity, and location. An initial inspection needs to verify that all inspection
elements have been accounted for and document the baseline conditions. Traffic control and
special access equipment may be required.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.5.1.2 Frequency of
Initial Inspections

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

The initial inspection shall occur within 90 days of the date that the bridge is opened to traffic
for Trunk Highway (TH) bridges. The initial inspection shall occur within 180 days of the date that
the bridge is opened to traffic for non-Trunk Highway structures. However, the preferred
practice is for the initial inspection to be performed for each structure after construction is
essentially complete and before the bridge is put into service (or returned to service for bridges
that have had a major reconstruction).
All newly-constructed bridges and culverts are assigned a routine inspection frequency of 12
months. Following the initial inspection, Bridge Owners can then request a longer interval for
routine inspections in accordance with Section D.7.3.3.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.5.2 ROUTINE
INSPECTIONS

A.5.2.1 Scope of Routine


Inspections

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

As defined by NBIS 23 CFR 650.305:


Routine inspection. Regularly scheduled inspection consisting of observations and/or
measurements needed to determine the physical and functional condition of the bridge, to
identify any changes from initial or previously recorded conditions, and to ensure that the
structure continues to satisfy present service requirements.
Routine inspections are also known as regular and NBIS inspections. Although these
inspections are used to determine bridge maintenance or repair needs, the primary focus of the
routine inspection is public safety. This inspection includes sufficient observations and
measurements to determine the physical condition of a structure in order to accomplish the
following functions:

Determine the physical and functional condition of the structure and its components
Identify changes from the previously recorded conditions
Correct any inaccuracies in bridge inventory data noted during the inspection
Determine the need for the load-carrying capacity to be re-evaluated based on either the
condition of the structural members or increased dead loading
Identify and document potential problems that may affect bridge safety
Determine maintenance needs that may be required

The level of detail and effort required to perform a routine inspection will vary according to the
structures type, size, design complexity, existing conditions, and location. Generally, every
element in a bridge does not require a hands-on inspection during each routine inspection to
provide an acceptable level of safety. Knowledge of the structure and good engineering
judgment are necessary when considering those portions that do not require a hands-on
inspection during each routine inspection.
Bridge elements requiring a detailed hands-on inspection during each routine inspection include,
but are not limited to:

Load carrying members in Poor condition


Fracture Critical Members/Details in Poor condition
Fracture Critical Member/Details where out-of-plane bending or fatigue problems exist.
Redundancy retrofit systems (e.g., Catcher-beams) for fracture critical details (pin hangers,
etc.)
Critical sections of controlling members on load posted bridges
Scour critical substructure units
End regions of steel girders or beams in Poor condition under a deck joint
Cantilever portions of concrete piers or bents in Fair or lesser condition
Timber substructure elements in Poor condition
Other areas determined by the Program Administrator or Team Leader to be potentially
critical

The application of these guidelines noted above does not relieve the Team Leader from the
responsibility to perform other hands-on inspection tasks and/or tests needed to ascertain the
condition of the bridge and assure its safety. If the Team Leader feels additional access
equipment, special tools or specific testing equipment is required, this should be discussed with
the Program Administrator.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Routine inspections are generally conducted from the deck, ground and/or water levels, ladders
and from permanent work platforms or walkways, if present. Inspection of underwater members
of the substructure is generally limited to observations during periods of low flow and/or
probing/sounding for evidence of local scour and by wading.
Special attention should be given to the wearing surface type and fill depth during each routine
inspection. If there appears to be a recent overlay on the structure that has occurred since the
previous inspection, it is possible the inventory data hasnt been updated. Additional dead loads
resulting from increased fill depths or bridge rails have a direct impact on the load carrying
capacity of the structure. Refer to Section A.8.2 for additional information and general
guidelines for when a bridge load re-rating may be warranted.
A general review of inventory items should be a part of each routine inspection, with any needed
corrections noted and forwarded to the Program Administrator with the other inspection
findings. The goal is to have the
bridge inventory data as accurate as
BSIPM User Note:
possible and this can only be
Refer to Chapter D Recording and Coding
accomplished by a periodic review of
Guide of the BSIPM which details specific
this data. This general review of
requirements for all Inventory Items.
inventory information during the
routine Inspection does not
For information regarding routine
necessarily require the inspector to
inspection frequency, see Section D.7.3.3.
take physical measurements, but
should include an effort to identify
obvious errors in existing structure
inventory information.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.5.3 IN-DEPTH
INSPECTIONS

A.5.3.1 Scope of InDepth Inspections

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

As defined by NBIS 23 CFR 650.305:


In-depth inspection. A close-up, inspection of one or more members above or below the
water level to identify any deficiencies not readily detectable using routine inspection
procedures; hands-on inspection may be necessary at some locations.
In-depth inspections serve to collect and document the existing condition of all elements in
greater detail than a typical routine inspection. These inspections can also provide the
necessary documentation of deficiencies for use in determining the need for immediate repairs
or future rehabilitation of the structure. Many times, this data is more difficult to collect than
data collected during a routine inspection.
The level of effort required to perform an in-depth inspection will vary according to the
structures type, size, design complexity, existing conditions, and location. Traffic control and
special equipment, such as an UBIV, bucket truck, man lift or specialized rigging may be required
to adequately perform an in-depth inspection. Inspectors with special skills such as divers,
riggers and certified non-destructive testing technicians may also be required. Other nondestructive and/or material tests can be part of an in-depth inspection to determine the extent
of a deficiency or evaluate the existing strength of a bridge element. A structural analysis for
load carrying capacity may be required with an in-depth inspection to fully evaluate the findings
of this more detailed inspection.

A.5.3.2 Frequency of InDepth Inspections

A.5.4 FRACTURAL
CRITICAL INSPECTIONS

The frequency of an in-depth inspection will be established by the Bridge Owner. An in-depth
inspection that includes all elements and satisfies all requirements of a routine inspection can be
scheduled to take the place of a routine inspection for a given inspection cycle. In-depth
inspections may also be scheduled as a follow-up to a previous inspection. For large or complex
bridge structures, in-depth inspections should be routinely scheduled to ensure that
maintenance work is identified early, programmed to secure funding, and completed in a timely
manner.
As defined by NBIS 23 CFR 650.305:
Fracture critical member (FCM). A steel member in tension, or with a tension element,
whose failure would probably cause a portion of or the entire bridge to collapse.
Fracture critical member inspection. A hands-on inspection of a fracture critical member or
member components that may include visual and other nondestructive evaluation.
Hands-on. Inspection within arms length of the component. Inspection uses visual
techniques that may be supplemented by nondestructive testing.

A.5.4.1 Scope of
Fracture Critical
Inspections

Inspection under these guidelines will apply to all bridges that have members determined to be
fracture critical (FC), except those bridges that carry only railroad and or pedestrian traffic. The
Bridge Office will evaluate all bridges that are not load path redundant to determine if and
where FCMs are present. FC inspections shall be conducted using an UBIV, bucket trucks, man
lifts, rigging, boats, ladders or any means necessary to visually inspect all FC members hands-on.
Inspections will be conducted following appropriate MnDOT safety guidelines for both the
employee and the general public.
Field inspections should be conducted in a systematic and organized manner that will be
efficient and minimize the possibility of any bridge item being overlooked. Critical Deficiencies
shall be reported as detailed in Section A.6.2. Findings that may affect the load carrying capacity
of the bridge shall be reported in the 7 Day Fracture Critical Report mentioned in Section A.6.3.1
seven days after completing the inspection.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

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POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

The Bridge Office completes all fracture critical inspections and maintains files on the bridges.
The Bridge Office will maintain a list of the following items for those bridges which contain
FCMs to ensure the safety of such bridges:

Location and description of such FCMs


BSIPM User Note:
for each bridge
For information regarding
In-depth or special feature inspection
fracture critical inspection
frequency
frequency, see Section D.7.3.9.
Inspection procedure(s)
Date of the last inspection
Description of inspection findings
Description of any follow-up action resulting from the most recent inspection

Fracture critical inspections, on both the Trunk Highway and Local System, are conducted by the
Bridge Office. Scheduling priority for inspections will be given to large and complex bridges.
Traffic control and certain access equipment (man-lift, etc.) are the Bridge Owners responsibility
in accordance with Chapter F MnDOT Inspection Vehicle Policy Manual of the BSIPM regardless
of participation by the Bridge Office.
The Bridge Office will provide a wide range of services to
the Districts, Local Agencies, and consultants in support of
Fracture Critical Inspections, including:

Identification of FCMs and critical details


Training
On-site inspections
Non-destructive testing.

Refer to Section A.4.1.5 for specific FC inspector


qualifications.
A.5.5 DAMAGE
INSPECTIONS
A.5.5.1 Scope of
Damage Inspections

Inspector Note:
Only qualified American Society
for Non-Destructive Testing
(ASNT) Level II or III technicians
shall conduct and/or verify nondestructive testing services done
by others in regards to
ultrasonic and magnetic particle
testing methods.

As defined by NBIS 23 CFR 650.305:


Damage Inspection. This is an unscheduled inspection to assess structural damage resulting
from environmental factors or human actions.
Damage inspections are performed to investigate damage in order to evaluate the potential
effect on the load-carrying capacity of the structure. A damage inspection may also be used to
determine the immediate need to place an emergency restriction on a bridge due to a traffic
impact or extreme weather event, or to determine repairs that are necessary to put the bridge
back into service.
The scope of the damage inspection has to match the level of detail necessary to accurately and
adequately determine the safe load-carrying capacity of the structure. Inspectors must evaluate
any fractured members, determine extent of section loss, take measurements for misalignment
of members, and check for any loss of foundation support. In the case of an assessment due to a
severe weather event or bridge impact, the inspector may need to make an on-site
determination of the need to close or severely restrict the traffic on the structure. Refer to
Section A.8.2 for additional information on conducting inspections for the purpose of completing
a bridge load re-rating structures with damaged members.

A.5.5.2 Frequency of
Damage Inspections

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Damage inspections are performed on an as-needed basis as determined by the Bridge Owner
and/or Program Administrator.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

As defined by NBIS 23 CFR 650.305:

A.5.6 SPECIAL
INSPECTIONS

Special Inspection. An inspection scheduled at the discretion of the Bridge Owner, used to
monitor a particular known or suspected deficiency.

A.5.6.1 Scope of Special


Inspections

Special inspections are performed in addition to the other NBIS inspections and typically focus
on specific elements of the structure. They may be prompted by structural deterioration,
conditions affecting the stability of the structure, or for other reasons at the discretion of the
State Program Manager. Some examples of Special Inspections would be:

Extensive deterioration to main load carrying members


Recorded or potential scour
Movement of a substructure unit
Settlement
Damage or Impact
A pinned assembly requiring non-destructive testing on a set routine inspection frequency
Structural details with a history of poor performance such as pin and hanger details.

Special inspections that require ultrasonic testing (UT) of pins are conducted by the MnDOT
Bridge Office. These inspections may be completed in conjunction with both District and Local
Agency inspectors. Traffic control and certain access equipment such as man-lifts or UBIVs are
the Bridge Owners responsibility in accordance with Chapter F MnDOT Inspection Vehicle
Policy Manual of the BSIPM.
The Bridge Office will maintain a list of those bridges which contain unique or special features
requiring additional attention to ensure the safety of such bridges (e.g. pin and hanger details
and steel pier caps).
Inspections will be conducted following appropriate MnDOT safety guidelines for both the
employee and the general public. Special inspections will be conducted using the same
guidelines as FC inspections.
A.5.6.2 Frequency of
Special Inspections

Pin and hanger details and pinned assemblies shall receive a special inspection at an interval not
to exceed 60 months. Other special inspections may be established at the discretion of the State
Bridge Inspection Program Manager. Reduction in inspection frequency (e.g. 24 months to 12
months) may be determined by the Structural Evaluation Engineer based on inspection findings
if deemed necessary.
Special Inspections are regularly scheduled until repairs are made, corrective actions are taken
to reduce or negate any potential risks to the safety of the structure, or the poor performing
structural details are removed from the structure.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.5.7 UNDERWATER
INSPECTIONS

A.5.7.1 Scope of
Underwater Inspections

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

As defined by NBIS 23 CFR 650.305:


Underwater Inspection. Inspection of the underwater portion of a bridge substructure and
the surrounding channel, which cannot be inspected visually at low water by wading or
probing, generally requiring diving or other appropriate techniques.
NBIS require inspection of all bridges as needed to determine the condition of the underwater
portion of the substructures with certainty. Minnesota defines a bridge as needing an
underwater inspection when, the water depth is such that the underwater portions of a
substructure cannot routinely be inspected using waders during periods of low water depth. It
can also apply to structures that cannot be examined by feel for condition, integrity and safe
load capacity due to excessive water flow velocity and/or turbidity.
Underwater inspections shall be both a visual and a tactile inspection of the entire underwater
portion of the substructure. Inspections shall include checking all concrete for erosion, wear,
abrasion, scaling, spalling, exposure, and deterioration, and for any exposed reinforcing steel
and all cracking. All exposed structural steel and piling shall be checked for misalignment and
loss of sections. All timber shall be sounded and checked for presence of bores, decay, and
weathering. The channel bottom shall also be inspected for presence, size, condition of riprap,
and for any evidence of scour. Underwater inspections should be conducted in a systematic and
organized manner that will be efficient and minimize the possibility of any underwater bridge
item being overlooked.
The Bridge Office will, for all Trunk Highway bridges, monitor and administer the underwater
inspections and maintain files on each of these bridges. Underwater Inspections will normally be
performed by diving contracts administered by the Bridge Office for all bridges requiring UW
inspections. The Bridge Office will maintain a list of the following for those bridges which require
Underwater Inspections:

Location of the bridge and member to be inspected


Type of foundation
Bottom of foundation elevation or pile tip elevation
Depth soundings at bridge as well as upstream and downstream of bridge
Type and frequency of required inspections
Inspection procedure(s)
Date of last inspection
Special equipment requirements
Description of inspection findings
Description of any follow-up action(s) resulting from most recent inspection

Underwater inspections must be conducted under the direct supervision of either a MnDOT
certified Team Leader or someone with NBIS Team Leader qualifications. Refer to Section
A.4.1.6 for information regarding Underwater Bridge Inspector Qualifications.
A.5.7.2 Frequency of
Underwater Inspections

The frequency of underwater inspections will be based upon the criticality and condition of the
bridge. Diving inspections are performed by consulting engineers on state-wide contracts. To
ensure compliance with FHWA Metric #17, beginning in 2016 and continuing into the future, all
Trunk Highway, County, City, and Township bridges will receive underwater inspections on a 48
month cycle. The inspections will be combined under a single contract. UW inspections by a
certified engineer-diver may also be required for a scour critical bridge immediately after floods.
Reduced inspection frequency (i.e. 48 months to 12 months) may be suggested by the lead
consultant engineer based on inspection findings and then determined by the State Bridge
Hydraulics Engineer.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.5.8 INSPECTIONS OF
RAILROAD BRIDGES

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

The owner of the railroad track supported by a bridge is fully responsible for the safety of trains
that operate over that bridge, regardless of any agreement or division of ownership or
maintenance expense to the contrary.
It is highly suggested that the railroad track owner should:

Maintain an accurate bridge inventory (location, configuration, type of construction,


number of spans, span lengths, and all other information necessary to provide for bridge
management)
Ensure that every bridge that carries railroad traffic is inspected at least once per year.
Bridge inspection reports should be reviewed by an engineer who is competent in the field
of railroad bridge engineering.
Ensure that bridges are not loaded beyond their capacities. A professional engineer
competent in the field of railroad bridge Engineering (or under supervision) should
determine the bridge load capacity, and a record of the safe capacity of every bridge which
carries its track should be maintained.

Like all bridges on the MnDOT inventory, railroad bridges with condition ratings of 5 or higher
for NBI Item 59 and 60 may be inspected on a 24-month interval. Non-redundant railroad
bridges which carry an active railroad must be inspected on a 12-month frequency, regardless of
condition. Non-redundant railroad bridges are not considered fracture critical and do not
require in-depth inspections as they do not carry highway traffic.
A.5.8.1 Scope of
Railroad Bridge
Inspections

A Routine Inspection of a railroad bridge should not differ significantly from the inspection of a
highway bridge, except for the issue of railroad property access. As the intent of the roadway
agency is to safeguard those traveling beneath a railroad bridge, the inspection will typically be
performed exclusively from below. A Routine Inspection of a typical railroad bridge will consist
of a visual inspection of all the spans from the ground level.
In addition to routine inspection notes as previously discussed, notes should also include the
following:

Emergency and non-emergency railroad contact information


Railroad mile point or US/DOT ID number
Bridge Owner and custodian agency with bridge maintenance responsibility

The roadway agency inspector is not required to walk across the deck of a railroad bridge. The
deck can be visually inspected from below. Railroad decks are often too narrow to provide a
safe place to stand when a train is passing over, and many railroad bridges do not have railings.
If possible, the inspector should note if the railroad tracks are active, abandoned or removed.
On some multi-span railroad bridges, only the spans(s) crossing the public roadway will be
inspected by the roadway agency, and the inspection notes should clearly state what portion of
the bridge was inspected.
The roadway agency should pay particular attention to the safety of the roadway passing below
a railroad bridge. The inspector should verify that any required clearance signing is present,
correct and in readable condition. Vertical and horizontal clearance measurements should be
verified and current measurements kept on file. The inspector should always note if the
roadway below the bridge has been recently resurfaced, and the MnDOT Bridge Office should be
notified of any changes.
A.5.8.2 Railroad Flagger
Requirements

A-26

If access to railroad property is required to perform a bridge inspection, the railroad owner must
be notified and right of entry to the property obtained. A railroad flagger is required whenever
access equipment is used on a highway bridge over an active railroad. Requirements established
by the operating railroad owner for flaggers during the inspection will be determined prior to the
inspection and strictly adhered to by the roadway agency inspectors.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.5.9 VERIFICATION OF
CLOSED BRIDGES

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

When bridges are closed to vehicle traffic and are not removed it is the responsibility of the PA
to verify the bridge is still closed to assure public safety from either pedestrian access on the
structure or from vehicle and/or pedestrian access below the structure. If the structure meets
the NBIS definition of a bridge and remains in the States Inventory, it must continue to be
closed.
Closed bridges are often found open to traffic due to the public removing temporary barricades
or signage. If the public continues to remove temporary barricades, the Bridge Owner should
install permanent barricades that the public cannot readily move. It is very important that these
bridges remain closed as a matter of public safety.

A.5.9.1 Frequency of
Closed Bridge
Verification

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Verification that the bridge is still closed to traffic should be completed on an annual basis.
Advance signing and the closure barricades should be verified on an annual basis to ensure they
are still in serviceable conditions and still effective in preventing vehicle and/or pedestrian
access to the structure. Whenever possible, concrete barriers should be installed as a positive
measure to keep vehicles from gaining access to the structure.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.6 INSPECTION
REPORTING
PROCEDURES

A.6.1 GENERAL
REPORTING TIMELINES

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

The following sections provide guidance for procedures to be followed for documenting and
reporting inspections and specific procedures and requirements.

State Owned Bridges:


For general reporting QC procedures of state owned highway bridges, see Section E.5.4.1.
The inspection report must be reviewed and approved by the appropriate Program
Administrator within 90 days of the inspection for Trunk Highway bridges.
Non-State Owned and Department of Natural Resource Bridges:
For general reporting QC procedures of non-state owned highway bridges, see Section E.5.4.2.
The inspection report must be reviewed and approved by the appropriate Program
Administrator within 180 days of the inspection for Local Agency bridges.
Railroad Bridges:
MnDOT and other Local Agencies normally do not forward bridge inspection reports to the
Railroad Owner unless one of the following criteria has been met:

If the Condition rating for NBI Item 58 (Deck), Item 59 (Superstructure) or Item 60
(Substructure) is rated a 4 or less
A Critical Deficiency as defined by Section A.6.2 of the manual is found during the inspection
A Hazardous Deficiency as defined by Section A.6.8 of this manual is found during the
inspection
If a special inspection is necessary to monitor a particular known or suspected deficiency
If a damage inspection is necessary due to damage that has caused the load carrying
capacity of the structure may be affected

The general reporting timelines outlined for non-state owned bridges should be followed for all
railroad structures.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.6.2 CRITICAL
DEFICIENCY REPORTING

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

A Critical Deficiency is defined as any condition discovered during a scheduled bridge inspection
that threatens public safety and, if not promptly corrected, could result in collapse or partial
collapse of a bridge. Critical Deficiencies include structural conditions and scour or hydraulic
conditions that are found to be critical during the inspection or that are likely to become critical
to the stability of the bridge before the next regularly scheduled inspection.
The FHWA requires that all states develop a process to monitor critical deficiencies found during
bridge inspections. The following sections are intended to provide the necessary guidelines to
fulfill the FHWA requirements. The guidelines described below are based on the Critical
Deficiency Procedures as outlined in Section 4.8.1.4 of the AASHTO Manual for Bridge
Evaluation (MBE) as well as Technical Memorandum 11-12-B-04 which states:
Critical structural and safety-related deficiencies found during the field inspection and/or
evaluation of a bridge should be brought to the attention of the Bridge Owner or
responsible agency immediately if a safety hazard is present. Standard procedures for
addressing such deficiencies should be implemented, including:

Immediate critical deficiency reporting steps (see Section A.6.2.1)


Emergency notification to police and the public if closure or restriction is warranted
Rapid evaluation of the deficiencies found
Rapid implementation of corrective or protective actions
A tracking system to ensure adequate follow-up actions
Provisions for identifying other bridges with similar structural details for follow-up
inspections if applicable

It is recognized nationally that some past bridge failures may have been prevented if prompt
attention had been given to concerns noted on bridge inspection reports. To ensure public
safety, it is essential that Critical Deficiencies not only be brought to the attention of those
responsible but that these findings are reviewed to confirm that all necessary corrective actions
have been completed.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.6.2.1 Critical
Deficiency Process

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

The following guidelines outline and describe the Critical Deficiency Inspection Report to be
completed if a Critical Deficiency is observed during a bridge inspection. The report is divided
into three parts, Responsibilities of the Bridge Inspector, Responsibilities of the Program
Administrator, and Responsibilities of the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Engineer. The Critical
Deficiency Inspection Report can be found in Appendix C.
Part 1 Responsibilities of the Bridge Inspector:
Upon discovery of a Critical Deficiency, the Bridge Inspector is responsible for the following:
1) Emergency Bridge Closure: If the observed condition is severe enough to warrant
immediate closure of the bridge (or immediate restriction of traffic above or below the
bridge), the Bridge Inspector shall immediately take any actions necessary to ensure public
safety.
2) Prompt Notification of the Program Administrator: Upon discovery of a Critical Deficiency,
the Bridge Inspector shall promptly notify the Program Administrator. The inspector should
identify the bridge number, bridge location, and clearly and accurately describe the critical
condition.
3) Inspection Report: In addition to the prompt verbal notification, the following written
documentation must be completed:

If the Critical Deficiency is observed during a routine (NBI/SIMS) inspection, the


inspector should rate the Critical Deficiency Smart Flag (Element #964) as Condition
State 2, and briefly describe the critical deficiency (if necessary, supplemental notes,
sketches, photos, and measurements should be included to fully describe the situation)
and submit the inspection to the Engineer.
If the Critical Deficiency is observed during a hands-on fracture critical inspection,
underwater inspection, or other special inspection, the inspector must submit a brief
written statement or report describing the condition (as described in step 2 above) to
the Engineer within 48 hours after finding the Critical Deficiency.

Part 2 Responsibilities of the Program Administrator:


Upon being notified of a Critical Deficiency, the Program Administrator is responsible for the
following:
1) Rapid Evaluation: The Program Administrator (PA) is required to quickly assess the
situation to confirm or refute the finding, and to initiate necessary traffic restrictions to
safeguard the public. If in doubt, the PA should temporarily close or restrict traffic on the
bridge, then contact a consulting bridge engineer, the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Engineer,
or the MnDOT Bridge Office (651) 366-4500 for assistance. If the PA determines that the
condition reported is not a Critical Deficiency, the Critical Deficiency Smart Flag (Element
#964) can be changed back to Condition State 1 after discussing with the inspector (the
MnDOT Bridge Office requires no subsequent documentation).
2) Traffic Control & Public Notification: The PA shall be responsible for coordinating all
necessary traffic control (such as load restrictions, lane or bridge closures, or detours). The
PA shall also be responsible for the public notification of any traffic restrictions.
3) Immediate Notification of the Bridge Owner: If the Bridge Owner (as listed on the MnDOT
inventory) is different than the entity with report jurisdiction, the PA shall be responsible
for informing the Bridge Owner that a Critical Deficiency has been found.
4) Submittal of Inspection Report to the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Engineer: Within 7 days
after a Critical Deficiency has been reported, the PA must notify MnDOTs Bridge Inspections
Engineer of the finding and must submit a copy of the inspection report.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

5) Rapid Implementation of Corrective Action: The PA is responsible for promptly scheduling


repairs to the bridge. If the bridge remains open to traffic, the PA is responsible for
determining the proper load rating for the bridge, and ensuring that the rating is adequately
posted.
6) Resolution of Deficient Status: After repairs have been completed or the load rating
adjusted with proper posting, the PA should change the Critical Deficiency Smart Flag
(Element #964) rating to Condition State 1, and add a brief description of the corrective
actions taken in the inspection notes for that smart flag. A copy of the revised inspection
report must then be submitted to the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Engineer.
7) Updating of the Bridge Inventory: If the bridge load rating is permanently reduced, the PA
must submit a new load rating to the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Engineer. If the bridge is
closed to traffic, the PA must notify the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Engineer.
Part 3 Responsibilities of the MnDOT Bridge Office:
1) Provide Immediate Assistance: Requests for assistance in evaluating a Critical Deficiency
should be directed to the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Engineer (or, if not available, to other
available resources within the MnDOT Bridge Office) such requests will be given priority
over other work. If a Critical Deficiency is confirmed, a brief written report should be filed
with the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Engineer. Requests for assistance with follow-up
inspections should be directed to the MnDOT Bridge Office Inspection Unit. Requests for
repair recommendations should be directed to the MnDOT Regional Bridge Construction
Engineer (651) 366-4500.
2) Recording the Critical Deficiency: Upon receipt of a written or oral report or the Bridge
Inspection Report describing the Critical Deficiency from the PA, the MnDOT Bridge
Inspection Engineer will enter the bridge number and date of the inspection in a Critical
Deficiency Log, will create a separate file for the bridge to track resolution of the problem,
and will require the critical deficiency to be entered promptly into the SIMS Bridge
Management System. The Critical Deficiency Log will be available upon request.
3) Follow-up: The MnDOT Bridge Inspection Engineer shall monitor the situation as
necessary until the situation has been resolved and written notification of corrective action
has been received. If notification is not received within 30 days, the Bridge Inspection
Engineer shall contact the PA (or Bridge Owner) for further information.
4) Documenting the Resolution of the Deficiency: After the notification of corrective action
has been received from the PA, the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Engineer shall enter the date
of resolution in the Critical Deficiency Log and shall file all related documents.
5) Updating of the Bridge Inventory: Upon notification that a bridge has been closed, or that
a bridge load rating has been permanently reduced, or that repairs have been completed,
the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Engineer will forward the information to the Bridge Asset
Data Management Unit (BADMU) so the bridge inventory can be properly updated.
6) Annual Reporting of Critical Bridge Deficiency Status: Prior to May 1st of each year (which
coincides with the annual submittal of the bridge inspection data to the FWHA), the MnDOT
Bridge Inspection Engineer will report the status of Critical Deficiencies to the State Bridge
Engineer (SBE). The status of Critical Deficiencies that have been logged during the past
year, and any additional bridges in the SIMS database with Element #964 in Condition State
2 will be included in the report.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.6.3 FRACTURE
CRITICAL INSPECTION
REPORTING

A.6.3.1 7-Day Fracture


Critical Report

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

The reports specific to fracture critical bridge inspections listed below involve an extensive
review process which procedures are explicitly outlined in an internal MnDOT Bridge Office
document. The basic report and review procedures outlined in said internal document are
abbreviated below for the purposes of statewide awareness.

This report must be submitted by the Bridge Office TL to the Bridge Owner within 7 days of the
inspection date. The purpose of the report is to identify deficiencies that may require
immediate action before the Final Fracture Critical Report is written and reviewed and to
provide NBI and Element coding for input of routine inspection data within required data entry
time limits. The standard 7 Day Fracture Critical Report template is available in SIMS.
The 7 Day Fracture Critical Report undergoes a review process as follows:

A-32

Critical Deficiencies, New Load Rating Recommendation, Safety Hazards, and/or Structural
Analysis Recommendation if any of these items are determined during a FC inspection, the
TL must notify the BIE and the Bridge Evaluation Unit immediately. The Bridge Evaluation
Unit will call an assessment A.6.2meeting to develop a plan of action. Once a plan of action
is determined, the Bridge Evaluation Engineer will submit a response via e-mail to the BIE
and CC the assessment meeting participants. The BIE will then submit to the inspection
team, who will then in turn document the plan of action in the bridge file, notify the
Program Administrator as applicable, and/or create a Critical Deficiency Report in SIMS if
necessary.
If no critical deficiency is determined during a FC inspection, the designated inspection
report writer will first create the 7 Day Fracture Critical Report in SIMS in conjunction with
the inspection team members for review.
Once reviewed by the inspection team members and
Inspector Note:
revised, the inspector will submit the 7 Day Fracture
Any critical deficiencies should
Critical Report to the BIE for review via SIMS. The BIE
be reported immediately as
will review the report for inspection-related items,
discussed in Section A.6.2.
grammar, format, and completeness. The review will
be promptly returned to the report writer for revision
through the SIMS application by way of personal edits within the application or in the
comments section upon submittal.
Once revisions are made, the inspector will submit the 7 Day Fracture Critical Report to the
BIE who then submits to the Bridge Evaluation Unit via SIMS. The Bridge Evaluation Unit will
review the report for any items that may need attention prior to distribution of the Fracture
Critical Report. The Bridge Evaluation Unit shall complete the Structural Assessment Report
form tab in SIMS and promptly submit back to the BIE.
If the Bridge Evaluation Unit identifies any Critical Deficiencies, New Load Rating
Recommendation, Safety Hazards, and/or Structural Analysis Recommendation that were
not previously identified by the TL, the Evaluation Unit will follow the process outlined
above. The report writer will revise and redistribute the 7 Day Fracture Critical Report as
necessary under the direction of the BIE.
The report writer will then submit the 7 Day Fracture Critical Report to the BIE for approval.
The BIE approves and then sends the report via email to the PA and Bridge Owner. The
report writer will also send an e-mail to the Bridge Evaluation Unit, Bridge Management
Unit (to update inventory items), and the EDMS Document Specialist (import into EDMS)
with the 7 Day Fracture Critical Report attached as a PDF. In the case of a border bridge, the
7 Day Fracture Critical Report must also be sent to the respective agency contact via e-mail.
The BIE will record that day as the 7-Day Report Date Sent in the Bridge Office Inspection
Tracking spreadsheet for that year.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.6.3.2 Fracture Critical
Report

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

This report is a standard narrative report that identifies the inspection procedures, fracture
critical members, fatigue prone details, and detailed inspection findings of the bridge. It is the
detailed supplementary report to the initial 7 Day Fracture Critical Report. The standard
Fracture Critical Report template is available in SIMS. This report also undergoes a similar review
process as the 7 Day Fracture Critical Report:

A.6.3.3 Structural
Assessment Report

Chapter A

Within five months of the FC inspection date, the report writer will create a Fracture Critical
report in SIMS. Once complete, the report writer will submit the report for review via SIMS
to the BIE who may distribute to others in the Inspection Unit for review as needed.
Reviewed reports will be submitted back to the report writer through SIMS within 14 days of
receipt by the BIE. Format and inspection adequacy review is completed by the BIE, or
others in the Inspection Unit as delegated, through the SIMS application by way of personal
edits within the application or in the comments section upon submittal.
The report writer must complete revisions within 14 days of receipt.
The report writer will then submit this final report for approval to the BIE.
The BIE will send a PDF of the report via e-mail to the applicable Minnesota Program
Administrator and CC the report writer, Bridge Evaluation Unit, and EDMS Document
Specialist (to import into EDMS). In the case of a border bridge, the Fracture Critical Report
must also be sent to the respective agency contact.
The BIE will then record that day as the Date Sent to Owner in the Bridge Office Inspection
Tracking spreadsheet for that year

The Bridge Evaluation Unit conducts a structural assessment of the bridge based on the 7 Day
Fracture Critical Report. Purposes of the report include:

Verify critical deficiencies have been addressed


Determine if repair or rehabilitation is recommended or needed
Determine if the structure is functioning as designed
Determine if load rating should be re-evaluated
Identify items to schedule for repair

A standard template of the Structural Assessment Report is provided as an optional tab in SIMS
for every report type and is located in Appendix B of this document. The Structural Assessment
Report is submitted with the 7 Day Fracture Critical Report to the Bridge Owner. Structural
Assessment by the Bridge Evaluation Unit may be utilized for other Inspections Types (i.e. Initial,
Routine, Damage, Special, etc.) at the discretion of the Bridge Owner.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.6.4 UNDERWATER
INSPECTION REPORTING

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Underwater inspection reports shall include the following items:

Location of the bridge and members to be inspected


Type of foundation
Bottom of foundation elevation or pile tip elevation
Depth soundings at bridge as well as upstream and downstream of bridge
Type and frequency of required inspections
Inspection procedures
Date of last inspection
Special inspection requirements
Description of inspection findings
Description of any follow-up actions resulting from those findings

The consultant performing the inspection shall develop a Quality Management Plan that
specifies how the consultant will perform quality assurance and quality control activities
throughout the duration of the project to ensure delivery of a quality product in a timely manner
that conforms to established contract requirements. The Quality Management Plan shall be
submitted to the States Program Manager for approval.
Detailed narrative reports including condition assessment, sketches, and photographs must be
entered into SIMS upon completion of the inspection and then reviewed by the appropriate PA
within 90 days of the inspection for TH bridges and within 180 days of the inspection for local
agency bridges. The reports shall include the following items: location of the bridge and
members to be inspected, type of foundation, bottom of foundation elevation or pile tip
elevation, depth soundings at bridge as well as upstream and downstream of bridge, type and
frequency of required inspections, inspection procedures, date of last inspection, special
inspection requirements, description of inspection findings, and description of any follow-up
actions result from those findings.
A.6.5 SPECIAL
INSPECTION REPORTING

A.6.6 MAINTENANCE
RECOMMENDATION
REPORTING

A.6.7 INSPECTION
UPDATE REPORTS

Reports include condition assessment, sketches, and photographs and must be entered into the
special inspection report in SIMS upon completion of the inspection and then reviewed by the
appropriate Program Administrator within 90 days of the inspection for Trunk Highway and
within 180 days of the inspection for local agency bridges.
Maintenance recommendation reporting is crucial in order to highlight issues with the bridge
superstructure, substructure, and/or channel. With prompt reporting, these issues can
hopefully be reduced with proper maintenance. See the Bridge Maintenance Manual for
procedures on reporting maintenance recommendations.

Update reports may be completed in SIMS for a bridge when there is a change to any core
NBI/element inspection data or maintenance task outside of a regular inspection frequency
interval. The Update Report will apply changes only to those items without affecting the
established routine, fracture critical, special, etc. inspection date.
An Update Report allows inspectors to change data without affecting the next inspection due
date.
An example of using an Update Report would be obscured elements during a winter inspection.

A.6.8 HAZARDOUS
DEFICIENCY REPORTING

A-34

A Hazardous Deficiency is defined as an element level condition found during a regularly


scheduled bridge inspection that may be hazardous to public safety, but IS NOT expected to lead
to collapse or partial collapse of the bridge. While any Hazardous Deficiency found during a
bridge inspection should immediately be reported to the Bridge Owner (or appropriate
authority), the MnDOT Bridge Office requires no subsequent documentation.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.7 INSPECTION
RECORDS AND
BRIDGE FILES

A.7.1 PURPOSE OF
INSPECTION RECORDS
AND BRIDGE FILES

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

The AASHTO Manual for Bridge Evaluation Section 2.2 recommends that Bridge Owners should
maintain a complete, accurate, and current record of each bridge under their jurisdiction. At a
minimum, a bridge file should include a chronological record of Inventory and Appraisal sheets,
inspections performed, including Special, Underwater, and Fracture Critical Reports, bridge load
rating and posting records, photographs, design plans, and bridge related correspondence. A
bridge file can either be electronic, hard-copy, or a combination of both.
This section establishes policies and procedures on how State and Local Agencies are to maintain
their bridge records to effectively manage physical assets within their right-of-way and to meet
FHWA requirements. This section is largely based on requirements established by Chapter 2 of
the AASHTO Manual for Bridge Evaluation (MBE) and therefore mandated by FHWA. Bridge
Owners should maintain a complete, accurate, and current record of each bridge under their
jurisdiction. Complete information, in good usable form, is vital to the effective management of
bridges. These records are needed to:

Establish an inventory of infrastructure assets


Document the condition and functionality of structures, including the need and justification
for bridge restrictions for public safety
Identify improvement and maintenance needs for planning and programming
Document maintenance repairs performed
Document bridge rehabilitation performed
Provide the basis for a replacement bridge record if structure is replaced
Meet documentation requirements for work performed using Federal and State funding

Provide available information in a timely manner for safety inspections


A.7.2 MAINTAINING
BRIDGE FILES/RECORDS

The bridge inspection file is an integral part of an effective bridge inspection and management
system.
The information in the bridge inspection file is kept current through bridge inspections
scheduled at regular intervals. As bridge inspection files are updated, the existing information is
archived and retained to establish a history for each bridge.
A bridge record contains the cumulative information about an individual bridge. It should
provide a full history of the structure, including details of any damage and all strengthening and
repairs made to the bridge. The bridge record should report data on the capacity of the
structure, including the computations substantiating reduced load limits, if applicable.
Some or all of the information pertaining to a bridge may be stored in electronic format as part
of SIMS. When both electronic and paper formats are used for saving data, they should be crossreferenced to ensure that all relevant data are available to the inspector.

A.7.3 COMPONENTS OF
BRIDGE RECORDS

Some of the components of good bridge records are described below. It is recognized that, in
many cases (particularly for older bridges), only a portion of this information may be available.
The components of data entered in a bridge record should be dated and include the signature of
the individual responsible for the data presented if applicable.

A-35

Plans Current structural plans, including initial construction and subsequent widening,
rehabilitation and repair plans associated with the structure. Each bridge record should
include one set of final drawings showing the as-built condition of the bridge. Plans
associated with maintenance work, including guardrail, paving, and joint replacement
should also be retained.
Specifications Special provisions, including initial construction and subsequent widening,
rehabilitation and repair specifications associated with the structure. Standard specifications
may be considered included by reference when stated on the plan sheets.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Photographs Maintain current and past photos of the structure elevation view, deck, both
approach roadway views, and current defects or other significant features. The approach
roadway and elevation photos need to be sufficient to easily identify the bridge, and should
be updated whenever the bridge is rehabilitated, widened, or otherwise visibly altered. If
the bridge is load posted, photos of the approach roadway needs to include the load posting
signs.
Posting Current load and clearance posting values, date of posting, and description of
posting signage used. This description needs to identify the posting requirements to meet
state and local laws. In cases when advance warning signs are needed, these signs shall be
included in this documentation. Maintaining current information includes:
o Ensuring the most current load rating calculations are consistent with the load posting
values
o Documentation for posting restrictions created by executive decision (usually as a result
of bridge damage) is included
o The most current vertical and/or horizontal clearance measurements are consistent
with the vertical clearance posting values on and under the bridge
Traffic Data All traffic data required for the bridge record is maintained in the SI&A sheet
or equivalent.
Inspection History A cumulative record of all routine, fracture critical, underwater, and
special feature inspections; all damage inspections required as a result of accidents,
structure deterioration or natural disasters; all other special follow-up inspections to assess
damage after a natural disaster; and any other in-depth inspection or testing report. This
bridge record component also includes a cumulative record of all in-depth studies or
evaluations, including but not limited to fatigue evaluations, material test reports, or scour
evaluations.
Inspection Requirements A current set of documents that define requirements and
procedures for all routine, fracture critical, underwater, in-depth and special feature
inspections. These documents are intended to facilitate inspection planning by defining the
appropriate equipment and access needs. Special requirements to ensure the safety of the
inspection personnel, the public, or both should be noted, including a traffic control plan if
applicable. The following areas of preparation, where applicable, are to be documented for
each bridge.
o Required Tools and Equipment - Identify any specialized tool or piece of equipment
necessary that is not ordinarily carried by the bridge inspector. Example tools might be
extendable ladders, special non-destructive testing equipment, power tools, lights,
special safety equipment, special underwater tools or diving gear.
o Special Services - Record any special services that are required. Example services might
be traffic control, structure cleaning operations, inspection access such as structure
rigging, an Under Bridge Inspection Vehicle (Snooper), or special working platforms
such as a barge.
o Scheduling - Document specific scheduling needs for non-routine inspections. This
includes manpower needs for larger structures that require an extended duration
inspection effort with multiple inspectors, bridges subject to seasonal flooding
conditions, fracture critical bridges where special services are required, and underwater
bridge inspections.

Site Condition Considerations - Identify unique site conditions that require more than routine
preparation. Unique site conditions include railroad property right-of-way
o

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| State of Minnesota

restrictions, navigable waterway restrictions, high voltage transmission lines, confined


space, unusually heavy vegetation, mud, pollution, insect or animal droppings,
unusually high water level or unique traffic safety procedures.

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

A-37

Chapter A

SI&A Sheets A cumulative record that displays all the data for the bridge. Additional
information on this can be found in Chapter D - Recording and Coding Guide of the BSIPM.
Load Rating Records A current and complete record of load rating calculations, including a
summary of the controlling rating factor and controlling element. In addition, this summary
should provide all the information needed to code relevant fields in the SI&A sheet. The
summary sheet shall be signed and stamped by the Professional Engineer of record for the
load rating document.
Correspondence Cumulative correspondence directly related to the bridge, with emphasis
on bridge condition, damage, repairs, rehabilitation, and replacement. The intent is to retain
pertinent information for the long term management of the in-service bridge that is not
retained in other locations.
Maintenance and Repair History A chronological record documenting the maintenance
and repairs that have occurred since the initial construction of the bridge. At a minimum,
this includes completed maintenance records for all repair recommendations documented
in inspection reports.
Coating History Cumulative paint, sealant and other protective membrane material
specifications and testing documents.
Accident Records This component refers to vehicular accidents resulting in damage to the
bridge.
Permit Loads A cumulative record of all permit loads requiring review by the Load Rating
Engineer, or other designated individual who meets the qualifications of a Load Rating
Engineer.
Flood Data A chronological history of major flooding events, including high-water marks at
the bridge site and scour activity for bridges over water.
Waterway Information Channel cross-sections, soundings and stream profiles.
Scour Plan of Action (POA) Scour records are required for all bridges over water.
Agreements A current record of all maintenance, inspection, or other relevant agreements
with other agencies or consultants pertinent to bridge management.
Permits A current record of all permits issued by other agencies.
Materials and Tests Material certification and testing documents associated with
construction records.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.7.4 INSPECTION
ORGANIZATION UNIT
FILE

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

The Districts and Local Agency Bridge Owners are to maintain a general file of their organization
for bridge safety inspection in addition to individual files for each specific bridge. This general
organization file should contain:

List of all bridge and culvert structures


List of load posted structures
List of Fracture Critical Member bridges
List of structures with special features and/or conditions that necessitate special feature
inspections at intervals less than that specified for the routine inspection
List of bridges that require underwater inspection
List of bridges to be inspected during/after high water events
Contact list for key staff during bridge emergencies

Inspection organization

A.7.5 ARCHIVING
BRIDGE RECORDS FOR
REPLACED STRUCTURES

A.7.6 ADDITIONAL
BRIDGE RECORDS FOR
NON-HIGHWAY
BRIDGES

When a bridge is demolished or permanently removed from service, the Program Administrator
for the removed bridge shall provide documented acknowledgement of the removal. It is
suggested that the Bridge Owner maintain bridge records for the removed bridge permanently.

The bridge files for all non-highway bridges that cross a public roadway must contain all of the
applicable requirements outlined in Section A.7.3 above. Additionally, the following items must
be maintained:

A-38

Organization Chart
Staffing with inspection certification credentials indicated
Internal inspection Quality Control Plan
List of inspection equipment
Availability of bridge design and inspection reference material
Results of previous QA and FHWA reviews

Department of Natural Resources Bridges: The memorandum of understanding that


governs the inspection of bridges owned, operated, or maintained by the Department of
Natural Resources should be maintained. Review Section A.3.6 for the requirements that
must be included in this memorandum.
Other Non-Highway Bridges over Public Roads: Any agreements that pertain to the
inspection of these structures need to be maintained in the bridge file.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.8 LOAD RATING

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Bridge load ratings are administered and performed by the Bridge Load Rating Unit of the
MnDOT Bridge Office. Bridge load ratings may also be performed by other qualified engineers.
Bridge load ratings are calculated in accordance with the AASHTO Manual for Bridge Evaluation.
This manual refers the user to the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges (Std
Specs) for additional needed information.
All bridges in Minnesota open to the public, carrying cars and trucks, with spans of 10 feet or
more require a load rating. This includes all county, local, and private bridges. Railroad bridges
are rated by the operating railroad. Bridges that carry pedestrians or recreational traffic are
rated only in special cases.

A.8.1 LOAD RATINGS


BASIC REQUIREMENTS

A load rating calculates the safe live load carrying capacity of a bridge and to provide a basis for
posting and permit decisions. It factors in the original capacity of the bridge and any changes in
configuration and reductions due to deterioration or damage. The load rating calculation results
determine whether the bridge needs to be load posted in order to restrict the type and weight
of vehicles that can cross the bridge.
All bridges or culverts on the MnDOT structure inventory carrying vehicular traffic require a
current load rating. Newly constructed bridges must have a load rating completed and submitted
before the bridge can be opened to traffic. Throughout the life of the bridge, the load rating
needs to be recalculated anytime the physical condition of the structure changes (based upon
information from inspections) or when new loading conditions exist. See Section A.8.2 for
common reasons a bridge needs to be reload rated.
A load rating report along with the calculations must be retained in the Bridge Owners files and
a copy should be submitted to the MnDOT Bridge Office.

A.8.2 GENERAL RERATING GUIDELINES

According to State Statute 165.03,


Subdivision.6a, stipulates that a structure
must be re-rated when it is determined that a
significant change has occurred in the
condition of the structure. Ratings must also
be reviewed and re-rated if necessary when
the allowable legal load using the structure is
increased.

Inspector Note:
For every inspection cycle, the bridge load
rating should be reviewed so it can be
updated to reflect any relevant changes in
condition or loading noted during the
inspection (Section 6A.1.1 of the MBE).

Section 15.6 of the MnDOT LRFD Bridge Design Manual states that a new bridge load rating
should be calculated whenever change occurs that would sufficiently change the rating. The
most commonly encountered types of changes are:

A-39

A change in the dead load on the bridge (such as a thicker layer of gravel or overlay)
Damage that alters the structural capacity of the bridge (such as being struck by an oversize
load)
Deterioration that alters the structural capacity of the bridge (such as corrosion or rot)
Settlement, movement, or scour of a pier or abutment
Repairs or remodeling
A change in the AASHTO rating specification
An upgrading of the rating software
A change in the laws regulating truck weights

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.8.2.1 Changes in NBI
Condition Ratings

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

As the NBI condition ratings for deck (NBI Item 58), superstructure (NBI Item 59), substructure
(NBI Item 60) and culvert (NBI Item 62) describe the overall physical condition of the structure,
they can be a useful tool for determining if a new load rating is required. The following general
rules should be followed when reviewing the NBI ratings during each inspection cycle:

A.8.2.2 Changes in
Structural Element
Condition Ratings

Chapter A

If an NBI condition rating falls to 4 (poor condition), the bridge inspection report and
existing load rating should be reviewed to determine if a new load rating is required.
If an NBI condition rating falls to 3 (serious condition), a new load rating should be
performed.

As the structural elements describe the condition of specific bridge components, they can be
useful in determining if a new load rating is required, and for identifying which specific structural
member requires analysis. While any structural element or smart flag rated at the worst
condition state should be reviewed by the Program Administrator, the following general rules
should be followed when reviewing the structural element condition ratings during each
inspection cycle:

If any portion of a primary structural element is rated in the worst condition state, the
existing load rating and inspection notes (along with any photographs, sketches, or
measurements) should be reviewed to determine if a new rating is required. For painted
steel elements, the worst condition state is condition 5, for unpainted weathering steel,
concrete, timber, or masonry elements; the worst condition state is condition 4. See
Section B.4 of the BSIPM for rating descriptions for the Structural Element Condition
Ratings.
Section loss due to corrosion is a common problem on steel bridges in Minnesota, the
Section Loss Smart Flag (Element #363) should be reviewed. If the Section Loss Smart Flag is
rated as condition 4, the existing load rating and inspection notes (along with any
photographs, sketches, or measurements) should be reviewed to determine if a new rating
is required.
BSIPM User Note:
See Section B.4.10.8 for rating descriptions
for the section loss smart flag.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.8.3 ROLE OF THE
TEAM LEADER

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

The information gathered during a bridge inspection (condition ratings, inventory information,
and inspection notes) is essential in determining if there is a need for a new load capacity rating.
The TL should understand the basic principles of bridge load ratings, should be familiar with the
MnDOT load rating forms, and should have access to the most recent load rating report for the
structure being inspected.
Prior to performing an inspection, the bridge inspection report and structure inventory report
should be reviewed to determine the following:

When was the last load rating performed?


Is a load posting signage required?

During a bridge inspection, the inspector should determine (and report) the following:

Has any damage or deterioration occurred since the last load rating which is significant
enough to reduce the load carrying capacity of the bridge?
Has any dead load been added to the bridge since the last load rating?
Is the load posting signage (if required) in-place, correct, and readable?
Inspector Note:
If the inspector suspects that a new load capacity
rating is required or that a review of the load
rating may be warranted - the Program
Administrator should be notified immediately.

A.8.3.1 Documenting
the Condition of Primary
Structural Elements

The inspector should also note the


presence of any salvaged steel
components, temporary structural
supports, or any other information
that might affect the load carrying
capacity of the structure.

Only those structural elements that are in the direct load path (from the vehicle down to the
supporting earth) affect the bridge load rating. This includes primary structural elements of the
deck, superstructure, and substructure.

Deck deterioration may have an effect on the load carrying capacity of a bridge. This may be
a concern on timber decks, slab spans, composite structures, or bridges with an integral
deck and superstructure (such as cast-in-place concrete or prestressed T-beam bridges).
A superstructure component (girder, beam, arch, truss, floorbeam, stringer, etc.) will
typically be the controlling element in a load rating. Any significant damage or deterioration
of a primary superstructure element will likely reduce the load-carrying capacity of the
bridge.
The substructure (piers and abutments) should be examined for deterioration, as well as
damage from ice flows or flood debris. Substructure components should be examined for
any evidence of instability (settlement, tipping, misalignment, or undermining) or section
loss that could affect the load-carrying capacity of the bridge.

On corroded steel members, deteriorated


Inspector Note:
concrete members, or decayed timber
The bridge inspection report should document
members, the loss in cross-sectional area
deterioration or damage on a primary structural
should be determined as accurately as
element (direct load path element) with
reasonably possible. Misaligned, bent, or
sufficient detail so that the load-carrying
kinked members should be measured and
capacity of the member can be determined in a
documented (particularly compression
load rating analysis.
members). Distressed or deteriorated
connections should be thoroughly
documented. As the inspection notes alone may not be enough to convey this information,
additional measurements, sketches, or photographs may be required. By obtaining and
documenting adequate information during the initial inspection, the need for a follow-up
inspection may be avoided.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.8.3.2 Identifying and
Reporting Additional
Dead Loads

The inspector should note any significant dead loads which have been added to the bridge since
it was constructed. Any significant change in the dead load on a bridge should be promptly
reported to the Bridge Inspection Program Administrator.

A.8.3.3 Verification of
Load Posting Signage

Chapter A

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Verify the deck wearing surface type, depth, and year of installation - this is a particular
concern on bridges with bituminous or gravel wearing surfaces. Any discrepancies with the
information displayed on the structure inventory report should be noted, and brought to
the attention of the Inspection Program Administrator.
Have the original bridge railings been replaced, filled in, or otherwise modified?
Have sign structures, light poles, or other ancillary structures or decorative features been
installed on the bridge?
Have utilities (water mains, gas mains, etc.) been installed on the bridge?
On culvert structures, the inspector should note any unusual deterioration or distortion
below the driving lanes (which may indicate the need to restrict heavy loads), and verify the
embankment fill depth displayed on the structure inventory report.

During each inspection,


the inspector must verify
that load posting signage
(if required) is in-place,
correct, and readable.

BSIPM User Note:


See Section D.7.8.5 for more information
regarding load posting signs.

Inspector Note:
Confirm that load posting signs are present either on or
immediately in front of the bridge and should note if
advanced signs are present. If the load posting signs are
missing or posted greater than the inspection report the PA
should be promptly notified.

If posting is required, the


actual posting will be
displayed on the header of
the MnDOT Bridge Inspection
Report and at the bottom
right corner of the MnDOT
Structure Inventory Report.

All signs must display the correct weight limits. The condition of load posting signage can be
rated using element #981 (see Section B.4.11.1).
If it is apparent that load postings are not being adhered to, the Program Administrator should
be notified.
A.8.3.4 Verification of
Member Sizes and Steel
Type

The size of structural members (and the type of steel of which they are comprised) will have a
significant effect on the load-carrying capacity of the structure. While verification of the member
sizes and steel type is not typically within the scope of a routine bridge inspection, information
observed and reported during an inspection can be essential to performing accurate load
ratings.
Field Measurements: On bridges without plans, load ratings are based upon field
measurements. The load rating will only be as accurate as the field measurements. If possible, it
is a good idea to note the size, number, and spacing of structural members on the inspection
report. This may help identify errors in the load rating calculations. Prior to performing a new
load rating, the size and spacing of the structural members should be confirmed. Any
discrepancies with plan dimensions, or the dimensions indicated on the load rating calculations,
should be promptly reported to the Program Administrator.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Salvaged Steel Members: The inspector should note if any observed conditions would suggest
that the structural steel members present on a bridge are older than the construction date listed
on the structure inventory report. Over the years, steel trusses and beams have frequently been
salvaged from an older bridge and moved to a new location. In some cases, the age of the
salvaged steel may not have been considered in the existing load rating. Clues which might
indicate the presence of salvaged steel include the following:

A steel beam or steel truss bridge with a timber substructure


Steel beams with variable depths or unequal spacing
Steel members with different paint systems
Beam ends that are laterally offset or overlapping at the piers
Floorbeams that have been extended with welded field splices
Connection holes or stiffeners in odd locations

The presence of salvaged structural members should be noted on the bridge inspection report. If
the age of salvaged structural elements can be determined, it should be noted on the bridge
inspection report. If the inspector suspects that the structural steel on the bridge is older that
what was assumed in the load rating calculations, it should be promptly reported to the Program
Administrator.
A.8.4 ROLE OF
INSPECTION PROGRAM
ADMINISTRATOR

In Minnesota, every MnDOT District, County, City (or other agency with inspection jurisdiction
for a bridge), must appoint a Bridge Inspection Program Administrator as discussed in Section
A.3.4.2 of this manual. The role and duties of the Program Administrator as they relate to load
ratings are outlined below.

A.8.4.1 MnDOT District


Program Administrators

Responsibilities of a MnDOT District Bridge Inspection Program Administrator include, but are
not limited to, the following:

A-43

Review the inspection reports and structure inventory reports during each inspection cycle
to determine if changes in condition or dead loads indicate that a new load rating should be
performed. The most recent load rating reports for Trunk Highway bridges are now available
on Electronic Document Management System.
If a new load rating is required for a Trunk Highway vehicular bridge, the MnDOT District
Bridge Inspection Program Administrator should immediately contact the MnDOT Bridge
Office Load Rating Engineer. See the Introduction of the BSIPM for contact information.
Additional field measurements may be required to perform a load rating.
Verify that any load posting signage (if required) is in place, correct, and readable.
If a load rating determines that a bridge must be posted (or that an existing posting be
revised), the posting signs must be installed within 30 days of the District being notified by
the MnDOT Bridge Office Load Rating Engineer. Significant changes in the posted limit may
warrant installation of temporary posting signs until permanent posting signs can be
installed. The MnDOT District Bridge Inspection Program Administrator must notify the
MnDOT BADMU when posting signs are in place.
Contacting the railroad, if inspections determine that damage or deterioration to a railroad
bridge is sufficient to reduce the load carrying capacity of the structure (registered mail is
preferred).

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.8.4.2 County/Local
Program Administrators

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

The County or City Engineer will typically serve as the Bridge Inspection Program Administrator cities which do not employ an engineer may elect to designate a private consultant engineer as
the Program Administrator. Responsibilities of a Bridge Inspection Program Administrator
include, but are not limited to, the following:

A-44

Chapter A

Verify that load capacity ratings have been performed on all vehicular bridges on the agency
roster.
Review the inspection reports and structure inventory reports during each inspection cycle
to determine if changes in condition or dead loads indicate that a new load rating should be
performed.
The online report Load Posting & Rating Review should be reviewed annually. This report
lists bridges that require load postings, bridges without a load rating date, and bridges that
may require a new load capacity rating. Any errors or discrepancies should be reported to
the MnDOT BADMU.
See that any required load ratings are promptly performed, and that the appropriate load
rating form is submitted to the MnDOT Bridge Management Unit to update the structure
inventory. Many agencies will hire a consulting engineer to perform bridge load ratings,
most culvert load ratings can be performed by the agency using Form 90.
Verify that load posting signage (if required) is in-place, correct, and readable. Township or
municipalities should be promptly notified if load restriction signage is incorrect, missing or
damaged. A follow-up inspection should be performed to verify that the load posting
signage has been corrected, repaired or replaced. If a new rating requires that a bridge must
be posted (or that an existing posting be revised), posting signs should be installed as soon
as reasonably possible, but no more than 30 days after the load rating date. Significant
changes in the posted limit may warrant installation of temporary posting signs until
permanent posting signs can be installed.
County and City Program Administrators should be aware of Minnesota Statute 165.03,
Subdivisions 3 & 4, which require the following:
A report of the inspections shall be filed annually, on or before February 15 of each year,
with the county auditor or town clerk, or the governing body of the municipality. The
report shall contain recommendations for the correction of, or legal posting of load
limits on any bridge or structure that is found to be under strength or unsafe.
Contacting the railroad, if inspections determine that damage or deterioration to a railroad
bridge is sufficient to reduce the load carrying capacity of the structure (registered mail is
preferred).

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.8.5 LOAD RATING
RESPONSIBILITY
A.8.5.1 Procedures and
Qualifications

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

This section identifies who is responsible for insuring that load ratings are completed as well as
the procedures and qualifications to complete the load ratings.

Federal Law, as outlined in the NBIS, requires that bridges be load rated in accordance with
procedures specified in the AASHTO Manual for Bridge Evaluation. The NBIS require that the
individual charged with overall responsibility for the load rating of bridges must be a registered
professional engineer.
Bridge load rating calculations should be based upon all relevant information in the bridge file.
This includes the original plans, reconstruction or repair plans, any structural modifications
which have increased the dead load on the bridge, traffic data, and the existing structural
condition based upon the most recent inspection. MnDOT recommends that bridge load rating
calculations be checked by another engineer.
The skills necessary to perform a load rating varies considerably depending upon the type of the
structure. Complex or non-redundant (fracture critical) bridges may require specialized
engineering knowledge.

A.8.5.2 Responsibility
for Performing Load
Ratings

Trunk Highway Bridges: Load ratings for Minnesota Trunk Highway bridges are performed by
the MnDOT Bridge Office Load Rating Unit. Load ratings for Truck Highway culvert structures are
the shared responsibility of the MnDOT Bridge Office and the District. For newly constructed
Trunk Highway culverts, the MnDOT BADMU will fill out Form 90 and enter the corresponding
operating and inventory load ratings in the MnDOT database. The District is responsible for
monitoring culvert conditions and consulting with the MnDOT Bridge Office Load Rating Unit if
changes in condition indicate that a new rating may be needed.
County & Local Bridges: Load ratings for County/local bridges and culverts are the responsibility
of the agency with inspection jurisdiction over the bridge. Counties and Cities will typically hire
consultants to perform some (or all) of their load ratings.
Railroad Bridges: The FRA guidelines to railroads for the inspection and management of railroad
bridges are outlined in 49CFR 213, Appendix C. The railroad owner is responsible for ensuring
that the bridge is capable of safely carrying all railroad traffic operated on that track, and for
specifying the maximum loads that may be operated over the bridge. Load ratings for railroad
bridges are performed according to AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering. Load ratings for
railroad bridges are not generally filed by MnDOT. Load rating information for a railroad bridge is
not entered in the MnDOT database, and is not reported to the FHWA.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.8.5.3 Load Rating
Responsibilities of the
MnDOT Bridge Office

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

MnDOT Bridge Office - Load Rating Unit: The MnDOT Bridge Office Load Rating Unit performs
load capacity ratings for Minnesota Trunk Highway bridges (with some exceptions), develops the
load rating report forms, and provides data to the MnDOT Office of Freight and Commercial
Vehicle Operations (OFCVO), to route overweight permit loads on state Trunk Highways.
The MnDOT Bridge Office Load Rating Unit will perform load ratings on new Trunk Highway
bridges when a Trunk Highway bridge is remodeled, or when a MnDOT District requests a new
load rating due to structural damage of deterioration.
After being contacted by a MnDOT District that a bridge requires a new load rating, the
MnDOT Load Rating Engineer will perform a preliminary evaluation - the time frame for
calculating a new load rating will depend upon the level of importance determined from the
preliminary evaluation. The final load rating (if necessary) should be completed within 45
days of the preliminary evaluation.
While the MnDOT Bridge Office Load Rating Unit does not perform load ratings for County/local
bridges, they are available for technical assistance.
MnDOT Bridge Office Bridge Asset Data Management Unit: The MnDOT BADMU files a copy
of the load rating report for any bridge (Trunk Highway, County, City, Township, Etc.) which
carries vehicular traffic.
The BADMU is responsible for updating load rating items in the structure inventory database and
reporting load rating information to the FHWA.
The NBIS requires that load rating information for state Trunk Highway bridges be updated
within 90 days of the load rating date, and that load rating information for County/local bridges
be updated within 180 days of the load rating date.
For newly constructed Trunk Highway culverts, the MnDOT BADMU will fill out Form 90 and
enter the corresponding operating and inventory load ratings in the MnDOT database.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.8.6 LOAD RATING
FORMS

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

The results of a bridge load rating analysis should be summarized on a bridge rating and load
posting report form. MnDOT Load Rating forms can be found on the Bridge Office Web Site
under the heading Bridge Rating and Data Management (see link below):
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/datamanagement.html
These are the MnDOT load rating and posting report forms:

Form RC-CL & RD-CL (Bridge Rating & Load Posting Report for County and Local Bridges)
Form RC-TH & RD-TH (Bridge Rating & Load Posting Report for Trunk Highway Bridges)
Form 90 (Culvert Rating Form)
Form PIR-CL (Physical Inspection Rating for County and Local Bridges)
Form PIR-TH (Physical Inspection Rating for Trunk Highway Bridges)
Form PW (supplemental posting worksheet)
TrussR (truss member rating form)

Any questions related to performing load ratings or filling out the MnDOT load rating and
posting report forms should be directed to the MnDOT Load rating Engineer. Immediately after a
load rating is performed, a copy of the appropriate MnDOT load rating and posting report
form(s) should be submitted to the MnDOT Bridge Management Unit to update the structure
inventory.
Bridge Asset Data Management Unit
MnDOT Bridge Office
3485 Hadley Avenue North
Oakdale, MN 55128-3307
Form RC-CL (County and Local Bridges): Form RC-CL is the bridge rating and load posting report
for County and local bridges - this form (along with all load rating calculations) must be retained
in the files of the Bridge Owner. A copy of Form RC-CL should be submitted to the MnDOT
BADMU to update the structure inventory report. This will be retained in the files of the MnDOT
BADMU.
Form RC-TH (Minnesota Trunk Highway Bridges): Form RC-TH is the bridge rating and load
posting report for Minnesota Trunk Highway bridges. This form and any load rating calculations
are retained in the MnDOT Load Rating Engineer files. A copy of Form RC-TH shall be forwarded
to the MnDOT BADMU to update the structure inventory report. This will be retained in the files
of the MnDOT BADMU. Load rating reports for most Trunk Highway bridges are now available
through the MnDOT EDMS to allow MnDOT Districts to view, download or print load rating
reports.
Form 90 (Culvert Rating Form): Any culvert which carries vehicular traffic and is defined as
bridge under Minnesota state law (total structure length of 10 feet or greater), must have a
load rating. New culverts, or culverts in fair or better condition with no evidence of distress due
to normal traffic loads, can be rated using Form 90. Form 90 includes a table from which the
inventory and operating ratings can be selected based upon the culvert design and material
type. The inventory ratings shown in the table are based upon the minimum original design load,
regardless of original capacity.
Before using the table on Form 90, the most recent bridge inspection report must be reviewed
to confirm that the NBI culvert rating (NBI Item 62) is condition 5 or greater. If the NBI culvert
rating is 4 (poor condition) or lower, Form 90 cannot be used. Form PIR should then be used to
determine a reduced level for these ratings.

A-47

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Some other guidelines for using Form 90 include:

If the Form 90 table guidelines are not followed in determining the inventory and operating
ratings, an explanation should be provided.
Box culverts with a clear span 20 ft. or greater cannot be rated using Form 90 - they must be
rated as a bridge (use Form RC-CL or RC-TH instead).
If a culvert is comprised of more than one culvert type or material, the segment with the
lowest inventory and operating ratings will govern (this should be noted on Form 90).
Cast-in-place concrete box culverts are typically classified as either type W (generally
constructed prior to 1944) or type C (generally constructed after 1945). As the type W
culverts have less steel reinforcement, they will have lower inventory and operating ratings.

The Culvert Rating Form 90 should be retained in the files of the Bridge Owner. A copy of Form
90 should be submitted to the MnDOT BADMU to update the structure inventory report. This
will be retained in the files of the MnDOT BADMU.
Form PIR-CL or Form PIR-TH (Physical Inspection Rating Form): In situations where a load rating
cannot readily be calculated, an evaluation by an engineer based upon the most recent
inspection may be used to approximate the inventory and operating ratings. Form PIR (Physical
Inspection Rating) may be used for one or more of the following reasons:

No bridge plans are available


For concrete bridges where the steel reinforcement is unknown
If the superstructure has deterioration or damage which cannot be quantitatively measured,
but has obviously reduced the load carrying capacity of the bridge
If the substructure has deterioration, shifting, tipping or misalignment which obviously
reduced the load carrying capacity of the bridge, but the extent of the reduction cannot be
readily be calculated
A culvert with an NBI culvert rating of 4 (poor condition) or lower
A culvert posted with less than legal loads

The rating is determined by the engineer upon careful consideration of all available information,
including bridge condition (corrosion, spalling, damage, deflection, settlement, cracking, etc.),
age, type of construction, redundancy, average daily traffic (ADT), loading (past, present, and
future), etc. Engineering judgment or a combination of calculations, experience, and engineering
judgment is used.
The numbers in the rating should follow this approximately ratio: (1.6 x HS Inventory Rating) =
(HS Operating Rating) = (the posting weight in Tons for the single truck) = (0.625 x the posting
weight in Tons for a combination truck).
For type of analysis check Other and write in PIR and for method of rating check No Rating
Computations Performed.
The Physical Inspection Rating Form PIR must be retained in the files of the Bridge Owner. A
copy of Form PIR should be submitted to the MnDOT BADMU to update the structure inventory
report. These will be retained in the files of the MnDOT BADMU.
Bridges rated using Form PIR should have all overweight permits prohibited, unless the bridge
has a documented history of carrying heavier trucks with no evidence of distress beneath the
traffic lanes.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.8.7 QUALITY
CONTROL/QUALITY
ASSURANCE

A.8.8 LOAD RATING


REFERENCES AND LAWS

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Quality control checks shall be conducted on every load rating product, and thus at a much
higher frequency than quality assurance checks. The quality control and quality assurance
expectations are described in more detail in Chapter E Quality Control (QC)/Quality Assurance
(QA) of the BSIPM.
References for performing bridge load capacity ratings include the following:

MnDOT LRFD Bridge Design Manual - Section 15 (2009)


AASHTO Manual for Bridge Evaluation (2008)
AASHTO Manual for Condition Evaluation and Load and Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR) of
Highway Bridges (2003)
AASHTO Manual for Bridge Evaluation (2011)
AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges (2002)
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (2007)
AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering (2008)

Laws Pertaining to Bridge Load Ratings


The NBIS are outlined in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 23: Highways, Part 650 - Bridges,
Structures, and Hydraulics, Subpart C National Bridge Inspection Standards. Sections of the
NBIS which pertain to bridge load capacity ratings include the following:

CFR 650.303 - Applicability


CFR 650.305 - Definitions
CFR 650.309 - Qualifications of Personnel
CFR 650.315 - Inventory
CFR 650.317 - References

Minnesota State Rules and Statutes can be viewed on the following link:
https://www.revisor.leg.state.mn.us/pubs/
Some key Minnesota State Statutes pertaining to bridge load capacity ratings include the
following:

A-49

Minnesota Statute 165.03, Subdivision 3 & 4 - Annual Reporting of Load Rating Changes
Minnesota Statute 165.03, Subdivision 6 - Toll bridge load ratings reported every two years
Minnesota Statute 165.03, Subdivision 6a Bridge Load Rating and Posting
Minnesota Statute 169.80 - Size, Weight, Load
Minnesota Statute 169.801 - Implements of Husbandry
Minnesota Statute 169.822 - Weight Limitations & Definitions
Minnesota Statute 169.824 - Gross Weight Schedule
Minnesota Statute 169.826 - Seasonal Increases
Minnesota Statute 169.8261 - Timber Products
Minnesota Statute 169.84 - Load Limit on Bridge
Minnesota Statute 169.86 - Special Permits
Minnesota Statute 169.871 - Excess Weight Penalty
Minnesota Statute 169.88 - Damages & Liability

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.9 SCOUR ANALYSIS
AND CHANNEL
CROSS-SECTIONS

A.9.1 SCOUR CRITICAL


BRIDGES

A.9.2 CHANNEL CROSSSECTIONS

A.9.2.1 MnDOT Criteria


and Minimum
Frequency for
Performing Channel
Cross-Sections

A-50

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

All new bridges must be designed to be stable for predicted scour depths. Bridge scour analysis
procedures are provided in FHWA Publication HEC-18 Evaluating Scour at Bridges. The
Minnesota Bridge Scour Program for
existing bridges has consisted of four
BSIPM User Note:
parts which follow procedures
See Section D.7. 9.8 for information on the
described in FHWA publications HECMnDOT Scour Evaluation process and how
18, Evaluating Scour At Bridges,
to determine the MnDOT Scour Code.
HEC-20, Stream Stability At Highway
Structures and HEC-23 Bridge Scour
and Stream Instability
Countermeasures. The parts include:
primary screening, secondary screening, scour analysis, and developing and implementing a
POA, which may include countermeasures and/or monitoring during floods.
Bridges deemed scour critical need to have a scour monitoring plan on file at the Bridge Office
and in the agencys bridge files. Scour monitoring plans may also be required if a bridge has
experienced severe scour or, if for other reasons, its structural stability is in question for higher
discharges. For more information regarding scour monitoring plans, contact the State Bridge
Flooding Engineer.
A channel cross-section is a series of channel bottom elevation measurements taken across the
channel (perpendicular to the direction of flow) - these are typically taken along the edge of the
bridge deck. Channel cross-sections are useful tools for identifying scour problems or long-term
changes in the channel, such as aggradation, degradation, or channel migration. Section 2.4.1 of
the AASHTO Manual for Bridge Evaluation recommends that bridge files contain information
relating to the channel cross-sections:

Channel cross-sections should be taken and a sketch developed to become part of the
bridge record. The sketch should show the foundation of the structure and, where available,
a description of material upon which footings are founded, the elevation of the pile tips, the
footings of piers and abutment, or any combination thereof. This information is valuable for
reference in anticipating possible scour problems through periodic observation and is
especially useful to detect serious conditions during periods of heavy flow. The use of aerial
photography, when used to monitor channel movement, should also become part of the
bridge record.

Channel cross-sections from current and past inspections should be plotted on a common
plot to observe waterway instability such as scour, lateral migration, aggradation, or
degradation. Vertical measurements should be made or referenced to a part of the
structure such as the top of curb or top of railing that is readily accessible during high water.

Soundings and multiple cross-sections may be necessary to provide adequate information


on waterway instability and how the structure may be affected. Such requirements will vary
with the stream velocity and general channel stability. The necessity of additional soundings
must be determined by the Engineer. These soundings will normally be limited to an area
within a radius of 100 feet from a pier.

While a routine bridge inspection will include examining piers and abutments for scour (by
probing those substructure units that are accessible by wading), channel cross-sections are not
necessarily performed during routine inspections. MnDOT has developed the following criteria
for determining which bridges require channel cross-sections, and establishing a minimum
frequency for performing channel cross-sections. More frequent channel cross-sections (or
supplemental soundings) may be needed if significant scour problems exist, or if specified in the
Scour Plan of Action. Channel cross-sections are recommended during or immediately after high
water events, or if a significant change in the streambed is observed.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.9.2.1.1 Bridges
Requiring Channel
Cross-Section

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Channel cross-sections are only required for bridges carrying vehicular traffic if they meet the
following criteria:
1.

Bridges classified as Scour Critical (MnDOT scour codes D, R or U).

2.

Bridges with an NBI Channel Condition Rating (NBI Item 61) of 3.

If channel cross-sections are required according to the criteria above, they should be performed
at a minimum frequency of 5 years.
Any bridge included with a state-wide underwater inspection contract will have a channel crosssection performed as part of the contract, regardless of the MnDOT Scour Code. The agency with
inspection jurisdiction is responsible for performing all required channel cross-sections for those
bridges not included in a state-wide underwater bridge inspection contract.
A.9.2.1.2 Bridges
Recommended for
Channel Cross-Sections

Channel cross-sections are recommended for bridges meeting the following criteria:
1.

Bridges over 20 ft. in length with a MnDOT scour code of G (unknown foundations)

2.

Bridges over 20 ft. in length with a MnDOT scour code of J (scour susceptible)

3.

Any bridge with an NBI Channel Condition Rating (NBI Item 61) of 4

4.

Any bridge with a Scour Smart Flag rating (structure element #361) of condition 2 or
3

5.

If cross-section measurements are recommended in the Scour Plan of Action

If channel cross-sections are recommended (according to the criteria above), the agency with
inspection jurisdiction should establish an appropriate frequency - this will vary depending upon
such factors as the stream volume and velocity, structure type, and site conditions.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.9.3 CHANNEL CROSSSECTION PROCEDURES,
EQUIPMENT, AND
DOCUMENTATION

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

At a minimum, a channel cross-section shall be taken along the upstream and/or downstream
face of the bridge. Channel bottom elevation measurements should be taken at a sufficient
number of locations along the bridge to obtain a representative channel cross-section which can
be compared to past and future cross-sections. At a minimum, this shall include channel bottom
elevation measurements at each substructure unit and at the center of each span. On longer
spans, establishing specific measurement locations along the bridge can speed up data collection
and will make it easier to compare to past and future measurements.
Channel bottom elevation measurements may be obtained by using a sounding rod, weight,
sonar, or survey equipment. The type of equipment used will often be dictated by the water
depth and velocity (sonar readings may not be possible in turbulent water). A benchmark
elevation should be clearly marked on the curb or railing (or another easily accessible location on
the bridge), so that channel bottom elevations can be easily determined from depth readings.
Elevation measurements are generally recorded to the nearest tenth of a foot.
Channel cross-section measurements shall be documented in the bridge file so that past data
can be readily accessed and compared to present measurements. For large bridges, or bridges
over large rivers, lakes, or streams - a cross-section diagram (a graphical display of the actual
streambed elevation) is recommended. A reference cross-section diagram should be established
showing the original (plan) channel cross-section - this should include the substructure
foundation elevations. For smaller bridges, or bridges over smaller streams with a relatively
stable history - channel cross-section measurements may be documented in a table. If only a few
measurement locations are required, they can be included in the bridge inspection notes
(general notes section).
Example:

This channel cross-section diagram shows how the main channel of the Minnesota River
shifted dramatically during flooding in 1965, severely undermining the second pier from the
left.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.9.4 FOLLOW-UP
ACTIONS FOR CHANNEL
CROSS-SECTIONS

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

By performing channel cross-section measurements on regular intervals (and during floods),


scour or channel problems can be identified and corrected before they threaten the structural
integrity of the bridge or approach fill. Problems which might not be obvious during an
inspection may be more apparent when comparing past and present cross-section
measurements.
Any significant scour or channel problems discovered during an inspection, or determined
through the comparison of channel crossInspector Note:
sections should be promptly reported to
the Bridge Inspection Program
To ensure that channel cross-sections are
Administrator. This includes streambed
performed at the required (or recommended)
elevations below the substructure footings
frequency, the date of the most recent
or seals (or below the critical scour depth
channel cross-section measurements should
specified in the Scour Plan of Action),
be noted in the bridge inspection report
undermined footings, exposed foundation
(general notes section).
piling, failure of scour countermeasures or
slope protection, loss of abutment backfill, or notable shifting or lowering of the channel.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

A.10 NONDESTRUCTIVE
TESTING

Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and industry
to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage. The
most basic NDT method is visual examination. Visual examination procedures could range from
simply looking at a structure component to see if surface imperfections are visible to using
computer controlled camera systems to look at a structure component.

A.10.1 STEEL
STRUCTURES

NDT is often used during the inspection of steel structures to determine the presence or extent
of a defect when visual inspection either suggests the existence of a crack, or is not sufficient to
verify the internal integrity of structural elements such as pins. The NDT methods most
frequently used in the field by inspectors are:

Ultrasonic Thickness Testing


Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT)
Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)
Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

Personnel inspecting steel structures should be familiar with the use and limitations of the
various methods of NDT. The information provided within this manual provides only basic
guidance in the NDT methods typically used by bridge inspectors. To ensure proper application
of the testing procedures and interpretation of results, inspection personnel require additional
training by certified instructors and extensive hands-on experience.
A.10.1.1 Ultrasonic
Thickness Testing

An ultrasonic thickness gage (UTG) is an instrument that is used to measure steel plate
thicknesses at discrete locations. Several different models of UTGs are available. Consult the
manual for the specific UTG being used for proper operation. For rough or corroded surfaces an
instrument with an A-scan presentation should be used to assure that accurate readings are
obtained.
For inspection procedures go to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/inspection.html
When determining the potential uses for a UTG, the following should be considered:
Advantages:

Able to obtain plate thickness measurements in confined areas or where large plate widths
prevent the use of typical calibers.
Effective method of obtaining plate thickness measurements along seams of built-up
members such as truss gusset plates.
Able to determine individual plate thicknesses where corrosion and/or pack rust is
developing between plates of built-up members.

Disadvantages:

A.10.1.2 Liquid
Penetrant Testing

A-54

Surface must be cleaned down to bare metal to get accurate results.

PT relies on the ability of a liquid to enter into a discontinuity. Therefore it can only find
discontinuities which are open to the surface of the material. It can be applied to any material
provided it is non-porous, and is not adversely affected by the Penetrant material. The basic
procedure requires that the material be pre-cleaned to remove all surface contaminates and the
application of a liquid (penetrating oil) to the surface being tested. The Penetrant will seek out
and enter small surface openings. Penetrant is then removed from the test surface by wiping
with a solvent dampened rag. After drying, a developer is applied. The penetrant remaining in
the discontinuity bleeds out forming a highly visible, contrasting indication on the test surface.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

A Dye Penetrate Testing kit typically contains:

Visible dye penetrant that will be pulled into defects and held by capillary action.
Cleaner/remover fluid for use in pre-cleaning the test area and removing excess penetrant
from the surface being tested.
Non-aqueous developer that will both extract the dye which penetrated into a discontinuity
and also provide a contrasting background color for the dye.
Wiping towels, brushes and directions for using the kit.

On steel bridge structures, PT is often used to verify the existence and extent of cracks open to
the surface after a visual inspection reveals a potential crack location.
For inspection procedures go to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/inspection.html
When determining if PT should be used to evaluate indications, the following should be
considered:
Advantages:

Can be used on such materials as aluminum, cast iron, forgings, castings, plastics and
ceramics.
Is simple to use and less costly than most other NDE methods.
Very portable and well adapted for field use.
Very effective tool for detecting surface cracks, and can be easily carried and used without a
power supply or complex equipment.

Disadvantages:

A.10.1.3 Magnetic
Particle Testing

Removal of paint from existing structures can be problematic.


Can only detect discontinuities that are open to the surface.
Surfaces must be properly cleaned to remove all surface contaminants such as paint, rust,
scale, welding flux, etc.
Is affected by temperature, at low temperatures test sensitivity is reduced.
Test typically takes longer to perform than other NDE methods.

MT, also often called mag particle testing, can be used to locate both surface and near surface
discontinuities in ferrous steel elements using magnetization techniques and principles. It cannot
be used on aluminum or non-ferritic (non-carbon stainless) steels. For bridge inspection, the
most commonly used piece of equipment is the Electromagnetic Yoke.
To perform MT with a yoke, the following material and equipment is required:

A source of electricity
An electromagnetic yoke
Ferromagnetic powder
Dry, low pressure air usually a small hand held puffer

For inspection procedures go to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/inspection.html

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

When determining if MT should be used to evaluate indications, the following should be


considered:
Advantages:

Can be performed without removing well adhered paint from the tested surface if 2 mils or
less.
Able to locate small and shallow surface cracks.
Much faster than other NDE methods.
No or little limitation due to size or shape of the part being inspected.
Cracks filled with foreign material can be detected.
No elaborate pre-cleaning is necessary.

Disadvantages:

A.10.1.4 Ultrasonic
Testing

The magnetic field must be in a direction perpendicular to the principal plane of the
discontinuity for best detection.
Power source is required.

UT is a nondestructive means of detecting and characterizing internal discontinuities using high


frequency sound waves. It is also used to detect surface discontinuities, define bond
characteristics and to measure thickness. The principle advantages of UT over other NDT
methods are:

Allows for detection of discontinuities deep within the part.


High sensitivity permits the detection of very small discontinuities.
Greater accuracy in determining the position of internal discontinuities.
Only one surface needs to be accessible.
Provides almost instantaneous indications of discontinuities.

UT is used by MnDOT bridge inspection personnel to ascertain the internal condition of


structural elements that cannot be visually or otherwise inspected. Testing pins for the presence
of internal cracks is the most common use of UT during bridge inspections. UT must be
performed by personnel trained to use the equipment and interpret the test results.
For inspection procedures go to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/inspection.html
A.10.1.5 NDT
Certification

A-56

Training and certification of all methods of NDT is coordinated by the MnDOT Bridge Office, and
is separate from other MnDOT technical certifications.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.10.2 CONCRETE

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Delaminations in concrete can be a serious problem and often are heard before they are seen.
The most common NDE method for concrete structures is by sounding. Sounding is used to
determine the presence of delaminations within a concrete element and is typically performed
using a hammer on the surface of concrete substructure units and using a chain drag when
evaluating the condition of a concrete deck. Delaminations typically result from corrosion of the
reinforcement bars or debonding in the case of a concrete overlay.
The test procedure involves delineating between sound and unsound concrete by the sound
produced when stuck by a metal object such as a hammer or chain. With little experience an
Inspector can began to delineate the different sounds produced. However, it does take a trained
ear to differentiate defects that are located further below the surface and to clearly identify the
true limits of defects. Many delaminations are visible on the surface due to the general
deterioration of the concrete, but others show no visual signs and require another NDE method
to locate.

A.10.2.1 Chain Drag


Survey

A chain drag is basically another method of sounding concrete and is typically used to evaluate
the condition of a concrete bridge deck. The chain drag allows inspectors to cover a large area
of deck surface in a short time with a reasonable amount of accuracy. The chain drag survey is
also a low cost alternative to other NDE methods discussed later in this chapter. Due to its low
cost, many agencies use this method as an initial evaluation to determine the need for further
investigation. Like hammer sounding methods, the chain drag test is subjective, and therefore
requires an experienced inspector to perform the survey with a high degree of accuracy. Also,
localized areas are harder to detect with a chain drag, and may require hammer sounding to
provide accurate limits of the delamination. Due to the nature of the test, localized areas of
delaminations are more difficult to detect.
The chain drag survey simply entails dragging a chain over the concrete surface and listening for
the sound difference between sound and unsound areas of concrete. The device typically
consists of a four or five sections of chain mounted to an 18 (+/-) long tube. The chain sections
are 12 to 18 long and the tube is connected to a handle that can be fabricated to any length
for operator comfort. The test is performed by dragging the chain sections across the surface of
the concrete and marking areas that produce a dull sound. Care must be taken to accurately
differentiate and mark the unsound areas. This usually involves going over a suspect area
several times to clearly identify the locations of unsound concrete. A grid system should be
constructed on the surface of the deck so that delaminated areas can be plotted easily. This test
usually involves two people conducting the test: one to drag the chain and one to do the
marking. A photograph of an inspector conducting a chain drag test can be seen in the figure
below:

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

When determining if a Chain Drag should be used to evaluate the deck condition, the following
should be considered:
Advantages:

Test produces immediate results on near surface anomalies.


Generally lower cost than other NDE methods used on concrete decks.
Can usually be conducted as part of any Routine Inspection.

Disadvantages:

A.10.2.2 Ground
Penetrating Radar

Sensitive to an inspectors care and attention to detail when performing the test.
Test is subjective and results may vary between inspectors.
More time consuming that other NDE methods used on concrete decks.

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a nondestructive test method that uses high-frequency radio
waves to penetrate and detect reflected signals to create an image of the subsurface.
Integrated radar inspection systems combine ground penetrating radar technology with data
acquisition and data processing hardware and software into an integrated and automatic GPR
system that can be used at highway speeds. GPR is a real-time, non-destructive evaluation
method that quickly and accurately locates delaminations. It can also be used to determine the
depth and location of post-tension cables, rebar, and electrical or fiber optic conduits embedded
in concrete. GPR uses high frequency radio waves to inspect the interior of concrete structures
and locate defects or other buried obstructions with a high degree of accuracy. A typical GPR
equipped vehicle is shown in the figure below:

The advantage of combining NDT and field verification is that it provides a comprehensive
evaluation of subsurface conditions throughout the entire project, not only at locations where
coring is performed. The data acquired from GPR surveys can then be kept on file so any future
evaluations can be compared to predict future maintenance or rehabilitation needs. The record
produced by the GPR is a continuous, cross-sectional picture or profile of subsurface conditions.
However, there are different reporting levels depending on the purpose/scope of the evaluation.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

When determining if a GPR should be used to evaluate the deck condition, the following should
be considered:
Advantages:

The speed of data collection and the immediate availability of the results.
Data can be collected at highway speeds without any traffic control required.
The record produced by the GPR is a continuous, cross-sectional picture or profile of
subsurface conditions.

Disadvantages:

A.10.2.3 Infrared
Thermography

Higher costs than chain drag NDE method.

Infrared Thermography (IRT) is a non-destructive evaluation technique that characterizes the


properties of a material by monitoring its response to thermal loading. The term thermal
loading is commonly used to describe the transfer of energy from a heat source to a solid
object. IRT can be complete at traffic speeds with automated systems, or using hand held
devices. The hand held devices can be used or other applications other than concrete decks
depending on the field conditions encountered
For automated systems evaluating concrete bridge decks, this test also involves a vehicle
mounted IR imaging scanner where the vehicle is driven over the bridge deck. If the evaluation
is performed during daylight hours, the delaminated areas will appear as hot spots. During the
evening time as the bridge is cooling down, the delaminated areas will appear cooler relative
to the sound bridge deck. The IR scanner is usually incorporated with an electronic distancemeasuring device so the resulting thermographs can be overlaid onto scaled CAD drawings to
locate suspect areas.
The test procedure is highly sensitive to temperature and other environmental conditions. For
delaminations to be detected there must be some minimum temperature difference between
the delaminated area and sound areas. Therefore, the deck must receive direct sunlight for a
period of time before the test can be performed. Because water could penetrate cracks in the
deck surface and affect the results, the test procedure also requires the deck to be dry for a
certain minimum amount of time. Windy conditions and/or shaded areas will affect the test
results and must be considered when interpreting results.
A typical IRT equipped vehicle is shown in the figure below:

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

When determining if a IRT should be used to evaluate the deck condition, the following should
be considered:
Advantages:

The speed of data collection and the immediate availability of the results.
Data can be collected at highway speeds without any traffic control required.
Hand held devices have widespread adaptability for evaluation of concrete components
other than bridge decks.

Disadvantages:

A-60

Sensitive to weather conditions


Higher costs than chain drag NDE method.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.10.3 TIMBER

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Visual inspection of timber members is the most basic NDE method utilized during timber bridge
inspections. Timber has the unique characteristic of typically not showing distress due to
internal decay until significant section loss has occurred.
It is important for inspectors to look closely at areas where typical decay exists such as the dirt
line on timber piling and bearing areas between superstructure and substructure elements.
These areas need to be evaluated at an arms-length to effectively locate suspect decay
locations. For example, any amount of slight crushing of a timber cap should be documented
and evaluated by another NDE method such as sounding.
Visual inspection of timber members should always include sounding, which is discussed below.
These two NDE methods must be used together to effectively inspect timber members and for
an inspector to gain experience in the evaluation of timber as a structural member.

A.10.3.1 Sounding

Sounding is the oldest and most widely used NDE method for assessing the condition of timber
components of bridge structures other than visual methods. Sounding provides a quick
inspection procedure to identify serious decay within members. With sounding, the timber
member is struck by a hammer and the resulting sound tone is used to make inferences to the
condition of a member. This test method is highly subjective and is sensitive to an inspector
experience and ability to differentiate sound tones produced. Additionally, other defects within
the member such as knots, splits, checks, etc. can affect the sound being produced and can lead
to many false interpretations of decayed areas.
This NDE method is usually used in conjunction with boring to determine the extent of decay
and to confirm or negate suspect areas. Boring is the most dependable and widely used method
for detecting internal decay in timber. When a hollow sound is encountered, this area should
be marked and examined further to determine if decay is present. This can be performed with
either an increment borer to extract wood cores for examination, or drilled with a battery
operated drill using a 3/8 wood core bit. When drilling, the bit should be marked at 1
increments to help the inspector determine the depth of where the decay is located within a
member.
Many times decay is isolated within certain growth rings. As the inspector begins to drill, care
should be taken to attempt to determine the depth and thickness of each decayed layer
encountered as the drill extends into the member. Note that hardwood plugs should be used to
plug any drilled out holes.

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POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Sounding and subsequent drilling of timber members is somewhat an art and not an exact
science. Proper training and experience cannot be overemphasized. The following should be
considered when inspecting timber members:
Advantages:

Immediate results
Inexpensive method of evaluating timber members

Disadvantages:

A-62

Highly subjective with results varying between inspectors


Sounding only indicates serous decay, where initial decay may not be able to be detected
Typically needs to be combined with the semi-destructive evaluation technique of drilling to
quantify the extent of internal decay

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.11 BRIDGE SAFETY
INSPECTION
EQUIPMENT

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Quality inspections begin with the inspector having access to the correct tools. Without correct
tools, an inspector cannot adequately inspect a structure to the adopted standards required by
the NBIS. The information provided in this section is just a guide and should not be limited to
the equipment shown; special circumstances may necessitate the use of non-standard tools.
The Central Bridge Office and Districts have some specialized tools that can be signed out to
other Local Agencies as needed.
The inspection team should always have the Bridge Inspection Field Manual and Recording and
Coding Guide available for reference during the inspection. These ready references are critical
and should be consulted often.

A.11.1 INSPECTION
TOOLS EQUIPMENT
A.11.1.1 NDT Tools

A.11.1.2 Visual Aid


Tools

A.11.1.3 Inspection
Tools

A.11.1.4 Documentation
Materials

A-63

Inspectors should review Section 3.4 Inspection Equipment of the FHWA BIRM before an
inspection assignment for thorough coverage of recommended requirements.

Inspectors should have available for use the following tools at a minimum for NDT inspections:

12 Steel Rule

Micrometer

100-foot tape

Feeler gauges

Thermometer

Optical crack gauge

Tape Measure (25 to 35)

Plumb bob

4-foot level

String line

2-foot level

Telescoping Range Pole

Calipers

6-foot folding rule (with sliding depth gauge)

Inspectors should have available for use the following tools at a minimum for Visual Aid:

Binoculars

Flashlight/Headlamp

10x magnifying glass

Mirror

Inspectors should have available for use the following tools at a minimum for routine
inspections:

Hammer (masons or pick)

Pocketknife

Sounding chains

Ice pick

Steel wire brush

Incremental borer or 18V Cordless Drill with 3/8 bit

Flathead screwdriver

Probing rod

Scraper

Protractor

Whisk broom

Hip boots or waders

Spade

First Aid Kit

Inspectors should have available for use the following tools at a minimum for documenting
inspections:

Inspection forms

Camera

Computation paper

Pencil/pen

Clip board

Permanent marker

Straight edge

Paint stick/marker

Laptop computer

Lumber crayon

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.11.2 INSPECTION
ACCESS

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Inspection access needs to be determined during the planning stage and may depend on the
type and scope of the inspection. Gaining access to every part of the structure can be
challenging and may take different types of equipment based on several factors. Common
access equipment is listed below:

Ladder

UBIV/Snooper

Boat

Bucket Truck

MOOG

Rigging

Manlift

Rope Access

MnDOT has several snoopers that are stationed at the Central Bridge Office as well as at several
of the District maintenance facilities. Refer to Chapter F MnDOT Inspection Vehicle Policy
Manual of the BSIPM for use and scheduling of the Snoopers and MOOG.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.11.3 CONFINED SPACE
ENTRY

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Due to unique construction of many bridges, confined space situations (i.e. inside box beam
superstructures, towers for suspension bridges, enclosed abutments and piers, exhaust and
fresh air plenums of tunnels and some culverts) are issues that need to be thoroughly planed
and coordinated prior to the inspection.
Confined spaces may pose special hazards such as toxic, flammable, or asphyxiating
atmospheres, inwardly converging walls, or engulfment. To minimize the hazards presented by
confined space entries, State and Local Agencies should develop procedures to protect the
health and safety of employees while entering, working in, and exiting confined spaces.
Confined space is defined as:

Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned
work; and
Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit; and
Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy

In general, confined spaces are considered to be enclosures that restrict the natural movement
of air; or enclosures with limited openings for entry and exit. A Safety Plan for work in a
confined space must address the lack of oxygen and possible toxic or explosive gasses such as
pollutants, carbon monoxide, methane, or petroleum fumes. Confined spaces can be deadly if an
inspector does not follow the proper procedures. The interior of a box girder, a vaulted
abutment, or a long culvert can all be confined spaces. Confined spaces are classified as permitrequired or non-permit confined spaces.
A.11.3.1 Permit
Required Confined
Space

Permit-required confined space means a confined space that has one or more of the following
characteristics:

Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere


Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant
Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by
inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller
cross-section
Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard

In the United States, entry into permit-required confined spaces must comply with regulations
developed by OSHA. These regulations include developing a written program, issuing entry
permits, assigning attendant(s), designating entrants, and ensuring a means of rescue.
A.11.3.2 Non-Permit
Required Confined
Space

A non-permit confined space is a confined space that does not contain or, with respect to
atmosphere hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death or
serious physical harm.
The classification of a confined space must be verified in the field by the inspection team prior to
entering. Although the bridge file should contain information documenting past testing and the
classification of the confined space, the space should be treated as permit-required until on-site
data is collected to support the designation as a non-permit confined space.

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A.11.3.3 Air Monitoring

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

A hazardous atmosphere is an atmosphere that may expose workers to the risk of death,
incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness from one or more of
the following causes:

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Chapter A

Flammable gas, vapor or mist in excess of 10% of the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL).
The LEL may be referred to as LFL-Lower Flammable Limit in some references.
Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds the LEL.
This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at
a distance of 5 feet or less.
Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5% or above 23%. (If below 19.5%, it is
considered to be oxygen-deficient, and if above 23%, it is oxygen-enriched. Enriched
atmospheres are very rarely encountered; Inspectors should always be concerned, however,
with identifying and avoiding oxygen deficient atmospheres)
Atmospheric concentration for any substance for which a dose or a published exposure
guideline is available, and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its exposure
value.
Any other atmospheric condition that is Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.11.3.4 Pre-Entry
Checklist

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Prior to engaging in any activity involving confined spaces, the inspection Team Leader is to
inspect and evaluate space conditions and to complete the form Confined Space Safety
Inspection Checklist:
CONFINED SPACE SAFETY INSPECTION CHECKLIST
Date of Inspection:

Agency:
Inspected by (Signature):

Location:

CONFINED SPACES
NOTE: OSHA Construction Safety and Health (29 CFR 1926) references in parentheses.

1
2
3

/ /

Bridge Number:

Yes

No

N/A

Does the space have a limited means of access (porthole, hatch, only one door,
etc.)? If not, it is not a confined space.
Is the space large enough, or has openings large enough, that a worker may place
any portion of his/her body into it? If not, it is not a confined space.
Is the space NOT designed or intended for continuous human occupancy (Is it
missing an HVAC system, lighting, workstations, etc.)? If answer is NO (It IS
intended for continuous human occupancy), then it is not a confined space.
IF ITEMS # 1, 2 and 3 ARE ALL ANSWERED YES, THEN IT IS A CONFINED SPACE.

Does the space contain a hazardous atmosphere, physical hazard (heat,


electrocution) explosive atmosphere (>10% LEL), potential for engulfment
(water/grain) or have inwardly converging walls? If YES has been answered to
all items # 1, 2, 3, 4, then it is a Permit Required Confined Space (PRCS). Complete
questions # 5-20.
Are employees going to enter the PRCS? If not, is the space sealed so that it is
inaccessible to entry? (.146(c)(3)). If space will not be entered, just seal space,
answer NO and stop here - items #6-20 will not apply.

Is the Agencies Permit Space Program being followed? (.146(c)(4))

Do the entrants/attendants understand their respective duties? (.146(h)).

Have the entrants/attendants received formal Confined Space Training? (.146(g)).

Has the space atmosphere been sampled for oxygen deficiency, explosive
concentrations and the presence of toxic gasses, in that order? (.146(d)(5)).
Is a sign posted near the entrance, stating DANGERPERMIT-REQUIRED
10
CONFINED SPACE, DO NOT ENTER or equivalent language? (.146(C)(2)).
Has a written Confined Space permit been completely filled out, been signed by the
11
entry supervisor, and been posted at the space entrance? (.146(e)).
Is a communication system implemented, such that the entrant is in constant
12
communication (Visual, Voice, Signs, Hand Signals) with the attendant at all times?
Is the entrant equipped with a lifeline/body harness, and if a vertical descent over 5
13 feet is required, is the entrant attached via retrieval line to a mechanical winch?
(.146(k)(3)).
Are there trained rescue workers standing by to assist in case of an emergency, or
14
has an outside rescue organization been contracted to act? (.146(k)).
Is natural lighting sufficient, and if not, is explosion-proof lighting being used due to
15
the presence of combustible gasses/vapors? (.146(d)(4)).
Are the entrant(s) using all needed Personal Protective Equipment (gloves, Tyvek,
16
respirators, hard hats, steel-toed safety shoes)? (.146(d)(3)).
If the space contains a harmful atmosphere, Is a blower w/hose on-site and being
17
utilized at least 30 minutes prior to entry? (.146(c)(5)).
If any of the questions #6-17 were answered No, then a further review of the space/situation is required prior
to entry. Contact
REMARKS:
9

A-67

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.11.4 TRAFFIC
CONTROL

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Inspection operations can create unexpected and unusual situations for motorists. Effective
traffic control eliminates surprises and routes traffic safely around any hazards, inspection
personnel, or equipment. Minnesota utilizes the Minnesota Manual on Uniform Traffic Control
Devices (MN MUTCD) for the design and layout of Temporary Traffic Control (TTC) systems.
They also have a Field Manual, Temporary Traffic Control Zone Layouts, which is Part 6 of the
MN MUTCD and contains general Temporary Traffic Control standards. This manual contains
typical layouts for temporary traffic control zones ranging from mobile operations to zones
which may remain in-place overnight. When specific TTC plans for a specific operation are not
available, any public or private agency whose work affects vehicular and pedestrian traffic
should use this Field Manual to provide proper TTC.
Traffic control requirements should be reviewed prior to performing an inspection to assure
safety of the inspection team and the
Inspector Note:
traveling public. The Team Leader should
review safety considerations and the traffic
In urban areas, an inspection that requires
control requirements with the
traffic lane closures may be restricted to
Maintenance Supervisor or Contractor
certain hours of low traffic volume. Some days,
providing TTC. Consultants working on
such as holiday weekends, may be banned
state-owned bridges must submit any
from any traffic restrictions. Plan inspection
traffic control plans to the owner for
work with input from the Bridge Owner.
approval at least two weeks prior to the
start of the work. Inspectors working for
Local Agencies should coordinate with the Bridge Owner for traffic control. A traffic control plan
is a plan view drawing of the proposed work zone that shows where traffic control devices will
be placed, what devices will be used, and how they will be oriented. All parties that will be
operating in the work zone should review and be familiar with the approved traffic control plan.

A-68

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
A.11.5 PERSONAL
PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Chapter A

Bridge inspections typically present hazards requiring the use of personal protective equipment
(PPE) to prevent bodily harm. The purpose of PPE is to shield or isolate individuals from the
environmental, chemical, physical, and
Inspector Note:
biological hazards present onsite. No
Proper training and access to personal
single combination of protective clothing
protective equipment is required to safely
and equipment, however, is capable of
perform bridge inspection work.
protecting against all hazards.
The following is a list of typical PPE used
during normal bridge inspection work. This listing is not all inclusive and should only be used as
a guide. Various other types of PPE may be required depending on the specific location and type
of inspection.

A-69

High-Visibility Safety Vest The use of a serviceable ANSI/ISEA Class 2 (minimum) vest is
required for all bridge inspection work. A Class 3 vest may be required when working at
night or adjacent to freeway traffic.
Respirators ANSI N95 particulate respirators are to be worn when an inspectors exposure
to airborne contaminants cannot be eliminated or controlled. This includes working in areas
where pigeon dung is prevalent.
Head Protection Head protection must be worn when there is potential to be struck from a
falling object or when working from bridge access equipment such as a snooper, bucket
truck or man lift. Protective headwear must meet ANSI Z89.1 requirements.
Eye and Face Protection Standards for appropriate eye or face protection are covered in
29 CFR 1910.133 and ANSI Z87.1. Face shield (fullface coverage, eightinch minimum) or
splash hood protects against chemical splashes, but does not protect adequately against
projectiles. Safety glasses protect eyes against large particles and projectiles. Goggles,
depending on their construction, can protect against vaporized chemicals, splashes, large
particles and projectiles.
Foot Protection Steelshank or steeltoe safety boots protect feet from compression,
crushing, or puncture by falling, moving, or sharp objects. They should provide good traction
and must meet 29 CFR 1910.136 & ANSI Z41. Nonconductive or sparkresistant safety boots
protect the wearer against electrical hazards and prevent ignition of combustible gases or
vapors.
Hand Protection Appropriate hand protection should be used when hands are exposed to
hazards such as those from skin absorption of harmful substances, severe cuts or
lacerations, severe abrasions, punctures, pigeon dung, thermal burns, and harmful
temperature extremes.
Personal Fall Arrest System A personal fall arrest system must be employed when working
from a height of 6 feet or more. Components of a Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) include
a body system (harness); connecting device (rope or web lanyard, shock absorbing lanyard,
selfretracting lifeline); and a tieoff or anchorage point (eye bolt or beam, crossarm strap
connector), with a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 lbs. per worker. All components of a
Personal Fall Arrest System must be routinely inspected for defects and must be replaced at
the end of their serviceable life. The recommended serviceable life is considered 5-years
from the purchase date.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

Bridge and Structure


Inspection Program
ogram Manual

Chapter B

BRIDG E
I NSPECTI O N
IE LD M ANUA L

TABLE OF CONTENTS
B.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................1
B.2 ABBREVIATIONS..............................................................................................................................1
B.3 NBI CONDITION RATINGS ...............................................................................................................2
B.3.1 NBI BRIDGE CONDITION RATINGS ........................................................................................2
B.3.1.1 NBI Deck Condition Rating ..........................................................................................4
B.3.1.2 NBI Superstructure Condition Rating ...........................................................................5
B.3.1.3 NBI Substructure Condition Rating ..............................................................................6
B.3.1.4 NBI Channel/Channel Protection Condition Rating .....................................................7
B.3.1.5 NBI Culvert Condition Rating .......................................................................................8
B.3.2 BRIDGE APPRAISAL RATINGS & OTHER ITEMS .................................................................. 9
B.3.2.1 Waterway Adequacy Appraisal Rating .........................................................................9
B.3.2.2 Approach Roadway Alignment Appraisal Rating .......................................................11
B.3.2.3 Bridge Deficiency Status ............................................................................................12
B.3.2.4 Bridge Sufficiency Rating ...........................................................................................13
B.3.2.5 MnDOT Scour Code ..................................................................................................14
B.3.2.6 Structure Open, Posted, or Closed to Traffic .............................................................15
B.3.2.7 Roadway Area & Unsound Wearing Surface Percentage .........................................16
B.3.2.8 Painted Area & Unsound Paint Percentage ...............................................................16
B.4 STRUCTURAL ELEMENT CONDITION RATINGS ........................................................................ 17
B.4.1 STRUCTURAL ELEMENT TYPES .........................................................................................17
B.4.2 STRUCTURAL ELEMENT QUANTITIES & RATINGS ............................................................ 18
B.4.3 STRUCTURAL ELEMENT DISPLAY (BRIDGE INSPECTION REPORTS) ............................ 18
B.4.4 STRUCTURE UNITS ..............................................................................................................18
B.4.5 MNDOT STRUCTURAL ELEMENT LIST ................................................................................ 19
B.4.6 DECK & SLAB STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS ............................................................................ 24
B.4.6.1 Rating Procedures for Concrete Decks & Slabs ........................................................24
B.4.6.2 Concrete Decks & Slabs (Without Overlays) .............................................................25
B.4.6.3 Concrete Decks & Slabs (Low Slump Overlays) ........................................................26
B.4.6.4 Concrete Decks & Slabs (Latex or Epoxy Overlays) .................................................26
B.4.6.5 Concrete Decks & Slabs (Bituminous Overlays) ........................................................27
B.4.6.6 Timber Decks & Slabs ...............................................................................................28
B.4.6.7 Other Deck Types ......................................................................................................29
B.4.6.8 Deck Joints ................................................................................................................32
B.4.6.9 Roadway Approach Elements ....................................................................................38
B.4.6.10 Bridge Railing Elements ...........................................................................................39
B.4.7 STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS (GROUPED BY MATERIAL TYPE) ............................................ 42
B.4.7.1 Painted Steel Elements ..............................................................................................42
B.4.7.1.1 Painted Steel Beam Ends (Element #422)................................................. 43
B.4.7.2 Weathering Steel Elements .......................................................................................44
B.4.7.3 Reinforced Concrete Elements ..................................................................................45
B.4.7.4 Prestressed/Post-Tensioned Concrete Elements ......................................................46
B.4.7.5 Timber Elements ........................................................................................................47
B.4.7.6 Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Elements ..................................................48
BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

State of Minnesota |

B-I

B.4.8 OTHER STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS ......................................................................................49


B.4.8.1 Bearings .....................................................................................................................49
B.4.8.1.1 Inspection and Condition Rating of Bridge Bearings.................................. 50
B.4.8.2 Pin & Hanger (or Fixed Pin) Assemblies ....................................................................57
B.4.8.3 Hinge Bearing Assemblies .........................................................................................59
B.4.8.4 Steel Cables ...............................................................................................................63
B.4.8.5 Secondary Structural Elements .................................................................................64
B.4.8.6 Cast in Place (CIP) Piling ...........................................................................................65
B.4.8.7 Tunnels ......................................................................................................................65
B.4.9 CULVERT STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS ..................................................................................66
B.4.9.1 Inspection Procedures for Culverts ............................................................................66
B.4.9.2 Condition Rating Guidelines for Culverts ...................................................................68
B.4.9.2.1 Steel Culvert (Element #240) ..................................................................... 69
B.4.9.2.2 Concrete Culvert (Element #241)............................................................... 69
B.4.9.2.3 Timber Culvert (Element #242) .................................................................. 70
B.4.9.2.4 Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Culvert (Element #243) ............ 71
B.4.9.2.5 Culvert End Treatment (Element #388) ..................................................... 72
B.4.9.3 Culvert Footing (Element #421) .................................................................................72
B.4.10 SMART FLAG ELEMENTS ...................................................................................................73
B.4.10.1 Fatigue Cracking Smart Flag (Element #356) ..........................................................73
B.4.10.2 Pack Rust Smart Flag (Element #357) ....................................................................74
B.4.10.3 Concrete Deck Cracking Smart Flag (Element #358) ..............................................74
B.4.10.4 Underside of Concrete Deck Smart Flag (Element #359) ........................................75
B.4.10.5 Substructure Settlement & Movement Smart Flag (Element #360) .........................75
B.4.10.6 Scour Smart Flag (Element #361) ...........................................................................76
B.4.10.7 Traffic Impact Smart Flag (Element #362) ...............................................................76
B.4.10.8 Section Loss Smart Flag (Element #363) ................................................................77
B.4.10.9 Critical Deficiency Smart Flag (Element #964) ........................................................77
B.4.10.10 Concrete Shear Cracking Smart Flag (Element #965)...........................................78
B.4.10.11 Fracture Critical Smart Flag (Element #966) .........................................................78
B.4.10.12 Gusset Plate Distortion Smart Flag (Element #967) ..............................................79
B.4.11 OTHER BRIDGE ELEMENTS ...............................................................................................80
B.4.11.1 Signing (Element #981) ...........................................................................................80
B.4.11.2 Approach Guardrail (Element #982) ........................................................................81
B.4.11.3 Plowstraps (Element #983) ......................................................................................81
B.4.11.4 Deck & Approach Drainage (Element #984) ............................................................82
B.4.11.5 Slopes & Slope Protection (Element #985) ..............................................................82
B.4.11.6 Curb & Sidewalk (Element #986) .............................................................................82
B.4.11.7 Roadway over Culvert (Element #987) ....................................................................83
B.4.11.8 Miscellaneous Items (Element #988) .......................................................................83
B.5 BRIDGE COMPONENTS & STRUCTURE TYPES ......................................................................... 84
B.5.1 SUBSTRUCTURE COMPONENTS ........................................................................................84
B.5.1.1 Condition Rating Procedures for Abutments ..............................................................84
B.5.1.2 Condition Rating Procedures for Piers .......................................................................89
B.5.2 SUPERSTRUCTURE COMPONENTS ...................................................................................93
B.5.2.1 Condition Rating Procedures for Truss Connection Elements ...................................93
B.5.2.2 Measuring and Documenting Section Loss on Steel Members .................................95

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

State of Minnesota |

B-II

OCTOBER 2014
B.1 OVERVIEW

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

The Bridge Inspection Field Manual


chapter of the Bridge and Structure
BSIPM User Note:
Inspection Program Manual (BSIPM) is
Text in this format indicates that another
intended to serve as a field guide for the
Chapter of the manual may contain
inspection and condition rating of inadditional information regarding the topic.
service bridges and culverts in
Minnesota. This manual includes the NBI
condition ratings, structural element
condition ratings, and other inventory
items displayed on the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Report.
Inspector Note:
Text in this format symbolizes an
important note that is applicable
to a bridge inspector to alert of
an item to verify in the field.

A bridge inspection includes examining the structure,


evaluating the physical condition of the structure, and
reporting the observations and evaluations on the bridge
inspection report. MnDOT currently uses two separate
condition rating systems for bridges and culverts - the
NBI condition ratings and the structural element
condition ratings:

The NBI condition ratings describe the general overall condition of a bridge (see Section B.3).
This rating system was developed by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and is
outlined in the FHWA Recording and Coding Guide for the Structure Inventory and Appraisal
of the Nations Bridges. The NBI condition ratings are used to calculate the Bridge
Sufficiency Rating, which determines funding eligibility and priority for bridge replacement
and rehabilitation.

Structural element condition ratings divide a bridge into separate components which are
then rated individually based upon the severity and extent of deterioration (see Section B.4).
This rating system was developed by the American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials (AASHTO), and is outlined in the AASHTO Guide for Commonly
Recognized (CoRe) Structural Elements. Structural element condition ratings provide input
data for a Bridge Management System (BMS) which can be used to identify present
maintenance needs, and is intended to provide cost-effective options for long-range bridge
maintenance and improvement programs (using computer projections of future
deterioration).

This chapter of the BSIPM was developed by the MnDOT Bridge Office - a PDF version can be
downloaded online on the MnDOT Bridge Office Web site: http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/
- it is listed under Manuals. For questions, comments, or corrections, please contact Pete
Wilson at (615) 366-4574 or via e-mail at pete.wilson@state.mn.us

B.2 ABBREVIATIONS

B-1

The abbreviations and acronyms for Chapter B Bridge Inspection Field Manual are located in the
Introduction section of the BSIPM.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.3 NBI CONDITION
RATINGS

B.3.1 NBI BRIDGE


CONDITION RATINGS

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

The following sections provide guidance on how to rate the condition of the deck, superstructure,
substructure, channel and channel protection, and culvert. For complete information on how to
code all NBI Condition ratings, please refer to Part D, Recording and Coding Guide of the BSIPM.
The NBI condition ratings describe the general overall condition of a bridge (or culvert) - these
ratings are displayed on the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Report, and must be reviewed during
each inspection. The NBI ratings are a key component of the Bridge Sufficiency Rating, which is
used to establish funding eligibility and priority for bridge replacement and rehabilitation. There
are 5 NBI condition ratings - they are rated on a numerical scale of 1 to 9 (with 9 being new
condition).

NBI Deck Condition Rating (NBI Item 58)


NBI Superstructure Condition Rating (NBI Item 59)
NBI Substructure Condition Rating (NBI Item 60)
NBI Channel & Channel Protection Condition Rating (NBI Item 61)
NBI Culvert Condition Rating (NBI Item 62)

A bridge is typically rated in three components (deck, superstructure, and substructure) - if the
bridge spans over a waterway, the channel (NBI Item 61) must also be rated. For filled spandrel
arch bridges or roadway tunnels, the NBI superstructure and substructure items should be rated,
but the NBI deck rating may be entered as N.

B-2

NBI Item 58 describes the general overall condition of the deck (or slab) - this includes the
underside of the deck and the wearing surface. The railings, curbs, sidewalks, expansion
joints, and deck drains should typically not be considered in this rating.

NBI Item 59 describes the general overall condition of the superstructure - this includes all
structural components (slabs, arches, trusses, girders, or beams) located above (and
including) the bearings. This rating should consider any deterioration, misalignment, or
collision damage.

NBI Item 60 describes the general overall condition of the substructure - this includes all
structural components (piers, abutments, pilings, or footings) located below the bearings.
This rating should consider any settlement, tipping, misalignment, undermining, or scour.
Wingwalls or retaining walls (up to the first expansion or construction joint) may be
considered in this rating.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

NBI Item 62 (Culvert) is rated as a single component - if water flows through a culvert, then NBI
Item 61 (Channel) must also be rated. NBI Item 62 describes the general overall condition of the
culvert. This rating should consider the condition of the culvert barrel, joints and seams, as well
as any deflection, distortion, misalignment, settlement, scour, or voiding of backfill. Headwalls,
wingwalls or aprons (up to the first construction joint) should be included in this rating.
The following general guidelines apply to the NBI Condition Ratings:

B-3

New bridges (or culverts) will be assigned an initial NBI rating of 9 (excellent condition).
Bridge components that have been repaired should typically not be rated higher than 7
(good condition).
An NBI rating of 5 (fair condition) or less implies that repairs are recommended - NBI
ratings of condition 5 or less will also reduce the bridge sufficiency rating.
An NBI rating of 4 (poor condition) or less may impact the required inspection frequency.
An NBI rating of 3 (serious condition) or less implies that immediate repairs (or a new load
rating) may be necessary.
An NBI rating of 2 (critical condition) indicates a critical deficiency. Section A.6.2 of the
BSIPM outlines reporting and follow-up procedures for critical deficiencies. NBI ratings of
2 should be adjusted immediately after the deficiency is addressed.
Temporary supports (shoring, bracing, or underpinning) should generally not improve the
NBI rating. One exception would be if a critical condition was corrected with temporary
shoring (the NBI rating should be raised from condition 2 after the temporary repairs have
been performed).
The load carrying capacity should be considered when determining the NBI condition
ratings.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.3.1.1 NBI Deck
Condition Rating
(NBI Item 58)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This rating should reflect the overall general condition of the deck (or slab) - this includes the
underside of the deck as well as the wearing surface. The condition of railings, sidewalks, curbs,
expansion joints and deck drains should not be considered in this rating.

NBI Deck Condition Description


Code

Description

Not Applicable: Use for culverts, roadway tunnels, or filled spandrel arch bridges.

Excellent Condition: Deck is in new condition (recently constructed).


Very Good Condition: Deck has very minor (and isolated) deterioration.

Concrete: minor cracking, leaching, scale, or wear (no delamination or spalling).


Timber: minor weathering - isolated (minor) splitting.
Steel: no corrosion (paint/protection system remains sound).

Good Condition: Deck has minor (or isolated) deterioration.

Concrete: minor cracking, leaching, scale, or wear (isolated delamination, spalling,


or temporary patches).

Timber: minor weathering or splitting (no decay or crushing) - all planks are secure.
Steel: minor paint failure or corrosion (no section loss) - all connections are secure.
Satisfactory Condition: Deck has minor to moderate deterioration (no repairs are necessary).

Concrete: moderate cracking, leaching, scale, or wear (minor delamination or


spalling).
Timber: moderate weathering or splitting (isolated decay or crushing) - some planks
may be slightly loose.
Steel: moderate paint failure and/or surface corrosion (minor section loss) some
connections may have worked loose.

Fair Condition: Deck has moderate deterioration (repairs may be necessary).

Concrete: extensive cracking, leaching, scale, or wear (moderate delamination or


spalling).
Timber: extensive weathering or splitting (moderate decay or crushing) - some
planks may be loose, broken, or require replacement.
Steel: extensive paint failure and/or surface corrosion (moderate section loss)
several connections may be loose or missing, but deck components remain secure.

Poor Condition: Deck has advanced deterioration (replacement or overlay should be

planned).

Concrete: advanced cracking, leaching, scale, or wear (extensive delamination or


spalling) - isolated full-depth failures may be imminent.
Timber: advanced weathering, splitting, or decay - numerous planks may be loose,
broken, or require replacement.
Steel: advanced corrosion (significant section loss) - deck components may be loose
or slightly out of alignment.

Serious Condition: Deck has severe deterioration - immediate repairs may be necessary.

2
1
0

B-4

Concrete: severe cracking, leaching, delamination, or spalling - full-depth failures


may be present.
Timber: severe splitting, crushing or decay - majority of planks may need
replacement.
Steel: severe section loss - deck components may be severely out of alignment.

Critical Condition: Deck has failed - it may be necessary to close the bridge until repairs are

completed.

"Imminent" Failure Condition: Bridge is closed - corrective action is required to open to


restricted service.
Failed Condition: Bridge is closed - deck replacement is necessary.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.3.1.2 NBI
Superstructure
Condition Rating
(NBI Item 59)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This rating should reflect the overall general condition of the superstructure - this includes all
structural components located above (and including) the bearings.

NBI Superstructure Condition Description


Code

Description

Not Applicable: Use for culverts.

Excellent Condition: Superstructure is in new condition (recently constructed).

Very Good Condition: Superstructure has very minor (and isolated) deterioration.
Good Condition: Superstructure has minor (or isolated) deterioration.

2
1
0

B-5

| State of Minnesota

Steel: minor corrosion, little or no section loss.


Concrete: minor scaling or non-structural cracking (isolated delamination or spalling).
Timber: minor weathering or splitting (no decay or crushing).
Masonry: minor weathering or cracking (joints have little or no deterioration).
Satisfactory Condition: Superstructure has minor to moderate deterioration. Members
may be slightly bent or misaligned - connections may have minor distress.
Steel: moderate corrosion (section loss or fatigue cracks in non-critical areas).
Concrete: moderate scaling or non-structural cracking (minor delamination or
spalling).
Timber: moderate weathering or splitting (minor decay or crushing).
Masonry: moderate weathering or cracking (joints may have minor deterioration).
Fair Condition: Superstructure has moderate deterioration. Members may be bent,
bowed, or misaligned. Bolts, rivets, or connectors may be loose or missing, but
connections remain intact.
Steel: extensive corrosion (initial section loss in critical stress areas). Fatigue cracks (if
present) have been arrested or are not likely to propagate into critical stress areas.
Concrete: extensive scaling or cracking (structural cracks may be present), moderate
spalling or delamination (reinforcement may have some section loss).
Timber: extensive weathering or splitting (moderate decay or crushing).
Masonry: extensive weathering or cracking (joints may have slight separation or
offset).
Poor Condition: Superstructure has advanced deterioration. Members may be significantly
bent or misaligned. Connection failure may be imminent. Bearings may be severely
restricted.
Steel: significant section loss in critical stress areas. Un-arrested fatigue cracks exist
that may likely propagate into critical stress areas.
Concrete: advanced scaling, cracking, or spalling (significant structural cracks may be
present - exposed reinforcement may have significant section loss).
Timber: advanced splitting (extensive decay or significant crushing).
Masonry: advanced weathering or cracking (joints may have separation or offset).
Serious Condition: Superstructure has severe deterioration - immediate repairs or
structural evaluation may be required. Members may be severely bent or misaligned connections or bearings may have failed.
Steel: severe section loss or fatigue cracks in critical stress areas.
Concrete: severe structural cracking or spalling.
Timber: severe splitting, decay, or crushing.
Masonry: severe cracking, offset or misalignment.
Critical Condition: Superstructure has critical deterioration - primary structural elements
may have failed (severed, detached or critically misaligned). Immediate repairs may be
required to prevent collapse or closure.
Imminent Failure Condition: Bridge is closed - superstructure in no longer stable
(corrective action might return the structure to restricted service).
Failed Condition: Bridge is closed, superstructure is beyond point of corrective action

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.3.1.3 NBI
Substructure Condition
Rating
(NBI Item 60)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

This rating should reflect the overall general condition of the substructure - this includes all
structural components located below the bearings.

NBI Substructure Condition Description


Code
N
9
8

2
1
0

B-6

Chapter B

| State of Minnesota

Description
Not Applicable: Use for culverts.
Excellent Condition: Substructure is in new condition (recently constructed).
Very Good Condition: Substructure has very minor (and isolated) deterioration.
Good Condition: Substructure has minor (or isolated) deterioration.
Concrete: minor cracking, leaching, or scale (isolated delaminations or spalls).
Steel: minor paint failure and/or surface corrosion (little or no section loss).
Timber: minor weathering or splitting (no decay or crushing).
Masonry: minor weathering or cracking (joints have little or no deterioration).
Satisfactory Condition: Substructure has minor to moderate deterioration. Scour or

erosion (if present) is minor and isolated. There may be slight movement or misalignment.
Concrete: moderate scaling, cracking, or leaching (minor delamination or spalling).
Steel: moderate paint failure and/or surface corrosion (minor section loss).
Timber: moderate weathering or splitting (minor decay or crushing).
Masonry: moderate weathering or cracking (joints may have minor deterioration).
Fair Condition: Substructure has moderate deterioration - repairs may be necessary.
There may be moderate scour, erosion, or undermining. There may be minor settlement,
movement, misalignment, or loss of bearing area.
Concrete: extensive scaling, cracking or leaching (isolated structural cracks may be
present) - there may be moderate delamination or spalling.
Steel: extensive paint failure and/or surface corrosion (moderate section loss).
Timber: extensive weathering or splitting (moderate decay or crushing).
Masonry: extensive weathering or cracking (joints may have slight separation or
offset).
Poor Condition: Substructure has advanced deterioration - repairs may be necessary to
maintain stability. There may be extensive scour, erosion, or undermining. There may be
significant settlement, movement, misalignment, or loss of bearing area.
Concrete: advanced scaling, cracking, or leaching (significant structural cracks may be
present) - there may be extensive delamination or spalling.
Steel: advanced corrosion (significant section loss).
Timber: advanced splitting (significant decay or crushing).
Masonry: advanced weathering or cracking (joints may have separation or offset).
Serious Condition: Substructure has severe deterioration. Immediate corrective action
may be required. Scour, erosion, or undermining may have resulted in severe settlement,
movement, misalignment, or loss of bearing area.
Concrete: severe spalling or structural cracking.
Steel: severe section loss.
Timber: severe decay or crushing.
Masonry: severe cracking, offset or misalignment.
Critical Condition: Substructure has critical damage or deterioration (near the point of
collapse) - it may be necessary to close the bridge until corrective action is completed.
Scour may have removed substructure support.

Imminent Failure Condition: Bridge is closed to traffic due to substructure failure


corrective action may restore the bridge to light service.
Failed Condition: Bridge is closed due to substructure failure - beyond corrective action
(replacement required).

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.3.1.4 NBI
Channel/Channel
Protection Condition
Rating
(NBI Item 61)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This rating should reflect the overall general condition of the waterway flowing below the bridge
(or running through the culvert) - even if the channel is occasionally dry. This rating can be based
upon findings from routine visual inspections, soundings, or underwater (UW) inspections.
This rating includes the channel and banks below the bridge, as well as immediately upstream and
downstream of the bridge (typically those areas visible from the bridge). Changes in the channel such as aggradation (rising of the channel due to sedimentation), degradation (lowering of the
channel due to erosion), or lateral stream migration that might adversely affect the bridge should
be considered in this rating. The presence of drift in the channel, debris lodged against the bridge,
or sediment inside culvert barrels should also be considered in this rating. Note: if the bridge is
over a navigable waterway (NBI Item 38 coded as 1), the condition of substructure protection
devices (such as dolphins, fenders, and shear walls) must be rated using NBI Item 111.

NBI Channel Condition Description


Code
N
9
8

2
1
0

B-7

| State of Minnesota

Description
Not Applicable: Bridge is not over a waterway.
Excellent Condition: There are no noticeable or noteworthy deficiencies.
Very Good Condition: Channel banks are protected (or well vegetated) - there is little
or no erosion. Control structures and protection devices (if present) have little or no
deterioration. Any drift or debris in the channel is incidental. Culvert barrel has little
or no sediment.
Good Condition: Channel has no notable aggradation, degradation, or lateral
movement. There is no notable scour around the bridge substructure. The banks may
have minor erosion bank protection (if any) may have minor deterioration. Control
structures and/or protection devices may have minor deterioration. There may be
minor drift or debris in the channel. Culvert barrel may have minor sediment.
Satisfactory Condition: Channel may have minor aggradation, degradation, or lateral
movement. The channel banks may have moderate erosion or slumping - bank
protection may have moderate deterioration. Control structures and/or protection
devices may have moderate deterioration. Drift or debris in the channel may be
slightly restricting the channel. Culvert barrel may have moderate sediment.
Fair Condition: Channel may have moderate aggradation, degradation, or lateral
movement, but the bridge and approaches have not yet been adversely affected. The
channel banks may have extensive erosion - the bank protection may have extensive
deterioration. Control structures and/or protection devices may have extensive
deterioration, but are functioning as intended. Debris in the channel (or sediment in
the culvert barrel) is restricting the channel and should be removed.
Poor Condition: Aggradation, degradation, or lateral movement of the channel may
be adversely affecting the bridge and/or approaches. Channel banks may have severe
erosion - the bank protection may have severe deterioration. Control structures
and/or protection devices may be deteriorated to the extent that they are no longer
functioning as intended. Large accumulations of debris or sediment are severely
restricting the channel, and should be removed immediately.
Serious Condition: Aggradation, degradation, or lateral movement has altered the
channel to the extent that the bridge (or approach roadway) is threatened. Bank
protection has failed. Control structures and/or protection devices have been
destroyed.
Critical Condition: Aggradation, degradation, or lateral movement has altered the
channel to the extent that the bridge is near a state of collapse. It may be necessary to
close the bridge until corrective action is completed.
Bridge closed due to channel failure: Corrective action may restore bridge to light
service.
Bridge closed due to channel failure: Replacement necessary.
BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.3.1.5 NBI Culvert
Condition Rating
(NBI Item 62)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This rating should reflect the overall general condition of the culvert. If a structure is classified as
a culvert, the NBI condition ratings for deck, superstructure, and substructure must all be rated
as N.

NBI Culvert Condition Description


Code
N
9
8

2
1
0

B-8

Description
Not Applicable: Structure is not a culvert.
Excellent Condition: Culvert is new condition (recently constructed).
Very Good Condition: Culvert has very minor (and isolated) deterioration.
Good Condition: Culvert has minor (or isolated) deterioration. Joints are sound and properly
aligned (no leakage or backfill infiltration). Footings have no undermining.
Concrete/Masonry: minor weathering/scaling, cracking, or leaching (isolated spalling)
Steel: minor corrosion (little or no section loss) - barrel has no distortion.
Timber: minor splitting (no decay, crushing, or sagging).
Satisfactory Condition: Culvert has minor to moderate deterioration. Joints may have minor
separation or misalignment (slight leakage or backfill infiltration).
Concrete/Masonry: moderate weathering/scaling, cracking, or leaching (minor spalling).
Steel: moderate corrosion (minor section loss) - barrel may have minor distortion (seams
may have minor distress, but no cracking).
Timber: moderate splitting (minor decay, crushing, or sagging).
Fair Condition: Culvert has moderate deterioration - repairs may be required, but the culvert
is structurally sound and functioning as intended. Joints may have separation or
misalignment (moderate leakage or backfill infiltration). Footings may be partially
undermined (minor settlement). Embankments remain intact (roadway has no notable
settlement).
Concrete/Masonry: extensive weathering/scaling, cracking, or leaching (moderate
spalling).
Steel: extensive corrosion (any significant section loss is isolated) - barrel may have
moderate distortion (seams may have missing bolts or isolated cracking).
Timber: extensive splitting (moderate decay, crushing, or sagging).
Poor Condition: Culvert has advanced deterioration - structural evaluation or repairs may be
necessary (the structural integrity and/or functional capacity of the culvert may be slightly
reduced). Footings may have significant undermining or settlement. Loss of backfill may have
resulted in slight settlement of the roadway or embankment.
Concrete/Masonry: advanced weathering, cracking, leaching, or scaling (significant
spalling). Joints may have significant separation, misalignment, or leakage.
Steel: advanced corrosion (significant section loss) - barrel may have significant
distortion (seams may have extensive cracking or isolated failures).
Timber: advanced splitting (significant decay, crushing, or sagging).
Serious Condition: Culvert has serious deterioration - immediate repairs or corrective action
may be required (the structural integrity and/or functional capacity of the culvert may be
significantly reduced). Joints may have severe deterioration, misalignment, offset,
separation, or leakage. Loss of backfill may have resulted in significant settlement or
undermining of the roadway or embankment. Footings may have severe undermining or
settlement.
Concrete/Masonry: severe weathering, cracking, or spalling.
Steel: severe section loss - barrel may have severe distortion (seams may have failed).
Timber: severe decay, crushing, or sagging.
Critical Condition: Culvert has critically advanced deterioration (near the point of collapse)
it may be necessary to close the roadway until corrective action is completed.
"Imminent" Failure Condition: Culvert is closed - corrective action may restore to light
service.
Failed Condition: Culvert is closed - replacement is necessary.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.3.2 BRIDGE
APPRAISAL RATINGS &
OTHER ITEMS
B.3.2.1 Waterway
Adequacy Appraisal
Rating
(NBI Item 71)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

The MnDOT Bridge Inspection Report displays two of the NBI Bridge Appraisal Ratings, as well as
some additional structure inventory items. This section includes explanations of some of these
items - they should be periodically reviewed for accuracy.

This rating is a general assessment of the


Inspector Note:
waterway opening with respect to the passage
When a new bridge or culvert is added to
of flow through the bridge. This rating is based
the MnDOT bridge database, this item will
upon the frequency of overtopping of the
initially be coded as 9 - as this coding
bridge and approach (and the resultant traffic
may not be appropriate, this item should
delays). The functional class of the roadway is
always be reviewed for new bridges.
also taken into consideration. Site conditions
may warrant somewhat higher or lower ratings than indicated by the table (e.g. flooding of an
urban area due to a restricted bridge opening). The descriptions given in the table below mean
the following:
Chances of Overtopping:

Remote:
Slight:
Occasional:
Frequent:

Greater than 100 years


11 to 100 years
3 to 10 years
Less than 3 years

Traffic Delays:

Insignificant:
Significant:
Severe:

Minor inconvenience (impassable for a few hours)


Traffic delays of up to several days
Long-term traffic delays with resulting hardship

"Freeboard" is defined as the distance from the bottom of the superstructure to the water
surface (at the water level of the 50-year frequency design storm). Typical appraisal code values
and descriptions of the waterway adequacy are given in the following table:

B-9

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Waterway Adequacy Appraisal Rating (NBI Item 71)


Functional Classification
Other
Principal
Principal
Minor
Arterials Description
and Minor
Collectors
Interstates,
Arterial
and Local
Freeways, or
and Major
Roads
Expressways
Collectors
Bridge not over a waterway.
N
N
N
Bridge deck and roadway approaches above
9
9
9
floodwater elevations (high water). Chance of
overtopping is remote.
Bridge deck above roadway approaches. Slight
chance of overtopping roadway approaches.
8
8
8
Greater than 3 ft. of freeboard.
Bridge deck above roadway approaches. Slight
chance of overtopping bridge deck and roadway
6
6
7
approaches. 2 to 3 ft. of freeboard.
Bridge deck above roadway approaches.
Occasional overtopping of roadway approaches
4
4
6
with insignificant traffic delays. 1 to 2 ft. of
freeboard.
Bridge deck above roadway approaches.
Occasional overtopping of roadway approaches
3
4
5
with significant traffic delays. Less than 1 ft. of
freeboard.
Occasional overtopping of bridge deck and
2
3
4
roadway approaches with significant traffic
delays.
Frequent overtopping of bridge deck and
2
2
3
roadway approaches with significant traffic
delays.
Occasional or frequent overtopping of bridge
2
2
2
deck and roadway approaches with severe traffic
delays.
Bridge closed.
0
0
0

B-10

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.3.2.2 Approach
Roadway Alignment
Appraisal Rating
(NBI Item 72)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

NBI Item 72 is a general assessment of the approach roadway with respect to the alignment of
the bridge deck and identifies those bridges that do not function properly or adequately due to
the approach alignment. While this rating will typically remain constant, it should be reviewed if
the bridge approaches have been reconstructed. This rating only applies to the roadway passing
over the bridge and should not be used to rate the
Inspector Note:
roadway passing below the bridge.
Speed reductions necessary
Railroad or pedestrian bridges crossing over a
because of structure width and not
roadway should be coded as N.
approach alignments shall not be
It is not intended that the approach roadway
considered in evaluating this item.
alignment be compared to current standards but
rather to the existing highway alignment.
The rating criteria are based upon how the alignment of the bridge approaches relate to the
alignment of the adjacent roadway. For example, if the highway section requires a substantial
speed reduction due to vertical or
horizontal alignment, and the
Inspector Note:
roadway approach to the bridge
When a new bridge or culvert is added to the
requires only a very minor additional
MnDOT bridge database, this item will initially be
speed reduction at the bridge, the
coded as 9 an appropriate coding should be
appropriate code is 6.
determined for any structure currently coded as9.
Typical appraisal code values and
descriptions of the appropriate appraisal are given below.

Code
N
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

B-11

| State of Minnesota

Approach Roadway Alignment Appraisal Rating (NBI Item 72)


Description
Not Applicable (use for railroad or pedestrian bridges).
New Structure - an appropriate rating code should be determined.
No speed reduction required.
Minor sight distance problems with no speed reduction required.
Very minor speed reduction required (0-3 MPH for a typical vehicle using the
roadway).
Minor speed reduction required (3-5 MPH for a typical vehicle using the roadway).
Significant speed reduction required (5-10 MPH for a typical vehicle using the
roadway).
Intolerable alignment requiring a substantial reduction in the operating speed (10-20
MPH for a typical vehicle using the roadway.)
Severe vertical or horizontal alignment problems, such as a sharp vertical or
horizontal curve immediately adjacent to the bridge (Speed reduction of 20 MPH or
greater for a typical vehicle using the roadway).
This rating code should not be used.
Bridge Closed.

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.3.2.3 Bridge
Deficiency Status

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

If a bridge or culvert has been designated as Structurally Deficient or Functionally Obsolete, this
will be displayed on the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Report. These two items are automatically
calculated - any discrepancies should be reported to the MnDOT Bridge Office Bridge
Management Unit.
The FHWA designates a bridge as Structurally Deficient if it meets at least one of the following
conditions:
1.

An NBI condition rating of 4 or less for NBI Item 58 (Deck), NBI Item 59
(Superstructure), NBI Item 60 (Substructure), or NBI Item 62 (Culvert); or

2.

An appraisal rating of 2 or less for NBI Item 67 (Structural Evaluation*); or

3.

An appraisal rating of 2 or less for NBI Item 71 (Waterway Adequacy) and NBI Item
42B (Type of Service Under Bridge) is coded as one of the following:

0 Other
5 Waterway
6 Highway-Waterway
7 Railroad-Waterway
8 Highway-Waterway-Railroad
9 Relief for Waterway

*The Structural Evaluation Appraisal Rating (NBI Item 67) is automatically calculated. A new
bridge load capacity rating that significantly reduces the inventory load rating (NBI Item 66)
may result in a bridge being designated as structurally deficient.
FHWA recently established a "10-year rule" that prevents bridges from remaining classified as
structurally deficient after a major reconstruction project. Bridges with a Year Built date (NBI
Item 27) or Year Reconstructed date (NBI Item 106) within the past 10 years will not be
considered to be a deficient bridge, and will not be eligible for Federal Highway Bridge
Replacement and Rehabilitation Program funds.
The FHWA designates a bridge as Functionally Obsolete if it meets at least one of the following
conditions:
1.

An appraisal rating of 3 or less for NBI Item 68 (Deck Geometry); or

2.

An appraisal rating of 3 or less for NBI Item 72 (Approach Roadway Alignment); or

3.

An appraisal rating of 3 for NBI Item 67 (Structural Evaluation); or

4.

An appraisal rating of 3 for NBI Item 71 (Waterway Adequacy) and NBI Item 42B (Type
of Service Under Bridge) is coded as one of the following:

5.

An appraisal rating of 3 or less for NBI Item 69 (Vertical & Horizontal UnderClearances) and NBI Item 42B (Type of Service Under Bridge) is coded as one of the
following:

B-12

| State of Minnesota

0 Other
5 Waterway
6 Highway-Waterway
7 Railroad-Waterway
8 Highway-Waterway-Railroad
9 Relief for Waterway; or

0 Other
1 Highway, with or without Pedestrian
2 Railroad
4 Highway-Railroad
BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

6 Highway-Waterway
7 Railroad-Waterway
8 Highway-Waterway-Railroad

As many of the bridge appraisal ratings are


automatically calculated based upon
existing structure inventory items,
inventory coding errors could result in a
bridge being incorrectly designated as
functionally obsolete.

B.3.2.4 Bridge
Sufficiency Rating

Chapter B

Inspector Note:
A bridge designated as structurally
deficient is excluded from consideration
as being functionally obsolete.

The bridge sufficiency rating is a based upon a percentage scale of 0%-100% (with 100% being an
entirely sufficient bridge). The bridge sufficiency rating is used to establish funding eligibility and
priority for bridge replacement and rehabilitation. As a general rule, a sufficiency rating of 80%
or less is required to be eligible for bridge rehabilitation, and a sufficiency rating of 50% or less is
required to be eligible for bridge replacement.
The bridge sufficiency rating takes into consideration the structural adequacy, functional
capacity, and essentiality for public use of the bridge (the formula is explained in detail in
Appendix B of the FHWA Recording & Coding Guide). While the NBI condition ratings are a key
component of the bridge sufficiency rating, only NBI superstructure, substructure, or culvert
condition ratings of 5 or less will significantly reduce the bridge sufficiency rating. Other
factors used to calculate the bridge sufficiency rating include the inventory load-carrying
capacity, the NBI appraisal ratings, the average daily traffic (ADT), NBI Item 36 (safety features),
and the detour length.
The bridge sufficiency rating is automatically calculated for bridges (or culverts) that carry
vehicular traffic - any discrepancies should be reported to the MnDOT Bridge Asset Data
Management Unit (BADMU). A bridge sufficiency rating is not calculated for railroad or
pedestrian bridges.

B-13

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.3.2.5 MnDOT Scour
Code

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

The MnDOT scour code indicates the bridges vulnerability to scour the scour code (along with
an abbreviated description) is displayed on the MnDOT Inspection Report. The MnDOT scour
codes, along with the corresponding rating for NBI Item 113 (Scour Critical Bridges), are shown
below:
MnDOT Scour Code Descriptions
(corresponding coding for NBI Item 113 shown at right)
MnDOT
Scour
Code
A
G
H
E
I
K
M

C
K
F
J
L
N
O
R
D

U
B

Description
Bridge is not over a waterway.
Scour calculation, evaluation and/or screening have not been made. Bridge on unknown
foundations.
Bridge foundations (including piles) are well above flood water elevations.
Culvert structure: Scour calculation, evaluation, and/or screening have not been made.
Bridge screened, determined to be low risk for failure due to scour.
Bridge screened, determined to be of limited risk to public, monitor in lieu of evaluation and
close if necessary.
Bridge foundations determined to be stable for calculated scour conditions; calculated scour
depth from the scour prediction equations is above top of footing.
Countermeasures have been installed to correct a previously existing problem with scour.
Bridge is no longer scour critical. Scour countermeasures should be inspected during routine
inspections (when above water of accessible by wading), during underwater inspections, after
major flows, or as recommended in the Scour Action Plan. Report any changes that have
occurred to countermeasures.
Bridge is closed to traffic for reasons other than scour. Prior to reopening, the bridge must be
evaluated for scour and the scour code must be updated.
Bridge screened, determined to be of limited risk to public, monitor in lieu of evaluation and
close if necessary.
Bridge structure: Scour calculation, evaluation, and/or screening have not been made.
Bridge screened - determined to be scour susceptible (further evaluation must be completed).
All substructure foundations are known.
Scour evaluation complete, bridge judged to be low risk for failure due to scour.
Bridge foundations determined to be stable for calculated scour conditions; calculated scour
depth from the scour prediction equations is within limits of footing or piles.
Bridge foundations determined to be stable for predicted scour conditions; Scour Action Plan
requires additional action.
Bridge has been evaluated and is scour critical. Scour Action Plan recommends monitoring the
bridge during high flows and closing if necessary.
Bridge is scour critical; field review indicates that extensive scour has occurred at bridge
foundations. Immediate action is required to provide scour countermeasures. Note: this
scour code is equivalent to a critical finding.
Bridge has been evaluated and is scour critical. Scour Action Plan recommends this bridge as a
priority for installation of countermeasures. Until countermeasures are installed, monitor
bridge during high flows and close if necessary.
Bridge is closed to traffic; field review indicates that failure of piers and/or abutments due to
scour is imminent or has occurred.

NBI
Item
113
N
U
9

5
4
3

BSIPM User Note:


See Section A.9 of the BSIPM for additional information
regarding Scour Analysis and Channel Cross-Sections and
D.7.9.8 for information on how to determine the MN Scour
Code.

B-14

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.3.2.6 Structure Open,
Posted, or Closed to
Traffic
(NBI Item 41)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This item describes the current operational status of a structure (opened, posted, or closed to
traffic). The field review could show that a structure is posted, but Item 70 - Bridge Posting may
indicate that posting is not required. This is possible and acceptable coding since Item 70 is based on
the operating stress level and the governing agency's posting procedures may specify posting at
some stress level less than the operating rating.
Inspector Note:
If a posting is required, the actual posting will be
During each inspection, the inspector must
displayed on the header of the MnDOT Bridge
verify that posting signage (if required) is
Inspection Report. If the load posting signs are
in-place, correct, and readable. See
missing, or do not correlate with the inspection
Section D.7.8.5 of the BSIPM for
report, the Inspection Program Administrator
information regarding bridge posting
(PA) should be promptly notified.
The inspector should confirm that load posting signs are present either on or immediately in front of
the bridge, and should note if advanced signs are present. All of these signs must display the correct
weight limits. The condition of load posting signage
can be rated using element #981 (see Section
Inspector Note:
B.4.11.1).
The bridge inspector is responsible for
notifying BADMU in writing of a structure
If it is apparent that load postings are not being
status change. An example would be
adhered to, the Inspection Program Administrator
changing from A Open to K Closed.
should be notified. This item is coded based on the
table below.
Code
A
B
D
E
G
K
P
R

B-15

Description
Bridge is open to traffic (no load restrictions) - this includes pedestrian or railroad bridges.
Bridge is open to traffic - load posting is recommended but has not been legally implemented
(all signs not in place).
Bridge is open to traffic, but would be posted or closed without temporary shoring or supports.
Bridge is open to traffic, but is a temporary structure intended to carry legal loads until the
original structure is rehabilitated (or a new structure is constructed).
New structure - not yet open to traffic.
Bridge is closed to all traffic.
Bridge is posted with a load restriction. This includes bridges with more than one restriction, or
temporary bridges with a load restriction.
Bridge is posted with other load-capacity restrictions (such as speed, number of vehicles on
bridge, etc.).

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.3.2.7 Roadway Area
& Unsound Wearing
Surface Percentage

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

The MnDOT Bridge Inspection Report header displays the roadway area on the bridge deck (Rdwy.
Area), followed by the percentage of unsound wearing surface (Pct. Unsnd).
The Roadway Area quantity is only displayed for bridges (not culverts or tunnels). It is expressed in
square feet, and is determined by multiplying the curb-to curb (or rail-to-rail) width on the bridge
(excluding median) by the total bridge length. On highway bridges with sidewalks, the sidewalk is
not included in this quantity. This quantity may also be displayed for pedestrian bridges (sidewalk
width multiplied by the bridge length).
The Unsound Wearing Surface Percentage indicates the amount of unsound (deteriorated)
wearing surface, expressed as a percentage of the total deck area. This item applies only to concrete
decks and slabs, and should correlate with the concrete deck (or slab) structural element rating.
Unsound wearing surface includes areas with delamination, spalling, potholes, severe scale, or
other significant deterioration. Temporary patches should be considered to be unsound. Higher
quality (long-term) patches should not necessarily be considered unsound until they have begun
to deteriorate. This quantity may be estimated from field observations, or calculated from a deck
condition survey (such as chaining or ground penetrating radar).

B.3.2.8 Painted Area &


Unsound Paint
Percentage

The MnDOT Bridge Inspection Report header displays the total surface area of painted structural
steel (Paint Area), followed by the percentage of unsound paint (Pct. Unsnd).
The Painted Area quantity is only
displayed for bridges with a painted
steel superstructure. It is expressed
in square feet, and includes steel
structural members such as beams,
trusses, arches, and secondary
bracing (bridge railings are not
included).

Inspector Note:
On bridges constructed of unpainted weathering
steel, only the high corrosion areas (typically areas
within 7 feet of a deck joint) should be considered
when determining the total painted area.

The Unsound Paint Percentage indicates the estimated quantity of unsound (deteriorated)
paint, expressed as a percentage of the total painted area. Unsound paint includes areas with
complete paint system failure (exposed and rusted metal), or areas with finish coat deterioration
(flaking, cracking, or blistering).
This item is expressed as a percentage of the total painted area and is estimated by the
inspector.
The paragraph below is from the Bridge Improvement Guidelines:
For the purposes of assessing the condition of the paint near the joints, the paint conditions
above are based on surface area of the most corroded beam under the joint, and not the
average of all beams under the joint. Assessment of the paint condition on the rest of the bridge
is based on the exterior surfaces of fascia beams for beam span bridges and the lower portions
of trusses (within 5 feet of deck) for truss bridges. The percentages are computed based on the
limits of areas of deteriorated paint and rust that must be removed to apply the subsequent
paint system. For purposes of making this estimate, deteriorated paint that must be removed is
defined as paint that shows blistering, film embrittlement, loose paint or extensive staining.

B-16

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4 STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT CONDITION
RATINGS

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Structural element condition ratings provide a detailed condition evaluation of the bridge by
dividing the bridge into separate elements, which are then rated individually based upon the
severity and extent of any deterioration. This rating system was developed by the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), and is outlined in the
AASHTO Guide for Commonly Recognized (CoRe) Structural Elements.
Structural element condition ratings provide input data for a Bridge Management System which
allows computer projections of deterioration rates, providing cost-effective options for bridge
maintenance, rehabilitation, or replacement. BMSs are intended to be a source of information
(and qualitative backing) for engineers and managers responsible for long-range bridge
improvement programs. MnDOT adopted an element based bridge inspection format in 1994 to
comply with the 1991 Inter-Modal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), which
mandated that all states develop and implement a BMS by October of 1998.
An element refers to structural members (beams, pier columns, decks, etc.) or any other
components (railings, expansion joints, approach panels, etc.) commonly found on a bridge. This
manual includes approximately 150 elements - including the AASHTO CoRe elements as well as
elements added by MnDOT to better represent the bridge types and components found in
Minnesota.

B.4.1 STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT TYPES

Structural elements are divided into five groups, depending upon their structural function

Deck Elements (decks, slabs, railings, and expansion joints)


Superstructure Elements (girders, beams, arches, trusses, and bearings)
Substructure Elements (abutments, wingwalls, pilings, columns, pier caps and pier walls)
Culvert Elements (culverts and culvert headwalls/wingwalls)
Miscellaneous Elements (smart flags and miscellaneous bridge elements)

Structural elements are also divided


into six material groups - the
condition rating descriptions (and
rating scales) will vary according to
the material type.

B-17

Inspector Note:
Smart Flag elements identify conditions or
problems present on a bridge that are not
adequately addressed by the conventional
structural elements. Some smart flags refer to
specific problems that may warrant special
attention or follow-up action, while some smart
flags provide detailed information about the
condition of specific bridge elements or materials.

Painted Steel
Unpainted Weathering Steel
Reinforced Concrete
Pre-stressed (or Post-Tensioned)
Concrete
Timber
Masonry, Other Material, or Combination of Materials

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.2 STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT QUANTITIES &
RATINGS

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL


Structural element quantities may be
expressed in two ways:

Chapter B

Inspector Note:

While deck elements are displayed as a SF


Linear Feet (LF) elements display
quantity, the entire quantity must be rated as one
the total length of the element
condition state.
present on the bridge. For
example, on a 100 ft. long bridge
with five beam lines, the beam quantity would be 500 LF.
Each (EA) elements display the total quantity of the element present on the bridge. For
example, on a bridge with three piers (and three columns on each pier), the column quantity
would be 9.

Structural elements are rated on a scale of 1-3, 1-4, or 1-5 (depending upon the element type
and material). In all cases, condition state 1 is the best condition, with condition state 3, 4, or 5
being the worst condition (this is the reverse of the NBI condition ratings).
If the severity of deterioration varies within a particular element, it may be rated using more
than one condition state. For example, on a bridge with 500 LF of beams, 250 LF could be rated
as condition state 1, 150 LF could be rated as condition state 2, and 100 LF could be rated as
condition state 3. Elements expressed as an Each (EA) quantity can also be rated using more
than one condition state (but only if the total quantity is greater than one). For example, on a
bridge with 9 columns, five could be rated as condition state 1, three could be rated as condition
state 2, and one could be rated as condition state 3.
B.4.3 STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT DISPLAY
(BRIDGE INSPECTION
REPORTS)

B.4.4 STRUCTURE UNITS

Only the structural elements that have been entered for a bridge will be displayed on the
MnDOT Bridge Inspection Report. The display order is determined by the element structural
type - deck elements will be displayed first, followed by superstructure elements, substructure
elements, culvert elements and then miscellaneous elements. The element condition ratings for
the current inspection (as well as the previous inspection) will be displayed on the inspection
report (in LF or Each quantity). Inspection notes pertaining to each element are displayed
directly below each element.
Large or complex bridges that incorporate more than one structure type can be divided into
structure units (a structure unit may consist of an individual span or a group of spans with the
same structure type).
Inspector Note:
If you wish to divide a bridge into structure units,
please contact BADMU.

B-18

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.5 MNDOT
STRUCTURAL ELEMENT
LIST

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This element list is arranged in groups based upon the element type and/or material. Each
structural element is assigned a number - AASHTO CoRe deck elements are numbered between 1
and 99, AASHTO CoRe superstructure elements are numbered between 100 and 199, and AASHTO
CoRe substructure elements are numbered between 200 and 299. Smart Flag elements and
elements added by MnDOT are numbered between 300 and 999 (elements higher than 370 were
added by MnDOT).

MnDOT Structural Element List

Element Description
Concrete Decks
#

12
13
14
18
22
26
27
377
429
430

Element Type Units Scale

Top of Concrete Deck with Uncoated Rebar (No Overlay)


Bituminous Overlay (Concrete Deck)
Bituminous Overlay with Membrane (Concrete Deck)
Latex, Epoxy, or Thin Overlay (Concrete Deck)
Low Slump Overlay (Concrete Deck with Uncoated Rebar)
Top of Concrete Deck with Epoxy Reinforcement (No Overlay)

Top of Concrete Deck with Cathodic Protection System


Low Slump Overlay (Concrete Deck with Epoxy Rebar)
Top of Conc. Deck w/Epoxy Rebar top mat only (No Overlay)
Low Slump Overlay (Conc. Deck w/Epoxy Rebar top mat only)

Page

Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck

Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each

1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5

25
27
27
26
26
25
25
26
25
26

Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck

Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each

1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5

25
27
27
26
26
25
25
26
25
26
25
26

Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck

Each
Each
Each
Each

1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4

28
28
28
28

Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck

Each
Each
Each
Each

1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5

29
29
29
29

Concrete Slabs
38
39
40
44
48
52
53
378
405
406
431
432

Top of Concrete Slab with Uncoated Rebar (No Overlay)


Bituminous Overlay (Concrete Slab)
Bituminous Overlay with Membrane (Concrete Slab)
Latex, Epoxy, or Thin Overlay (Concrete Slab)
Low Slump Overlay (Concrete Slab with Uncoated Rebar)
Top of Concrete Slab with Epoxy Reinforcement (No Overlay)
Top of Concrete Slab with Cathodic Protection System
Low Slump Overlay (Concrete Slab with Epoxy Rebar)
Top of CIP Concrete Voided Slab (No Overlay)
Low Slump Overlay (CIP Concrete Voided Slab)
Top of Conc. Slab w/Epoxy Rebar top mat only (No Overlay)
Low Slump Overlay (Conc. Slab w/Epoxy Rebar top mat only)

Timber Decks & Slabs


31
32
54
55

Timber Deck (No Overlay)


Timber Deck with Bituminous (AC) Overlay
Timber Slab (No Overlay)
Timber Slab with Bituminous (AC) Overlay

Other Deck Types


28
29
30
401

B-19

| State of Minnesota

Steel Grid Deck - Open


Steel Grid Deck - Concrete Filled
Corrugated, Orthotropic, Exodermic, or Other Deck
Steel Ballast Plate Deck (Railroad Bridges)

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

MnDOT Structural Element List


#

Element Description

Deck Joints
300
301
302
303
304
410
411
412

Element Type

Strip Seal Deck Joint


Poured Deck Joint
Compression Seal Deck Joint
Assembly Deck Joint (with or without seal)
Open Deck Joint
Modular Deck Joint
Finger Deck Joint
Approach Relief Joint

Units Scale

Page

Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck

LF
LF
LF
LF
LF
LF
LF
LF

1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3

32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32

Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck

Each
Each
Each
Each

1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4

38
38
38
38

Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck
Deck

LF
LF
LF
LF
LF
LF

1-4
1-4
1-3
1-3
1-5
1-5

39
39
39
39
39
39

Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Substructure
Substructure
Superstructure
Substructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure

LF
LF
LF
LF
LF
LF
LF
LF
Each
LF
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
LF

1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5

42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
43
42
42
42

Roadway Approaches
320
321
407
408

Concrete Approach Slab (Bituminous Wearing Surface)


Concrete Approach Slab (Concrete Wearing Surface)
Bituminous Approach Roadway
Gravel Approach Roadway

Bridge Railings
330
331
332
333
334
409

Metal Bridge Railing (Uncoated or Unpainted)


Reinforced Concrete Bridge Railing
Timber Bridge Railing
Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Bridge Railing
Metal Bridge Railing (Coated or Painted)
Chain Link Fence

Painted Steel Elements


102
107
113
121
126
131
141
152
202
231
384
419
422
423
425
427

B-20

| State of Minnesota

Painted Steel Box Girder


Painted Steel Girder or Beam
Painted Steel Stringer
Painted Steel Through Truss - Bottom Chord
Painted Steel Through Truss - Upper Members
Painted Steel Deck Truss
Painted Steel Arch
Painted Steel Floorbeam
Painted Steel Column
Painted Steel Pier Cap/Bearing Cap
Painted Steel Arch Spandrel Column
Painted Steel Piling
Painted Steel Beam Ends
Painted Steel Gusset Plate Truss Connection
Painted Steel Pinned Truss Connection
Painted Steel Pier Cap (Superstructure)

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

MnDOT Structural Element List

Element Description
Weathering Steel Elements
#

101
106
112
120
125
130
140
151
201
225
230
413
424
426
428

Element Type

Weathering Steel Box Girder


Weathering Steel Girder or Beam
Weathering Steel Stringer
Weathering Steel Through Truss - Bottom Chord
Weathering Steel Through Truss - Upper Members
Weathering Steel Deck Truss
Weathering Steel Arch
Weathering Steel Floorbeam
Weathering Steel Column
Weathering Steel Piling
Weathering Steel Pier Cap/Bearing Cap
Weathering Steel Arch Spandrel Column
Weathering Steel Gusset Plate Truss Connection
Weathering Steel Pinned Truss Connection
Weathering Steel Pier Cap (Superstructure)

Units Scale

Page

Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Substructure
Substructure
Substructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure

LF
LF
LF
LF
LF
LF
LF
LF
Each
Each
LF
Each
Each
Each
LF

1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4

44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44

Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Substructure
Substructure
Substructure
Substructure
Substructure
Substructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Substructure
Superstructure

LF
LF
LF
LF
LF
Each
LF
LF
Each
Each
LF
LF
Each
Each
LF

1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4

45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45

Superstructure LF
Superstructure LF
Superstructure LF
Superstructure LF
Superstructure LF
Substructure Each
Substructure Each
Substructure
LF
Superstructure LF

1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4

46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46

Reinforced Concrete Elements


105
110
116
144
155
205
210
215
220
227
234
375
385
387
414

Reinforced Concrete Box Girder


Reinforced Concrete Girder or Beam
Reinforced Concrete Stringer
Reinforced Concrete Arch
Reinforced Concrete Floorbeam
Reinforced Concrete Column
Reinforced Concrete Pier Wall
Reinforced Concrete Abutment
Reinforced Concrete Footing
Reinforced Concrete Piling
Reinforced Concrete Pier Cap/Bearing Cap
Precast Concrete Channels
Reinforced Concrete Arch Spandrel Column
Reinforced Concrete Wingwall
Reinforced Concrete Arch Spandrel Wall

Prestressed or Post-Tensioned Concrete Elements


104
109
115
143
154
204
226
233
374

B-21

Prestressed Concrete Box Girder


Prestressed Concrete Girder or Beam
Prestressed Concrete Stringer
Prestressed Concrete Arch
Prestressed Concrete Floorbeam
Prestressed Concrete Column
Prestressed Concrete Piling
Prestressed Concrete Pier Cap/Bearing Cap
Prestressed Concrete Double, Quad, Bulb, or Inverted Tees

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

MnDOT Structural Element List


#

Element Description

402

Element Type

Prestressed Concrete Voided Slab Panels

Superstructure

Units Scale

LF

Page

1-4

46

Superstructure LF
Superstructure LF
Superstructure LF
Superstructure LF
Substructure Each
Substructure
LF
Substructure Each
Substructure
LF
Substructure Each
Deck
LF

1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4

47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47

Superstructure
Substructure
Substructure

LF
LF
LF

1-4
1-4
1-4

48
48
48

Substructure

LF

1-4

48

Substructure
Substructure

Each
Each

1-4
1-4

48
48

Superstructure

LF

1-4

48

Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Substructure
Superstructure

Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
LF

1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-5
1-5
1-4
1-4
1-5
1-4
1-4
1-4

50
50
50
50
50
50
57
59
59
63
63
64
65
65

Timber Elements
111
117
135
156
206
216
228
235
386
415

Timber Girder or Beam


Timber Stringer
Timber Arch or Truss
Timber Floorbeam
Timber Column
Timber Abutment
Timber Piling
Timber Pier Cap/Bearing Cap
Timber Wingwall
Timber Transverse Stiffener Beam (Timber Slabs)

Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Elements


145
211
217

Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Arch


Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Pier Wall
Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Abutment
Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Pier
Cap/Bearing Cap

416
417
418
420

Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Column


Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Wingwall
Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Arch Spandrel
Wall

Other Structural Elements


310
311
312
313
314
315
161
373
379
146
147
380
382
381

B-22

| State of Minnesota

Elastomeric (Expansion) Bearing


Expansion Bearing
Enclosed/Concealed Bearing
Fixed Bearing
Pot Bearing
Disk Bearing
Pin & Hanger (or Hinge Pin) Assembly - Painted
Steel Hinge Assembly
Concrete Hinge Assembly
Steel Cable (Bare)
Steel Cable (Coated or Encased)
Secondary Structural Elements
Cast-In-Place (CIP) Piling
Tunnel

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

MnDOT Structural Element List

Element Description
Culvert Elements
#

240
241
242
243
388
421

Element Type

Steel Culvert
Reinforced Concrete Culvert
Timber Culvert
Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Culvert
Culvert Wingwall, Headwall, or Other End Treatment
Culvert Footing

Units Scale

Page

Culvert
Culvert
Culvert
Culvert
Culvert
Culvert

LF
LF
LF
LF
Each
LF

1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4

69
69
70
71
72
72

Superstructure
Superstructure
Deck
Deck
Substructure
Substructure
Superstructure
Superstructure
Miscellaneous
Superstructure
Superstructure
Superstructure

Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each

1-3
1-4
1-4
1-5
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-4
1-2
1-4
1-3
1-4

73
74
74
75
75
76
76
77
77
78
78
79

Miscellaneous
Deck
Deck
Deck
Substructure
Deck
Culvert
Miscellaneous

Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each

1-5
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3

80
81
81
82
82
82
83
83

Smart Flags
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
964
965
966
967

Fatigue Cracking Smart Flag


Pack Rust Smart Flag
Concrete Deck Cracking Smart Flag
Underside of Concrete Deck Smart Flag
Substructure Settlement & Movement Smart Flag
Scour Smart Flag
Traffic Impact Smart Flag
Section Loss Smart Flag
Critical Finding Smart Flag
Concrete Shear Cracking Smart Flag
Fracture Critical Smart Flag
Gusset Plate Distortion Smart Flag

Other Items
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988

B-23

| State of Minnesota

Signing
Guardrail
Plowstraps
Deck & Approach Drainage
Slopes & Slope Protection
Curb & Sidewalk
Roadway over Culvert
Miscellaneous Items

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.6 DECK & SLAB
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
B.4.6.1 Rating
Procedures for Concrete
Decks & Slabs

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This section includes structural element rating descriptions for decks, slabs, deck joints, bridge
approaches, and bridge railings.

Concrete deck (and slab) elements are selected based upon the wearing surface material (low
slump concrete, bituminous, etc.) as well as the type of corrosion prevention system (such as
epoxy coated reinforcement). In this manual, the condition rating descriptions for concrete deck
and slab elements are divided into four groups.

Section B.4.6.2: Concrete decks & slabs without overlays


Section B.4.6.3: Concrete decks & slabs with low slump overlays
Section B.4.6.4: Concrete decks & slabs with latex or epoxy overlays
Section B.4.6.5: Concrete decks & slabs with bituminous overlays

All concrete deck and slab elements are rated on a scale of 1 to 5 (with 1 being very good
condition and 5 being the worst condition). Although the quantity is displayed in square ft., the
entire quantity must be rated as a single condition state.
The condition ratings for concrete deck elements are based upon the percentage of unsound
wearing surface (see Section B.3.2.7). This quantity may be estimated from field observations, or
calculated from a deck condition survey (such as chaining or ground penetrating radar).
Unsound wearing surface includes areas with delamination, spalling, potholes, severe scale, or
other significant deterioration.
Inspector Note:
Temporary patches (such as a
bituminous fill patch on a concrete
The condition ratings for concrete decks & slabs are
wearing surface) should be
based solely upon the condition of the wearing
considered to be unsound. Higher
surface. Smart Flag element #359 (Underside of
quality (long-term) patches should
Deck/Slab) must be rated to describe the conditions
not necessarily be considered
of the supporting concrete deck (or slab).
unsound until these repaired areas
have begun to deteriorate.
If the deck has a concrete wearing surface, Smart Flag element #358 (Deck Cracking) must also
be rated. This smart flag is not required for decks with bituminous overlays (or if the wearing
surface is covered in gravel).
The wearing surface type, depth, and year of installation should be displayed on the MnDOT
Structure Inventory Report - if not, this information should be noted on the inspection report.
The inspector should note any changes in the type or depth of the wearing surface - a new
overlay may require a new deck element, and any increase in the wearing surface depth will
require a new load rating.
While the presence of gravel is not a consideration when selecting deck elements, the gravel
depth should be noted on the inspection report (excessive gravel may reduce the load rating).
Concrete decks covered in gravel will typically be rated as condition 1 (as the top of the deck is
not visible for inspection).
The deck protection system (and year of installation) should be displayed on the MnDOT
Structure Inventory Report. Virtually all bridge decks constructed in Minnesota since 1980 have
epoxy coated reinforcement - however, decks constructed in the early 1980s often had epoxy
coated reinforcement on the top mat only (uncoated reinforcement was used on the lower mat).
These bridge decks tend to have increased deterioration (rust staining and delamination) on the
underside. Decks with bituminous overlays often have a waterproof membrane to protect the
underlying deck. The bridge plans may have to be reviewed to determine the proper deck
element.

B-24

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.6.2 Concrete Decks
& Slabs (Without
Overlays)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL


These elements describe the wearing
surface condition on concrete decks
(or slabs) that do not have an overlay.
This can include concrete decks (or
slabs) covered with gravel.

Chapter B

Inspector Note:
Smart Flag elements #359 (Underside of Concrete
Deck) and #358 (Deck Cracking) should also be rated.

Element #12: Top of Concrete Deck with Uncoated Rebar (No Overlay)
Element #26: Top of Concrete Deck with Epoxy Rebar (No Overlay)
Element #27: Top of Concrete Deck (with Cathodic Protection System)
Element #38: Top of Concrete Slab with Uncoated Rebar (No Overlay)
Element #52: Top of Concrete Slab Epoxy Rebar (No Overlay)
Element #53: Top of Concrete Slab (with Cathodic Protection System)
Element #405: Top of Cast-in-Place Concrete Voided Slab (No Overlay)
Element #429: Top of Concrete Deck with Epoxy Rebar on the Top Mat Only (No Overlay)
Element #431: Top of Concrete Slab with Epoxy Rebar on the Top Mat Only (No Overlay)
Condition State 1: Top (wearing) surface of deck has no spalls, delaminations, or temporary
patches.
Condition State 2: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (spalls, delaminations,
temporary patches, etc.) is 2% or less of the total deck area.
Condition State 3: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (spalls, delaminations,
temporary patches, etc.) is more than 2% but not more than 10% of the total deck area.
Condition State 4: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (spalls, delaminations,
temporary patches, etc.) is more than 10% but not more than 25% of the total deck area.
Condition State 5: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (spalls, delaminations,
temporary patches, etc.) is more than 25% of the total deck area.

B-25

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.6.3 Concrete Decks
& Slabs (Low Slump
Overlays)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL


These elements
describe the condition
of low slump concrete
overlays on concrete
decks (or slabs).

Chapter B

Inspector Note:
Smart Flag element #359 (Underside of Concrete Deck) must
also be rated to describe the condition of the supporting
concrete deck (or slab)! Smart Flag element #358 (Deck
Cracking) must also be rated.

Element #22: Low Slump Overlay (Concrete Deck with Uncoated Rebar)
Element #48: Low Slump Overlay (Concrete Slab with Uncoated Rebar)
Element #377: Low Slump Overlay (Concrete Deck with Epoxy Rebar)
Element #378: Low Slump Overlay (Concrete Slab with Epoxy Rebar)
Element #406: Low Slump Overlay (Cast-in-Place Concrete Voided Slab)
Element #430: Low Slump Overlay (Concrete Deck with Epoxy Rebar on the Top Mat Only)
Element #432: Low Slump Overlay (Concrete Slab with Epoxy Rebar on the Top Mat Only)
Condition State 1: Low slump overlay has no spalls, delaminations, or temporary patches.
Condition State 2: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (spalls, delaminations,
temporary patches, etc.) is 2% or less of the total deck area.
Condition State 3: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (spalls, delaminations,
temporary patches, etc.) is more than 2% but not more than 10% of the total deck area.
Condition State 4: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (spalls, delaminations,
temporary patches, etc.) is more than 10% but not more than 25% of the total deck area.
Condition State 5: The combined area of distressed or unsound wearing surface (spalls,
delaminations, patches, etc.) is more than 25% of the total deck area.
B.4.6.4 Concrete Decks
& Slabs (Latex or Epoxy
Overlays)

These elements describe the


condition of latex, epoxy, or thin
(less than 1) overlays on concrete
decks (or slabs). Epoxy & Latex
overlays were used sparingly in
Minnesota in the 1970s & 1980s,
but are now seldom used.

Inspector Note:
Smart Flag elements #359 (Underside of Concrete
Deck) must also be rated to describe the condition of
the supporting concrete deck (or slab).

Element #18: Latex, Epoxy, or Thin Overlay (Concrete Deck)


Element #44: Latex, Epoxy, or Thin Overlay (Concrete Slab)
Condition State 1: Latex/Epoxy overlay has no spalls, delaminations, or patches.
Condition State 2: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (spalls, delaminations,
temporary patches, etc.) is 2% or less of the total deck area.
Condition State 3: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (spalls, delaminations,
temporary patches, etc.) is more than 2% but not more than 10% of the total deck area.
Condition State 4: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (spalls, delaminations,
temporary patches, etc.) is more than 10% but not more than 25% of the total deck area.
Condition State 5: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (spalls, delaminations,
temporary patches, etc.) is more than 25% of the total deck area.

B-26

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.6.5 Concrete Decks
& Slabs (Bituminous
Overlays)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL


These elements describe the
condition of bituminous overlays on
concrete decks (or slabs). The plans
should be referenced to determine if
there is a waterproof membrane
below the overlay (the presence of
epoxy-coated reinforcement is not a
consideration with these elements).

Chapter B

Inspector Note:
Smart Flag elements #359 (Underside of Deck or Slab)
must also be rated to describe the condition of the
supporting concrete deck (or slab). Smart Flag
Element #358 (Deck Cracking) should not be used for
bituminous overlays.

Element #13: Bituminous Overlay (Concrete Deck)


Element #14: Bituminous Overlay with Membrane (Concrete Deck)
Element #39: Bituminous Overlay (Concrete Slab)
Element #40: Bituminous Overlay with Membrane (Concrete Slab)
Condition State 1: Bituminous overlay has no potholes, spalls, or temporary patches.
Condition State 2: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (potholes, spalls, temporary
patches, etc.) is 2% or less of the total deck area.
Condition State 3: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (potholes, spalls, temporary
patches, etc.) is more than 2% but not more than 10% of the total deck area.
Condition State 4: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (potholes, spalls, temporary
patches, etc.) is more than 10% but not more than 25% of the total deck area.
Condition State 5: The combined area of unsound wearing surface (potholes, spalls, temporary
patches, etc.) is more than 25% of the total deck area

B-27

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.6.6 Timber Decks &
Slabs

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

These elements apply to timber decks or slabs - this includes timber, bituminous or gravel
wearing surfaces. This includes timber plank decks, glulam deck panels, and nail laminated
timber decks or slabs. All of these elements are an each item (the quantity will be displayed as
the deck area in square ft.) - they are rated on a scale of 1-4 (the entire deck/slab area must be
rated under a single condition state).
Element #31: Timber Deck (No Overlay)
Element #32: Timber Deck with Bituminous (AC) Overlay
Element #54: Timber Slab (No Overlay)
Element #55: Timber Slab with Bituminous (AC) Overlay
Timber plank decks are comprised of transverse timber planks (with the wide dimension in the
horizontal plane). Timber plank decks often have longitudinal planks (runners) under each
wheel track.
Nailed laminated timber decks consist of transverse timbers (with the wide dimension in the
vertical position) that are nailed to the adjacent timbers. Nailed laminated decks often have a
bituminous overlay.
Inspector Note:
Nail laminated timber slabs are similar to
Timber slabs often have a transverse
nail laminated decks, except the timbers
stiffener beam running below the slab
are longitudinal, and serve as the primary
near the center of the span these
superstructure element (the timbers are
beams can be rated using element #415.
larger than those on a nail laminated deck).
Timber slabs often have a bituminous
wearing surface.
Glulam timber deck panels are typically 4 ft. wide and are typically installed transversely to the
direction of traffic (these are often used for temporary bridges, and frequently have a
bituminous overlay).
Condition State 1: Timber deck/slab has little or no deterioration. Timber components may have
minor weathering or splitting. All deck/slab components are properly orientated and solidly
connected. Running planks (if present) are in good condition and soundly attached. Bituminous
overlay (if present) is in good condition (no potholes).
Condition State 2: Timber deck/slab has minor to moderate deterioration. Timber components
may have moderate weathering or splitting - there may be minor decay, crushing, or sagging.
Deck/slab components may be slightly loose or misaligned. Running planks may be worn or
slightly loose. Bituminous overlay may have moderate cracking - there may be some potholes.
Condition State 3: Timber deck/slab has extensive deterioration - repairs may be recommended,
but the load-carrying capacity of the deck has not been significantly reduced. Timber
components may have extensive weathering or splitting - there may be decay, crushing, or
sagging. Deck/slab components may be missing, loose, or misaligned. Running planks may be
misaligned (some sections may be missing). Bituminous overlay may have extensive cracking or
potholes.
Condition State 4: Timber deck/slab has severe or critical deterioration. Full-depth failures may
be present - immediate repairs may be necessary. Timber components may have severe decay,
crushing, or sagging. Wearing surface may have failed.

B-28

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.6.7 Other Deck
Types

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #28: Steel Grid Deck - Open


Element #29: Steel Grid Deck - Concrete Filled
Element #28 applies to open grid steel deck, Element #29 refers to steel grid decks that have
been fully or partially filled with concrete. Steel grid panels may be welded, riveted, or bolted the top edges are often serrated to improve traction. Both of these elements are an each item
(the quantity will be displayed as the deck area in square ft.) - they are rated on a scale of 1-5
(the entire deck area must be rated under a single condition state). Note: The rating should take
into consideration any deck support components that are not addressed by other structural
elements.
Condition State 1: Steel grid deck has little or no deterioration. The paint or galvanizing system
(if present) remains sound - there is no notable corrosion. All deck supports and connections
(welds, rivets, bolts, etc.) are in good condition. Concrete filler (if any) is in good condition.
Condition State 2: Steel grid deck has minor deterioration. Paint or galvanizing system (if
present) may have some failure - surface corrosion may be present. Deck supports and
connections may have minor deterioration, but remain sound. Concrete filler (if any) may have
minor deterioration, but remains intact.
Condition State 3: Steel grid deck has moderate deterioration. Paint or galvanizing system (if
present) may have moderate failure - surface corrosion may be prevalent, but any section loss is
incidental. Deck supports and connections may have moderate deterioration or isolated failure
(cracked welds or broken rivets), but the grid panels remain secure and in proper alignment.
Concrete filler (if any) may have moderate deterioration - the concrete may have broken out in
some locations.
Condition State 4: Steel grid deck has extensive deterioration. Paint or galvanizing system (if
present) may have complete failure. There may be extensive surface corrosion or measurable
section loss. Failure of support components and connections may have resulted in some grid
panels coming slightly loose or out alignment. Concrete filler (if any) may have extensive
deterioration - the concrete may have broken out in numerous locations.
Condition State 5: Steel grid deck has severe or deterioration - immediate repairs may be
required. The steel grid panels may have severe section loss (areas may have rusted through).
Failure of support components and connections may have resulted in some grid panels coming
severely loose or out of alignment. Most of the concrete filler may be missing.
Element #30: Corrugated, Orthotropic, Exodermic, or Other Deck
This element applies corrugated decks, orthotropic decks, or any deck type not adequately
described by the other deck elements. This element is an each item (the quantity will be
displayed as the deck area in square ft.). This element is rated on a scale of 1-5 (the entire deck
area must be rated under a single condition state).
Corrugated decks are typically comprised of corrugated steel forms (with concrete or bituminous
fill), in which the steel forms provide the primary structural support.
An Orthotropic deck typically consists of a steel plate that has been stiffened by closely spaced
ribs. An orthotropic deck acts integrally with the superstructure.
An Exodermic deck is a recently developed modular design that combines a steel grid with a
reinforced concrete deck (advantages include light weight and rapid construction). This design
has only been used on a limited basis in Minnesota.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Condition State 1: Deck has little or no deterioration. Paint or galvanizing system (if present)
remains sound - there is no notable corrosion. The wearing surface (or filler material) is sound,
with no notable deterioration.
Condition State 2: Deck has minor deterioration. Paint or galvanizing system (if present) may
have some failure - surface corrosion may be present. Wearing surface (or filler material) may
have minor deterioration (cracking, spalling, or potholes).
Condition State 3: Deck has moderate deterioration. Paint or galvanizing system (if present) may
have moderate failure - surface corrosion may be prevalent, but any section loss is incidental.
Wearing surface (or filler material) may have moderate deterioration (cracking, spalling, or
potholes) - but the underlying deck forms are not exposed.
Condition State 4: Deck has extensive deterioration. Paint or galvanizing system (if present) may
have complete failure. There may be extensive surface corrosion or measurable section loss.
Wearing surface (or filler material) may have extensive deterioration - the underlying deck may
be exposed.
Condition State 5: Deck has severe deterioration - immediate repairs may be required. Steel
deck components may have severe section loss (areas may have rusted through). Wearing
surface (or filler material) may have severe deterioration - a significant portion of the underlying
decking may be exposed.

B-30

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #401: Steel Ballast Plate Deck (Railroad Bridges)


This element applies to steel ballast plate decks (commonly used on railroad bridges). These
decks consist of steel plates attached directly to the superstructure (they are often connected
with clips that allow the deck to expand independently from the superstructure). The steel
ballast plate is typically covered with a waterproof membrane and rock ballast (the railroad ties
are placed on the ballast). This element is an each item (the quantity will be displayed as the
deck area in square ft.). This element is rated on a scale of 1-5 (the entire deck area must be
rated under a single condition state). Note: The inspector should note if the railroad tracks are
active, abandoned, or removed.
Condition State 1: Steel ballast plate deck has little or no deterioration. Paint system (if present)
remains sound - there is no notable corrosion. There is no deck leakage. All ballast clips (or other
deck connections) are secure. Rock ballast and wearing surface (if present) have no notable
deterioration.
Condition State 2: Steel ballast plate deck has minor deterioration. Paint system (if present) may
have some failure - surface corrosion may be present. There may be minor deck leakage. A small
number of ballast clips (or other connections) may be loose or missing. Rock ballast and wearing
surface (if present) may have minor deterioration.
Condition State 3: Steel ballast plate deck has moderate deterioration. Paint system (if present)
may have moderate failure - surface corrosion may be prevalent, but any section loss is
incidental. There may be moderate deck leakage. Several ballast clips (or other connections) may
be loose or missing. Rock ballast and wearing surface (if present) may have moderate
deterioration.
Condition State 4: Steel ballast plate deck has extensive deterioration. Paint system (if present)
may have complete failure. There may be extensive surface corrosion or measurable section
loss. There may be extensive deck leakage. A significant number of ballast clips (or other
connections) may be loose or missing. Rock ballast and wearing surface (if present) may have
extensive deterioration.
Condition State 5: Steel ballast plate railroad deck has severe deterioration - immediate repairs
may be required. Steel deck components may have severe section loss (areas may have rusted
through), or may be loose or out of alignment.

B-31

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.6.8 Deck Joints

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Deck joint elements are rated on a scale of 1-3 - condition 3 typically indicates that joint repair
or replacement is required. The quantity is listed as linear feet, measured along the full length of
the expansion joint (this includes the roadway, as well as joints through railings, medians, and
sidewalks).
Inspector Note:
Deck joints should be inspected for
Deck expansion joints that are closed tightly,
leakage, as well as for proper function.
offset vertically or horizontally, or have large
Deck joints should be examined for skew,
gaps may indicate severe structural problems
offset, or any evidence that the joint is
(such as substructure movement).
restricted or is beyond the limits of
expansion.
Element #300: Strip Seal Deck Joint
This element applies to deck joints that utilize a V shaped neoprene gland, typically held in
place by a steel extrusion.

Strip seal joints came


into use in Minnesota
in 1974, and are now
the predominant type
of bridge deck
expansion joint.
A cross-section plan
diagram of typical strip
seal deck joint is
shown to the left.

Condition State 1: Strip seal joint has little or no deterioration (no leakage). Gland is sound and
securely anchored. Joint anchorage and adjacent deck remain sound and intact. Joint is properly
aligned and functioning as intended. Debris in the joint (if any) is not causing any problems.
Condition State 2: Strip seal joint has moderate deterioration - minor leakage may be evident.
Gland may be partially pulled out. Joint anchorage may be slightly damaged. Adjacent deck may
have minor spalling. Joint may be slightly misaligned (skewed, offset, or near limits of
expansion), but the function has not been significantly impaired. Debris in the joint may be
causing problems.
Condition State 3: Strip seal joint has severe deterioration - there may be significant leakage.
Gland may be punctured, torn, or pulled loose. Joint may be closed to or less. The joint
anchorage may be damaged or deteriorated to the extent that the gland can no longer be
properly anchored. Adjacent deck may have severe spalling. Joint may be severely misaligned the function may be significantly impaired.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #301: Poured Deck Joint


This element applies to deck joints filled with a poured or extruded sealant - this typically refers
to saw & seal joints (above piers or along end blocks), but can also include bituminous plug joints
or median joints.
Condition State 1: Poured joint has little or no deterioration (no leakage). Joint sealant is
properly adhered. Adjacent deck is sound and intact.
Condition State 2: Joint is leaking - poured sealant has adhesion failure or may be missing.
Adjacent deck may have minor cracking or spalling.
Condition State 3: Deck adjacent to poured joint has severe spalling - concrete repairs or joint
replacement may be necessary.
Element #302: Compression Seal Deck Joint
This element applies to deck joints
consisting of a pre-formed elastic
compression seal. Compression seals may
have a solid or hollow cross-section - the
joint may or may not include steel
protection angles.

Inspector Note:
This element should not be used for approach
relief joints (use element #412 instead).

Compression seal deck joints


are seldom used in bridge decks
in Minnesota - they were
phased out in favor of strip seal
joints around 1975.
A cross-section plan diagram of
typical compression seal deck
joint (with steel protection
angles) is shown to the left.

Condition State 1: Compression joint has little or no deterioration (no leakage). Compression
seal is sound and securely anchored. Protection angles (if present) are in good condition.
Adjacent deck remains sound and intact. Joint is properly aligned and functioning as intended.
Debris in the joint (if any) is not causing any problems.
Condition State 2: Compression joint has moderate deterioration (minor leakage may be
evident). Compression seal may be slightly loose or out of position. Protection angles may have
minor damage. Adjacent deck may have minor spalling. Joint may be slightly misaligned (skewed,
offset, or near limits of expansion), but the function has not been significantly impaired. Debris
in the joint may be causing problems.
Condition State 3: Compression joint has severe deterioration (there may be significant leakage).
Compression seal may be punctured, torn, or out of position. Protection angles may have severe
damage. Adjacent deck may have severe spalling. Joint may be severely misaligned - joint
function may be significantly impaired.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #303: Assembly Deck Joint (with or without seal)


This element applies to deck joints consisting of an assembly mechanism (with or without a seal).
This includes deck joints comprised of sliding steel plates, anchored rubber seals, or any joint
that is not adequately described by the other deck joint elements.
Condition State 1: Assembly joint has little or no deterioration. If the joint is sealed, there is no
leakage. All joint components are sound and securely anchored. Steel components have little or
no corrosion. Adjacent deck remains sound and intact. Joint is properly aligned and functioning
as intended. Debris in the joint (if any) is not causing any problems.
Condition State 2: Assembly joint has moderate deterioration. If the joint is sealed, minor
leakage may be evident. Joint components may be loose. Steel components may have moderate
corrosion and/or section loss. Adjacent deck may have minor spalling. Joint may be slightly
misaligned (skewed, offset, or near limits of expansion), but the function has not been
significantly impaired. Debris in the joint may be causing problems.
Condition State 3: Assembly joint has severe deterioration. Seals may have failed. Joint
components may be missing. Steel components may have severe section loss. Adjacent deck
may have severe spalling. Joint may be severely misaligned - joint function may be significantly
impaired.
Element #304: Open Deck Joint
This element applies to open deck joints (with or without steel protection angles).
Condition State 1: Open joint has little or no deterioration. Protection angles (if present) are
sound and securely anchored. Adjacent deck is sound. Joint is properly aligned and functioning
as intended.
Condition State 2: Open joint has moderate deterioration. Protection angles may have moderate
corrosion damage or may have started to loosen - some anchor bolts may be loose, broken or
missing. Adjacent deck may have minor spalling. Joint may be slightly misaligned (skewed, offset,
or near limits of expansion), but the function has not been significantly impaired.
Condition State 3: Open joint has severe deterioration. Protection angles may be severely
damaged or missing. Adjacent deck may have severe spalling. Joint may be severely misaligned joint function may be significantly impaired.

B-34

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #410: Modular Deck Joint


This element applies to Modular deck joints. Modular deck joints are comprised of two or
more adjacent waterproof seals (V strip or compression seal). The seals are typically anchored
by steel extrusions cast into the deck, and supported from below by small beams (which often
have an independent expansion bearing system). Modular joints typically incorporate equalizer
springs and guide systems to keep the seals equally spaced and properly aligned.
Modular deck joints
came into use in
Minnesota in the 1980s,
and are now the
standard joint used if
more than 4 of
expansion must be
accommodated.
A cross-section diagram
of a 3-gland modular
deck joint is shown to
the left.

Condition State 1: Modular joint has little or no deterioration (no leakage). Seals are sound and
securely anchored. All joint components (extrusion/joint anchorage, support beams, equalizers,
and guide systems) are sound and intact. Adjacent deck is sound. Joint is properly aligned and
functioning as intended. Debris in the joint (if any) is not causing any problems.
Condition State 2: Modular joint has moderate deterioration - minor leakage may be evident.
Seals may be partially pulled out, slightly loose or out of position. Joint equalizers (or guide
system components) may be loose, damaged or missing. Joint support beams remain sound and
intact. The joint anchorage may be slightly damaged. Adjacent deck may have minor spalling.
Joint may be slightly misaligned (skewed, offset, or near limits of expansion), but the function
has not been significantly impaired. Debris in the joint may be causing problems.
Condition State 3: Modular joint has severe deterioration - there may be significant leakage.
Seals may be punctured, torn, pulled loose, or out of position. Joint equalizer/guide system may
be severely deteriorated or no longer functioning. Support beams may be loose, jammed, or
otherwise inoperative. Joint anchorage may be damaged or deteriorated to the extent that the
gland can no longer be properly attached. Adjacent deck may have severe spalling. Joint may be
severely misaligned - joint function may be significantly impaired.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #411: Finger Plate Deck Joint


This element applies to finger plate deck joints (two steel plates with interlocking fingers).
Condition State 1: Finger plate joint has little or no deterioration. Expansion plates are securely
anchored (all fingers are intact). Adjacent deck is sound. Joint is properly aligned and functioning
as intended.
Condition State 2: Finger plate joint has moderate deterioration. Some fingers may be broken
off. Expansion plates may have started to loosen - some anchor bolts may be loose, broken or
missing (welds may have broken). Adjacent deck may have minor spalling. Joint may be slightly
misaligned (skewed, offset, or near limits of expansion), but the function has not been
significantly impaired.
Condition State 3: Finger plate joint has severe deterioration. A significant number of fingers
may be broken off. Expansion plates may be loose or missing - a large number of anchor bolts
may be loose, broken or missing. Adjacent deck may have severe spalling. Joint may be severely
misaligned - joint function may be significantly impaired.

B-36

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #412: Approach Relief Joint


This element applies to approach relief joints. A typical E-8 approach relief joint is 4 wide
(some are 2 wide), and consists of a preformed polystyrene filler (MnDOT Spec. #3702) with a
hot poured seal (MnDOT Spec. #3725). Approach relief joints are typically located at the
roadway end of the approach panel adjacent to the approach roadway.

A cross-section of a
typical E8 Approach
Relief Joint (note 3) is
shown to the left. The
approach panel is
typically supported by
a concrete sill. A
plastic sheet placed on
top of the sill (note 2)
breaks the bond,
allowing the approach
slab to expand and
contract
Inspector Note:
As bridges with Integral or Semi-Integral abutments typically do not have expansion joints on
the bridge deck, the approach relief joint must accommodate expansion/contraction of the
bridge deck as well as the approach roadway. If approach relief joints are present on such
bridges, it is particularly important that they are functioning properly.
Condition State 1: Approach relief joint has little or no deterioration. Joint seal and filler remain
intact. Joint has not closed significantly. The adjacent roadway and approach are in good
condition.
Condition State 2: Approach relief joint has moderate deterioration. Joint seal and/or filler
material may be missing - the joint may be partially filled with debris. Joint may be partially
closed, but can still accommodate additional expansion. Adjacent roadway or approach may
have minor spalling.
Condition State 3: Approach relief joint has severe deterioration - repair or replacement may be
required. Joint may be closed (or nearly closed), with no room for additional expansion. Adjacent
roadway or approach may have severe spalling.

B-37

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.6.9 Roadway
Approach Elements

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

These elements apply to approach slabs and the roadway approaches to the bridge. These
elements are only intended to rate the condition of the approach - geometric alignment issues
should be addressed using NBI Item 72 (Approach Roadway Alignment Appraisal) - see Section
B.3.2.2). These elements are each items (rated on a scale of 1-4). The quantity will typically be
2 (one for each end of the bridge) - they can be rated under separate condition states. If the
bridge has a divided median or ramp, the quantity can be increased to rate each panel
separately.
Element #320: Concrete Approach Slab (Bituminous Wearing Surface)
Element #321: Concrete Approach Slab (Concrete Wearing Surface)
Element #407: Bituminous Approach Roadway
Element #408: Gravel Approach Roadway
Inspector Note:
An approach slab is a short concrete paving segment between the end of the bridge and the
approach roadway (usually supported by the abutment parapet at the bridge end, and a
concrete sill at the roadway end). If approach slabs are not present, the approach roadway
elements can be used (this typically includes the approach roadway extending approximately 20
ft. from the end of the bridge).
Condition State 1: Approach has little or no deterioration. There is no settlement or
undermining - the ride transitions smoothly on/off the bridge deck. Concrete approaches may
have minor cracking or wear - there are no delaminations or spalls. Bituminous approaches are
smooth and even - there are no potholes. Gravel approaches are evenly graded.
Condition State 2: Approach has minor to moderate deterioration. There may be slight
settlement or undermining, but traffic impact on the bridge has not been significantly increased.
Concrete approaches may have moderate cracking, scaling, or wear - there may be minor
delamination or spalling. Bituminous approaches may have moderate cracking, or may be
slightly uneven - potholes may be present. Gravel approaches may be moderately rutted or
eroded.
Condition State 3: Approach has extensive deterioration - repairs may be required. Settlement
or undermining may have significantly increased traffic impact on the bridge. Concrete
approaches may have extensive scaling or cracking (cracking may extend through the underlying
slab) - there may be significant delamination or spalling. Bituminous approaches may have
extensive cracking or potholes - or may be uneven. Gravel approaches may have extensive
rutting or erosion.
Condition State 4: Approach has severe or critical deterioration - immediate repairs may be
required. Settlement or undermining may have severely increased traffic impact on the bridge.
Deterioration of the wearing surface may be severe enough to present a traffic hazard.

B-38

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.6.10 Bridge Railing
Elements

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Select the railing element that best describes the railing present on the bridge (some bridges
have more than one railing type). Railing elements are linear feet quantities (the rating scale
varies). The quantity is measured along the length of the railing, and can include railing on the
wingwalls or approaches.
Element #330: Metal Bridge Railing (Uncoated or Unpainted) - this element applies to metal
railings that are not (and have never been) coated or painted.
Condition State 1: Uncoated metal railing has little or no deterioration. There may be minor
surface corrosion, but there is no section loss. Railing may have minor impact damage.
Condition State 2: Uncoated metal railing has minor to moderate deterioration or impact
damage. There may be surface corrosion (minor section loss). Components may be slightly bent
or misaligned.
Condition State 3: Uncoated metal railing has extensive deterioration or impact damage. There
may be extensive surface corrosion or section loss. Connections or anchorages may be slightly
loose - components may be bent or misaligned.
Condition State 4: Uncoated metal railing has severe deterioration or impact damage immediate repairs may be required. There may be advanced corrosion or significant section loss.
Connections or anchorages may have failed - components may be severed, torn loose, or
missing.
Element #331: Reinforced Concrete Bridge Railing - this element applies to reinforced
concrete railings (of any type or shape).
Condition State 1: Concrete railing has little or no deterioration. There may be minor cracking,
scaling, pop-outs, leaching, or staining. There may be minor impact damage.
Condition State 2: Concrete railing has minor to moderate deterioration or impact damage.
There may be moderate cracking, scaling, leaching, or staining. There may be minor
delamination or spalling.
Condition State 3: Concrete railing has extensive deterioration or impact damage. There may be
extensive cracking, scaling, leaching, staining, delamination or spalling (with exposed rebar).
Condition State 4: Concrete railing has severe deterioration or impact damage - immediate
repairs may be required. There may be severe cracking, scaling, delamination or spalling (with
exposed rebar).

B-39

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #332: Timber Bridge Railing - this element applies to bridge railings comprised
primarily or entirely of timber.
Condition State 1: Timber railing has minor deterioration or impact damage. There may be
minor weathering or cracking - but there is no decay or structural distress (crushing or sagging).
All connections are sound and intact - all components are properly aligned.
Condition State 2: Timber railing has moderate deterioration or impact damage. There may be
extensive weathering or cracking - there may be some decay or structural distress (minor
crushing or sagging). Connections may be slightly loose - components may be slightly misaligned.
Condition State 3: Timber railing has severe deterioration or impact damage - immediate repairs
may be required. There may be severe decay, crushing, or sagging (significant loss of crosssectional area). Connections may have failed - components may be severely damaged or torn
loose.
Element #333: Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Railing - this element applies to
railings constructed of any combination of materials (concrete, steel, aluminum, timber,
etc.), or any railing that cannot be adequately described by the other railing elements.
Condition State 1: Railing has minor deterioration or impact damage. Concrete may have minor
cracking, scaling, or leaching. Steel may have minor surface corrosion - paint/coating system (if
present) may have minor deterioration. Timber may have minor weathering or cracking. All
connections and anchorages are sound and intact - all components are properly aligned.
Condition State 2: Railing has moderate deterioration or impact damage. Concrete may have
moderate cracking, scaling, leaching, or spalling (exposed rebar). Steel may have moderate
corrosion (some section loss) - paint/coating system may have extensive failure. Timber may
have extensive weathering or cracking - there may be decay, crushing, or sagging. Connections
or anchorages may be slightly loose - components may be slightly bent or misaligned.
Condition State 3: Railing has severe deterioration or impact damage - immediate repairs may
be required. Concrete may have severe cracking or spalling (exposed rebar). Steel may have
severe corrosion or section loss. Timber may have severe decay, crushing, or sagging.
Connections or anchorages may have failed - components may be severely bent, severed,
fractured, or torn loose.

B-40

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #334: Metal Bridge Railing (Coated or Painted) - this element applies to metal
railings that have been painted, galvanized or otherwise coated.
Condition State 1: Coating metal railing has little or no deterioration (no corrosion or impact
damage).
Condition State 2: Coating metal railing has minor deterioration. There may be minor surface
corrosion (no section loss). Connections and anchorages are sound and intact.
Condition State 3: Coating metal railing has moderate deterioration. Surface corrosion may be
prevalent (minor section loss). Connections or anchorages may be slightly loose - components
may be slightly bent or misaligned.
Condition State 4: Coating metal railing has extensive deterioration. There may be extensive
corrosion (measurable section loss). Connections or anchorages may be loose - components may
be bent or misaligned.
Condition State 5: Coated metal railing severe deterioration - immediate repairs may be
required. There may be severe section loss. Connections or anchorages may have failed components may be severed, torn loose, or missing.
Element #409: Chain Link Fence
Condition State 1: Chain link fence has little or no deterioration. Galvanizing or vinyl coating is
sound.
Condition State 2: Chain link fence has minor deterioration. Coating may have minor failure surface rust may be present. Fence components are properly aligned (all connections are sound).
Condition State 3: Chain link fence has moderate deterioration. Coating may have moderate
failure - surface rust may be prevalent. Components may be slightly bent or misaligned connections may be slightly loose. Fabric may have snags or holes (areas may be slightly
stretched or deformed).
Condition State 4: Chain link fence has extensive deterioration. Coating may have extensive
failure - there may be section loss. Components may be bent or misaligned - connections may be
loose. Fabric may have numerous snags or holes (areas may be stretched or deformed).
Condition State 5: Chain link fence has severe deterioration - immediate repairs may be
required. Components may be loose, missing, or severely bent.

B-41

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.7 STRUCTURAL
ELEMENTS (GROUPED
BY MATERIAL TYPE)
B.4.7.1 Painted Steel
Elements

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This section includes rating descriptions for structural elements - mainly superstructure and
substructure. The elements are grouped by material type (painted steel, unpainted weathering
steel, reinforced concrete, pre-stressed concrete, timber, or masonry/other material).

These elements apply to structural steel members that have been painted (even if the paint
system has completely failed).
Element #102: Painted Steel Box Girder (LF)
Element #107: Painted Steel Girder or Beam (LF)
Element #113: Painted Steel Stringer (LF)
Element #121: Painted Steel Through Truss - Bottom Chord (LF)
Element #126: Painted Steel Through Truss - Upper Members (LF)
Element #131: Painted Steel Deck Truss (LF)
Element #141: Painted Steel Arch (LF)
Element #152: Painted Steel Floorbeam (LF)
Element #202: Painted Steel Column (EA)
Element #231: Painted Steel Pier Cap/Bearing Cap (LF)
Element #384: Painted Steel Arch Spandrel Column (EA)
Element #419: Painted Steel Piling (EA)
Element #423: Painted Steel Gusset Plate Truss Connection (EA)
Element #425: Painted Steel Pinned Truss Connection (EA)
Element #427: Painted Steel Pier Cap - Superstructure (LF)
Condition State 1: Painted steel element has little or no deterioration. The paint system may
have minor fading, salt film, or chalking, but there is no corrosion. There is no section loss (this
includes repainted areas).
Condition State 2: Painted steel element has minor
Inspector Note:
deterioration. The paint system may have moderate
Elements that have been repaired
deterioration (chalking, peeling, blistering or other
or reinforced should generally not
distress), but any exposed steel is limited. Surface
be rated above Condition 2.
corrosion (freckled rust) may be present, but there is
no flaking rust. Repainted areas may have minor
section loss. All connections are sound - element is in proper position and alignment.
Condition State 3: Painted steel element has moderate deterioration. The paint system may
have extensive deterioration. Surface corrosion (freckled rust) may be prevalent - there may be
isolated flaking rust (with minor section loss). Repainted elements may have measurable section
loss in non-critical locations. Connections may have minor distress - element may be slightly out
of alignment.
Condition State 4: Painted steel element has extensive deterioration - repairs may be required,
but the load-carrying capacity of the element has not been significantly reduced. There may be
severe corrosion, with extensive flaking rust. While there may be significant section loss,
structural analysis is not yet required (section loss is less than 10% of the effective section).
Connections may have started to come loose - element may be out of proper position or
alignment.
Condition State 5: Painted steel element has severe or critical deterioration. The load-carrying
capacity has been significantly reduced - structural analysis or immediate repairs may be
required. Section loss may exceed 10% of the effective section. There may be severe impact
damage. Element may be severely damaged, severed, or severely out of alignment. Connections
may have failed.

B-42

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.7.1.1 Painted Steel
Beam Ends (Element
#422)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This element applies only to steel bridges on the Minnesota state Trunk Highway (TH) system - it
is intended to correlate with MnDOT Technical Memorandum #06-10-B-01 Bridge Preservation,
Improvement, and Replacement Guidelines for Fiscal Year 2006 through 2008. The Guidelines
for Bridge Maintenance Painting are outlined on pages 38-40 of the memorandum, and are
intended to preserve the structural integrity of steel bridges in the most cost effective and
practical manner possible.
Element #422 tracks the paint condition of
the steel superstructure located within 7 ft.
on either side of a transverse deck joint.
This includes (but is not limited to) steel
girders, beams, trusses, arches, floorbeams,
stringers, etc., located below the deck (or
above the deck within the splash zone).

Inspector Note:
The rating of this element is in addition to any
elements used to rate these superstructure
members - the rating of this element should
not affect any existing element ratings (or
element quantities).

This element is an each item - the quantity shall correspond with the number of transverse
deck joints (typically expansion joints) on the portion of the bridge with a steel superstructure.
The rating is based upon a visual estimate of the percentage of unsound paint on the bridge
superstructure within 7 ft. of each transverse deck joints. As the paint condition may vary from
one joint to another, they may have different condition ratings.
Condition State 1: The steel superstructure (within 7 ft. of the transverse deck joints) has no
unsound paint.
Condition State 2: The paint on the steel superstructure (within 7 ft. of the transverse deck
joints) is between 1% and 5% unsound.
Condition State 3: The paint on the steel superstructure (within 7 ft. of the transverse deck
joints) is between 6% and 20% unsound.
Condition State 4: The paint on the steel superstructure (within 7 ft. of the transverse deck
joints) is between 21% and 40% unsound.
Condition State 5: The paint on the steel superstructure (within 7 ft. of the transverse deck
joints) is more than 40% unsound.

B-43

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.7.2 Weathering
Steel Elements

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

These elements apply only to structural members constructed of weathering steel (such as
MnDOT Spec. #3309). These elements can be used for weathering steel bridges that have been
left unpainted, as well as bridges that have been partially painted. Note: bridges constructed of
unpainted weathering steel are usually painted in high corrosion areas (on a steel beam bridge,
this typically includes the area within 7 ft. of a deck joint). Paint failure outside the high
corrosion areas should be considered to be an aesthetic issue, and should not reduce the
condition rating.
Element #101: Weathering Steel Box Girder (LF)
Element #106: Weathering Steel Girder or Beam (LF)
Element #112: Weathering Steel Stringer (LF)
Element #120: Weathering Steel Through Truss - Bottom Chord (LF)
Element #125: Weathering Steel Through Truss - Upper Members (LF)
Element #130: Weathering Steel Deck Truss (LF)
Element #140: Weathering Steel Arch (LF)
Element #151: Weathering Steel Floorbeam (LF)
Element #201: Weathering Steel Column (EA)
Element #225: Weathering Steel Piling (EA)
Element #230: Weathering Steel Pier Cap/Bearing Cap (LF)
Element #413: Weathering Steel Arch Spandrel Column (EA)
Element #424: Weathering Steel Gusset Plate Truss Connection (EA)
Element #426: Weathering Steel Pinned Truss Connection (EA)
Element #428: Weathering Steel Pier Cap - Superstructure (LF)
Condition State 1: Weathering steel element has little or no deterioration. The protective oxide
coating is uniform and tightly adhered. Corrosion has not progressed beyond the intended layer
of surface rust - there is no notable section loss. Painted areas high corrosion areas (if any)
have little or no deterioration.
Condition State 2: Weathering steel element has minor to moderate deterioration. The
protective oxide coating has partially failed - the
Inspector Note:
surface may be dusty or granular. While corrosion may
have progressed beyond the surface layer (the surface
Elements that have been repaired
layer may be flaking off in small areas), any section loss
or reinforced should generally not
is incidental. Painted high corrosion areas (if any)
be rated above Condition 2.
may have minor to moderate deterioration. Element is
in proper position and alignment - all connections are sound.
Condition State 3: Weathering steel element has extensive deterioration, but the load-carrying
capacity of the member has not been significantly reduced. The protective oxide coating has
extensive failure - large areas of the surface layer may be flaking off. There may be extensive
corrosion. While there may be significant section loss, structural analysis is not yet required
(section loss is less than 10% of the effective section). Painted high corrosion areas (if any) may
have extensive or complete failure. Element may be slightly out of position or alignment connections may have started to come loose.
Condition State 4: Weathering steel element has severe or critical deterioration. The loadcarrying capacity of the member has been significantly reduced - structural analysis or
immediate repairs may be required. The protective oxide coating has failed. Section loss may
exceed 10% of the effective section. The element may be severely damaged or significantly out
of position or alignment - connections may have failed.

B-44

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.7.3 Reinforced
Concrete Elements

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

These elements apply to structural members constructed of cast-in-place or pre-cast reinforced


concrete (not pre-stressed or post-tensioned concrete).
Element #105: Reinforced Concrete Box Girder (LF)
Element #110: Reinforced Concrete Girder or Beam (LF)
Element #116: Reinforced Concrete Stringer (LF)
Element #144: Reinforced Concrete Arch (LF)
Element #155: Reinforced Concrete Floorbeam (LF)
Element #205: Reinforced Concrete Column (EA)
Element #210: Reinforced Concrete Pier Wall (LF)
Element #215: Reinforced Concrete Abutment (LF)
Element #220: Reinforced Concrete Footing (EA)
Element #227: Reinforced Concrete Piling (EA)
Element #234: Reinforced Concrete Pier Cap/Bearing Cap (LF)
Element #375: Pre-cast Concrete Channels (LF)
Element #385: Reinforced Concrete Arch Spandrel Column (EA)
Element #387: Reinforced Concrete Wingwall (EA)
Element #414: Reinforced Concrete Arch Spandrel Wall (LF)
Condition State 1: Reinforced concrete element has little or no deterioration. There may be
minor cracking, leaching, staining, or surface scale. There is no notable delamination or spalling.
The member has no impact damage or repair patches.
Condition State 2: Reinforced concrete element has minor to moderate deterioration. There
may be moderate cracking, leaching, staining, or
Inspector Note:
surface scale. Minor delaminations or spalls may be
Elements that have been repaired
present, but there is little or no exposure of steel
or reinforced should generally not
reinforcement. Element is in proper position and
be rated above Condition 2.
alignment - all connections are sound. Repair patches
(if any) remain sound.
Condition State 3: Reinforced concrete element has extensive deterioration, but the loadcarrying capacity of the element has not been significantly reduced. There may be extensive
cracking, leaching, staining, or scale. Structural cracking (from shear or flexure) may be present.
Delaminations and spalls may be prevalent. Exposed reinforcement may have corrosion, but any
section loss is incidental and does not significantly affect the strength and/or serviceability of
either the element or the bridge. Element may be slightly out of position or alignment connections may have started to come loose.
Condition State 4: Reinforced concrete element has severe or critical deterioration. The loadcarrying capacity of the element has been significantly reduced - structural analysis or
immediate repairs may be required. Severe structural cracking (from shear or flexure) may be
present. Spalling may be extensive or severe - exposed reinforcement may have significant
section loss. The element may be severely damaged or significantly out of position or alignment connections may have failed.

B-45

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.7.4 Prestressed/Post
-Tensioned Concrete
Elements

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

These elements apply to structural members constructed of either prestressed or post-tensioned


concrete.
Element #104: Prestressed Concrete Box Girder (LF)
Element #109: Prestressed Concrete Girder or Beam (LF)
Element #115: Prestressed Concrete Stringer (LF)
Element #143: Prestressed Concrete Arch (LF)
Element #154: Prestressed Concrete Floorbeam (LF)
Element #204: Prestressed Concrete Column (EA)
Element #226: Prestressed Concrete Piling (EA)
Element #233: Prestressed Concrete Pier Cap/Bearing Cap (LF)
Element #374: Prestressed Concrete Double, Quad, Bulb, or Inverted Tees (LF)
Element #402: Prestressed Concrete Voided Slab Panels (LF)
In a properly designed pre-stressed member, structural cracking (flexure or shear) should not
develop under normal service loads. On pre-stressed concrete members, all cracks are significant
- they should be measured and documented. Cracks provide openings for water and chlorides,
which can lead to stress corrosion - the inspector should note any rust stains that may indicate
corrosion of the pre-stressing strands.
Condition State 1: Pre-stressed concrete element has little or no deterioration. There is no
notable cracking, staining, delamination or spalling. The member has no impact damage or
repair patches.
Condition State 2: Pre-stressed concrete element has minor deterioration. There may be minor
(non-structural) cracking, leaching, staining, or surface
Inspector Note:
scale. There is no structural cracking (from shear or
Elements that have been repaired
flexure). Minor delaminations or spalls may be
or reinforced should generally not
present, but there is no exposure of the tensioning
be rated above Condition 2.
steel. Element is in proper position and alignment - all
connections are sound. Repair patches (if any) remain
sound.
Condition State 3: Pre-stressed concrete element has moderate deterioration, but the loadcarrying capacity of the element has not been significantly reduced. There may be moderate
cracking, leaching, staining, or scale. Structural cracking (from shear or flexure) may be present.
Delaminations and spalls may be present. While the tensioning steel may be exposed, any
section loss is incidental and does not significantly affect the strength and/or serviceability of
either the element or the bridge. Element may be slightly out of position or alignment connections may have started to come loose.
Condition State 4: Pre-stressed concrete element has severe or critical deterioration. The loadcarrying capacity of the element has been significantly reduced - structural analysis or
immediate repairs may be required. Severe structural cracking (from shear or flexure) may be
present. Spalling may be extensive or severe - exposed tensioning steel may have significant
section loss. The element may be severely damaged or significantly out of position or alignment connections may have failed.

B-46

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.7.5 Timber Elements

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

These elements apply to timber structural members of any type - this includes sawn, glue-lam,
or stress-laminated timber members.
Element #111: Timber Girder or Beam (LF)
Element #117: Timber Stringer (LF)
Element #135: Timber Truss or Arch (LF)
Element #156: Timber Floorbeam (LF)
Element #206: Timber Column (EA)
Element #216: Timber Abutment (LF)
Element #228: Timber Piling (EA)
Element #235: Timber Pier Cap/Bearing Cap (LF)
Element #386: Timber Wingwall (EA)
Element #415: Timber Transverse Stiffener Beam - Timber Slab Spans (LF)
Condition State 1: Timber element has little or no deterioration. There may be minor cracks,
splits, or checks. There is no decay, fire damage, or structural distress (crushing or sagging).
There is no impact damage.
Condition State 2: Timber element has minor to moderate deterioration. There may be
moderate cracking or splitting. There may be minor
Inspector Note:
decay or fire damage, but there is no significant
Elements that have been repaired
structural distress (crushing, or sagging). Element is
or reinforced should generally not
in proper position and alignment - all connections
be rated above Condition 2.
are sound. Repaired/reinforced areas (if any) remain
sound.
Condition State 3: Timber element has extensive deterioration - repairs may be required, but
the load-carrying capacity has not been significantly reduced. There may be extensive cracking
or splitting. Decay, infestation, or fire damage may have resulted in a slight reduction of crosssectional area. There may be slight crushing or sagging. Element may be slightly out of position
or alignment - connections may have started to come loose.
Condition State 4: Timber element has severe or critical deterioration (significant loss of crosssectional area). The load-carrying capacity of the element has been significantly reduced structural analysis or immediate repairs may be required. Timber element may have severe
cracking or structural failure. There may be advanced decay, infestation, or fire damage. There
may be severe crushing or sagging. The element may be severely damaged or significantly out of
position or alignment - connections may have failed.

B-47

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.7.6 Masonry, Other,
or Combination
Material Elements

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

These elements apply to masonry of any type, shape, or configuration. These elements can also
apply to structural elements constructed of any material (or combination of materials) not
adequately described by the other elements. Note: masonry arches with spans of less than 20 ft.
can be rated using structural element #243 (Masonry or Other Material Culvert).
Element #145: Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Arch (LF)
Element #211: Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Pier Wall (LF)
Element #217: Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Abutment (LF)
Element #416: Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Pier Cap/Bearing Cap (LF)
Element #417: Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Column (EA)
Element #418: Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Wingwall (EA)
Element #420: Masonry, Other, or Combination Material Arch Spandrel Wall (LF)
Condition State 1: Element has little or no deterioration - there may be minor defects or
staining. Masonry may have minor weathering - masonry blocks are properly aligned (mortar
joints are sound). Timber may have minor cracks or splits. Concrete may have minor cracking or
scale. Steel has little or no corrosion. Protective coatings (if any) remain sound.
Condition State 2: Element has minor to moderate deterioration (no repairs are necessary).
Masonry may have moderate weathering (cracking or spalling may be evident). Masonry blocks
may be slightly misaligned. Mortar joints may have minor deterioration (leakage or weed
intrusion may be evident). Timber may have moderate splitting, decay or fire damage, but there
is no crushing or sagging. Concrete may have moderate
Inspector Note:
cracking, scaling, leaching, or staining - there may be
Elements that have been repaired
some delamination or spalling. Steel may have
or reinforced should generally not
moderate corrosion (little or no section loss).
be rated above Condition 2.
Protective coatings may have minor to moderate
failure. Repaired/reinforced areas (if any) remain
sound.
Condition State 3: Element has extensive deterioration - repairs may be required, but the loadcarrying capacity of the element has not been significantly reduced. Masonry may have
extensive weathering, cracking, or spalling. Masonry blocks may significantly misaligned (offset,
tipped, or settled). Mortar joints may have significant deterioration (extensive leakage or weed
intrusion). Timber may have extensive cracking or splitting, significant decay or fire damage, or
slight crushing or sagging. Concrete may have extensive cracking, scaling, leaching, or rust/water
staining. Delamination and spalling may be prevalent (exposed reinforcement may have section
loss). Steel components may have extensive corrosion (significant section loss). Protective
coatings may have extensive or complete failure.
Condition State 4: Element has severe damage or deterioration. The load-carrying capacity of
the element has been significantly reduced - structural analysis or immediate repairs may be
required. Masonry may have severe weathering, cracking, or spalling. Masonry blocks may be
severely misaligned (offset, tipped, or settled). Concrete may have severe structural cracking or
spalling. Timber may have severe structural decay (significant loss of cross-sectional area),
cracking, sagging, or crushing. Steel components may have severe section loss.

B-48

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.8 OTHER
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

B.4.8.1 Bearings

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This section includes ratings descriptions for structural elements that could not be adequately
described by the material groupings (Section B.4.7). This includes bridge elements (bearings, pin
& hanger assemblies, and hinge bearings) where the condition descriptions emphasize proper
function, as well as elements for steel cables, tunnels, cast-in-place piling, and secondary
members.
The primary function of a bearing is to transmit loads from the superstructure to the
substructure - there are two basic types of bearings, expansion and fixed:

Expansion bearings permit longitudinal movement of the superstructure due to thermal


expansion and contraction. Most expansion bearings allow for rotation of the
superstructure due to live load deflection - some are designed to restrict lateral movement
of the superstructure.
Fixed bearings resist longitudinal movement of the superstructure due to thermal expansion
and contraction. Most fixed bearings allow for rotation of the superstructure due to live
load deflection, and to resist lateral movement of the superstructure.

A bearing assembly typically consists of the following components:

B-49

Sole Plate: The sole plate protects the superstructure member, and transfers load from the
superstructure to the bearing.
Bearing: The bearing transfers load from the sole plate to the masonry plate. Bearings may
incorporate sliding plates, rollers, rockers, pins, or elastomeric pads to allow for longitudinal
or rotational movement of the superstructure.
Masonry Plate: The masonry plate distributes load from the bearing to the supporting
substructure unit (abutment, pier, or footing). Some bearings bear directly upon the bearing
seat.
Anchorage: Bearings that resist longitudinal or lateral movement (or uplift forces) require
an anchorage system - this typically consists of steel rods drilled (or cast) into the
substructure unit.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.8.1.1 Inspection and
Condition Rating of
Bridge Bearings

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Bearings should be examined for deterioration, function, alignment, as well as the soundness of
the anchorage and substructure support. All of these factors should be taken into consideration
when rating a bearing element. There are six bearing elements - they are all rated on a scale of
1-3, and are listed as an each quantity (the bridge design plans may need to be referenced to
verify the type and quantity of bearing elements).
Element #310 - Elastomeric (Expansion) Bearings
Element #311 - Expansion Bearings
Element #312 - Enclosed or Concealed Bearings
Element #313 - Fixed Bearings
Element #314 - Pot Bearings
Element #315 - Disk Bearings
The importance of inspecting and properly maintaining bridge bearings should not be
underestimated - seemingly minor bearing problems can become worse if ignored, eventually
resulting in serious problems for the bridge.

Bearing malfunction can damage the adjacent deck, superstructure, or substructure


elements.
Severe bearing misalignment often indicates significant problems elsewhere on the bridge
(such as substructure settlement or tipping).
Loss of bearing area (or anchorage failure) can result in collapse of a span.

Bearing Malfunction: The most common bearing malfunction is the seizing (or freezing) of
expansion bearings due to corrosion or debris. Bearings are typically located below deck joints, a
highly corrosive environment. Debris (such as sand, dirt, and flaking rust) can restrict expansion,
accelerate corrosion, increase wear, and prevent adequate inspection of the bearing. Sliding
plate, roller, and rocker bearings provide numerous locations for debris and moisture to collect.
Expansion bearings should be examined for any obvious visual evidence of recent movement
(such as scraped paint, wear, or fretting rust). If none is present, the inspector should take
bearing measurements, or examine adjacent bridge components (such as deck joints, railings, or
curb plates) for evidence of recent expansion or contraction.
Bearing malfunction can also result from bearing components that are worn, misaligned, broken,
loose, or missing. Contact surfaces (plates, rollers, rockers, and pins) should be examined for
wear and freedom of movement. Loose bearing components may be identified by noise (or
movement) when the bridge is subjected to live loads.

Recent movement evident on expansion bearing

B-50

| State of Minnesota

Corroded (possibly frozen) expansion bearing

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Bearings - Thermal Expansion & Contraction: The magnitude of the longitudinal movement of a
bridge superstructure is dependent upon three factors - the coefficient of thermal expansion
(steel and concrete are similar), the temperature range, and the contributing structure length.
As the temperature in Minnesota may range from -30 degrees F up to 110 Degrees F, a bridge
bearing must be able to accommodate about 1-1/8 of longitudinal movement for every 100 ft.
of structure length. In Minnesota, expansion bearing are typically designed to be in the neutral
(centered) position at approximately 40 degrees F (nationally, the neutral temperature is
assumed to be 68 degrees F).
Expansion bearings should be periodically measured to ensure that the bearing alignment is
appropriate for the current temperature. The horizontal (longitudinal) distance from the neutral
alignment should be recorded, as well as the tilt angle of rocker bearings. Bearing measurements
should be taken to the nearest 1/8, and the temperature at the time of the measurement
should be recorded. Thermal expansion or contraction which exceeds the bearing design limits
can result in bearing failure - sliding plates may tip and lock, or rocker bearings may bind. The
adjacent deck, superstructure, and substructure should be examined for contacting surfaces that
might be preventing proper expansion.
Bearings - Lateral Movement and Uplift: Expansion bearings are typically restrained from lateral
movement by guide tabs, keeper bars, pintles, pin caps, or other mechanisms. Guide tabs should
be examined for binding, particularly on skewed or curved bridges. Keeper bars on roller
bearings can seize due to corrosion or debris - failure of keeper bars can result in roller
misalignment. Pintles can shear off - exposed pintles may indicate excessive longitudinal
movement.
Some bearings are also designed to resist uplift of the bridge superstructure - uplift forces may
Inspector Note:
Lateral restraint is sometimes provided by shear keys, shear lugs, or other devices
that are incorporated into end diaphragms or floor beams. Lateral restraint systems
that are separate from the bridge bearings may be rated using Element #380
(Secondary Structural Elements).
be present on curved bridges, anchor spans, steel pier caps, steel arch bridges, or on short end
spans of continuous bridges. An uplift restraint system typically consists of tension members
such as anchor bolts or eyebars, and may incorporate a counterweight. Uplift restraints should
be examined for section loss, cracking, binding, or connection failure - uplift restraint bolts may
require periodic ultrasonic examination.
Bearings - Seats & Anchor Bolts: The bearing seats and anchor bolts should be examined for any
evidence of deterioration or distress. Cracking or spalling of the bearing seat may indicate
bearing failure - deterioration of the bearing seat can eventually result in loss of bearing area.
Anchor bolts that are bent (or contacting the ends of slotted plates) may indicate excessive
expansion or substructure movement. As only the upper portion of anchor bolts are visible for
inspection, nondestructive testing may be necessary. The position of bearing masonry plates
should be measured and compared to the original plans.

Loss of bearing area due to substructure deterioration

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| State of Minnesota

Anchor bolt failure (masonry plate has shifted)

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Chapter B

Element #310 - Elastomeric (Expansion) Bearings


This element applies to rectangular elastomeric bearing pads that facilitate expansion via
deformation. MnDOT spec. #3741 covers elastomeric bearing pads - they are comprised of
alternating layers of elastomer (100% virgin chloroprene) and 1/8 thick steel plates, which are
bonded together. Older bridges may have solid (non-reinforced) pads, or pads laminated with
fiberglass plates. A curved steel pintle plate is usually placed on top of the pad to allow rotation
due to deflection (in some cases this is vulcanized to the pad). Elastomeric expansion bearings
may be restrained against lateral movement or uplift forces.
Elastomeric bearings generally require less maintenance than mechanical expansion bearings, as
they are less susceptible to debris and corrosion. Elastomeric pads should be examined for
splitting, tearing, delamination, or excessive bulging. Elastomeric bearings can accommodate
longitudinal movement up to approximately 25% of the pad thickness - the longer the span, the
thicker the pad required. While the pad deformation and orientation should correspond with the
current temperature, the orientation also depends upon the temperature when the bearing was
installed. As elastomeric pads have a tendency to walk out from beneath the sole plate, any
movement or misalignment should be noted.

Condition State 1: Elastomeric expansion bearing is in good condition and is functioning as


intended. The bearing pad is properly positioned - deformation and orientation is appropriate
for the current temperature. The elastomeric covering may have minor deterioration (the steel
reinforcement layers are not exposed). Pintle plates, restraints, or anchor bolts (if present) are
sound, properly positioned, and functioning as intended. The bearing seat is in good condition
(there is no loss of bearing area).
Condition State 2: Elastomeric expansion bearing has moderate deterioration - bearing function
may be slightly impaired. Bearing pad deformation may be near the design limits (25% of the pad
thickness), or the orientation may be inappropriate for the current temperature (resetting may
be recommended). The pad may have bulged, deformed laterally, or moved slightly out of
position. The elastomeric covering may have split or torn (steel reinforcement layers may be
exposed). Pintle plates, restraints, or anchor bolts (if present) may have moderate deterioration,
slight binding, or may be slightly out of position. The bearing seat may have moderate
deterioration (there may be a slight loss of bearing area).
Condition State 3: Elastomeric expansion bearing has severe deterioration - resetting or
replacement may be required. Bearing pad deformation may be beyond the design limits (25%
of the pad thickness) - the pad may severely bulged or significantly out of position. The
elastomeric covering may have failed (steel reinforcement layers may have severe corrosion or
de-bonding). Pintle plates, restraints, or anchor bolts (if present) may have failed, or may be
significantly out of position. Bearing seat may have severe deterioration (there may be
significant loss of bearing area) - supplemental supports or load restrictions may be warranted.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #311 - Expansion Bearings


This element applies to mechanical expansion bearings of any type - such as sliding plate
bearings, roller bearings, or rocker bearings. Expansion bearings allow for longitudinal
movement of the superstructure due to thermal expansion and contraction. Most expansion
bearings allow rotation of the superstructure due to live load deflection - some may be designed
to restrict lateral movement or uplift forces.

B-53

Sliding plate bearings allow longitudinal movement by one steel plate sliding upon
another (a curved pintle plate is sometimes included to allow for rotation). Sliding plate
bearings often incorporate bronze plates or lubricants to facilitate movement. Lateral
restraint may be provided by guide tabs, or by anchor bolts extending up through
slotted plates.

A roller bearing consists of a horizontal steel cylinder that rolls between the sole plate
and masonry plate as the superstructure expands and contracts. The bearing may have
a single roller or multiple rollers (rollernest bearing). Lateral restraint may be
provided by pintles (on the top & bottom of the roller), or keeper bars attached the
ends of the rollers.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Rocker bearings are typically comprised of a curved rocker plate (bearing on the
masonry plate), that is connected to the sole plate with an upper pin. The bearing may
have a single rocker or multiple rockers (rockernest bearings). Lateral restraint may
be provided by pintles (attached to the masonry plate), pin caps, or anchor bolts
extending up through slotted slates.

Condition State 1: Expansion bearing is in good condition and is functioning as intended. Bearing
alignment is within design limits and is appropriate for the current temperature. Bearing
assembly is relatively free of debris (no restriction of movement). Paint system (if present) may
have some deterioration - corrosion may be present, but there is no significant section loss.
Lubrication system (if any) is functioning properly. All bearing components (sliding plates,
rockers, rollers, pins, etc.) are intact and properly positioned. Lateral guide/restraint system (or
uplift restraint system, if present) is in good condition. Anchor bolts are bearing seat are sound
(there is no loss of bearing area).
Condition State 2: Expansion bearing has moderate deterioration - bearing function may be
slightly restricted (cleaning, painting, or lubrication may be recommended). Bearing alignment
may be at or near the design limits (or inappropriate for the current temperature), but is still
tolerable. Bearing assembly may have extensive corrosion (section loss may be present), or may
be covered with debris. Lubrication system may have failed. Primary bearing components
(sliding plates, rockers, rollers, pins, etc.) may be moderately worn or slightly out of alignment.
Secondary bearing components (cotter pins, etc.) may be loose or missing. The lateral
guide/restraint system (guide tabs, keeper bars, pintles, pin caps, etc.) may be moderately worn
or slightly out of alignment (there may be minor binding). Uplift restraint system (if present) may
have moderate deterioration, but is still functioning as intended. Anchor bolts may be corroded
or bent, but remain intact. The bearing seat may have moderate deterioration (there may be a
slight loss of bearing area).
Condition State 3: Expansion bearing has severe deterioration, and is no longer functioning as
intended (repair or replacement may be necessary). Bearing alignment may be beyond design
limits. Bearing mechanism may be frozen (seized) or severely restricted due to corrosion or
debris. Primary bearing components (sliding plates, rockers, rollers, pins, etc.) may severe
section loss, wear, or misalignment - they may have jammed, come loose or otherwise failed.
The lateral guide/restraint system (guide tabs, keeper bars, pintles, or pin caps) may have
sheared off, bound, or otherwise failed. Uplift restraint system may have failed. Anchor bolts
may have failed. Bearing seat may have severe deterioration (there may be significant loss of
bearing area) - supplemental supports or load restrictions may be warranted.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #312 - Enclosed or Concealed Bearings


This element applies to bearing assemblies that are enclosed or concealed, and are not visible
for detailed inspection. This can include either fixed or expansion bearings.
Condition State 1: Enclosed/Concealed bearing is in good condition and is functioning as
intended. Horizontal, lateral and vertical alignment is within limits and is appropriate for the
current temperature. The bearing seat is sound (there is no loss of bearing area).
Condition State 2: Enclosed/Concealed bearing has moderate deterioration (repairs may be
recommended). Horizontal, lateral and vertical alignment may be near design limits (or
inappropriate for the current temperature). The bearing seat may have moderate deterioration
(there may be a slight loss of bearing area).
Condition State 3: Enclosed/Concealed bearing has severe deterioration - repair or replacement
may be necessary. Horizontal, lateral or vertical alignment may be beyond the design limits.
Bearing seat may have severe deterioration (there may be significant loss of bearing area) supplemental supports or load restrictions may be warranted.
Element #313 - Fixed Bearings
This element applies to bearings that are fixed against longitudinal movement of the
superstructure. Fixed bearings may incorporate a pin or a thin elastomeric pad to allow
rotational movement (from live load deflection of the superstructure). Fixed bearings are
typically designed to resist transverse movement, and may be designed to resist uplift forces.
Condition State 1: Fixed bearing is in good condition and is functioning as intended. Bearing
assembly is relatively free of debris (no restriction of movement). Paint system (if present) may
have some deterioration - corrosion may be present, but there is no significant section loss. All
bearing components are intact and properly positioned. Anchor bolts are bearing seat are sound
(there is no loss of bearing area).
Condition State 2: Fixed bearing has moderate deterioration - cleaning or painting may be
recommended. Bearing assembly may have extensive corrosion (section loss may be present) or
may be covered with debris. Primary bearing components (castings, pins, pads, etc.) may be
moderately worn or slightly out of alignment. Secondary bearing components (cotter pins, lead
plates, sole plate bolts, etc.) may be working out, loose, or missing. Anchor bolts may be
corroded, but remain intact. The bearing seat may have moderate deterioration (there may be a
slight loss of bearing area).
Condition State 3: Fixed bearing has severe deterioration, and is no longer functioning as
intended (repair or replacement may be necessary). Primary bearing components may have
severe section loss, wear, misalignment, or may have otherwise failed. Anchor bolts may have
failed. Bearing seat may have severe deterioration (there may be significant loss of bearing area)
- supplemental supports or load restrictions may be warranted.
Element #314: Pot Bearings
Element #315: Disk Bearings
Pot and Disk bearings allow for multi-dimensional rotational movement - these are specialized
bearings used only for high loads (long spans, steel pier caps, or railroad bridges). Pot/Disk
bearings may be either fixed or expansion.

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| State of Minnesota

Pot bearings consist of a shallow steel piston that rests within a steel cylinder (which
contains a confined elastomer). Typically, only the perimeter edge of the elastomer is
visible for inspection.
BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Disc bearings consist of a shallow steel piston that rests within a steel cylinder (which
contains a hard plastic disc. Typically, the disc is enclosed within the assembly and is not
visible for inspection. Note: high load bearings which utilize a semi-spherical steel
bearing plate can also be considered to be a Disc bearing.

The upper piston plate should be properly seated (and positioned) within the lower cylinder
plate. Any exposed portions of the elastomer or disc should be examined for splitting, tearing, or
extrusion.
On expansion Pot bearings, the upper plate typically has a stainless steel plate (with a mirror
finish) welded to the underside, while the lower plate typically has PTFE
(polytetrafluoroethylene) bonded to the top surface. This combination provides an extremely
low friction sliding surface (lubrication is not required). The upper sliding plate should be
examined for evidence of separation (such as cracked welds) of the stainless steel - the extent of
any recent movement can often be determined by examining the stainless steel plate. The lower
plate should be examined for any de-bonding of the PTFE. Expansion Pot bearings may be
guided (lateral movement is restricted) or non-guided (free to move laterally). On unguided
expansion bearings, note any evidence of lateral movement. On guided expansion bearings, look
for evidence of wear, binding, or deterioration of the guide system.
Condition State 1: Pot/Disc bearing is in good condition and is functioning as intended. On
expansion bearings, alignment is within design limits and is appropriate for the current
temperature. Bearing is free of corrosion and debris (no restriction of movement). All bearing
components are properly aligned and properly seated. Confined elastomer has little or no
deterioration - there is no evidence of the elastomer extruding from the cylinder.
Guide/restraint devices (if present) are intact and are functioning properly. Anchor bolts are
bearing seat are sound (there is no loss of bearing area).
Condition State 2: Pot/Disc bearing has moderate deterioration - bearing function may be
slightly restricted (cleaning or repair may be recommended). On expansion bearings, alignment
may be near design limits (or inappropriate for the current temperature), but is still tolerable.
Bearing assembly may have corrosion or may be covered with debris (there may be a slight
restriction of movement). Primary bearing components (piston, cylinder, sliding plate, etc.) may
be slightly tipped, offset, or out of alignment. Confined elastomer may have some deterioration,
or may have started to extrude along the edge of the cylinder. Guide/restraint devices (if
present) may be worn, loose, or out of alignment (there may be minor binding). Anchor bolts
may be corroded, but remain intact. The bearing seat may have moderate deterioration (there
may be a slight loss of bearing area).
Condition State 3: Pot/Disc bearing has severe deterioration, and is no longer functioning as
intended (repair or replacement may be necessary). On expansion bearings, alignment may be
beyond design limits. Bearing mechanism may be frozen (seized) or severely restricted. Primary
bearing components may severe section loss, wear, or misalignment - they may have jammed,
come loose or otherwise failed. Confined elastomer may have severe deterioration, or may be
actively extruding from the cylinder. Guide/restraint devices (if present) may have failed. Anchor
bolts may have failed. Bearing seat may have severe deterioration (there may be significant loss
of bearing area) - supplemental supports or load restrictions may be warranted.

B-56

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.8.2 Pin & Hanger (or
Fixed Pin) Assemblies

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

On continuous steel bridges with cantilever or suspended spans (where the end of one span is
supported by an adjacent span), the connection detail may consist of a pinned assembly. A pin &
hanger assembly typically consists of two vertical hanger plates with pinned connections at the
top and bottom - this allows both rotation and longitudinal movement of the superstructure. A
fixed pin assembly typically consists of a single pin - this allows rotation, but restricts longitudinal
movement of the superstructure.

Pin & Hanger Assembly

Fixed Pin Assembly

Pinned assemblies are relatively rare in Minnesota - most are found on multiple girder/beam
bridges constructed from 1935-1975, but some can be found on long-span two-girder or truss
bridges (on truss bridges, the hanger member may be similar to other truss members). On any
bridge that carries highway traffic, pinned assemblies are considered to be special features,
and require periodic ultrasonic examination (see MnDOT Tech Memo #02-22-B-01). On twogirder or truss bridges (that carry highway traffic), pinned assemblies are considered to be
fracture critical (FC) members - the failure of a pin or hanger plate could result in the collapse
of a span.
On a typical suspended span, one end is supported by fixed pin assemblies, while the expansion
end is supported by pin & hanger assemblies To prevent lateral movement of the
superstructure, the expansion end will often incorporate a guide/restraint system (such as a
wind transfer pin assembly). Some bridges in Minnesota (particularly along the Red River Valley)
have swivel hinges - the center girder will have a fixed pin assembly, while the other girders
will all have pin & hanger assemblies.
Pinned assemblies should be examined for
Inspector Note:
deterioration, function, alignment, as well as the
Severe pack rust can deform
soundness of the superstructure support. All of these
hanger plates or result in failure
factors should be taken into consideration when rating a
of pinned connections.
pinned assembly. All components of a pinned assembly
(pins, plates, pin caps, nuts, washers, spacers, etc.)
should be examined for wear, corrosion, defects, cracks, bending, loosening, or misalignment.
Periodic measurements should be taken to verify the proper function of pin & hanger assemblies
(be sure to record the temperature at the time of inspection). As a frozen pin will transfer
additional bending stresses to the hanger plates, any significant restriction of a pin & hanger
assembly should be identified and analyzed immediately. Note: While the presence of fretting
rust (a red-colored dust resulting from the wearing of steel surfaces) indicates that recent
movement has occurred, it may also indicate inadequate lubrication.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #161: Pin & Hanger (or Fixed Pin) Assembly - Painted Steel
There are two AASHTO CoRe elements for pinned assemblies. However, MnDOT only uses
Element #161 (Element #160 should not be used - the condition rating description for this
element is not included in this manual). Element #161 should be used for all pin & hanger (or
fixed pin) assemblies - this is an each item, a single condition state must be determined for
each pinned assembly.
Condition State 1: Pinned assembly has little or no deterioration - it is free of debris and
properly aligned. All components (pins, plates, pin caps, nuts, washers, spacers, etc.) are in good
condition. Paint system (if present) is sound - there is no notable corrosion (or section loss).
Supporting steel superstructure has little or no deterioration.
Condition State 2: Pinned assembly has minor deterioration. There may be minor debris, but
there is no restriction of movement - lubrication system (if present) is functioning properly.
Assembly components (pins, plates, pin caps, nuts, washers, spacers, etc.) may have minor wear
or deterioration, but remain in proper position. Longitudinal alignment is within design limits
and is appropriate for the current temperature. Lateral restraint/guide systems (if present) are
functioning as intended - there is no notable lateral misalignment. Paint system (if present) may
have some deterioration - corrosion may be present, but any section loss (or pack rust) is
incidental. Supporting steel superstructure may have minor deterioration.
Condition State 3: Pinned assembly has moderate deterioration, but is still functioning as
intended. Debris or corrosion may have resulted in a slight restriction of movement (cleaning
and/or lubrication may be recommended). Pins or plates may have moderate wear (fretting rust
may be present). Primary connections (nuts, pin caps, etc.) remain intact - secondary
components (washers, spacers, cotter pins, etc.) may be loose or misaligned. Longitudinal
alignment may be near the design limits, or may be somewhat inappropriate for the current
temperature. Lateral restraint/guide systems may be worn or loose - there may be slight lateral
misalignment. Paint system (if present) may have extensive deterioration - surface corrosion
may be prevalent (notable section loss or pack rust may be present). Supporting steel
superstructure may have moderate deterioration.
Condition State 4: Pinned assembly has extensive deterioration - the function may be impaired,
but the load-carrying capacity has not been significantly reduced. Debris or corrosion may be
restricting movement (cleaning and/or lubrication may be required). Pins or plates may have
extensive wear or slight deformation (cracks or other defects may be present). Primary
connections (nuts, pin caps, etc.) may have started to work loose - secondary components
(washers, spacers, cotter pins, etc.) may be missing. Longitudinal alignment may be at the design
limits (contacting or binding) or may be completely inappropriate for the current temperature.
Lateral restraint/guide systems may have failed, or there may be excessive lateral misalignment.
Paint system (if present) may have failed - there may be extensive corrosion, with significant
section loss (or pack rust). Supporting steel superstructure may have extensive deterioration.
Condition State 5: Pinned assembly has severe or critical deterioration. The load-carrying
capacity has been significantly reduced - structural analysis or immediate repairs may be
required. Movement may be completely restricted (assembly may be frozen or binding). Pins or
plates may have severe wear, deformation, or cracking. There may be severe longitudinal or
lateral misalignment. Primary connections may have failed. There may be severe section loss or
pack rust. Supporting steel superstructure may have severe or critical deterioration.

B-58

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.8.3 Hinge Bearing
Assemblies

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

On continuous bridges with cantilever or suspended spans (where the end of one span is
supported by an adjacent span), the connection detail may consist of a hinge bearing assembly.
Hinge bearings may be expansion (permitting longitudinal movement of the superstructure) or
fixed (resisting longitudinal movement of the superstructure). Most hinge bearings are designed
to allow rotation of the superstructure due to live load deflection - some are designed to restrict
lateral movement of the superstructure. Hinge bearings can include a variety of bearing
assembly types (rocker, roller, sliding plate, or elastomeric pad).
In Minnesota, hinge bearings are very common on steel multi-beam bridges constructed in the
1960s and 1970s - they can also be found on concrete box girder and steel truss bridges (they
are seldom used in new bridges). Incorporating a hinge bearing simplifies structural analysis, as
by allowing rotation, the bending moments are isolated. Hinge bearings are typically
cantilevered (offset from the piers), to reduce deterioration of the substructure from leaking
deck joints.

Rocker Hinge Bearing

Roller Hinge Bearing

Sliding Plate Hinge Bearing

Elastomeric Hinge Bearing

While hinge bearing assemblies are not classified as special features (like pin & hanger
assemblies), these details should be given special attention during each inspection. A
malfunctioning hinge bearing could result in damage to adjacent deck, superstructure, or
substructure elements. Misalignment of a hinge bearing may indicate significant problems
elsewhere on the bridge (such as substructure settlement or tipping).

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| State of Minnesota

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Chapter B

As there are no AASHTO CoRe elements to rate the condition of hinge bearing assemblies,
MnDOT has added two structural elements:
Element #373: Steel Hinge Assembly (Painted or Unpainted)
Element #379: Concrete Hinge Assembly
Element #373 applies to hinge bearings on steel superstructures (it is rated on a scale of 1-5);
Element #379 applies to hinge bearings on concrete superstructures (it is rated on a scale of 14). Hinge bearing assemblies should be examined for deterioration, function, alignment, as well
as the soundness of the superstructure support. All of these factors should be taken into
consideration when rating a hinge bearing element.
During a routine inspection, hinge bearings are typically observed from ground level (binoculars
are helpful). If problems are observed during a routine inspection, an in-depth inspection (using
some type of access equipment) should be scheduled. The following items should be
emphasized when inspecting a hinge bearing assembly

B-60

Hinge bearing assemblies should be examined for corrosion or debris. Adjacent deck
joints and deck drainage systems should be examined for leakage, clogging, or other
malfunction that might be subjecting the hinge bearing to excessive water, salt, or
debris.

The hinge bearing components (rockers, rollers, sliding plates, elastomeric pads, pins,
nuts, washers, cotter pins, spacers, and guide tabs) should be examined for wear,
corrosion, defects, cracks, bending, loosening, or misalignment. Excessive movement
(or noise) at the hinge bearing under live loads may indicate bearing malfunction.

On expansion hinge bearings, proper function is a primary concern - the inspector


should verify that longitudinal movement is not restricted (any significant restriction
should be identified and analyzed immediately). Obvious visual evidence of recent
movement (such as scrape marks on contact surfaces) should be noted. The adjacent
superstructure and deck should be examined for any evidence of contacting (or binding)
that might be restricting expansion. To verify proper function, periodic measurements
should be taken (preferably at a clean, easily identifiable location) - be sure to record
the temperature when the measurements were taken. If the hinge bearings cannot be
accessed up-close, measurements can be taken at adjacent deck joints, curb plates, or
railings.

The longitudinal and lateral alignment of the hinge bearing should be observed and
noted (any significant misalignment should be identified and analyzed immediately). On
expansion hinge bearings, the longitudinal alignment should be appropriate for the
current temperature, and the alignment of adjacent hinge bearings should be similar.

Like any bearing assembly, the condition of the bearing support member is also of
concern, and may affect the rating. The superstructure adjacent to the hinge bearing
assembly should be examined for deterioration (or evidence of structural distress). On
steel beams, the webs, flanges, and bearing stiffeners should be examined for
corrosion, section loss, bulking, or cracking. On concrete box girders, the concrete
surfaces should be examined for structural cracking, leaching, rust staining,
delamination, or spalling (internal inspection of the hinge area is recommended).

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #373: Steel Hinge Assembly (Painted or Unpainted)


This element applies to hinge bearing assemblies on steel girders, beams, stringers, trusses, or
other steel bridges. This includes hinge bearing assemblies of any type (rocker, roller, sliding
plate, or elastomeric pad), and includes both expansion and fixed hinge bearing assemblies.
While this element typically refers to cantilever hinges on steel beams or girders, it can be used
to rate any bearing assembly where a steel superstructure element bears upon another steel
superstructure element. This is an each item; a single condition state must be determined for
each hinge assembly:
Condition State 1: Steel hinge bearing assembly has little or no deterioration - it is free of debris
and properly aligned. All bearing components (rockers, rollers, sliding plates, pads, pins, nuts,
washers, cotter pins, etc.) are in good condition. Paint system (if present) is sound - there is no
notable corrosion. Supporting steel superstructure has little or no deterioration.
Condition State 2: Steel hinge bearing assembly has minor deterioration. There may be minor
debris, but there is no restriction of movement - lubrication system (if present) is functioning
properly. Bearing components (rockers, rollers, sliding plates, pads, pins, nuts, washers, cotter
pins, etc.) may have minor wear or deterioration, but remain in proper position. Longitudinal
alignment is within design limits and is appropriate for the current temperature. Lateral
restraint/guide systems (if present) are functioning as intended - there is no notable lateral
misalignment. Paint system may have some deterioration - corrosion may be present, but any
section loss is incidental. Supporting steel superstructure may have minor deterioration.
Condition State 3: Steel hinge bearing assembly has moderate deterioration, but is still
functioning as intended. Debris or corrosion may have resulted in a slight restriction of
movement (cleaning and/or lubrication may be recommended). Primary bearing components
(rockers, rollers, sliding plates, elastomeric pads, pins, etc.) may have moderate wear (or
deterioration), or slight misalignment. Secondary bearing components (bolts, nuts, washers,
spacers, guides, cotter pins, etc.) may be loose or missing. Longitudinal alignment may be near
the design limits, or may be somewhat inappropriate for the current temperature. Lateral
restraint/guide systems may be worn, loose, or slightly binding - there may be slight lateral
misalignment. Paint system may have extensive deterioration - surface corrosion may be
prevalent (notable section loss may be present). Supporting steel superstructure may have
moderate deterioration.
Condition State 4: Steel hinge bearing assembly has extensive deterioration - bearing function
may be impaired, but the load-carrying capacity has not been significantly reduced. Debris or
corrosion may be restricting movement (cleaning and/or lubrication may be required). Primary
bearing components (rockers, rollers, sliding plates, elastomeric pads, pins, etc.) may have
extensive wear (or deterioration), or may be misaligned. Longitudinal alignment may be at the
design limits (contacting or binding), or may be completely inappropriate for the current
temperature. Lateral restraint/guide systems may have failed, or there may be excessive lateral
misalignment. Paint system may have failed - there may be extensive corrosion, with significant
section loss. Supporting steel superstructure may have extensive deterioration.
Condition State 5: Steel hinge bearing assembly has severe or critical deterioration. The loadcarrying capacity has been significantly reduced - structural analysis or immediate repairs may
be required. Bearing movement may be completely restricted (primary bearing components may
be frozen, binding, or severely out of alignment.). Longitudinal or lateral misalignment may have
resulted in significant loss of bearing area. There may be severe section loss. Supporting steel
superstructure may have severe or critical deterioration.

B-61

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #379: Concrete Hinge Assembly


This element applies to hinge bearing assemblies on concrete box girders (or other concrete
bridges). This includes hinge bearing assemblies of any type (rocker, roller, sliding plate, or
elastomeric pad), and includes both expansion and fixed hinge bearing assemblies. While this
element typically refers to cantilever hinges on concrete box girders, it can be used to rate any
bearing assembly where a concrete superstructure element bears upon another concrete
superstructure element. This is an each item, a single condition state must be determined for
each hinge assembly (if the quantity of individual bearings cannot be determined, the entire
hinge joint can be rated as one unit).
Condition State 1: Concrete hinge bearing assembly has little or no deterioration. There may be
minor debris, but there is no restriction of movement - lubrication system (if present) is
functioning properly. All bearing components (rockers, rollers, sliding plates, pads, pins, nuts,
washers, cotter pins, etc.) are in good condition. Longitudinal alignment is within design limits
and is appropriate for the current temperature. Lateral restraint/guide systems (if present) are
functioning as intended - there is no notable lateral misalignment. Supporting concrete
superstructure may have minor cracking or staining, but there are no delaminations, spalls, or
repair patches.
Condition State 2: Concrete hinge bearing assembly has minor to moderate deterioration, but is
still functioning as intended. Debris or corrosion may have resulted in a slight restriction of
movement (cleaning and/or lubrication may be recommended). Primary bearing components
(rockers, rollers, sliding plates, elastomeric pads, pins, etc.) may have moderate wear, moderate
deterioration, or slight misalignment. Secondary bearing components (bolts, nuts, washers,
spacers, guides, cotter pins, etc.) may be loose or missing. Longitudinal alignment may be near
the design limits, or may be somewhat inappropriate for the current temperature. Lateral
restraint/guide systems may be worn or loose - there may be slight lateral misalignment.
Supporting concrete superstructure may have moderate cracking, scaling, leaching, or staining.
There may be some delamination & spalling - but any exposure of reinforcement or tensioning
steel is limited. Patched areas (if any) remain sound.
Condition State 3: Concrete hinge bearing assembly has extensive deterioration - the function
may be impaired, but the load-carrying capacity has not been significantly reduced. Debris or
corrosion may be restricting movement (cleaning and/or lubrication may be required). Primary
bearing components (rockers, rollers, sliding plates, elastomeric pads, pins, etc.) may have
extensive wear, extensive deterioration, or significant misalignment. Longitudinal alignment may
be at the design limits (contacting or binding), or may be completely inappropriate for the
current temperature. Lateral restraint/guide systems may have failed, or there may be excessive
lateral misalignment. Supporting concrete superstructure may have extensive scale, cracking,
leaching, or rust/water staining. There may be significant delamination & spalling (exposed
reinforcement or tensioning system may have some section loss). Structural cracks (shear or
flexure) may be present.
Condition State 4: Concrete hinge bearing assembly has severe or critical deterioration. The
load-carrying capacity has been significantly reduced - structural analysis or immediate repairs
may be required. Bearing movement may be completely restricted (primary bearing components
may be frozen, binding, or severely out of alignment.). Longitudinal or lateral misalignment may
have resulted in significant loss of bearing area. Supporting concrete superstructure may have
severe structural cracking or spalling (exposed reinforcement or tensioning system may have
significant section loss).

B-62

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.8.4 Steel Cables

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Steel cables are used in suspension bridges, cable-stayed bridges, and tied arch bridges. The
rating should take into consideration both the condition of the cable, as well as the condition of
the cable anchorage.
Element #146: Steel Cable - Uncoated
This element applies to bare steel cables (such as suspension, hanger, or tie cables) that serve as
a primary structural element on a bridge. The quantity is expressed as an each item.
Condition State 1: Steel cable (including cable anchorages) has little or no corrosion.
Condition State 2: Steel cable may have moderate surface corrosion (no section loss). Cable
banding is intact. Cable anchorages have no evidence of distress.
Condition State 3: Steel cable may extensive surface corrosion, but any section loss is incidental
(the load carrying capacity has not been reduced). There may be minor wear or abrasion at
contact points. Cable banding may have started to loosen. Cable anchorages may show evidence
of loosening or slight slippage.
Condition State 4: Steel cable may have advanced corrosion (significant section loss). The load
carrying capacity has been reduced - structural analysis or immediate repairs may be required.
Cable may have severe wear or abrasion at contact points. Cable banding may have failed - cable
strands may be loose or broken. Cable anchorages may have significant slippage.
Element #147: Steel Cable - Coated or Encased
This element applies to coated steel cables (such as suspension, hanger, or tie cables) that serve
as a structural element on a bridge. This can include cables that are painted, galvanized, covered
with a protective sheathing, or encased in a conduit. The quantity is expressed as an each item.
Condition State 1: Cable coating (or encasement) is sound and functioning as intended to
protect the cable (and cable anchorages) - there is no corrosion.
Condition State 2: Cable coating (or encasement) may have minor deterioration (peeling,
cracking, fading, etc.) - surface corrosion may have formed.
Condition State 3: Cable coating (or encasement) has moderate deterioration - surface corrosion
may be prevalent, but there is no section loss. Cable may have minor wear or abrasion at contact
points. Cable anchorages have no evidence of distress.
Condition State 4: Cable coating (or encasement) has extensive deterioration. There may be
extensive surface corrosion, but any section loss is incidental (the load carrying capacity has not
been reduced). There may be minor wear or abrasion at contact points. Cable banding may have
started to loosen. Cable anchorages may show evidence of loosening or slight slippage.
Condition State 5: Coated steel cable may have advanced corrosion (significant section loss). The
load carrying capacity has been reduced - structural analysis or immediate repairs may be
required. Cable may have severe wear or abrasion at contact points. Cable banding may have
failed - cable strands may be loose or broken. Cable anchorages may have significant slippage.

B-63

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.8.5 Secondary
Structural Elements

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #380: Secondary Structural Elements


This element applies to any type of secondary structural element. This can include
superstructure members such as diaphragms, lateral bracing, struts, truss portal and sway
bracing, or shear keys. This can include substructure elements such as pier crash struts or cross
bracing. This can include specialized elements on movable spans (such as sheaves, trunnions,
turntables, or counterweights). This includes any material (or combination of materials). The
quantity is expressed as an each item - the quantity can be listed as 1 (it isnt necessary to
count the total number of secondary elements on a bridge).
Condition State 1: Secondary elements have little or no deterioration. Steel members have little
or no corrosion - the paint system (if present) is sound & functioning. Concrete members may
have minor cracking. Timber members may have minor cracking or splitting. All connections are
sound (no evidence of distress).
Condition State 2: Secondary elements have minor to moderate deterioration. Steel members
may have moderate paint failure or surface rust - there may be minor flaking or pack rust, but
only minimal section loss. Concrete surfaces may have moderate staining, scale, cracking, or
leaching - there may be minor delaminations and spalls, but there is minimal exposure of
reinforcement. Timber members may have moderate cracks, splits, checks, decay, or fire
damage - but there is no evidence of structural distress (crushing or sagging). Connections may
show have minor distress. There may be minor impact damage (minor gouges, spalls, or
scrapes), but there is no significant out of plane bending. The element may have been repaired,
or had some sections replaced. Any patched, spliced, or reinforced areas are sound.
Condition State 3: Secondary elements have extensive deterioration, but the element is still
functioning as intended. Steel members and connections may have extensive corrosion, with
measurable section loss. Concrete surfaces may have extensive scale, cracking, or leaching/rust
staining. Delamination and spalling may be prevalent (exposed rebar may have measurable
section loss). Timber members may have extensive splits, checks, decay, or fire damage - there
may be some sagging or crushing. There may be moderate traffic impact damage (significant
cracking or spalling) - the member may be bent out of plane. Repaired or reinforced areas may
have been re-damaged or began to deteriorate. Connections may be loosening.
Condition State 4: Secondary elements have severe damage deterioration. Element is no longer
functioning as intended - structural analysis or immediate repairs may be required. Steel
members & connections may have advanced corrosion, with severe section loss. There may be
significant fatigue cracks. Concrete surfaces may have severe structural cracking or extensive
spalling (exposed rebar may have severe section loss). Timber members may have severe
structural cracking, sagging, or advanced decay. There may be severe traffic impact damage members may be severed or bent severely out of plane, connections may have been torn loose.
Connections may have failed.

B-64

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.8.6 Cast in Place
(CIP) Piling

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #382 (Cast-in-Place Piling): This element applies to steel shell piling (typically
cylindrical in cross-section) that are filled with concrete after being driven. The quantity is
expressed as an each item.
Condition State 1: CIP piling has little or no deterioration. Paint system (if present) remains
sound. The steel shell may have minor staining or corrosion, but there is no section loss. There is
no notable marine growth. Piling is relatively straight and properly positioned.
Condition State 2: CIP piling has minor to moderate deterioration. Paint system (if present) may
have moderate deterioration. The steel shell may have moderate surface corrosion, but any
section loss is minor. Marine growth may be present. Piling may be slightly bowed, bent, or out
of position.
Condition State 3: CIP piling has extensive deterioration, but the load-carrying capacity has not
been significantly reduced. Paint system may have failed. The steel shell may have extensive
flaking rust (with significant section loss), but there is no exposure of the concrete fill. There may
be extensive marine growth. Piling may be significantly bowed, bent, or out of position.
Condition State 4: CIP Piling has severe or critical deterioration. The load-carrying capacity of the
piling has been significantly reduced - immediate repairs or structural analysis may be required.
The steel shell may have advanced corrosion (with severe section loss) - the concrete fill may be
exposed. Piling may be severely bowed, bent, or out of position.

B.4.8.7 Tunnels

Element #381 (Tunnels): This element applies to roadway tunnels of any type or material.
This element includes tunnels constructed by boring, blasting, or by cut and fill. Tunnels
are typically constructed of (or lined with) reinforced concrete - exposed surfaces often
protected with tile. The quantity is expressed as a linear ft. item and is rated on a scale of
1-4.
Condition State 1: Tunnel has little or no deterioration. Tiles surfaces are sound (there may be
minor scrapes, staining, or discoloration). Concrete surfaces may have minor cracking, scaling, or
leaching (there are no notable delaminations or spalls). Joints have no notable leakage,
separation, offset, or misalignment.
Condition State 2: Tunnel has minor to moderate deterioration. Tile surfaces may have
moderate staining, discoloration, or deterioration - some tiles may be cracked, delaminated,
loose, or missing. Concrete surfaces may have moderate cracking, scaling, or leaching. There
may be minor delamination or spalling - any exposure of reinforcement is minimal. Joints may
have minor leakage, separation, offset, or misalignment (there is no notable backfill infiltration).
Condition State 3: Tunnel has extensive deterioration, but the function or structural capacity of
the tunnel has not been significantly impaired. Tile surfaces may have extensive deterioration numerous tiles may be cracked, delaminated, loose, or missing. Concrete surfaces may have
extensive cracking, scaling, or leaching. There may be significant structural cracking.
Delamination or spalling may be prevalent (exposed rebar may have measurable section loss).
Joints may have significant leakage, separation, offset, or misalignment (there may be minor
backfill infiltration).
Condition State 4: Tunnel has severe or critical deterioration. The function or structural capacity
of the tunnel has been severely impacted - immediate repairs or structural analysis may be
required. Tile surfaces may have complete failure (the majority of tiles are missing). Concrete
surfaces may have severe scaling or spalling (exposed reinforcement may have significant
section loss). There may be severe structural cracking. Joints may have failed - there may be
severe leakage, separation, offset, or misalignment (there may be significant backfill infiltration).

B-65

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.9 CULVERT
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
B.4.9.1 Inspection
Procedures for Culverts

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

The following section provides information on culverts and the structural element condition
ratings that pertain to culverts.

While the FHWA requires inspection of any structure with a total length of 20 ft. or greater,
Minnesota State law requires inspection of any structure with a total length of 10 ft. or greater thus, the MnDOT structure inventory includes many small (10-20 ft.) culverts.
While culverts are typically designed to allow drainage below a roadway embankment, they may
also serve as underpasses for vehicles, pedestrians, or livestock. Culverts are designed to support
the dead load of the embankment material as well as live loads from traffic. If the embankment
fill is more than 3 ft. deep, the fill is likely the primary load.
Culverts are constructed of a variety of materials, including concrete (cast-in-place or precast),
corrugated steel plate, stone masonry, timber, or aluminum. The size and shape of a culvert is
usually determined by the hydraulic requirements (the opening must be large enough to carry
the design discharge). Culvert shapes include arch culverts, box culverts, round pipe culverts,
pipe-arch culverts, or elliptical culverts. A culvert may consist of a single barrel or multiple
barrels.
Culverts can be structurally classified as either flexible or rigid. Steel culverts are typically
considered to be flexible - a flexible culvert derives a significant amount of structural strength
from the surrounding soil (the lateral soil pressure helps to resist vertical loads). Concrete
culverts are typically considered to be rigid - a rigid culvert provides its own structural strength,
and does not necessarily require embankment fill.
A complete culvert inspection should include examining the culvert barrel, end treatments,
waterway, embankment slopes, and the roadway. Ideally, a walk-through inspection of the
entire the culvert barrel should be conducted during low water conditions (high water or ice can
prevent inspection of critical areas). If an adequate walk-through inspection cannot be
performed, it should be noted in the inspection report, and a complete inspection should be
performed when conditions allow. If necessary, an underwater inspection may need to be
performed.
During culvert inspection, two main items need to be determined - the hydraulic performance
and the structural condition:
Hydraulic Performance: Poor hydraulic performance can result in excessive ponding, flooding of
adjacent properties, or washouts of the embankment and roadway. The inspector should note
any conditions that might reduce the hydraulic performance of the culvert.

B-66

Poor horizontal or vertical channel alignment can reduce hydraulic efficiency, increase
sedimentation, or accelerate embankment erosion. Culverts on flat grades may have
excessive sediment, culverts on steep grades may have outlet scour.

Accumulation of debris at the inlet (or excessive sedimentation within the barrel) can
reduce the culvert's hydraulic capacity, accelerate embankment erosion, or alter the
channel alignment. While some sedimentation is inevitable, any excessive
sedimentation should be noted.

Changes in land use such as wetland drainage, deforestation, or increased development


can significantly increase the runoff (and resultant discharge) that a culvert must carry.
Channel changes upstream (or immediately downstream) of the culvert can result in
overtopping of the roadway. The inspector should note the high water elevation (or
freeboard), as well as any evidence of overtopping.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Structural Condition: Although culverts generally deteriorate at a slower rate than bridges, poor
structural condition can eventually result in load restrictions or failure. The inspector should
note any evidence of structural deterioration or distress - this includes material deterioration,
barrel shape, and joint misalignment/separation. Photographs are useful for comparison to
previous (or future) inspections.
Material Deterioration: The inspector should inspect all visible surfaces of the culvert, and note
both the extent and severity of any significant material deterioration.

Concrete culverts should be examined for scaling, cracking, leaching, rust stains,
delaminations, or spalls. Severe cracking may indicate uneven settlement or structural
overloading (from traffic or excessive earth pressure). Any significant spalling (with exposed
reinforcing steel) should be documented. Connection bolts on pre-cast concrete culverts
should be examined for corrosion.

Steel culverts should be examined for corrosion (particularly along the waterline). Bolted
seams should be examined for cusping, loose or missing bolts, and cracking around bolt
holes.

Timber culverts should be examined for weathering, warping, decay, fire damage, insect
damage, or loose connections. Defects or connections can provide openings for moisture
(and eventually decay) - any evidence of decay (such as fruiting bodies, staining, or surface
depressions) should be noted.

Masonry culverts should be examined for weathering, cracks, spalls, crushing, or


misalignment of the masonry blocks. The mortar joints should be examined for any
deterioration.

Aluminum culverts are relatively resistant to corrosion, but will corrode rapidly in highly
alkaline environments. Bolted seams should be checked with a torque wrench (125 ft-lbs to
150 ft-lbs).

Barrel Shape: As flexible culverts (steel, aluminum, or timber) rely upon the surrounding soil to
provide lateral support, embankment stability is essential. Deflection or distortion of the barrel
may indicate instability of the supporting soil, and may reduce the load-carrying capacity of the
culvert. Significant changes in the barrel shape should be noted (and verified with field
measurements).

Deflection is caused by differential long-term settlement over the length of the culvert (from
embankment pressure). As the center of the embankment will settle more than the side
slopes, culverts often end up with a low spot below the center of the roadway (steel culverts
are often designed with a camber to compensate for this).

Distortion is any deviation from the design cross-section of the culvert barrel, which should
be symmetrical, with even curvature. Barrel distortion may be caused by uneven
settlement, overloading, or from damage during the initial backfilling. Distortion is more
common on culverts with less than 3 ft. of embankment fill.

Joint Misalignment & Separation: Joint misalignment or separation may be caused by improper
installation, undermining, uneven settlement, or embankment failure. Leaking joints (exfiltration
or infiltration) can eventually result in severe undermining or even culvert failure.

B-67

Exfiltration is water leaking out of the culvert barrel - this can lead to piping (water flowing
along the outside of the culvert barrel), which can eventually erode the supporting soil. The
inspector should look for leaking joints and observe the culvert ends for evidence of piping.

Infiltration is water leaking into the culvert - this can also erode the supporting soil.
Infiltration can be difficult to detect, as the backfill deposits are often washed away. The
inspector should look for staining at the joints on the sides and top of the culvert, or
depressions above the culvert.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.9.2 Condition Rating
Guidelines for Culverts

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Like bridges, culverts must be rated using both the NBI and structural element condition ratings:
NBI Condition & Appraisal Ratings: The overall structural condition of a culvert should be rated
using the NBI Culvert Rating (NBI Item #62 - see Section B.3.1.5). The NBI condition ratings for
deck, superstructure, and substructure (NBI Items #58, 59, and 60) should all be listed as N.
If the culvert is designed to carry water (even when the channel running through the culvert is
normally dry), the channel should be rated using NBI Channel & Channel Protection Condition
Rating (NBI Item #61- see
Inspector Note:
Section B.3.1.4). This rating
If NBI Item 61 is rated, the Waterway Adequacy Appraisal
should reflect the channel
Rating (NBI Item 71- see Section B.3.2.1) must also be rated alignment, as well as the
this rating is primarily based upon the frequency of
presence of any
overtopping of the roadway during high water events.
sedimentation or debris.
Structural Element Condition Ratings: The condition of the culvert barrel should be rated using
one of the four AASHTO CoRe Elements (depending upon the material type). The quantity is
expressed in linear feet, as measured along the length of the barrel (multiplied by the number of
barrels). If the condition varies along the length of the culvert barrel, more than one condition
state may be used (all culvert barrel elements are rated on a scale of 1-4).
Element #240 : Steel Culvert (LF)
Element #241: Concrete Culvert (LF)
Element #242: Timber Culvert (LF)
Element #243: Masonry, Combination, or Other Material Culvert (LF)
MnDOT has added Element #388 to rate the condition of the headwalls, wingwalls, and aprons
(or any other type of culvert end treatment), and has added Element #421 to rate the condition
of culvert footings.
The condition of the roadway above the culvert should be rated using Element #987 (roadway
over culvert). The inspector should note any settlement or cracking of the roadway, as this may
indicate culvert distortion (or voiding of backfill). On flexible (steel) culverts, look for settlement
above the centerline of the culvert. On rigid (concrete) culverts, look for settlement along the
edges of the culvert. If applicable, the inspector should also rate Element #981 (signing) and
Element #982 (approach guardrail).
The condition of the culvert embankment slopes should be rated using Element #985 (slopes &
slope protection) - embankment erosion may be the result of channel scour or roadway
drainage. If scour is present, Element #361 (scour smart flag) should be also be rated, if slope
erosion is due to roadway drainage, Element #984 (deck & approach drainage) should also be
rated.
Related Structure Inventory Items: The MnDOT structure inventory includes three culvert items:
the culvert type, the culvert barrel length, and the culvert fill depth. The culvert type item
describes the culvert material, barrel dimensions, and number of barrels. The culvert barrel
length item indicates the culvert barrel length (to the nearest foot) as measured along the
centerline of the culvert. These two inventory items should correlate with the structural
elements selected for the culvert.
The culvert fill depth item indicates the total depth of fill material (including the wearing surface,
if any) that is supported by the culvert. This item is displayed to feet (rounded to the hundredths
of a foot). The inspector should note the culvert fill depth on the inspection report, as this may
affect the load-carrying capacity of the culvert. For example, if the roadway has been widened
(and the culvert extended), the embankment depth may increase significantly.

B-68

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.9.2.1 Steel Culvert
(Element #240)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This element applies to steel culverts of any type or shape.


Condition State 1: Steel culvert has little or no deterioration. The barrel has no deflection or
distortion. The protective coating (if any) is sound. There may be minor staining or surface
corrosion, but there is no section loss. All seams and joints are sound - there is no distress or
leakage.
Condition State 2: Steel culvert has minor to moderate deterioration. The barrel may have slight
deflection or distortion. The protective coating (if any) may have moderate deterioration. There
may be moderate surface corrosion or minor section loss (surface pitting). Bolted seams may
have minor distress, but all bolts are secured, and there is no cracking around the bolt holes.
Joints may have minor leakage, but there is no backfill infiltration.
Condition State 3: Steel culvert has extensive deterioration, but the function or structural
capacity of the culvert has not been significantly impaired. The barrel may have measurable
deflection or distortion (sagging, flattening, or buckling). The protective coating may have failed.
There may be extensive surface corrosion or measurable section loss. Bolted seams may have
obvious distress (seams may be cusped or cocked). Bolts may be loose or misaligned - cracks
may have formed around the bolt holes. Joints may have moderate leakage - there may be
minor backfill infiltration.
Condition State 4: Steel culvert has severe or critical deterioration. The function or structural
capacity of the culvert has been severely impacted - immediate repairs or structural analysis may
be required. The barrel may have severe deflection or distortion (sagging, buckling, or crown
reversal). There may be advanced corrosion & severe section loss (large sections rusted
through). Bolted seams may have failed. Joints may have severe leakage or separation - there
may be significant backfill infiltration.

B.4.9.2.2 Concrete
Culvert (Element #241)

This element applies to reinforced concrete culverts (pre-cast or cast-in-place) of any type or
shape.
Condition State 1: Concrete culvert has little or no deterioration. There may be minor cracking,
scaling, leaching, or staining (there are no delaminations or spalls). Joints have no leakage,
separation, offset, or misalignment. Connection bolts (if any) may have minor surface corrosion.
Condition State 2: Concrete culvert has minor to moderate deterioration. There may be
moderate cracking, scaling, leaching, or staining. There may be minor delamination or spalling but any exposure of reinforcement is minimal. Joints may have minor leakage, separation, offset,
or misalignment (there is no backfill infiltration). Connection bolts may have moderate
corrosion.
Condition State 3: Concrete culvert has extensive deterioration, but the function or structural
capacity of the culvert has not been significantly impaired. There may be extensive cracking,
scaling, leaching or staining. Structural cracking may be present. Delamination & spalling may be
prevalent (exposed rebar may have section loss). Joints may have moderate leakage, separation,
offset, or misalignment (there may be minor backfill infiltration). Connection bolts may have
severe corrosion (or other distress).
Condition State 4: Concrete culvert has severe or critical deterioration. The function or
structural capacity of the culvert has been severely impacted - immediate repairs or structural
analysis may be required. There may be severe structural cracking. There may be severe scaling
or spalling (exposed reinforcement may have significant section loss). Joints may have severe
leakage, separation, offset, or misalignment (there may be significant backfill infiltration).
Connection bolts may have failed.

B-69

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.9.2.3 Timber Culvert
(Element #242)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This element applies to timber culverts of any type or shape (typically box culverts).
Condition State 1: Timber culvert has little or no deterioration. The barrel has no distortion or
deflection. There may be minor weathering, splitting, cracking, or staining. There is no decay, fire
damage, structural distress, or leakage. Connections are secure, members are properly aligned.
Condition State 2: Timber culvert has minor to moderate deterioration. Barrel may have slight
deflection or distortion. There may be moderate weathering, cracking, or splitting. There may be
minor decay, fire damage, or structural distress. There may be minor leakage, but there is no
backfill infiltration. Connections may be slightly loose. Members may be slightly warped,
separated, offset or misaligned.
Condition State 3: Timber culvert has extensive deterioration, but the function or structural
capacity of the culvert has not been significantly impaired. Barrel may have measurable
deflection or distortion. There may be extensive weathering, cracking, or splitting. There may be
moderate decay, fire damage, or structural distress (slight crushing or sagging). There may be
moderate leakage (or evidence of backfill infiltration). Connections may be loose. Members may
be significantly warped, separated, offset or misaligned.
Condition State 4: Timber culvert has severe or critical deterioration. The function or structural
capacity of the culvert has been severely impacted - immediate repairs or structural analysis may
be required. Barrel may have severe deflection or distortion. Timber members may have severe
cracking, fire damage, or structural failure (significant crushing or sagging). There may be severe
leakage or backfill infiltration. Connections may have failed. Members may be broken or missing.

B-70

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.9.2.4 Masonry,
Other, or Combination
Material Culvert
(Element #243)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This element includes masonry arch culverts, aluminum box culverts, or any other culvert not
adequately described by elements #240, #241, or #242.
Condition State 1: Culvert has little or no deterioration (barrel has no deflection or distortion).
Masonry may have minor weathering (mortar joints are sound). Concrete may have minor
cracking or scale. Steel may have surface corrosion. Aluminum has no corrosion. Joints have no
leakage.
Condition State 2: Culvert has minor to moderate deterioration (barrel may have slight
deflection or distortion). Masonry may have moderate weathering or cracking (mortar joints
may have minor deterioration). Concrete may have moderate scaling or cracking (minor
delamination or spalling). Steel may have moderate surface corrosion (minor surface pitting).
Aluminum may have minor surface corrosion. Joints may have minor separation, misalignment,
or leakage (no backfill infiltration).
Condition State 3: Culvert has extensive deterioration, but the function or structural capacity of
the culvert has not been significantly impaired. Barrel may have measurable deflection or
distortion. Masonry may have weathering or cracking (mortar joints may have extensive
deterioration). Concrete may have extensive scaling, or cracking (delamination or spalling may
be prevalent). Steel may have extensive corrosion (measurable section loss). Aluminum may
have prevalent surface corrosion (section loss may be present). Joints may have significant
separation, misalignment, or leakage (there may be evidence of backfill infiltration).
Condition State 4: Culvert has severe or critical deterioration. The function or structural capacity
of the culvert has been severely impacted - immediate repairs or structural analysis may be
required. Barrel may have severe deflection or distortion. Masonry may have severe weathering
or spalling (mortar joints may have failed). Concrete may have severe cracking, scaling, or
spalling. Steel may have advanced corrosion, (severe section loss). Aluminum may have
measurable section loss. Joints may have severe misalignment, or leakage (significant backfill
infiltration).

B-71

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.9.2.5 Culvert End
Treatment (Element
#388)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This element applies to end treatments of any type or material. This is an each item, and
includes headwalls, wingwalls, aprons or other components. On single barrel culverts, the
quantity will be 2 (one for each end). For multiple barrel culverts with separate end treatments,
the quantity will be the number of barrels times 2 (plan quantity on newer culverts). For
multiple barrel culverts with a monolithic end treatment, the quantity can be one at each end. If
no end treatments are present, this element does not need to be used.
Condition State 1: Culvert end treatment has little or no deterioration. Timber may have minor
splitting. Steel may have minor surface corrosion. Masonry may have minor weathering (mortar
joints are sound). Concrete may have minor cracking or scale.
Condition State 2: Culvert end treatment has minor to moderate deterioration. Timber may
have moderate splitting (minor decay or fire damage). Steel may have moderate surface
corrosion (minor section loss). Masonry may have moderate weathering (mortar joints may have
minor deterioration). Concrete may have moderate cracking or scaling (there may be minor
delamination or spalling). End treatment may have slight undermining, settlement,
misalignment, or separation.
Condition State 3: Culvert end treatment has extensive deterioration. Timber may have
extensive splitting - there may be significant decay or fire damage (slight sagging or crushing).
Steel may have extensive corrosion (measurable section loss). Masonry may have extensive
weathering (mortar joints may have significant deterioration). Concrete may have extensive
cracking or scaling (delamination or spalling may be prevalent). End treatment may have
significant undermining, settlement, misalignment, or separation.
Condition State 4: Culvert end treatment has severe deterioration, the function or structural
capacity of the culvert has been severely impacted - immediate repairs or structural analysis may
be required. Timber may have severe splitting or advanced decay (severe sagging or crushing).
Steel may have advanced corrosion (severe section loss). Masonry may have severe weathering
(mortar joints may have failed). Concrete may have severe cracking, scaling, delamination, or
spalling. End treatment may have severe undermining, settlement, misalignment, or separation.

B.4.9.3 Culvert Footing


(Element #421)

This element applies to culvert footings (typically


concrete or masonry footings on arch culverts). This
element allows the footings to be rated separately from
the remainder of the culvert barrel - it should only be
used when the footing is above the ground line (and
visible for inspection). This is a linear ft. item
(measured along the length of the culvert barrel).

Inspector Note:
Element #220 (Reinforced
Concrete Footing) should not be
used for culverts, as it is classified
as a substructure element.

Condition State 1: Culvert footing has little or no deterioration. Concrete may have minor
cracking, leaching, or scaling. Masonry may have minor weathering (mortar joints are sound).
Condition State 2: Culvert footing has minor to moderate deterioration. Concrete may have
moderate cracking, scaling or leaching (there may be minor delamination or spalling). Masonry
may have moderate weathering (mortar joints may have minor deterioration). There may be
slight settlement or undermining.
Condition State 3: Culvert footing has extensive deterioration. Concrete may have extensive
cracking, scaling or leaching (delamination or spalling may be prevalent). Masonry may have
extensive weathering (mortar joints may have significant deterioration). There may be significant
settlement or undermining.
Condition State 4: Culvert footing has severe or critical deterioration. The function or structural
capacity of the culvert has been severely impacted - immediate repairs or structural analysis may
be required. Concrete may have severe cracking, scaling, delamination, or spalling. Masonry may
have severe weathering (mortar joints may have failed - masonry courses may have severe
separation or offset). There may be severe settlement or undermining.

B-72

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.10 SMART FLAG
ELEMENTS

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Smart Flag elements identify conditions or problems present on a bridge that are not
adequately addressed by conventional structural element language. Smart flags may refer to
specific problems that warrant special attention or follow-up action, or may provide detailed
information about the condition of specific bridge elements. MnDOT currently has twelve Smart
Flag elements:
Element #356:
Element #357:
Element #358:
Element #359:
Element #360:
Element #361:
Element #362:
Element #363:
Element #964:
Element #965:
Element #966:
Element #967:

Fatigue Cracking Smart Flag


Pack Rust Smart Flag
Concrete Deck Cracking Smart Flag
Underside of Concrete Deck Smart Flag
Substructure Settlement & Movement Smart Flag
Scour Smart Flag
Traffic Impact Smart Flag
Section Loss Smart Flag
Critical Finding Smart Flag
Concrete Shear Cracking Smart Flag
Fracture Critical Smart Flag
Gusset Plate Distortion Smart Flag

The quantity for Smart Flag elements should always be listed as 1. Most Smart Flag elements
are not automatically displayed on the MnDOT Bridge Inspection Report - the inspector must
determine when they should be added and rated. The exceptions are Smart Flag #964 (displayed
for all bridges), Smart Flag #361 (displayed on all scour critical bridges), and Smart Flag #966
(displayed on all fracture critical bridges).
B.4.10.1 Fatigue
Cracking Smart Flag
(Element #356)

This smart flag applies only to primary steel structural elements (typically superstructure
elements) - it should only be used if fatigue cracking is present (cracked tack welds should not be
considered unless they have propagated into the base metal).
Condition State 1: Fatigue cracking has been arrested (drilled or ground out). Any resultant
damage to the steel element has been repaired (the element may still be fatigue prone).
Condition State 2: Fatigue cracking exists and has not been arrested. Note: this condition state is
normally used when fatigue cracking is initially observed, or when additional fatigue cracking is
observed (after repairs).
Condition State 3: Fatigue cracking has seriously damaged a steel bridge element. Immediate
repairs or structural analysis may be required.

B-73

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.10.2 Pack Rust
Smart Flag (Element
#357)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This smart flag only applies to primary steel structural elements (typically superstructure
elements) - it should only be used if pack rust is present. Pack rust is corrosion between adjacent
steel surfaces that results in deformation due to the
Inspector Note:
expansion of oxidized steel. Pack rust is commonly
found on truss connections, splice plates, and along
Pack rust typically indicates the
the edge of built-up riveted members. Pack rust may
presence of section loss.
eventually result in the failure of pins, rivets, bolts, or
welds.
Condition State 1: Pack rust has started to form on a steel element or connection (rust staining
is evident along the edges or seams).
Condition State 2: Pack rust has started to distress a steel element or connection (there may be
minor spreading, swelling, or scalloping).
Condition State 3: Pack rust has resulted in significant distress to a steel element or connection.
There may be significant spreading, swelling, or scalloping - steel members may be significantly
deformed or distorted. However, all connectors (pins, rivets, or bolts) remain intact.
Condition State 4: Pack rust has resulted in severe distress to a steel element or connection.
Immediate repairs or structural analysis may be required. Steel members may be severely
deformed or distorted, or connectors (pins, rivets, or bolts) may have failed.

B.4.10.3 Concrete Deck


Cracking Smart Flag
(Element #358)

This smart flag is used to rate the extent and severity of cracking in concrete wearing surfaces - if
the deck has a bituminous or gravel wearing surface, there is no need to use this smart flag.
Cracking of the wearing surface will eventually result in chloride contamination of the underlying
concrete deck and corrosion of the reinforcing steel. This smart flag can be used to track
preventative maintenance (crack sealing), which can increase the service life of the deck. The
condition state language for this smart flag is below is based upon the following general
definitions:
Crack Width: insignificant cracks are those too narrow to practically measure, moderate
cracks are those large enough to measure, and severe cracks are those greater than in
width (or otherwise deemed severe by the judgment of the inspector).
Crack Density: minor crack density is an approximate spacing of 10 ft. or greater,
moderate density is a spacing of 5-10 ft., and severe density is a spacing of 5 ft. or less
(or otherwise deemed severe by the judgment of the inspector).
Condition State 1: Cracks in the concrete wearing surface are sealed or insignificant in size and
density.
Condition State 2: Concrete wearing surface has unsealed cracks of moderate size or density.
Condition State 3: Concrete wearing surface has unsealed cracks of moderate size and density.
Condition State 4: Concrete wearing surface has unsealed cracks of severe size and/or density.

B-74

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.10.4 Underside of
Concrete Deck Smart
Flag (Element #359)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This smart flag should typically not be used for bridges with an integral superstructure and deck
(such as precast channels, prestressed tees, or prestressed voided slabs).
Inspector Note:
This smart flag must be rated for all bridges with a concrete deck or slab (even
if the underside of the deck is concealed by stay-in-place forms).
Note: Distressed area refers to the total area (on the underside of a concrete deck or slab) with
leaching (efflorescence), salt/water saturation, rust stains, delaminations, spalls, temporary
repair patches, or other significant deterioration. On decks with stay-in-place forms, areas with
corrosion, leaching, or other significant deterioration should be considered to be distressed.
Condition State 1: Underside of the concrete deck (or slab) has little or no distress. There may
be minor cracking or light leaching. Stay-in-place forms have no corrosion.
Condition State 2: The total distressed area on the underside of the concrete deck (or slab) is
2% or less of the total deck area.
Condition State 3: The total distressed area on the underside of the concrete deck (or slab) is
more than 2%, but not more than 10% of the total deck area.
Condition State 4: The total distressed area on the underside of the concrete deck (or slab) is
more than 10%, but not more than 25% of the total deck area. There may be impending fulldepth deck failures - structural underpinning may be present (or required).
Condition State 5: The total distressed area on the underside of the concrete deck (or slab) is
more than 25% of the total deck area. There may be full-depth deck failures - structural
underpinning may be present (or required).

B.4.10.5 Substructure
Settlement &
Movement Smart Flag
(Element #360)

This smart flag only applies to bridge substructure elements (piers, abutments, or wingwalls)
that show evidence of settlement, movement, or rotation. It is intended to identify bridges that
are experiencing settlement and to provide some measure of the magnitude of that settlement.
Condition State 1: Substructure elements have visible settlement, movement or rotation. The
settlement has been arrested, appears to have stabilized, or is minor.
Condition State 2: Substructure elements have continuing settlement, movement or rotation. If
not arrested, this could adversely impact the structural integrity of the bridge.
Condition State 3: Substructure elements have severe settlement, movement or rotation structural analysis may be warranted.

B-75

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.10.6 Scour Smart
Flag (Element #361)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This smart flag is intended to identify bridges that are experiencing scour (or have a history of
scour problems) and to provide some measure of the magnitude of scour. This smart flag also
identifies bridges that are scour critical, or require scour monitoring during high water events.
During each routine inspection, substructure components that are submerged in water should
be investigated for scour by wading
Inspector Note:
and probing. If the channel is too
If the MnDOT Scour Code is listed as D, G, K, O, P, R
deep for wading, the underwater
or U, this smart flag will automatically be added.
inspection report should be reviewed
to determine the condition rating for
this smart flag.
Condition State 1: Scour exists, but is
of little concern to the structural
integrity of the bridge.

Inspector Note:
Bridges with a MnDOT Scour Code of D, G, K, O, P,
R or U can be rated as condition 1, even if no scour
is currently present at the bridge site.

Condition State 2: Scour exists that,


if left unchecked, could adversely impact the structural integrity of the bridge.
Condition State 3: Scour exists that is significant enough to warrant analysis of the structure.
B.4.10.7 Traffic Impact
Smart Flag (Element
#362)

This smart flag applies to primary structural bridge elements (typically superstructure) that have
traffic impact damage. While this typically refers to damage from high loads, it can include
impact damage from other causes (flood debris,
ice dams, etc.). The inspector should note any
Inspector Note:
recent (or previously un-recorded) damage, and
This smart flag does not apply to
note any repairs. This smart flag should remain
damaged railings or guardrail.
even after repairs have been made to provide a
history of impact damage to the structure.
Condition State 1: Impact damage has been repaired (minor damage may be present). Steel
members have been straightened and/or reinforced. Concrete members have been patched
(there is no exposed reinforcement or tensioning cables).
Condition State 2: Impact damage has occurred, but the structural integrity of the element (or
bridge) has not been significantly reduced. Steel members may be bent out of plane. Concrete
members may be spalled (exposed reinforcement or tensioning cables are still intact).
Condition State 3: Impact damage has occurred and the strength of the member is impaired.
Analysis is warranted to ascertain the serviceability of the bridge.

B-76

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.10.8 Section Loss
Smart Flag (Element
#363)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This smart flag only applies to primary steel bridge structural elements (typically superstructure
elements) that have section loss due to corrosion. Section loss is typically expressed as a
percentage of the total cross-section area of the
Inspector Note:
member (the percentages in the rating descriptions
The presence of flaking rust or pack
are included as a general guideline).
rust indicates that at least some
section loss is present.
Condition State 1: Steel element has minor section

loss (less than 2% of the total cross-section area). If


the steel element has been recently repainted, any previously existing section loss has been
reinforced (or is less than 5% of the total cross-section area).

Condition State 2: Steel element has moderate section loss (from 2% to 5% of the total crosssection area). If the steel element has been recently repainted, any previously existing section
loss is not severe enough to warrant structural analysis (less than 10% of the effective section).
Condition State 3: Steel element has significant section loss, but structural analysis is not yet
warranted (section loss is less than 10% of the total cross-section area) or structural analysis has
determined that the existing section loss has not significantly reduced the structural integrity of
the element.
Condition State 4: Steel element has severe section loss (more than 10% of the total crosssection area). The load-carrying capacity of the element has been significantly reduced structural analysis or immediate repairs may be required.
B.4.10.9 Critical
Deficiency Smart Flag
(Element #964)

This smart flag indicates if a critical finding was observed during the inspection. A critical finding
(or deficiency) is any structural condition that, if not promptly corrected, could result in collapse
(or partial failure) of the bridge. This does not include safety-related problems (such as damaged
railings, guardrails, etc.). While such
Inspector Note:
hazards should be reported and
This smart flag must be included and rated on all
addressed promptly, they are not
bridge inspection reports. Section A.6.2 of the
expected to result in collapse of the
BSIPM outlines the reporting and follow-up
bridge, and are not considered to be
procedures for a critical deficiency.
critical deficiencies.
Condition State 1: No critical deficiencies were observed during the inspection.
Condition State 2: A critical deficiency was observed during the inspection. The condition should
be thoroughly documented, and the Engineer (and Bridge Owner) must be notified immediately.
It may be necessary to restrict traffic until further evaluation can be made or until the situation is
corrected.

B-77

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.10.10 Concrete
Shear Cracking Smart
Flag (Element #965)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This smart flag applies only to reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, or post-tensioned
concrete superstructure elements (such as beams, box girders, or slabs). Shear cracking can
result from inadequate shear reinforcement, and typically appear as diagonal cracks near the
supports (inclined towards the center of the span). Note: this smart flag should be added and
rated for all bridges with prestressed concrete beams or post-tensioned box girders.

Condition State 1: No shear cracking is present.


Condition State 2: Minor shear cracking is present (for prestressed concrete, crack width is less
than 0.01). Minor leaching or rust staining may be present along the cracks.
Condition State 3: Moderate shear cracking is present (for prestressed concrete, crack width is
between 0.01 and 0.025). Extensive leaching or rust staining may be present along the cracks.
However, the structural integrity of the bridge has not been significantly reduced. Any severe
shear cracks have been repaired and/or reinforced.
Condition State 4: Severe shear cracking is present (for prestressed concrete, crack width
exceeds 0.025). Shear cracking may be severe enough to reduce the structural integrity of the
bridge. Immediate repairs or structural analysis may be required.
B.4.10.11 Fracture
Critical Smart Flag
(Element #966)

This smart flag identifies those bridges classified as fracture critical. The intent of this smart
flag is to insure that all fracture critical members (FCM) are visually examined during each
routine inspection, and to identify problems discovered between in-depth inspections. Refer
to the plans (or the fracture critical report) to identify the fracture critical members.
Inspector Note:
A fracture critical bridge has at least one fracture critical member (a steel
tension member whose failure would be expected to result in collapse of the
bridge). Only bridges carrying vehicular traffic are considered to be fracture
critical (pedestrian and railroad bridges are excluded).
Condition State 1: Bridge is fracture critical - all fracture critical members are structurally
sound (no significant damage or deterioration).
Condition State 2: Bridge is fracture critical - fracture critical member(s) have damage or
deterioration, but the members have either been repaired or structural analysis has determined
that the member is stable for the anticipated loading (the bridge may have been posted with a
load restriction).
Condition State 3: Bridge is fracture critical - damage or deterioration to fracture critical
members warrants structural analysis or immediate repairs (or bridge has been closed to traffic).

B-78

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.10.12 Gusset Plate
Distortion Smart Flag
(Element #967)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This smart flag is intended to identify truss bridges (or open spandrel arch bridges) with gusseted
connections, and to indicate if any distortion (bending, bowing, or buckling) is evident on the
gusset plates. This smart flag should be added and rated for any truss (or arch) bridge on which
the primary truss members have gusseted connections. This smart flag does not apply to
gusseted connections for secondary members (such as lateral bracing members) that incorporate
a gusseted connection.
Gusset plates should be examined with a straight edge for evidence of distortion (bending,
bowing, or buckling) - distortion should be measured and documented. Gusset plate distortion
may result from a number of factors including, but not limited to, structural loading, pack rust,
or from initial construction (fit-up tolerances).
Condition State 1: Steel gusset plates have no distortion.
Condition State 2: Steel gusset plate(s) may have distortion (up to 1/8 along an un-reinforced
free edge*). Note: previously distorted gusset plates that have been reinforced should generally
not be rated above Condition 2.
Condition State 3: Steel gusset plate(s) have distortion (up to 1/4 along an un-reinforced free
edge*) - structural review or analysis may be warranted.
Condition State 4: Steel gusset plate(s) have distortion (more than 1/4 along an un-reinforced
free edge*) - structural review or analysis is warranted.
*The distortion limits outlined in these condition ratings are intended to be a general guideline the Engineer could select a lower (or higher) rating depending upon the location, orientation, and
nature of the distortion.

B-79

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.11 OTHER BRIDGE
ELEMENTS
B.4.11.1 Signing
(Element #981)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

These elements were added by MnDOT to rate the condition of bridge items not addressed by
the CoRe elements. The quantity can be listed as 1 each.

This element applies to any signing mounted on, or any signing related to the bridge. This can
include load posting signs, vertical or horizontal clearance signs, object (hazard) markers, speed
limit signs, plow markers, advance warning signs, informational signs, changeable message signs,
etc.
Inspector Note:
This element will be automatically added if the structure inventory indicates that
signage is required. The actual load posting (Tons) and/or posted vertical
clearance (Feet/Inches) should be noted on the inspection report.
Condition State 1: All required signing is present and is in good condition (there may be minor
damage or deterioration).
Condition State 2: All required signing is present - signs may have some damage or deterioration
(slightly bent or faded), but remain readable.
Condition State 3: Signing (excluding vertical clearance or load posting signage) is absent, or
existing signing is damaged or deteriorated to the extent that repair or replacement is required.
Condition State 4: Required vertical clearance signing (at bridge or in advance of bridge*) is
absent, incorrect, or existing signing is damaged or deteriorated to the extent that repair or
replacement is required.
Condition State 5: Required load posting signing (at bridge or in advance of bridge*) is absent,
incorrect, or existing signing is damaged or deteriorated to the extent that repair or replacement
is required.
*Advanced load posting signs are not necessarily required for all posted bridges. The need for
advanced load posting signs is determined by the Bridge Program Administrator responsible for
the structure.

B-80

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.11.2 Approach
Guardrail (Element
#982)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This element rates the condition of in-place guardrail above or below the bridge. This includes all
types of guardrail (plate beam or cable), as well as guardrail end treatments and crash
cushions/crash attenuators. If guardrail is required on the roadway over the bridge, but is not
present, there is no need to rate this item (however, FHWA Item 36B, 36C, & 36D should be
appropriately coded)
Condition State 1: Guardrail is in good condition, and is functioning as intended to protect
vehicles from impacting the bridge.
Condition State 2: Guardrail may have moderate damage or deterioration, but is still functioning
as intended to protect vehicles from impacting the bridge.
Condition State 3: Guardrail has severe damage or deterioration - repair or replacement is
required (possible traffic hazard).

B.4.11.3 Plowstraps
(Element #983)

Plowstraps (or plow fingers) are small steel plates welded to expansion joints to prevent
snowplow damage to the joint - they are common on strip seal expansion joints.
Condition State 1: All required plowstraps are present.
Condition State 2: Some plowstraps are missing and need replacement.
Condition State 3: Most plowstraps are missing and need replacement.

B-81

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.11.4 Deck &
Approach Drainage
(Element #984)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This element rates the condition, function, and adequacy of the drainage system. This includes
drainage of the deck and approaches, and can include
Inspector Note:
areas adjacent to (or below) the bridge. This includes
Downspouts should extend far
items such as deck drains, inlets, scuppers, grates, drain
enough to prevent runoff from
troughs, downspouts, catch basins, spillways, splash
falling onto the superstructure.
aprons, ditches, or holding ponds.
Condition State 1: Drainage system is in good condition and functioning as intended. There is no
notable ponding or drainage-related slope erosion.
Condition State 2: Drainage system is inadequate or is not functioning properly. The drainage
system may be clogged with debris - flushing or cleaning may be required. There may be ponding
on the deck, approaches, or below the bridge. Runoff may be contributing to slope erosion or
deterioration of bridge elements. Drainage components may be damaged or deteriorated, but
remain intact.
Condition State 3: Drainage system has failed - repairs are required. Severe ponding may
present a traffic hazard. Runoff may have resulted in severe slope erosion (or significant
deterioration of bridge elements). Drainage components may be disconnected, missing, or
severely deteriorated.

B.4.11.5 Slopes & Slope


Protection (Element
#985)

This element rates the condition of the slopes and slope protection - this includes unprotected
(bare dirt) slopes. This can include the slopes in
Inspector Note:
front of abutments, abutment side slopes, slopes
around piers, or culvert embankments. Slope
Slope erosion may be related to deck
protection may consist of concrete, bituminousdrainage or scour. The inspector
coated aggregate, loose riprap, grouted riprap,
should attempt to determine the
gabions, revet mattresses, or any material
cause of any slope erosion.
intended to protect the slope from erosion.
Condition State 1: Slopes are in good condition - there is no notable erosion. Substructure is
adequately protected (no exposure of footings or pilings). Slope protection (if present) may have
minor deterioration (there is no notable settlement, heaving, or undermining).
Condition State 2: Slopes may have minor to moderate erosion. Footings (or pilings) may be
slightly exposed, but there is no significant undermining or loss of backfill. Slope protection (if
present) may have moderate deterioration - there may be settlement, heaving, or undermining.
Condition State 3: Slopes may have severe erosion - repairs are required. Footings may be
significantly undermined - there may be significant loss of backfill. Slope protection (if present)
may be severely deteriorated - there may be significant settlement, heaving, or undermining.

B.4.11.6 Curb &


Sidewalk (Element
#986)

This element rates the condition of the sidewalk and curb on the bridge (or approaches). This
generally does not apply to a sidewalk running below the bridge.
Condition State 1: Sidewalks and curbs are in good condition - there may be minor damage or
deterioration.
Condition State 2: Sidewalks and/or curbs have moderate damage or deterioration. Concrete
may have cracking, spalling, or delamination. Timber may have cracking, splitting or decay.
Condition State 3: Sidewalks and/or curbs have severe damage or deterioration (repairs are
required).

B-82

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.4.11.7 Roadway over
Culvert (Element #987)

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This element rates the condition of the roadway running above a culvert. Cracking or settlement
of the roadway may be the result of culvert settlement, barrel distortion, or voiding of backfill.
On flexible (steel) culverts, look for cracking and settlement above the centerline of the culvert;
on rigid (concrete) culverts, look for cracking and settlement along the edges of the culvert. This
element can also be used to rate the condition of roadways on filled spandrel arch bridges or
running through tunnels.
Condition State 1: Roadway above culvert is in good condition. The paving may have minor
cracking, but there is no settlement.
Condition State 2: Roadway above culvert has moderate cracking (or other deterioration). There
may slight settlement.
Condition State 3: Roadway above culvert has severe cracking (or other deterioration) - there
may be significant settlement.

B.4.11.8 Miscellaneous
Items (Element #988)

This element can be used to rate the condition of any bridge feature not adequately described
by the other elements (such as lighting or utilities). This element can also be used to address
maintenance needs (such as flushing, tree trimming or graffiti).
Condition State 1: Minor damage or deterioration.
Condition State 2: Moderate damage or deterioration.
Condition State 3: Severe damage or deterioration - repairs may be required.

B-83

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.5 BRIDGE
COMPONENTS &
STRUCTURE TYPES

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This section provides additional guidance on the rating procedures for the different bridge
components and structure types. Information on rating the substructure components (e.g.,
abutments and piers), as well as information on rating the superstructure components (e.g.,
trusses and steel members), is discussed.

B.5.1 SUBSTRUCTURE
COMPONENTS

This section includes general inspection procedures and condition rating guidelines for
substructure components (abutments, piers, and wingwalls). This includes general descriptions
and terminology, as well as guidelines for the proper selection of structural elements (and
determining element quantities).

B.5.1.1 Condition Rating


Procedures for
Abutments

Components of a Concrete Abutment: Most abutments are constructed of reinforced concrete.


While the overall configuration will vary, most concrete abutments share these typical
components:

Parapet (Back Wall)


Bearing Seat

Stem (Breast Wall)

Abutment
Backfill
Footing

Cross-section (side view) of a Typical Concrete Abutment

B-84

Stem: The abutment stem (or breast wall) is the primary component of the abutment it transmits the load of the bridge superstructure to the footing, and retains the
abutment backfill.

Bearing Seat: The bearing seat provides a horizontal bearing area for the
superstructure.

Parapet: The parapet (or back wall) prevents backfill soil from sliding onto the bearing
seat, and provides support for the deck expansion joint (or approach slab).

Footing: The footing transmits the weight of the abutment, the soil loads, and the load
of the bridge superstructure to the supporting soil. A footing may be supported by
piling, or may transfer these loads directly to the supporting soil or rock (spread
footing).

Wingwall: A wingwall is typically a short retaining wall extending from each end of the
abutment which is intended to retain the side slope. The wingwall configuration will
vary according the height of the abutment and the site conditions.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Abutment Backfill
Footing
Parapet
Wingwall
Bearing Seat
Stem

Plan View of a Typical Concrete Abutment

Inspection Procedures for Concrete Abutments:

Note any concrete deterioration (cracking, leaching, rust staining, delamination or


spalling).
Note any evidence of deck joint leakage (such as staining on the abutment face or
debris on the bearing seat).
Weep holes (typically located near the base of the stem) should be examined for proper
function.
Note any distress on the parapet (cracking, spalling or tipping) resulting from the
superstructure contacting the parapet or from approach pavement thrust.
Note any evidence of settlement, rotation, or other movement.
Note any deterioration of the slope protection, slope erosion, undermining, or
footing/piling exposure.
If the abutment is submerged in water, probe along the front face for any evidence of
scour (review the underwater inspection report, if applicable).

Condition Rating Procedures for Concrete Abutments: An abutment has two basic functions - to
support for the bridge superstructure, and to retain the abutment backfill. The condition ratings
should reflect not only the condition of the visible concrete surfaces, but also the ability of the
abutment to perform these two basic functions. The condition rating descriptions for reinforced
concrete elements are outlined in Section B.4.7.3.

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Element #215 (Reinforced Concrete Abutment) should be used to rate the abutment
stem, seat, and parapet). This is a linear foot item - the quantity is determined by
measuring horizontally across the front face of the abutment (excluding the wingwalls).

MnDOT has added element #387 (Reinforced Concrete Wingwall) to rate the wingwalls.
This is an each item (a single condition state must be determined for each wingwall) the quantity will typically be 4 (one wingwall at each corner).

As the footings (and pilings) supporting a concrete abutment are typically not visible for
inspection, they are typically not rated. If the abutment footing is visible for inspection,
it can be rated using element #220 (Reinforced Concrete Footing) - this is an each
item.

If settlement, rotation, or other movement of the abutment is evident, the Settlement


Smart Flag (element #360) must be rated accordingly (see Section B.4.10.5). If scour is
present, the Scour Smart Flag (element #361) must be rated accordingly (see Section
B.4.10.6).

Element #985 (Slopes & Slope Protection) should be used to rate the condition of the
abutment slopes (and slope protection, if any).

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Hollow Concrete Abutments: Hollow U-Type concrete abutments are actually an enclosed
approach span (typically a cast-in-place concrete T-girder or slab span). The wingwalls enclose
the sides of the span, creating a hollow
abutment that appears to be solid (access
Inspector Note:
hatches are typically located on the
Periodic internal inspections are required to
wingwalls or parapets). These are designed
assess the condition of the interior
to reduce the dead load (as opposed to a
elements. Confined space entry procedures
solid abutment) and subsequent settlement
may be required.
of the abutment.
Element #215 (Reinforced Concrete Abutment) should be used to rate the front abutment stem
(including the seat and parapet) as well as the rear abutment stem - the LF quantity will be twice
that of conventional abutment. Element #387 (Reinforced Concrete Wingwall) should be used to
rate the condition of the sidewalls. An element must also be selected to rate the enclosed
approach span - depending upon the span type, this may include beam, deck, or slab elements.
Approach Span

Rear Abutment
Stem
Front Abutment
Stem

Rear Footing

Embankment Fill

Front Footing
Stem

Elevation View of a Hollow Concrete Abutment


Wingwall

Front Abutment
Stem
Rear Abutment
Stem

Rear Footing
Front Footing
Stem

Section View (Looking Down) of a Hollow Concrete Abutment

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BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Condition Rating Procedures for Integral and Semi-Integral Concrete Abutments: Integral and
semi-integral abutments are now the preferred design for new bridges in Minnesota, as they
eliminate the need for a deck expansion joint above. Traditional concrete parapet abutments are
now only used when the design criteria for integral or semi-integral abutments cannot be met
(see Section 11.1 in the MnDOT Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Manual)
An integral abutment consists of a concrete abutment stem supported by a single line of piles.
The beams, girders, or slabs bear upon the abutment stem. A concrete diaphragm (poured with
the deck) encases the beam ends, making the superstructure, deck, and often the approach
panel integral with the abutment.
A semi-integral abutment is similar to an integral abutment in that the superstructure, deck, and
approach panel are integral and expand and contract as a single unit. The primary difference is
that the superstructure is supported on bearings, allowing the superstructure to move
independently form the abutment stem. Another difference is that the stem footing is typically
supported by multiple rows of piles.
Use the criteria below when rating the condition of an integral or semi-integral abutment:

The abutment stem should be rated using element #215 (Concrete Abutment) and
should be considered to be part of the substructure.

The concrete diaphragm should be rated using element #380 (Secondary Elements) and
should be considered to be part of the superstructure.

Bearing elements will typically be used only if bearing assemblies are present on the
abutment stem and are visible for inspection.

If concrete approach panels are present, element #321 (Concrete Approach Slab with
Concrete Wearing Surface) will typically be used.
Note: if approach relief joints are present on a bridge with integral or semi-integral
abutments, it is important that element #414 (approach relief joint) be added and rated.
On these bridges, the approach relief joints often must accommodate thermal expansion
of the bridge as well as the adjacent roadway.

Integral Abutment (Cross Section)

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Semi-Integral Abutment (Cross Section)

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Condition Rating Procedures for Timber Abutments: Timber abutments are typically comprised
of three main components (backfill planks, bearing cap, and piling), which are rated using
separate structural elements. These components may be connected with bolts, lag screws, nails,
spikes, or drift pins (cap to piling connections are often reinforced with steel straps). The
inspector should determine the condition
Inspector Note:
of each element (see Section B.4.7.5 for
If the abutment has tipped, rotated, or
timber element rating descriptions), as well
settled, the settlement smart flag (element
as the overall orientation and stability of
#360) should be appropriately rated.
the abutment. The presence of failed
connections or misaligned members should
be reflected in the element ratings.
Bearing Cap

Backing Planks

Piling
Ground Line

Front View of a Typical Timber Abutment

B-88

Backfill Planks: The backfill planks retain the abutment backfill and transfer the earth
pressure forces to the piling - they should be inspected for bulging, gaps, or voided
backfill. Element #216 (Timber Abutment) should primarily reflect the condition of the
backfill planks, but should also reflect the overall structural condition of the abutment.
This is a linear ft. item (measured along the front face of the abutments (excluding the
wingwalls).

Bearing Cap: The bearing cap provides a bearing seat for the superstructure, and
transfers the superstructure loads to the piling. Element #235 (Timber Pier Cap) should
be used to rate the condition of
Inspector Note:
the abutment bearing cap. This is a
linear ft. item (measured along
If the cap is comprised of another material
the length of the cap) - the total
(such as steel or concrete), the appropriate
element quantity should include
piling element should be selected.
the pier caps (if any).

Piling: The piling transmit the superstructure load to the supporting soil. To resist the
horizontal force resulting from earth pressure, abutment piling may incorporate steel
cable tie-back systems. Element #228 (Timber Piling) should be used to rate the
condition of the abutment piling.
Inspector Note:
This is an each item - the total
If the piling are comprised of another material
element quantity should include
(such as steel or concrete), the appropriate
the pier piling (if any), but not the
piling element should be selected.
wingwall piling.

Wingwalls: MnDOT has added element #386 (Timber Wingwall) to rate the wingwalls,
the quantity is expressed as an each item - on a typical bridge, this quantity will
typically be 4 (one wingwall at each corner). The wingwall piling can be included in
this element (there is no need to include them in the total piling quantities).

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.5.1.2 Condition Rating
Procedures for Piers

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Concrete Column Pier: The most common pier configuration is a reinforced concrete column
pier, which is comprised of two or more columns (bearing on footings), which support a bearing
cap. These piers are typically cast-in-place, and are tied together with steel reinforcement to
create a rigid frame.

Bearing Seat
Pier Cap

Pier Column

Ground
Pier Footing

Typical Concrete Column Pier Configuration

Pier Cap: The pier cap is the upper horizontal portion of the pier that supports the
superstructure - they are subjected to bending and shear forces. The pier cap (including
the bearing seats) is rated using element #234 (Reinforced Concrete Cap) - this is a
linear foot quantity (measured along the length of the cap).

Pier Columns: The vertical pier columns transfer the superstructure load from the pier
cap to the pier footing - they are primarily subjected to compression forces. Pier
columns are rated using element #205 (Reinforced Concrete Column) - this is an each
item, a single condition rating must be determined for each column. If there are
protective crash struts (or barriers) between the pier columns, they can be rated using
element #380 (Secondary Structural Elements) - this is an each item, the quantity can
simply be left as 1 (there is no need to add them up them).

Pier Footings: As pier footings are typically below grade and not visible for inspection,
they are typically not rated.

Inspection Procedures for Concrete Piers:

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Note any concrete deterioration (cracking, leaching, rust staining, delamination or


spalling).
Note any evidence of deck joint leakage (staining on the cap or debris on the bearing
seat).
Note any evidence of settlement, tipping, rotation, or other movement.
If the pier is submerged in water, the perimeter of the pier should be probed for
evidence of scour, undermining, or footing/piling exposure (refer to the underwater
inspection report, if applicable).
Note the presence and condition of any pier protection components (such as dolphins,
fenders, or crash struts).

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OCTOBER 2014

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Concrete Pier Walls: Another common reinforced concrete pier configuration is a pier wall,
which is supported by a solid shaft (instead of separated columns) - the shaft may be straight
(vertical) or tapered. Element #210 (Reinforced Concrete Pier Wall) should be used to rate any
pier supporting element that is 10 ft. or greater in width. This is a linear ft. quantity (measured
horizontally along the face of the pier wall (on tapered pier walls, use the widest dimension).
A pier wall may or may not include a pier cap. If a pier cap is present, element #234 (Reinforced
Concrete Cap) should be used to rate the cap and bearing seats. If no cap is present, the bearing
seats can be included with element #210 (Reinforced Concrete Pier Wall). As pier footings are
typically below grade and not visible for inspection, they are typically not rated.

Bearing Seat
Pier Cap

Pier Wall

Ground Line
Footing

Concrete Pier Wall - Straight (Vertical) Shaft with Pier Cap

Bearing Seat

Tapered Pier Wall

Ground Line
Footing

Concrete Pier Wall - Tapered Shaft without Pier Cap

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BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Hammerhead Pier: A hammerhead pier consists of a single column with a relatively wide
cantilevered pier cap. Element #234 (Reinforced Concrete Cap) should be used to rate the cap
and bearing pedestals - this is a linear foot quantity (measured along the length of the cap).
The cantilever portion of the cap should be examined for any evidence of structural distress
(such as shear cracking).
Element #205 (Reinforced Concrete Column) will typically be used to rate the column - this is an
each item. However, if the vertical support is 10 ft. or greater in width, it should be rated using
element #210 (Reinforced Concrete Pier Wall) - this is a linear foot item. As pier footings are
typically below grade and not visible for inspection, they are typically not rated.

Bearing Seat
Pier Cap

Pier Column (or Pier Wall)

Ground Line
Pier Footing

Typical Hammerhead Pier Configuration

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BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Pile Bent Piers: Piers comprised of two or more piling supporting a pier cap are known as pile
bents - while these are typically comprised of timber, they may include steel or concrete
members. The inspector should
Inspector Note:
determine the condition of each
If the pier has tipped, settled, or moved the
element, as well as the overall
orientation and stability of the pier. The
settlement smart flag (element #360)
should be appropriately rated.
presence of failed connections or
misaligned members should be reflected
in the element ratings.
Pier Cap

Diagonal Bracing
Piling

Ground

Pile Bent Pier

Piling: Pier piling transmit the superstructure load from the pier cap to the supporting soil (they
are mainly subjected to compression forces). Piling should be examined for impact damage or
deterioration (particularly along the waterline or ground line). If the piling are submerged in
water, the adjacent stream bottom should be probed for evidence of scour (refer to the
underwater inspection report, if applicable). MnDOT has six piling elements - they are all each
items, a single condition rating must be determined for each pile:
Element #225: Unpainted (Weathering) Steel Piling
Element #226: Prestressed Concrete Piling
Element #227: Reinforced Concrete Piling
Element #228: Timber Piling
Element #382: CIP (Cast-in-place) Piling
Element #419: Painted Steel Piling
Pier Cap: The pier cap provides a bearing seat for the superstructure, and transfers the
superstructure loads to the piling. The connections between the cap and piling should be
examined for any deterioration or distress. On a pile bent pier, the cap will typically be rated
using element #230 (Unpainted Weathering Steel Pier Cap, element #231 (Painted Steel Pier
Cap), element #234 (Reinforced Concrete Pier Cap), or element #235 (Timber Pier Cap). These
are linear foot items (measured along the length of the cap) - the total element quantity
should include the abutment bearing caps (if any).
Pier Bracing: To prevent buckling, timber pier pilings are often reinforced with diagonal bracing these should be examined for deterioration, impact damage, or connection failure. Bracing
members can be rated using element #380 (Secondary Structural Elements) - this is an each
item, the quantity can simply be left as 1 (there is no need to count up the separate members).

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B.5.2 SUPERSTRUCTURE
COMPONENTS
B.5.2.1 Condition Rating
Procedures for Truss
Connection Elements

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

This section includes general inspection procedures and condition rating guidelines for truss
connection elements and measuring and documentation of section loss of steel members.

MnDOT has created five elements to rate the condition of primary truss connections:
Element #423: Gusset Plate Truss Connection - Painted Steel
Element #424: Gusset Plate Truss Connection - Weathering Steel
Element #425: Pinned Truss Connection - Painted Steel
Element #426: Pinned Truss Connection - Weathering Steel
Element #967: Gusset Plate Distortion Smart Flag
A truss bridge is typically comprised of two parallel trusses - the locations where the truss
members connect are referred to as panel points (they are usually numbered from the south
or west). These truss connection elements are all
each items - each primary truss connection should
Inspector Note:
be rated as a unit, the quantity should correspond
For element #967 (Gusset
with the number of truss panel points. For example, on
Plate Smart Flag), the quantity
a 5-panel truss bridge with 6 panel points on the
should be listed as 1.
bottom chord and 4 on the top chord - the element
quantity should be 20 (10 for each truss).
Truss diagram for a 5-panel truss using a typical panel point numbering system

L0

U1

U2

U3

U4

U4

L1

L2

L3
L3

L4

L4
L5

L5

Gusset Plate Inspection and Rating Procedures:


Truss connection gusset plates should be rated using element #423 (see Section B.4.7.1 for
painted steel elements) or #424 (see Section B.4.7.2 for unpainted weathering steel elements). A
gusseted truss connection will typically
Inspector Note:
include two main vertical gusset plates,
but the condition rating may take into
These elements should not be used for secondary
consideration any plates, angles,
members (such as lateral bracing members) that
channels, or connectors (rivets, bolts,
incorporate a gusseted connection.
etc.) that make up the connection.
The gusset plate thickness indicated on the plans should be verified with field measurements.
Gusset plate truss connections should be cleaned of debris to allow for a thorough examination
of the gusset plates (and other members). Any significant section loss should be measured and
documented. If a gusset plate has significant section loss along the edge of a connecting truss
member, several measurements should be recorded along length of the connection to
determine the average percent section loss along the cross section. Ultrasonic thickness
measurements are recommended for areas where only one side of a gusset plate is visible for
inspection.

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BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Element #967 (Gusset Plate Distortion Smart Flag) should be added for all truss (or open
spandrel arch) bridges with gusseted connections (see Section B.4.10.12). Gusset plates should
be examined with a straight edge for any evidence of distortion (bending, bowing, or buckling) any distortion should be measured and documented. Gusset plate distortion may result from a
number of factors including, but not limited to, structural loading, pack rust, or from initial
construction (fit-up tolerances). If distortion is observed on a truss connection gusset plate, the
findings should be reviewed by the program administrator (or a load rating engineer) to
determine the significance of the findings and to recommend any corrective actions.
Pinned Truss Connection Inspection Procedures:
Pinned truss connections should be rated using element #425 (see Section B.4.7.1 for painted
steel elements) or #426 (see Section B.4.7.2 for unpainted weathering steel elements). This
element could also be used for primary
Inspector Note:
connections on open spandrel arch
These elements should not be used for secondary
bridges, suspension bridges, or other
members (such as lateral bracing members) that
pinned connections not covered by
incorporate a gusseted connection.
element #160.
Pinned connections are common on truss bridges constructed prior to 1920. A pinned truss
connection will typically have only one main pin - but the condition rating could take into
consideration any nuts, spacers, plates, angles, channels, or connectors (rivets, bolts, etc.) that
make up the connection.
Any significant section loss, pack rust, or misalignment should be documented. Pack rust is often
present at pinned connections on the truss bottom chord - this often results in section loss on
the truss members, and can cause distress to the pinned connection. Eyebars should be
examined for any separation or fractures along the forge lines. The floorbeam connections
should also be examined. Periodic ultrasonic examination of the main pins is recommended.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
B.5.2.2 Measuring and
Documenting Section
Loss on Steel Members

BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Corrosion is the most common defect found on steel bridges - all corrosion results in at least
some loss of the original steel cross-section - this is referred to as section loss. Accurately
measuring and documenting the extent and location of section loss is one of the primary
responsibilities of the bridge inspector, and is essential in evaluating the load-carrying capacity
of a steel bridge.
The bridge inspection report should accurately describe the location and extent of any significant
section loss - section loss is typically expressed as a percentage of the original cross-sectional
area.

On members subjected to axial loading (such as truss members), section loss is typically
expressed as percentage of the entire member cross-section. For example: truss
bottom chord member L2-L3 has 15% section loss at the L2 connection.

On members subjected to bending moment (such as girders or beams), section loss is


typically expressed as percentage of the bottom flange, top flange, or the web crosssection. For example: the bottom flange of the west girder has 10% section loss at the
st
1 deck drain east of Pier #2.

When describing section loss in an inspection report, it is important that the extent of section
loss not be misrepresented. For example, the bottom flange of a girder has a 1 diameter hole
which constitutes 15% of the total bottom flange cross-section. While the flange has rusted
completely through at the hole, this should not be described as the bottom flange has 100%
section loss, but rather as the bottom flange has 15% section loss (or the bottom flange of a
girder has a 1 diameter hole).
If the original cross-section has not yet been determined, it may be better to describe the
location and dimensions of the area with section loss. For example: Girder #3 has 4 wide by 2
high area of pitting (up to 1/8 deep) at the west abutment bearing.
When should section loss measurements be performed? As a general rule, section loss
measurements should be taken if the approximate section loss on a primary structural steel
member exceeds 5% of the total member cross-section (or 5% of the flange or web crosssection). As it is not generally practical to accurately measure and document every area of
section loss on a bridge, some judgment must be used by the inspector in prioritizing the
locations where section loss measurements are taken. Highly stressed portions of the structure
(such as the bottom flange near the center of a span) should be prioritized for section loss
measurements. If section loss is present at similar details throughout a bridge, measurements
should be taken at locations that appear to have the most severe and/or extensive section loss.

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BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Locations Where Section Loss is Likely on Bridges: The locations where corrosion (and section
loss) will occur on a bridge are typically predictable - steel members exposed to salt spray or
covered by debris will typically have section loss. The exact locations will vary depending upon
the structural configuration and features present on the bridge - locations where corrosion (and
section loss) is likely to occur include the following:

Structural members located below deck joints


Bearing areas
Areas below deck drains or adjacent to downspouts
Areas located directly above traffic (exposed to salt spray)
Horizontal surfaces, field splices, or other details that tend to accumulate debris
Fascia girders, beams, or stringers will typically have more corrosion and section loss
than interior members - particularly along the exterior bottom flange.
On bridges with concrete decks, corrosion will tend to be localized (below deck joints or
leaching cracks) - on bridges with timber decks, corrosion may be widespread.
Through truss and pony truss bridges will typically have section loss along the bottom
chord, particularly at the panel point connections - section loss may be present on the
truss members or gusset plates. Truss diagonal and vertical members will typically have
corrosion at the railing connections, at the curb level, and at the bottom chord
connections.
Steel box girders (or other box sections) will develop internal corrosion if moisture
accumulates within the box section.
Steel piling will typically have corrosion at the waterline and/or ground line.

Cleaning Prior to Inspection: In order to properly inspect a steel member, and to determine the
extent of section loss, the steel must first be cleaned of any dirt, debris, or excess flaking rust. A
large build-up of debris on a steel member indicates not only inadequate maintenance, but also
indicates inadequate inspection. A bridge inspector should have ready access to cleaning tools
such as a shovel, spade, whisk broom, wire brush, pick hammer, or scraper. Inspection during (or
immediately after) re-painting contracts will often allow for more precise section loss
measurements.
Methods of Measurement: During a bridge inspection, initial section loss is often estimated
(often aided by a straight edge or ruler) - as section loss advances, more precise measurements
may be necessary. Calipers are a simple and inexpensive method of measuring the thickness of
the remaining steel, but they may not be able to reach some locations (such as a girder web). An
ultrasonic thickness gauge is the most precise and effective method of obtaining thickness
measurements - this can be used in confined areas or locations where only one side of the
member is accessible.
Field Notes and Cross-Section Diagrams: Field notes should be thorough, concise, and readable they should include not only the thickness measurements, but the exact location where those
measurements were taken. To determine the extent of section loss on a structural member, the
original cross section area must be known. If no plans are available, measurements and thickness
readings should be taken in areas without section loss to establish a basis for the section loss
calculations. Plan dimensions and thicknesses should be verified.
Cross-section diagrams are helpful in documenting field measurements and performing section
loss calculations. If possible, blank forms (with cross section diagrams) should be prepared prior
to taking field measurements. To facilitate section loss calculations, the exact location of all
thickness readings should be recorded - areas with section loss should be clearly indicated.

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BRIDGE INSPECTION FIELD MANUAL

Chapter B

Example of cross section diagram with section loss field measurements


Section Loss Calculations: When performing section loss calculations, the level of accuracy will
generally depend on how many thickness measurements are taken - the more measurements
are taken, the greater the accuracy. One common method of calculating section loss is to simply
take the average of several thickness measurements over a portion of the member crosssection. A slightly more accurate method is to divide the cross-section into trapezoidal subareas, based upon the exact locations of the thickness measurements - these areas are then
calculated separately and added up. Whatever method is used, it should be done clearly and
consistently, so the calculations can be easily checked and verified.

Cross-section showing location of thickness measurements

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Trapezoidal sub-area

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

Bridge and Structure


Inspection Program
ogram Manual
Manua

Chapter C

STRUC TU R E
I N FORM ATI O N
M AN AG EM E NT
S Y S TE M (SIM S )

TABLE OF CONTENTS
C.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................1
C.2 ABBREVIATION ................................................................................................................................1
C.3 MNDOT SIMS MANAGER 5.4 ...........................................................................................................1
C.3.1 REQUIREMENTS FOR SIMS MANAGER 5.4 .......................................................................... 1
C.3.2 SIMS FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS & VIDEO TUTORIALS ......................................... 1
C.3.3 HOW TO LOGIN TO THE MANAGER WEBSITE ..................................................................... 2
C.3.4 MANAGER MAIN PAGE ...........................................................................................................2
C.3.5 ASSET DETAIL PAGE ..............................................................................................................3
C.3.6 HOW TO LOGOUT SECURELY ...............................................................................................4
C.3.7 HOW TO NAVIGATE BACK TO THE MAIN PAGE ................................................................... 5
C.3.8 HOW TO CHANGE YOUR PASSWORD ..................................................................................6
C.3.9 MANAGING MY ACCOUNT ...................................................................................................7
C.3.10 INSPECTION SCHEDULE .....................................................................................................7
C.3.11 HOW TO USE THE QUICK SELECT ......................................................................................8
C.3.12 HOW TO FIND AN ASSET USING THE VIEW ASSET LINK: ............................................... 9
C.3.13 HOW TO CHECK YOUR MESSAGES ....................................................................................9
C.3.14 HOW TO NAVIGATE TO THE COLLECTOR ........................................................................ 10
C.3.15 HOW TO VIEW THE MOST RECENT BRIDGES ACCESSED AND THE MOST RECENT
REPORTS APPROVED ..................................................................................................................10
C.3.16 HOW TO UTILIZE THE GIS MAP .........................................................................................11
C.3.17 HOW TO CONSTRUCT A BASIC QUERY REPORT ............................................................ 14
C.3.18 HOW TO CONSTRUCT A MULTIPLE CRITERIA REPORT QUERY ................................... 17
C.3.19 HOW TO DELETE CRITERIA FROM A QUERY ................................................................... 18
C.3.20 ADDING ADDITIONAL FILTERS TO THE REPORT QUERY ............................................... 18
C.3.21 SELECT DISPLAY COLUMNS FOR THE QUERY REPORT ............................................... 19
C.3.22 HOW TO SAVE A QUERY ....................................................................................................20
C.3.23 HOW TO LOAD AN EXISTING/SAVED QUERY .................................................................. 20
C.3.24 HOW TO SHOW QUERIED ASSETS ON A MAP ................................................................. 21
C.3.25 HOW TO EXPORT QUERY RESULTS TO EXCEL .............................................................. 22
C.3.26 HOW TO EXPORT RESULTS TO KML ................................................................................ 23
C.3.27 HOW TO EXPORT RESULTS TO CSV ................................................................................ 25
C.3.28 HOW TO USE THE PICTURE SEARCH ............................................................................... 25
C.3.29 HOW TO RUN A SYSTEM REPORT ....................................................................................26
C.3.30 EXECUTIVE DASHBOARD ..................................................................................................27
C.3.31 HOW TO RUN AN AUDIT REPORT .....................................................................................28
C.3.32 MANAGE EMAIL ALERTS ....................................................................................................30
C.3.33 HELP AND TECHNICAL SUPPORT CONTACT INFORMATION ...................................... 30
C.4 MNDOT SIMS COLLECTOR 5.4 .....................................................................................................31
C.4.1 REQUIREMENTS FOR SIMS COLLECTOR 5.4 .................................................................... 31
C.4.2 SIMS FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ........................................................................... 31
C.4.3 HOW TO LOGIN TO THE SIMS COLLECTOR WEBSITE ...................................................... 31
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C.4.4 SIMS COLLECTOR MAIN PAGE ............................................................................................32


C.4.5 CLASSIC VIEW ......................................................................................................................35
C.4.6 HOW TO CHANGE YOUR PASSWORD ................................................................................ 36
C.4.7 HOW TO LOGOUT SECURELY .............................................................................................37
C.4.8 HOW TO NAVIGATE BACK TO THE MAIN PAGE ................................................................. 37
C.4.9 MANAGING MY ACCOUNT ..................................................................................................38
C.4.10 INSPECTION SCHEDULE ...................................................................................................39
C.4.11 HOW TO USE THE QUICK SELECT ....................................................................................40
C.4.12 HOW TO CHECK YOUR MESSAGES ..................................................................................41
C.4.13 HOW TO NAVIGATE TO BRIDGEINSPECT MANAGER ..................................................... 41
C.4.14 VIEW ASSET GROUP ..........................................................................................................42
C.4.15 HOW TO CREATE AN INSPECTION REPORT ................................................................... 43
C.4.16 HOW TO EDIT A REPORT ...................................................................................................44
C.4.17 ENTERING DATA INTO A REPORT ....................................................................................45
C.4.18 HOW TO NAVIGATE THROUGH THE REPORT FORMS .................................................... 45
C.4.19 THE RIGHT-HAND SIDE BAR ..............................................................................................46
C.4.20 HOW TO VIEW REPORT PDF, SUBMIT REPORT FOR REVIEW, DELETE SERVER
REPORT AND/OR VIEW CHANGE REPORT .................................................................................48
C.4.21 HOW TO APPROVE A FINAL REPORT, STOP THE REVIEW PROCESS, SUBMIT
REPORT FOR REVIEW, VIEW THE AUDIT REPORT AND/OR VIEW CHANGE REPORT ............ 50
C.4.22 CONFLICT RESOLUTION BETWEEN REPORT VALUES AND CENTRAL DATABASE
VALUES ...........................................................................................................................................51
C.4.23 HOW TO USE THE FILTER FUNCTION .............................................................................. 52
C.4.24 HOW TO DO AN AND /OR FILTER ......................................................................................53
C.4.25 HOW TO DO A MULTIPLE AND/OR FILTER ....................................................................... 54
C.4.26 HOW TO ATTACH A SINGLE PICTURE/FILE TO A REPORT ............................................. 55
C.4.27 ATTACHING MULTIPLE FILES/PICTURES TO A REPORT ................................................ 57
C.4.28 HOW TO LINK A PHOTO TO A SPECIFIC FIELD ................................................................ 58
C.4.29 HOW TO SET A PICTURE AS A COVER PHOTO AND/OR INCLUDE A FILE IN THE
PRINTED REPORT ..........................................................................................................................59
C.4.30 HOW TO CHANGE THE PHOTO ORDERING IN A REPORT .............................................. 60
C.4.31 PHOTO VIEWER ..................................................................................................................61
C.4.32 FILE LIST ..............................................................................................................................62
C.4.33 HOW TO EDIT WHICH TABS APPEAR IN A REPORT ........................................................ 62
C.4.34 HOW TO MANAGE THE REPORT SECTIONS OF A REPORT ........................................... 63
C.4.35 HOW TO VIEW THE INSPECTION REPORT INFORMATION ............................................. 65
C.4.36 INSPECTION GENERAL NOTES .........................................................................................66
C.4.37 HOW TO VIEW THE NBI CALCULATIONS FROM AN INSPECTION REPORT .................. 67
C.4.38 HOW TO VIEW PAST INSPECTION REPORTS .................................................................. 68
C.4.39 HOW TO EDIT A PHOTO USING INSPECTTECHS IMAGE EDITOR ................................. 69
C.4.40 HOW TO RUN AN AUDIT REPORT .....................................................................................72
C.4.41 MANAGE EMAIL ALERTS ....................................................................................................73
C.4.42 HOW TO USE THE GIS MAP ...............................................................................................73
C.4.43 HELP AND TECHNICAL SUPPORT CONTRACT INFORMATION ................................... 76
C.5 BRIDGEINSPECT COLLECTOR LAPTOP MANUAL .................................................................... 77
C.5.1 INSTALLATION HELP ............................................................................................................77
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C.5.2 REQUIREMENTS FOR BRIDGEINSPECTTM COLLECTOR LAPTOP ................................... 77


C.5.3 INSTALLING THE LAPTOP COMPONENT ............................................................................ 77
C.5.4 UPDATE AND SYNCHRONIZATION .....................................................................................80
C.5.5 MOVE A REPORT FROM THE LAPTOP VERSION TO THE ONLINE VERSION................ 81

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OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

The Structure Information Management System (SIMS) Manual Chapter of the Bridge and
Structure Inspection Program Manual (BSIPM) is
intended to provide detailed guidance of how to
Text in this format symbolizes
use MnDOTs Inspection inventory bridge data
an important tip that can be
management system SIMS.
helpful to SIMS users.
SIMS Tip:

C.1 OVERVIEW

Chapter C

C.2 ABBREVIATION

C.3 MNDOT SIMS


MANAGER 5.4

C.3.1 REQUIREMENTS
FOR SIMS MANAGER 5.4

The abbreviations and acronyms for Chapter C Structure Information Management System
(SIMS) are located in the Introduction section of the BSIPM.
SIMS Manager is an easy to use software package designed to assist managers with a wide variety
of administrative and asset management tasks. Additionally, the Management component
provides a one stop location for all bridge information. The layout and user interface of the
Manager site has been designed to function and resemble the Collector site. Ultimately, SIMS
Manager is a portal for querying data, running summary reports, updating asset information,
viewing completed inspection reports, analyzing data in graphs and charts, and many other
administrative actions which can significantly aid in the management of assets. SIMS Manager
provides the necessary tools to enhance the quality of your infrastructure and is aimed at
facilitating better results.

C.3.2 SIMS FREQUENTLY


ASKED QUESTIONS &
VIDEO TUTORIALS

Screen resolution of at least 1024 x 768 (1280 x 960 is preferred)


A computer system with at least a 1 GHz processor with 1 GB of RAM for optimal
performance
Internet Explorer 7.0 or higher
Adobe Acrobat Reader 6.0 or higher
For the Laptop version you will need 10 Gigabytes of free disk space. This is required for the
application and basic data associated with the bridges. Since the system will be storing all of
the pictures and attachments related to the bridges, additional space may be required
depending on the number of inspections and amount of pictures.

The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) has created a SIMS help site to assist
users with questions pertaining to the SIMS software. This site provides valuable information on
everything from computer requirements, to the approval processes, to training questions, and to
video tutorials. Users can find this site using the link below. Additionally, any questions
pertaining to SIMS can be directed to David Hedeen at 651-366-4528 or Jennifer Zink at 651-3664573.
SIMS Help Site: http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/bridgereports/index.html

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


1.

To login to the SIMS Manager website, open an internet browser and type
https://mn.bridgemanage.com/ .
This will open the Management component and launch the login screen.

2.

Once the login page has uploaded the user may create an icon on their desktop (a shortcut to
the Manager website) which will take the user directly to the login page with one click. To
create a shortcut icon follow these steps.

C.3.3 HOW TO LOGIN TO


THE MANAGER WEBSITE

3.

C-2

Right click anywhere on the login page


From the options listed, select Create Shortcut and then click OK

To enter into the SIMS Manager site, enter your username and password into the
appropriate box and click Login. If successful this will take the user to the Manager main
page.

C.3.4 MANAGER MAIN


PAGE

Chapter C

If for some reason there is an error with the entered username or password, a message
will appear in red at the top-left hand corner saying Username/password failed! If this
happens, try it again to see if it was a typing error. If not, contact Lisa Hartfiel at the
MnDOT Bridge Office to see if the appropriate login credentials are being used.
Please note that if a user forgets their login information they must contact Lisa Hartfiel
at the MnDOT Bridge Office to get the password reset.

Once you successfully login to the SIMS Manager site, the user will be greeted by the Main page.
The Main page is exceptionally important for navigation purposes and is the central point for the
Manager site. The Main page has several interactive features which provide the user with
abilities to quickly find any asset, report, or specific page throughout the site. Highlighted below
are several important features available on the Main page.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

Chapter C

The above screenshot has several highlighted areas which identify features of the Main page.
The upper left hand corner contains the Minnesota Department of Transportation logo. This icon
acts as a navigation tool that will transfer the user back to the Main Page (See Section C.3.7) from
any point in the software. Directly below the logo is the navigation menu, which contains 6 tabs;
Main, GIS, Query, Reports, Administration and Help. Each tab consists of multiple
sub-tabs which will direct the user to a specific page within the software. Throughout the course
of this manual these tabs will be mentioned and discussed thoroughly.
The next two sections are located below the navigation menu, and they are labeled Most Recent
Bridges Accessed (See Section C.3.15) and Most Recent Inspection Reports Approved (See
Section C.3.15). Both of these sections are available to save time and effort searching for bridges
and reports that the user may need to access. Selecting the hyperlinked text in either of these
sections will direct the user to the Asset Detail Page (See Section C.3.5) where all information
pertaining to the bridge can be found including pictures and central database values. The large
picture shown is an inspection photo randomly generated by the software for visual and
navigating purposes. Users may access this bridges information by selecting the photo or the
hyperlinked text below it.
The section highlighted in pink in the above screenshot is the Quick Select (See Section C.3.11).
This feature allows users to search and retrieve any bridge that exists in the software quickly and
with little effort. The user doesnt need to know the bridges full name; rather any part of the
name will suffice. Begin typing the name into the box and a list of 20 assets will appear using
alphanumeric matching. The last section of the Main page is the Date and Message Alert (See
Section C.3.13) at the top right hand side of the Main Page. This shows if you have any unviewed
messages. Click view to be transferred to the message board.
C.3.5 ASSET DETAIL
PAGE

The Asset Detail Page is a one stop location for all information pertaining to a particular bridge.
This page can be generated multiple ways including the hyperlinked text on the Main page, which
lists the 5 most recent bridges accessed and reports approved, by clicking on the picture on the
Main Page, or by selecting a specific bridge through one of the various search functions. The
information on this page includes asset name, parent asset, asset code, asset type, facility
carried, features intersected, average daily traffic (ADT), operating rating, inventory rating, and
any other specific fields designated to a particular type of asset. The Asset Detail Page also
provides access to central database values, past and current inspection reports, certain files
associated with the asset (i.e. bridge history notes), and all pictures associated with the asset.

C-3

The following is a screenshot of the Asset Detail Page for a bridge. Not all sections of the
Detail Page are visible in this screenshot.

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OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

C.3.6 HOW TO LOGOUT


SECURELY

C-4

Chapter C

The software has an auto logout feature after 2 hours of inactivity. However, users may manually
logout of the system any time they exit the site. This is a security precaution and should be
performed when not actively using the software. The logout is found under the Main tab and is
shown in the screenshot below.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


1.

There are two ways to return to the Main Page at any given point within the Manager
component. The simplest way, which was discussed in the Main Page section, is by clicking
on the Minnesota DOT logo at the top of the page. This will immediately transfer the user
back to the Manager main page.

2.

The second way to return to the Main page is by using the Main tab located on the
navigation menu bar. Go to the Main tab and click on the sub-tab Main Page.

C.3.7 HOW TO
NAVIGATE BACK TO THE
MAIN PAGE

C-5

Chapter C

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.3.8 HOW TO CHANGE
YOUR PASSWORD

Each user will be assigned a username and password to login to the software. Note: the
username and password provided for the Collector software is the same for the Manager. Upon
initial login, users may change their password by following the instructions below. Additionally,
users may change their password as they please following the same instructions.
1.

Login to the software and select the Main tab at the top-left corner of the main page.
Chose the option Change Password from the drop-down list.

Here is a screenshot displaying the change password page:

The page will upload displaying the appropriate username. Type the old password into the
appropriate box and then type the new password to confirm it. Then select Change
Password. The next time the user logs into the site they will use the new password to enter
the Collector and/or Manager website.

SIMS Tip:

2.

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Chapter C

| State of Minnesota

Once the user has changed their password in the


Manager component, their password will
automatically change for the Collector site as well.
Additionally, the password will be updated on the
laptop version as soon as its synchronized.

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C.3.9 MANAGING MY
ACCOUNT

C.3.10 INSPECTION
SCHEDULE

SIMS has a feature which tracks users of the system more thoroughly and allows them to make
changes to their account information when needed. The My Account option, located under the
Main tab, displays a variety of information pertaining to a user including: name, address, email
address, phone numbers, organization, position, years of experience, and account expiration
date. This provides detailed profiles for every user of the software and helps communicate
contact information throughout the system.
1.

To make changes to your account go to the Main tab on the navigation bar.

2.

Select My Account from the list of options and edit where needed.

3.

Remember to click Save.

Below is a screenshot of the account page where users can enter their information:

InspectTech has integrated a fully functional calendar into the software with the purpose of
promoting organization and efficiency among users. This feature allows users to develop a
calendar around the inspection cycle and even break down specific inspections, deadlines, and
other tasks down to the hour. The calendar may be viewed by day, week, month or timeline to
give the user maximum control and visibility of their schedule. To toggle between day, week,
month, or timeline, use the buttons at the top right of the calendar.

C-7

Chapter C

Here is an example of a basic inspection schedule:

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


1.

C.3.11 HOW TO USE


THE QUICK SELECT

C-8

Chapter C

To add an event to the inspection schedule, double click inside the calendar on the correct
date. A new page will appear and you will be able to add a subject, description, and even
choose a bridge from the filter at the bottom. In order for the appointment to be added to
the calendar, you must select Save. Below is a screenshot of the input page for the calendar
where users will edit/add all information about the appointment.

The Quick Select textbox is located at the top right hand corner of the main page. Quick Select is
designed to assist users with finding any bridge in the system without having to filter or drill
down. This can save significant time when trying to find a bridge. Quick Select uses alphanumeric
text to bring back up to twenty bridges that match what has been entered into the Quick Select
box. The user doesnt have to know the entire bridge name; only part of the name will suffice.
Type in the information known about the asset and allow the Quick Select to return the bridges
that match the criteria.
1.

Begin typing the portion of the bridge name known. For example, the bridge we are
searching for contains 123 in its name. Type 123 into the textbox and the first 20 assets
which match that will appear. Use the returned results to find the correct bridge.

This is what the Quick Select should look like when searching for a particular bridge:

2.

The user can navigate the drop down box by placing their mouse in the textbox and scrolling
or using the arrows on the keyboard. Users can also add more information into the Quick
Select and it will narrow the results down even further (i.e. add the number 4 to 123).

3.

When the user finds the bridge in the list, they can click on it or hit the enter key to open the

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

Chapter C

asset detail page. From here users can generate a new report or find a variety of information
pertaining to the bridge. Notice the selected bridge is highlighted yellow in the screenshot.

C.3.12 HOW TO FIND


AN ASSET USING THE
VIEW ASSET LINK:

C.3.13 HOW TO CHECK


YOUR MESSAGES

C-9

Located under the Quick Select is the View Assets link. Clicking on this link allows the user to
expand into a drill down search to find any asset within the system quickly and easily. The drill
down is dynamically structured starting with all assets and then breaks down to asset types (i.e.
State bridges). The next level of the tree displays each specific parent asset (i.e. District 2).
Under each parent is a listing of all bridges which the user can scroll through until they find the
correct bridge.
1.

To begin navigating through the drill down search click on the View Assets button and then
click on the plus symbol next to the correct parents. This will expand to show all assets
located within that area.

2.

From this point you can scroll through the list of assets to find the desired bridge.

Here is a screenshot demonstrating this process:

Located on the top right hand side of the main page you will find a Message section. This will tell
you how many messages are new and will have the word (view) in parenthesis which enables the
user to view their messages. In order to view your messages click on the view link. This will
direct you to a page that has your read and unread messages. Here is what the message
section on the main page looks like.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.3.14 HOW TO
NAVIGATE TO THE
COLLECTOR

C.3.15 HOW TO VIEW


THE MOST RECENT
BRIDGES ACCESSED
AND THE MOST
RECENT REPORTS
APPROVED

C-10

There is a link that connects the MnDOT Manager site to the Collector site. Go to the
navigation menu on the Main page and select the Main tab.

2. From the drop down options choose Main


Collector Page. This will take you directly to the
Collector Login page.

SIMS Tip:

1.

Chapter C

Users may need to reenter their password to


enter the Collector site.

The Manager component has a time saving feature which allows a user to navigate directly to
bridges they have most recently accessed or reports most recently approved, eliminating the
need to use searching functions to find a particular asset/report over and over again. Each
section contains the five most recent assets or reports along with a link to transfer the user to the
report or asset detail page. These two sections were highlighted in the Main Page screenshot
located on page 7 and are shown below as well.
1.

The middle section of the Manager Main page is where these sections can be found. They are
divided appropriately and link the user to either the Asset Detail Page, which is for the Most
Recent Bridges Accessed, or the finalized inspection report for the Most Recent Reports
Approved. The user is able to view a PDF of the inspection report by clicking on the view
PDF which will be highlighted in blue next to the bridges name.

The screenshot displays the location of these links:

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

SIMS has an interactive GIS mapping feature which allows users to locate any bridge in the entire
system or look up groups of bridges with just a click of a button.
1.

Begin by clicking on the GIS tab on the Main page navigation bar. Then, click on the Main
Map option. This will open a new page where the user can use the filter to view assets in a
particular District, county, city, or township on the interactive map.

2.

To view the bridges in a particular District, click inside the Show Assets In box and use the
tree search to drill down to the correct District. Click the Show Assets button to generate
the interactive map. This will return all bridges in that District; however, the user is able to
narrow their search down further using the filter function and the checkboxes located
underneath the search bar.

3.

To narrow the results start by selecting the textbox labeled by. This will provide a list of
criteria which you can use to limit the bridges returned. Inside the last textbox type in the
criteria to limit the search. This will only return bridges on the map which meets the criteria
entered. Click Show Assets to generate the map when you are finished.

SIMS Tip:

C.3.16 HOW TO UTILIZE


THE GIS MAP

C-11

Chapter C

Entering criteria into the GIS is not a necessary step;


however, there is a limit to the number of assets the
GIS Map will return so in some instances you will
have to narrow your search.

Here is a screenshot of the GIS search screen. Suppose a user wanted to view only bridges
located in Blue Earth County. Use the drop down box to choose the parent asset (shown in
screenshot) and click Show Assets. The second screenshot is of the interactive map that
was generated by the searching criteria entered:

| State of Minnesota

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OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

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Chapter C

4.

Notice that every bridge in the County is marked with a red pin and the total number of
bridges returned is given in the top left hand corner. Users are able to zoom into and out of
the map to get the best view using the scale on the left hand side of the page or by double
clicking inside the map. Users also have the ability to view the map in four distinct ways:
map view, satellite view, hybrid view or terrain view. When a user places their mouse over a
single pin (bridge) and clicks, the bridges information will generate on the right hand side of
the page. This information section is broken down into two tabs. The first tab automatically
opens when a bridge is selected and it contains general information about the bridge as well
as a link to the bridges detail page and also a button which will focus the map solely on that
bridge. The second tab is labeled Street View and allows the user to view the bridge as if
they were driving across/under the bridge in a vehicle. This Street View feature allows
viewing from other streets as well, such as the ones that intersect and pass underneath the
bridge. Not all bridges will have street view enabled.

Here is a screenshot of the same map above. It is zoomed in and in hybrid view to provide a
different look.

5.

A user is able to print the map. To do so click on the Print link at the top of the page right
above the different views. This will generate a new page and will expand the picture.
Choose the correct printer then click print.

6.

When necessary the user is able to narrow the results even more by using the search bars at
the top of the page. Suppose a user needed a map of the County, but want it to only display
the bridges which intersect a creek. To do so, click the drop down box for by and choose

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

Chapter C

Feature Intersected. Then, in the box next to it type the word creek and click on Show
Assets. Now the map will only show those assets in the County which intersect a creek.

C-13

Here is a screenshot only showing bridges in Blue Earth County which have creek in their
name. Notice the count now displays 30, instead of the original 134. Also, the map has been
increased enough to see specific roads and creeks. This will allow inspectors to pinpoint the
exact location of any asset. Again, the user can zoom the map closer to view every road and
surrounding features more in-depth.

7.

Overall the GIS map is a very effective and useful tool to locate any bridge. The ability to
view and print customized maps using searching criteria is a powerful feature which can
serve many purposes. Here is a screenshot of what happens when you click the Zoom to
Bridge button on the bottom right hand corner. It focuses the map directly over the bridge
to give the user a clear look at the surroundings and exact location of the bridge. Notice the
Street View tab is opened on the right and shows unparalleled views from all angles of the
bridge.

| State of Minnesota

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OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.3.17 HOW TO
CONSTRUCT A BASIC
QUERY REPORT

Chapter C

One of the most popular and useful features in the Manager software is the querying capabilities.
Users are able to design complex queries capable of scanning the entire system in just seconds.
The user can design specific queries for their needs or create a query that can be run for users
across the entire system. The purpose of the report query is to allow a user the ability to quickly
search for information using any inspection or inventory field. For example, a user needs to know
all the bridges in their District which have a deck rating less than 4. He or she would be able to
build a query and find all of those bridges in just a few seconds. Another major function of the
report query is the ability to do summary reporting, where an entire inventory of bridges can be
compared side by side. For example, suppose a user wants a list of all deck ratings for each
bridge throughout their District. The query would return every bridge deck rating in the District.
1.

Start by selecting the Query tab which is located on the Main Page navigation menu. Scroll
down and select Construct Query Report from the available choices. The page will
generate and several options from this point will be available to the user. The first is a
checkbox at the very top which asks Add Criteria Field to Displayed Columns. The second
option wants to know how to return the results, if it matches ANY or ALL the following.
The last option is Click to add new criteria. Notice the sub tabs along the left side of the
screen. These are functions of the query and will be discussed more thoroughly in their own
section. Here is a screenshot of the starting point when building a query.

Enter Query Criteria:

C-14

1.

The Click to add new criteria link will allow the user to start building the query. When
selected this will open a section which provides a tree search with two ways to find the field
to be utilized as criteria in the query: Forms and Asset Fields.

2.

For an example, suppose a user wanted to run a query concerning the year bridges were
built across the state. The screenshot below shows how to locate the field using the drill
down method under Forms. There is also a searching option which allows the individual to
use a filter to find the desired field.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

3.

Once the field is selected the next step is to enter in the parameters for the filter. First
choose <, <=, >, >=, =, contains, or does not contain in the first text box. The <, >, = are useful
for data in numeric format. While contain and does not contain are primarily used on text
fields. Then enter the value parameter. If the user is unsure as to the value to enter for a
particular field, there is an icon to the right, which will generate a pop up describing what
values may be entered based on the field selected. For this example, suppose a user wants
to query all bridges in Minnesota which were built before 1915.

4.

Once the parameters are set, click the Run Query button at the top or bottom right hand
corner of the page. This button will execute the query, and the user should see a loading
symbol as the query retrieves the results.

SIMS Tip:

C-15

Chapter C

| State of Minnesota

Users may add an unlimited number of parameters


to a query by following the same exact process.
This will be covered more in depth in its own
section.

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C-16

Chapter C

Below is a screenshot of the pop up that the look up option will generate. This will display all
values applicable with the field selected in the query. Users may click the Select button to
add that value into the parameter of the query. Users may use the page numbers at the
bottom of the page to view all choices.

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Chapter C

5.

The query will generate the results and place them at the bottom of the page where the
information returned can be analyzed. From here there are several options which users can
do with the results. One option available to the user is the ability to view the returned
bridges on a map, just like the GIS Map demonstrated earlier. Also, users may export the
results directly to Excel, KML or to CSV. All of the options will be touched upon in upcoming
sections of this manual. The screenshot below highlights the users different options.

The query results are delivered in a table which allows the users to scroll through the results,
open any bridge detail page by selecting the link, or sort the data by selecting one of the
column headers. Notice the search results are displayed in the top corner showing how
many bridges were returned. The user can bulk edit if they have the proper permissions.

6.

The user may save the query for future access. Saving queries is covered in its own section in
this user manual.

1.
C.3.18 HOW TO
CONSTRUCT A
MULTIPLE CRITERIA
REPORT QUERY

To construct a multiple criteria query report, begin the same way as a basic report query and
enter the first parameter. Then click on the Add new criteria button to add more criteria to
the query.
2. Use the same method as described in the previous section to enter the parameters. Do this
process however many times necessary to add all the criteria to the query. It is important to
make a distinction between if the query must meet ALL or just ANY of the criteria. This is
done through the drop down box located above the Add new criteria button.

Notice: Above the criteria there is a Text Description section which writes out what the
query is looking for. The user can use this if they encounter any unexpected problems to
decipher the criteria better. All criteria must be selected to meet both criteria.

3. The results will be generated at the bottom of the page. Users have the same options as with
a single criteria query report.

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

C.3.19 HOW TO DELETE


CRITERIA FROM A
QUERY

C.3.20 ADDING
ADDITIONAL FILTERS TO
THE REPORT QUERY

Chapter C

The query feature allows users to delete added criteria without having to start the query over
again. This process is very simple and can be completed in just seconds.
1. Click on the blue arrow next to the criteria and choose the Delete option.

The query feature not only allows users to enter specific criteria, but it also allows them to add
filters which narrow the results (i.e. users may limit the results to specific parent assets such as a
county or District, instead of pulling all the information from the entire states bridge inventory).
1. To add a filter to the report query scroll down the left hand side of the page and click on the
Additional Filters tab. This will open up another screen and display a list of filters which a
user may add to the query and its results.
2. There are three filters which can be applied to a query. The first filter is whether to return
the assets with their central database values (the most recent values) or their historical
report values. Additionally, there is a checkbox available which will pull values from in
progress reports where applicable, so that the most current values are used. The default
setting for this one is central database values with the additional checkbox selected. The
second filter allows a user to choose a parent asset using a basic tree structure. The user
may choose the type of parent (i.e. County Bridges) or they may choose a specific parent (i.e.
Becker County). The third filter is how many records are displayed on each result page. The
default setting is 200 records per page, but users may change this number accordingly.

C-18

Here is a screenshot showing the different filters which can be added to a query:

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OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

C-19

The Query also allows users to choose which fields are displayed as columns in the generated
report. The user may add as many columns as necessary to enhance the report.
SIMS Tip:

C.3.21 SELECT DISPLAY


COLUMNS FOR THE
QUERY REPORT

Chapter C

Those fields used as part of the


query are automatically added as
displayed columns.

1.

To edit or include additional fields in a query report, begin by clicking on the Select Display
Columns tab on the left side of the main query page. This will generate a new page with all
the fields that can be added to the report in a drill down under the section called Available
Report Fields. The user can also search a particular field by choosing Search for a Field.

2.

Locate and include the desired fields by clicking on the check box to the left of the field. This
will place a checkmark in the box and will allow the user to continue navigating to other
fields. This will also allow them to add all the new fields at the same time.

3.

Once the user has selected all the fields they need, they will click on the small black arrow in
between the two sections. This will transfer over the fields selected and will add those fields
to the displayed column in the report generated.

4.

To the right of the small black arrow, there is a section called Displayed Columns. These
are the fields which are predefined or have been added as columns of the generated query
report. Notice how users can rearrange these fields by clicking the Up/Down buttons. For
some fields the user can change the display of the field to either Show Value or Show
Comment. If there are files such as pictures linked to any of the fields, those can be
displayed as well by choosing Yes or No from the drop down box in that column. If
necessary, the user can click the Delete button to remove that field from the report.

This is a screenshot of the Select Display Columns tab. This example shows a user adding
longitude and latitude coordinates to the query output.

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OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.3.22 HOW TO SAVE A
QUERY

Chapter C

Many times a query generated will need to be used again in the future. For that purpose the user
is able to save a query to eliminate the hassle of setting it up time and time again (i.e. a report
which shows all bridges inspection dates for the upcoming year). The saved query can also be
made available to every qualified user throughout the system as well.
1. All parameters must be defined, filters added, and display columns selected exactly how the
user wants them to appear. Then click on the Save Query tab along the left side of the
page. This will open up a new page where the user will be able to save the query.

C.3.23 HOW TO LOAD


AN EXISTING/SAVED
QUERY

C-20

Below is a screenshot of how the page should look:

2.

The query must be given a title in order to be saved. Furthermore, the user has the option of
adding a category from the drop down under which the query would fall. Additionally, users
have the option of entering a unique category name of their own. Choosing a query category
is not a mandatory step for saving purposes, but can be useful when trying to load an existing
query.

3.

Users may also save a query which has been uploaded and edited. At this point when they
click the Save Query tab they will be given a choice to save it as a new query or to save the
changes made to the existing query (if they are the owner of that query in this instance). If
the user wants to save an uploaded query as a new query they will click the Save as New
Query button and type in the appropriate information.

As mentioned in the previous section, the Save query function is a useful tool when users have
queries that may need to be used more than once. This section of the query function will
demonstrate how to load the existing query in order to run, edit, or delete it.
1.

Begin by clicking on the Load Existing Query tab on the left hand side of the page. The user
will be able to view every query that was saved and has been made public, because the
default tabs will be All Users and All Categories. However, they will be able to filter the
queries by selecting either a user or a specific category. For example, if a person wanted to
find a query they saved, they would change the user to themselves and then it will display
only the queries which they created and saved.

Below is an example of what the page should look like when All Users are selected. Not all
saved queries are available for use because some queries are saved for individual use instead
of it being available to all. Users can either run, edit or delete any one of the queries
available to them.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

2.

C.3.24 HOW TO SHOW


QUERIED ASSETS ON A
MAP

C-21

Chapter C

If changes are made to the query or new information is added the user must save it again.
When users go to the Save Query tab there will be a section displaying the query title and will
have an option to Save Query Changes. If the query that is edited belongs to another user,
you will need to save the query under a new title.

After the query has run and results are returned, the user has several options for viewing the
output. One of the options is viewing the returned assets on an interactive GIS map.
1.

To show the queried assets on a map start by scrolling to the bottom of the page where the
query results are located. Find the option called Show Assets on a Map and click on it. This
will open a new internet tab and will take the user to InspectTechs GIS Map interface.

2.

From here they can zoom in and out of the map to view where all the returned assets are
located. This will enable the users to view certain assets in street view as well.

Below is an example of the queried assets shown on a map. This is the same exact feature as
the GIS map explained earlier, however, only the assets which were returned by the query
are visible. Note: Only those bridges which have valid coordinates entered into the system
will be displayed on the map.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.3.25 HOW TO EXPORT
QUERY RESULTS TO
EXCEL

C-22

Chapter C

Another option for the query results is exporting the report into an excel file. This can be very
useful for managers because they will be able to manipulate the data any way they like, make the
report look according to personal preference, save the file on their computer, as well as have the
ability to email the report to others.
1.

Begin by scrolling down to the bottom of the page where the query results can be found.
Find the option called Export Results to Excel and click on it. This will automatically
generate an excel file with all the assets pulled from the query.

2.

From here the person can save the excel file and arrange/format the data in a variety of
ways.

Below is a screenshot of where the Export Results to Excel button is located:

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.3.26 HOW TO EXPORT
RESULTS TO KML

Exporting results to KML will enable a user to view the results in Google Earth and other
mapping systems which use 2D and 3D capabilities. When a user clicks on this button it will
automatically open Google Earth and place the assets returned in the query onto the map. In
order for this to work, the user must have Google Earth or another mapping system installed on
their computer.
1.

C-23

Chapter C

To show the queried results in Google Earth scroll down to the bottom of the page and
choose Export Results to KML button. This will automatically launch Google Earth, allowing
the user to zoom in and out to see a 3D projection of each bridge. Below are several
screenshots depicting the KML exporting feature.

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OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

C-24

Chapter C

Google Earth enables the user to shift the axis of the map to get viewing options of each
bridge which are not generally available. The user may also save each place to refer to it in
the future.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.3.27 HOW TO EXPORT
RESULTS TO CSV

C.3.28 HOW TO USE


THE PICTURE SEARCH

Chapter C

The last option is exporting the query results to Comma Separated Value. This is a common
format supported by many applications.
1.

In order to export the results to a CSV file, scroll to the bottom of the page where the
returned results are located and click on the button labeled Export Results to CSV.

The picture search enables users to search through every photo thats stored in the software by
date and/or file description. This can be useful a variety of ways as the query only returns bridges
and their pictures which meet the description and criteria entered. The user can save the query
and upload it again for future use as well as click on the link in the results to be directed to the
Asset Detail Page.

C-25

For example, suppose a user wanted


to find all pictures uploaded to the
st
software between May 1 and May
20th, 2011. Here is a screenshot
showing what the picture search
looks like as well as an example of
the results generated.

| State of Minnesota

SIMS Tip:

1. Start by selecting the Query tab on the navigation menu and then choose Picture Search.
The picture search will look similar to a basic query, being the tabs on the left are the same.
Choose the dates to filter the pictures appropriately, and enter a file description if looking for
something specific. Enter any criteria or additional filters to the search and then click Run
Query. The results will generate at the bottom of the page. Note: The default setting is 50
pictures per page so there may be more than 1 page generated.
Users may narrow the results by adding
additional filters to the search (i.e. entering a
Query Criteria for a particular County, City,
or Township). Users may also access the
asset details page by selecting the link from
the results.

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.3.29 HOW TO RUN A
SYSTEM REPORT

C-26

Chapter C

Minnesota DOT has a list of system reports which are predefined and can be uploaded, run, and
printed with a click of a button. These are known as system reports and they contain important
information which Minnesota users may need to use quite often. For example, a user may have
to submit a report detailing all bridges in their District which are past their due inspection date.
In this case, the user would open the system report and the software will automatically pull the
information and place it in a predesigned report. The user can choose what type of output they
want the report to be generated in (PDF, HTML, or spreadsheet) and pass it along to the next
level of management.
1.

To run a system report, begin by going to the Reports tab along the main navigation menu.
Then choose System Reports from the drop down.

2.

Next choose the Parent Asset, which would be a single District, county, city, township or the
entire state. Then scroll through the list of summary reports and click the Run Report
button next to the correct one. Remember to choose the output type of the report before
running the report. The default setting for report type is PDF.

For this example we want to run the Past Due Inspections summary report for District 4.
Here is a screenshot showing this process as well as a report PDF that is generated on the
next page.

The report will be generated in a standard PDF format which will allow the user to print or
save the report. The user will also have the ability to zoom in and out of the document as
well as jump to specific pages. Below is a screenshot of a typical system report generated.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.3.30 EXECUTIVE
DASHBOARD

C-27

Chapter C

The Executive Dashboard is a recent feature to the Manager component which allows users to
obtain summary information in visual graphs and charts concerning their bridge inventory (i.e.
percentage of bridges considered structurally deficient). This feature makes analyzing
summary data much easier and efficient compared to other means. The Executive Dashboard
provides managers with percentages, averages and other statistical analysis between counties,
cities, townships, Districts, and throughout Minnesota with a click of a button. Overall, managers
are given the ability to visualize the condition state and status of their assets with little effort.
1.

To open the Executive Dashboard, go to the Main Manager page and select the Reports
tab. Scroll down and choose the Dashboard option.

2.

The Executive Dashboard page will upload and initially show statistical information for the
entire state. However, the user may change this setting to only show summary information
pertaining to a group of bridges (i.e. county, city, township or state). Choose whatever
option is most suitable using the drop down at the top. Please note that future settings will
likely be implemented to accommodate individual Districts, counties, cities, etc.

Here is a screenshot showing section of the Executive Dashboard for County bridges:

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

Audit-reporting provides a means to see all actions and changes made via the software. The
asset and reports changes track any changes made to the assets and inspection reports while
the user access report tracks when each user accessed the system. To run an audit report,
follow the steps below.
Start by going to the Administration tab on the navigation bar. Scroll down and click on
Audit Report. The Audit Report provides two distinct types of audit reports for
managers. One is Asset and Report Changes and the second type of report is User
Access.

This is a screenshot of what the Audit Report


page looks like with the available choices. Go to
the Report Type drop down and select
between the two options.

2.

The Asset and Report Changes generates a report that tracks all changes between defined
dates, on any bridge and its reports. A manager can additionally run an audit report
specifically by inspector to see what they have changed on a report and when the change
was made. If any field is left blank then it is not used to limit results. The user can also limit
the report to certain assets and/or based on only certain objects/fields being changed. In
addition, the user can run a report which does not specify an inspector, asset, or specific
field, but looks at all changes made over a certain time period.

On the next page is an example of an audit report that was generated to show all changes
st
nd
made on every asset between May 16 and May 22 2011 by all users.

C-28

| State of Minnesota

SIMS Tip:

1.

SIMS Tip:

C.3.31 HOW TO RUN AN


AUDIT REPORT

Chapter C

The setup of this page depends on


the report type chosen.

This is only one page of the entire report. The report shows the inspectors
name, the location of the change, the type of change, the object that was
changed, the exact date, the old value, the new value, the parent asset, the
bridge number, the NBI number, the date the report was created and the
date of the inspection.

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

The User Access audit report


This is only one page of the report and the
generates a report that shows users
rest of the data can be viewed using the
name, any login or logoff actions, and
numbers at the bottom to navigate
the exact time of their login. This
between pages.
report can be run for a single
inspector/individual or it can be run to
report on all activity done between a certain dates. Below is an example of a report
generated to see all activity between May 16th and May 17th 2011:
SIMS Tip:

3.

Chapter C

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.3.32 MANAGE EMAIL
ALERTS

C.3.33 HELP AND


TECHNICAL SUPPORT
CONTACT
INFORMATION

Chapter C

The Manage Email Alerts page in SIMS allows users to upload and edit saved email notifications
as well as create new notifications via the software. The purpose of this feature is to set up
reoccurring notifications on a set schedule (i.e. once a week at 10:00 PM). You will choose the
frequency as well as the start time for each e-mail notification. Below is a screenshot of this
feature.

1.

To open/edit an existing alert, click on the link labeled load/edit. The information will
generate to the right and you will be able to edit information or disable/enable the
notification using the checkbox at the bottom. Remember to click Save.

2.

To create a new alert click on the button located above the existing alerts labeled Create
New Assets. Fill in the information accordingly. Click Save.

Multiple outlets are provided to reach us with technical difficulties or issues concerning the
software.
To report software issues or to request additional technical support, please contact David
Hedeen at 651-366-4528 or Jennifer Zink at 651-366-4573.
SIMS Support e-mail:
simshelp.dot@state.mn.us
Frequently Asked Questions and Other SIMS Information:
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/sims

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| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.4 MNDOT SIMS
COLLECTOR 5.4

Chapter C

SIMS Collector 5.4 is an easy to use software package designed to assist bridge inspectors with
completing and submitting inspection reports. Inspectors are able to generate complete,
standard reports which are concise and readily available on command. With countless tools and
enhancements available through the software, such as multiple picture uploads, the inspection
reports will be more accurate, thorough, reliable, and readily available. This software allows
inspectors to start and even complete inspection reports while in the field using a laptop/tablet
computer, or on the other hand, use the application at their desk to review, revise, or submit the
report for approval. Overall, the inspection process is streamlined, more efficient and very
effective for all personnel responsible for inspecting and managing bridges.
SIMS is composed of two primary parts. The first of these is an inspection module, commonly
referred to as Collector. The second part is the Management module, which is referred to as
the Manager.

C.4.1 REQUIREMENTS
FOR SIMS COLLECTOR
5.4

C.4.2 SIMS
FREQUENTLY ASKED
QUESTIONS

Screen resolution of at least 1024 x 768 (1280 x 960 is preferred)


A computer system with at least a 1 GHz processor with 1 GB of RAM for optimal
performance
Internet Explorer 7.0
Adobe Acrobat Reader 6.0 or higher
For the Laptop version you will need 10 Gigabytes of free disk space. This is required for the
application and basic data associated with the bridges. Since the system will be storing all of
the pictures and attachments related to the bridges, additional space may be required
depending on the number of inspections and amount of pictures.
The Minnesota Department of Transportation has created a frequently asked questions site to
assist users with questions pertaining to the SIMS software. This site provides valuable
information on everything from computer requirements to approval process to training
questions. Users can find these FAQs using the link below. Additionally, any questions
pertaining to SIMS can be directed to David Hedeen at 651-366-4528 or Jennifer Zink at 651-3664573.
FAQs: http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/sims/faq.html
1.

To login to the SIMS Collector website open your internet browser and type
https://mn.bridgeinspect.com/ .

2.

Once the login page has uploaded you may create an icon on your desktop (a shortcut to the
Collector website) which will take you directly to the login page with one click. To create a
shortcut icon follow these steps.

C.4.3 HOW TO LOGIN


TO THE SIMS
COLLECTOR WEBSITE

C-31

| State of Minnesota

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C.4.4 SIMS COLLECTOR


MAIN PAGE

C-32

Chapter C

Right click anywhere on the login page.

From the options listed, select Create Shortcut and then click OK.

3.

To enter into the SIMS Collector site, enter your Username and Password into the
appropriate box and click Login. If successful, this will take you to the Collector main page.

If for some reason there is an error with the entered username or password, a message will
appear in red at the top-left hand corner saying Username/password failed! If this
happens, try it again to see if it was a typing error. If not, contact Lisa Hartfiel at the MnDOT
Bridge Office to see if the appropriate login credentials are being used.

Please note that if a user forgets their login information they must contact Lisa Hartfiel at the
MnDOT Bridge Office to get the password reset.

Once you successfully login to the website the user will be greeted by the Collector Main page.
The Main page is the central point for the website and is particularly important for navigating and
searching purposes. The Main page has several interactive features which allow a user to locate
any inspection report within the system as well as begin, edit, and submit inspection reports.
Highlighted below are several important areas of the Main page.

The upper left hand corner contains the Minnesota DOT logo. This is a navigation tool that
will transfer the user back to the Main Page from any point in the software.

Directly below the seal is the navigation menu, which is comprised of 5 tabs; Main,
Administration, Views, GIS and Help. Each tab contains a list of sub tabs which will
direct the user to a specific page within the software.

Below the navigation menu are the progress tabs. These tabs are used to sort the inspection
reports in the system by progress level and have been found to make the entire inspection
process function in a more organized and efficient manner. SIMS has four levels of progress;
In Progress, In Progress on a Laptop, Awaiting Approval and Recently Approved.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

Chapter C

The upper right hand corner contains the quick select and view asset group. Both of these
tools are used to assist in searching for specific assets or inspection reports. The quick select
allows you to search and retrieve any asset that exists in the software. For this feature the
user does not need to know the assets full name, rather any part of the name will suffice.
Begin typing the asset name or code into the box and a list of 20 assets will appear using
alphanumeric matching. The view assets group also allows for quick searching done through
a tree search. Each section will be discussed more thoroughly in throughout this manual.

The blue highlighted section is the inspection table view. This area will display the inspection
reports and the assets data for the progress tab which is opened.

Inspection Table View:

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OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

Chapter C

Column Name

Information / Action Types Available

Inspection Date

This date is the date that the report was created. (Note
this can be different from the NBI 90 inspection date)

Asset Code

Unique code for each bridge. This determines the order


in which the bridges are shown in the summary tables as
part of the District wide summary report. If you notice
that a structure has a code that is out of order request it
be changed by the system administrator. This code is
typically the Structure Inventory and Appraisal (SI&A)
number for bridges.

Asset Name

This is the common name of the bridge. By clicking on the


name the user can view details about the bridge, view
reports for it or create a new report for the bridge.

Primary Inspector

Displays the name of the user who created the particular


report.

Asset Type

This column describes the type of structure that the


asset is: bridge, culvert, sign, or future type to be added.

Report Type

This column describes the report type for the specific


asset whether it is routine, fracture critical, pinned
assembly, etc.

NBI 7: Facility Carried by


Structure

Displays the name of the road carried by the bridge.


May be left blank depending on asset type.

NBI 6A: Featured


Intersected: Narrative

This displays the name of the road intersected by the


bridge. May be left blank depending on asset type.

Status

An inspection report can be in various states (see


separate section for full description). The reports shown
in this window will reflect the tab that was selected, In
Progress, Submitted for Approval or Recently Approved:
In Progress: An inspection report has been started and is
in progress but not completed.
In Progress on a Laptop: Inspection reports which have
been started and/or are being worked on, but have not
been synchronized.
Submitted for Approval: The inspector has deemed the
report to be complete but it has yet to be approved by
the appropriate reviewer (this can be done by Subconsultants who are working with a prime and submitting
each individual reports to the prime and/or when prime
is submitting the Preliminary Report)
Recently Approved: Both the inspector and reviewer
have deemed the report to be completed. At this point
no additional changes can be made to the report. Once
the status has been placed in Approved no
edits/changes are allowed.

- Edit Icon

C-34

| State of Minnesota

Edit Icon: After an inspection report has been created,


users may access their reports by clicking on this icon.
BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

- Action Icon

Chapter C

The Action Column is a drop down list that shows


available options that can be done to the bridge
inspection report. Like the edit column the contents can
vary based on the status of the latest inspection report.
The user clicks on the option desired for the action to
occur. The following are the common actions:
View Report PDF: Allows the inspector to see the most
recent version of the inspection report in PDF format. If
the report is in progress, the current editable report is
shown.
Submit Report for Review: The inspector has deemed
the report to be done but has yet to be approved by the
appropriate reviewer.
Delete Server Report: Allows the inspector to delete a
report that has yet to be approved. All information
entered in the report will be deleted and the inspector
will be able to start a new report if desired.
4.4.1.1.1.1 Undo Submit for Approval: The inspector
can select this option to set the status back
to In Progress.
Approve Report: Both the inspector and reviewer have
deemed the report to be completed. At this point no
additional changes can be made to the report. Once the
status has been placed in Approved, no edit changes
are allowed.
Delete Server Report: Allows the inspector to delete a
report that has yet to be approved. All information
entered in the report will be deleted and the inspector
will be able to start a new report if desired.
View Change Report: Allows the inspector or reviewer to
view an output showing all changes made in the
inspection report from the central database values.

C.4.5 CLASSIC VIEW

C-35

Users have the option of viewing assets in the software in a variety of ways. One of the ways is
the Classic View option, which allows users to filter and view a list of inspection reports on a
single page. This is useful because the filter will limit and list all sub-assets of the criteria entered.
This can make it easier for a user searching for a particular report.
1.

To open the classic view go to the Views tab on the main navigation menu and select
Classic View from the drop down.

2.

This will open a classic view page and will allow the person to use the filter to find a report.
Choose a parent asset (i.e. Benton County) as well as a criterion from the two drop down

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

boxes. Proceed to type in the value into the open text box. Then click the filter button.
Here is a screenshot of the Classic View main page with a filter entered:

Each user will be assigned a username and password to log into the software. Upon their initial
login users may change their password by following the instructions below. Additionally, users
may change their password as they please following the same instructions.
1.

Login to the software and select the Main tab at the top-left corner of the main page.
Choose the option Change Password from the drop-down list.

Here is a screenshot displaying the change password page:

2.

The page will upload displaying the username. Type the old password into the appropriate
box and then type the new password and confirm it. Then select Change Password. The
next time the user logs in they will use the new password to enter the Collector website.

SIMS Tip:

C.4.6 HOW TO CHANGE


YOUR PASSWORD

C-36

Chapter C

| State of Minnesota

Once the user has changed their password in the SIMS


Collector, their password will automatically change for
the Manager component as well. Also the password will
be updated on the laptop version upon synchronization.

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.4.7 HOW TO LOGOUT
SECURELY

Chapter C

The software does have an auto logout feature after two hours; however, the user can manually
logout of the system. There are two places in the software where users can logout securely. The
first is an option located under the Main tab and the second option is a logout link located on
the right side of the page next to the username.

Here is a screenshot showing where the logout links are located on the Main Page:

There are three ways to return to the main page at any given point in the software:
C.4.8 HOW TO
NAVIGATE BACK TO THE
MAIN PAGE

1.
2.
3.

C-37

The simplest way is by clicking on the Minnesota DOT logo in the top left hand corner.
The second way to return to the main page is by using the navigation menu. Go to the Main
tab and then click on the option called Main Page.
In order to return to the Main page from an open inspection report click on the Main
Menu tab located on the right hand side.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

C.4.9 MANAGING MY
ACCOUNT

C-38

Chapter C

SIMS Collector 5.4 has a feature which tracks users of the system and allows them to make
changes to their account information when needed. The My Account option located under the
Main tab displays a variety of information pertaining to a user including; name, address, email
address, phone numbers, organization, position, and years experienced. This provides detailed
profiles for every user of the software and helps manage certificates for each user in a common
location.
1.

To make changes or to add new certifications to your account, go to the Main tab on the
navigation bar.

2.

Select My Account from the list of options and edit where needed.

3.

Remember to click Save.

Below is a screenshot of the popup that will appear when adding a certificate to an account:

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.4.10 INSPECTION
SCHEDULE

InspectTech has integrated a fully functional calendar into the software with the purpose of
promoting organization and efficiency among users. The Inspection Schedule is found under the
Main tab drop down list on the Main Page. This feature allows users to develop a calendar
around the inspection cycle and even break down specific inspections, deadlines, and other tasks
down to the hour. The calendar may be viewed by day, week, month or timeline to give the user
maximum control and visibility of their schedule. To toggle between day, week, month or
timeline use the buttons at the top left of the calendar. Below is an example of a basic inspection
schedule:

1.

C-39

Chapter C

To add an event to the inspection schedule double click inside the calendar on the correct
date. A new page will appear and you will be able to add a subject, description, and even
choose a bridge from the filter at the bottom. In order for the appointment to be added to
the calendar you must select Save. Below is a screenshot of the input page for the calendar
where users will edit/add all information about the appointment:

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.4.11 HOW TO USE THE
QUICK SELECT

Chapter C

The Quick Select textbox is located at the top right hand corner of the main page. Quick Select is
designed to find any bridge in the software without filtering or drilling down. This is a time saving
tool which is meant to be used when the users knows some piece of information about the bridge
(i.e. name/code). Quick Select uses alphanumeric text to return up to twenty bridges that match
what has been entered into the Quick Select box. The user doesnt have to know the entire asset
name; only part of the name will suffice. Type in the information known and allow the Quick
Select to return the assets that meet the criteria.

1. Begin typing a portion of the assets name. For this example suppose a user is searching for a
bridge which has 123 somewhere its name. Type 123 into the textbox and the first 20
assets which has that combination in their name will appear as shown. Use the returned
results to find the correct bridge.

C-40

This is what the Quick Select should look like:

The drop down box can be navigated by placing the mouse in the textbox and scrolling or
using the arrows on your keyboard. Users can add more information into the quick select at
any time and it will automatically recalculate the query and return the results.

When the user locates the bridge from the returned results, they can click on it or hit the
enter key to open the bridge detail page. From here users may generate a new report or find
a variety of information pertaining to the asset. Notice the bridge selected in the drop down
is highlighted in yellow.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.4.12 HOW TO CHECK
YOUR MESSAGES

Located on the top right hand side of the main page you will find a Message section. This will tell
you how many messages are new and will have the word (view) in parenthesis which enables the
user to view their messages. In order to view your messages click on the view link. This will
direct you to a page that has your read and unread messages. Here is what the message
section on the main page looks like.

1. There is a link that directly connects the Manager site and the Collector site. Go to the
navigation bar on the main page and click on the Main tab.
2. Choose Main Manager from the list of options and this will direct the user to the Manager
Login page.

SIMS Tip:

C.4.13 HOW TO
NAVIGATE TO
BRIDGEINSPECT
MANAGER

C-41

Chapter C

| State of Minnesota

Users may be prompted to


login to the Manager site as
well.

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


1.

Directly below the Quick Select is the View Asset Group link. The View Asset Group is used
to view and locate any/all assets within a specific District, County, City, Township or other
agency. When selected this link will open a window which displays a list of all parent assets
within the entire system. When the user chooses a parent asset, a page will open containing
a sorted list of assets found in that group. From here the user may navigate through the
page to see each asset and the status of its most recent report.

This is an example of the View Asset Group link:

2.

Once the Asset Group page has loaded the user will be able to see the list of all the sub
assets under that parent. The user may scroll through the list to find a particular asset or use
a filter to narrow the results. Its important to understand that there may be a large number
of assets under some parent assets; therefore, the user may need to use the filter option to
narrow the search to make finding a specific asset more efficient.

The below screenshot is an example of the sub-assets page for District 3. Notice how the
page displays how many assets the District contains as well as divides them into the
appropriate progress level.

C.4.14 VIEW ASSET


GROUP

C-42

Chapter C

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

C.4.15 HOW TO CREATE


AN INSPECTION REPORT

C-43

Chapter C

The next screenshot shows how the filter can narrow these results. Suppose the user
wanted to find all bridges in District 3 which intersect a river. The user would choose the
field in the first drop down then type in river. Notice the results now display 135 total
bridges. From this point the user may sort the bridges, review past inspection reports,
and/or open in progress inspection reports.

Located on the bottom of the Main page is a tree search section. The tree search is one way to
locate a bridge in the software and is important because it is also one way a user can start a new
inspection report. The other methods include quick select and the view asset group link.

Below is a screenshot of the tree search section:

1.

Expand the searching options by clicking on the plus symbol next to one of the parent types
(i.e. State Bridges). The tree search will then expand to list all parents which fall under the
parent type (i.e. District 4).

2.

After the tree search is fully expanded double click on a bridge to upload its information and
to create a new inspection report. Once selected, the asset will become highlighted in the
tree search and its data will appear in the blank area in the previous screen shot. The data
will contain the bridges information as well as a Report Details section showing all past and
in progress reports.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


3.

Click the Create Report button on the right hand side of the screen to begin a new report
for that bridge, then choose the report type. The report will generate and take the user to
the inspection input forms.

The Collector main page contains every report that a user has the authority to access. This
includes reports that are in progress, reports awaiting approval and reports recently approved.
The user has the ability to go back into a report and edit the information at any point in time
before the report gets approved. Once the report is approved, it is a final, legal document for
that point in time.
1.

To edit a report start by selecting the status tab of the report, for example, the Awaiting
Approval tab. This will display all reports which are waiting to be reviewed and approved.

2.

Next, locate the report that needs editing from the list and click on the report/pencil icon
on the right hand side of the screen. This will open the report and allow the user to make
the necessary changes. Here is what the icon looks like:

SIMS Tip:

C.4.16 HOW TO EDIT A


REPORT

C-44

Chapter C

| State of Minnesota

The user can sort through all the reports quickly by selecting one of the
column headers. This orders all the reports based on that columns
data. Clicking the header again will resort the column in the opposite
direction (ascending vs. descending). When the tab is opened the
reports are automatically ordered by inspection date.

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.4.17 ENTERING DATA
INTO A REPORT

Chapter C

When a new report is generated the central database values will automatically fill the report. The
central database values are the most current information on the bridge. Usually this data comes
from the previous inspection report. All of the data which is generated via the central database
values is highlighted in yellow. When you change any central database values in the report, the
text box will change from yellow to white showing that a change has been made. This clearly
shows where changes occurred on the asset from the last inspection and helps identify any
existing trends.
There are four major sections to each report: (1) primary tabs, (2) sub-tabs, (3) right hand sidebar
and (4) the main entry window. The main entry window is where the data will be entered into
each form. The main entry window is highlighted in the below screenshot.

Basic Usage
Each field on a form can be activated and edited, (or checked if a check box is available), by
selecting the field with your mouse. Whenever a field is selected, the right-hand side bar will
display information about that particular field (refer to page 22 for more info). If the field has any
options available, such as a drop down select list, it will also be displayed when the field is
selected. Data can be typed directly into the field on the entry screen OR if a drop down list is
available, an option can be selected and the field will automatically be updated with the selected
choices. To move to the next field the user can use the Tab button on the keyboard or the
mouse. The software automatically saves the changes when the user moves on to the next field.
To move to the next form use the primary and sub-tabs across the top of the page.

C.4.18 HOW TO
NAVIGATE THROUGH
THE REPORT FORMS

To navigate through the report forms use the primary tabs across the top of the page. Each
primary tab has numerous sub-tabs which become visible when the primary tab is selected. The
opened tab will be highlighted in yellow to show that it is active. When a sub tab is selected it
will also become highlighted and will open that form in the report. Once the form is opened the
user will be able to add or edit the necessary data into the textboxes in the form.

C-45

Below is a screenshot displaying the primary tabs and sub-tabs for a bridge inspection report.
Notice the tabs are highlighted in yellow, showing they are activated:

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

1.

To begin navigating through each form, place your mouse on the field and click. In order to
move to the next field simply hit the Tab key on your keyboard or use your mouse to click
inside the next field. You may use the tab key to navigate through the entire form.

2.

Use the mouse to click the next sub-tab and move to another form. If there are no more subtabs move onto the next primary tab.
SIMS Tip:

C.4.19 THE RIGHT-HAND


SIDE BAR

C-46

Chapter C

There is no Save button when entering or editing information


within a report. The information is saved immediately when the user
moves to the next field.

The Right-Hand Side Bar is a designated area on each form which displays information that is
associated with the selected field. When a field is selected in a report the right hand side bar
becomes occupied. The sidebar opens to show the details about the field, as well as provides the
user with the ability to view any pictures, manuals, central database values, field history, all field
history, and/or other forms where that field appears on. To view or to add information to one of
these sections click on the blue labeled area in the sidebar and the section will expand. The
screenshot is displaying the right-hand side bar within the software and the table describes what
each side bar tab entails.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


Field Name

The field name is typically shown on the top of the sidebar


and is surrounded by a black box.

Details

This is the first section of the sidebar and this will show
any/all choices associated with the field (i.e. condition
ratings). The user may click on any of these choices and
the field will automaitcally update with the selected choice.
Also, the details section will display the textbox for text
fields and allows the user to type directly into the box.
The pictures/files tab allows the user to attach pictures or
other files directly to the field giving reviewers and
managers a quick reference to identify relevant problems.
There is no liimit to the amount of pictures which can be
linked to a single field; however, the picture/file must
already be attached to the report before it can be linked to
a specific field.
The manuals tab is very useful to inspectors as it will
display appropriate manual pages that are related to the
field (i.e. manual pages that explain how to rate certain
conditions). This tab eliminates the need for inspectors to
carry along with them the manual books which can get
quite heavy and be a pain to search through. The user can
double click on the manual page and a new internet
browser will open and display to the user.
This is a running log of all changes made from inspection to
inspection.
This section shows all other forms in which the field is
located.

Pictures/Files

Manuals

Field History
Other Forms

C-47

Chapter C

Here is a screenshot of a typical manual page generated from the right hand sidebar:

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.4.20 HOW TO VIEW
REPORT PDF, SUBMIT
REPORT FOR REVIEW,
DELETE SERVER REPORT
AND/OR VIEW CHANGE
REPORT

C-48

Chapter C

In order to view, submit or delete a report you must first select the status of the report. All of
these actions are associated with the In Progress reports. The user will also be able to view a
PDF report in all other stages as well.
1.

Find the correct report and click on the Hammer/Wrench icon that is on the right hand
side. When selected the entire row will become highlighted in the inspection table and a
small window will appear which allows the user to select the appropriate action. (See
screenshot below).

2.

Now choose one of the actions by clicking the bullet next to it. Once its selected the
software will immediately execute the command or ask the user if they are sure this is the
action they want to perform.

3.

If the user selects the View Report PDF option, a pop-up will appear allowing them to
generate the entire output report or choose which individual sections to view. This page also
permits the user to set the specifics about how the report will be viewed. For example, users
may put the pages in any order they want, exclude certain sections, view individual sections
apart from the entire report, select a cover page, add sections/attachments or view the
entire PDF.

Shown below is an example of what the View Report PDF action will look like:

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


4.

Submit Report for Review will move the current report in progress to the Awaiting
Approval tab, where it will stay until it gets approved by the reviewer or sent back for further
inspection/review. Upon submitting the report, users will choose the person from a drop
down to whom the report will go. Additionally, they will be able to enter comments in order
to provide any details that may be important. Users must either select Submit Report for
Review or Close to continue.

5.

Clicking on the Delete Sever Report action will delete the report from the server. It will not
delete the asset entirely or previous reports for that asset, only that specific report. When a
user selects this option a pop up will appear: The inspection report will be deleted. Click OK
to continue. This will ensure only the reports that are meant to be deleted are the ones
that actually get deleted.

SIMS Tip:

C-49

Chapter C

If a user deletes a server report by mistake they


can have the report restored by contacting
simshelp.dot@state.mn.us.

6.

The View Change Report will generate an output showing the user all changes made in the
inspection report. This identifies all the changes from three categories:
a. Fields that were updated only in the report
b. Fields that were updated in the report and in central database values
c. Fields that were updated only in central database values

Here is a screenshot of a View Change Report:

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

C.4.21 HOW TO
APPROVE A FINAL
REPORT, STOP THE
REVIEW PROCESS,
SUBMIT REPORT FOR
REVIEW, VIEW THE
AUDIT REPORT AND/OR
VIEW CHANGE REPORT

C-50

Chapter C

1.

In order to Approve a Final Report, Submit Report for Review, Stop the Review Process,
View the Audit Report or to View the Change Report, begin by selecting the Awaiting
Approval tab at the top of the main page. Note: There are also other options given such as
Delete Server Report and View Report PDF.

2.

Then locate the correct report and click on the Hammer/Wrench icon to the right of the
report. The list of options will be made available in a pop-up and the asset will become
highlighted.

Here is a screenshot showing the options available under the Awaiting Approval tab:

3.

The Stop Review Process moves the report out of the approval process and places it back
into the In Progress tab. This is executed immediately after the command is selected; it
will not ask the user for a confirmation. It is very easy to resubmit a report for approval, just
follow the steps from the previous section.

4.

When a user selects Approve Final Report the report becomes finalized and cannot be
edited unless a manager selects an Undo Approval at a later time. This will instantly move
the report into the Recently Approved tab.

5.

If a user selects Submit Report for Review they are passing the report along to another
person before the report can be approved. This is used in cases where the report has to be
reviewed by multiple parties before a finalized report is generated and stored.

6.

Finally, the View Audit Report will show the user all the changes that were made to the
report and the Change Report will show changes to that specific report since the last report
was approved.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.4.22 CONFLICT
RESOLUTION BETWEEN
REPORT VALUES AND
CENTRAL DATABASE
VALUES

Chapter C

When there is a conflict between values in a report and a bridges central database values (i.e.
different deck ratings), the software will automatically transfer users to a conflict resolution
screen before the report can be approved. This feature is to ensure the right values are used in
the report as well as stored in the database. The conflict resolution screen will highlight the
conflicts as well as allow the user to choose the correct value. Once solved the user may approve
the report by clicking the Approve Report button at the top of the page.
Below is a screenshot of the conflict resolution screen. Notice how the conflicts are
separated into two categories: Fields that were updated in the report and in the central
database values and Fields that were updated only in the central database values.

SIMS Tip:

This is an example created for the


purpose of this manual; the actual screen
may be a little different.

From this point, users can adjust the values all at once or by going through each individual
conflict. For example, users may choose to either use the central database or the report in
the drop down box at the top of the page. This will automatically solve all the conflicts by pulling
the correct value from either the report or the central database values. Going through each
conflict individually will allow the user to choose different values in different conflicts (i.e. in one
conflict they may use the report value and in another conflict the user may use the central
database value).

C-51

Here is another screenshot showing how a user may solve the conflict one at a time:

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

C-52

The Filter is a very common method for locating an asset in the software. Filtering is ideal for
users who know only certain pieces of information about an asset (i.e. part of a bridges name).
Users can type what they know into the filter and go through the narrowed results to find the
correct asset. The filter function is located on the bottom of the main page and is shown in a
screenshot below.
1.

Begin by selecting the drop down arrow next to the Filter Assets button. There will be five
filtering options which the user may choose; asset code, asset name, asset type, NBI 6A:
Feature Intersected, and NBI 7: Facility Carried by Structure. Users may filter using any one
of these options.

2.

After the filter criteria is selected, move to the next text box and type in the information
about the asset which relates to the criteria (i.e. asset name = 205). The user only has to
know some of the information for this box. For example, suppose part of the bridge number
contains the 205 in it. The user may type that into the textbox and the filter will only
return bridges with 205 in their name. After entering in the parameters click on the box
labeled Filter to execute the command. The tree search on the left will then condense to
show All Assets. Click on the plus sign next to it and the tree search will expand to show
any state Districts, counties, townships, cities, and others which contain bridges which meet
the criteria. Next click on the plus symbol next to the correct parent asset (i.e. State Bridges
and District 7).

3.

Finally, the tree will expand to show all bridges in the


selected District which have an asset code containing 205.
Click on the bridge name to open its Detail Page. The bridge
will become highlighted in the tree and its information will
appear in the open area to the right of the searching area.

| State of Minnesota

SIMS Tip:

C.4.23 HOW TO USE


THE FILTER FUNCTION

Chapter C

This is another way to


create an inspection
report in the
software.

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.4.24 HOW TO DO AN
AND /OR FILTER

Users may construct even more detailed filters in the software. Begin the same way as if doing a
basic filter, but after the user has entered the information for the first parameter click on the
small box directly below to add another parameter. This will provide two options, And or Or.
The And filter will look for the asset that contains both the first and second parameters. If the
Or option is chosen, the filter will bring back the assets which contain either the first or the
second parameters entered. The And option conducts a narrower search because the asset has
to meet both of the criteria in order to pass through the filter.
Type in the other parameter after you select either the And or Or option.

SIMS Tip:

1.

C-53

Chapter C

The user does not have to stop after entering the second
parameter (this is covered in Section C.4.25). The filter can
have up to three parameters entered.

2.

Once all the parameters are set click the Filter button to execute the filter and return the
results.

Here is a screenshot displaying this process. For this example we are searching for a bridge
which contains 300 OR 301 in its asset name. We know that the asset name contains
one of these two numbers. The filter in this case narrowed our search and saved much useful
time of scrolling through each name until we found the correct asset.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

The multiple And/Or filter allows users to conduct a search with three criteria entered. This
provides an even more in depth search of the asset set. For instance, suppose a user needed to
find all state bridges in the system which have a bridge number containing 300 or 301 and
intersects a feature containing creek. The user could run a multiple and/or filter to find those
bridges.
1.

Enter the criteria just like in the previous step. Click the Filter button to execute the
command. Notice the filters criterion is displayed so users may review the filter in one
statement.

The below screenshot is an example of a multiple criteria filter:

SIMS Tip:

C.4.25 HOW TO DO A
MULTIPLE AND/OR
FILTER

C-54

Chapter C

| State of Minnesota

There is no defined way to enter criteria into the filter.


Users may use any combination of And/Or filters when
searching for a particular asset.

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

SIMS Collector allows users to upload and organize photos, sketches, videos, and other files in
order to create a more descriptive and accurate report. In order to attach a picture/file to an
inspection report the user must open the report for that asset.
SIMS Tip:

C.4.26 HOW TO ATTACH


A SINGLE PICTURE/FILE
TO A REPORT

Chapter C

In order to link a picture to a specific field the picture must


already be attached to the report. (For instructions to link
a photo to a field please refer to page 36).

1. Once the report is open, click on the Inspection Files tab and choose the sub-tab labeled
Add New Photos/Files. There are two choices available for attaching pictures; Attach
File/Picture which is the default setting for attaching photos and Attach Multiple
Files/Pictures which enables the user to upload numerous pictures at one time. Attaching
multiple pictures/files will be covered in the next section of this manual. Here is a screenshot
of this page:

C-55

2.

Select the button labeled Browse to choose the photo/file to add to the report. This will
open a window to locate the photos/files which are saved on your computer or memory
card. Find the location of the file and click on it. To make it easier to find the pictures you
want to add, InspectTech recommends clicking on the Views button. Choose the
thumbnail icon option so the pictures are visible and you can attach the proper photo. Click
on the photo to select and choose open.

3.

Next, move to the textbox labeled Type and select the type of file you are adding. If you
are attaching a photo, the picture must be in either .jpg or .gif format. Then type in the date
of the picture/file (optional). Users may also type in a description of the photo/file or click
on the checkbox that says Set description to file name on Attach. This will enable the
software to change the pictures file name to the description already designated in your
computer upon attachment. Click Attach to attach the picture/file to the report.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

C-56

Chapter C

The above screenshot is of the picture window where the user can change the view to see
the picture more clearly to ensure the correct photo is attached.

4.

Finally, scroll down to the photo/file section to verify if the photo/file has uploaded
successfully

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

SIMS Collector provides users with the ability to attach multiple pictures/files to a report at one
time. This is the fastest and most efficient way to attach all needed pictures to a report. Instead
of attaching each picture one by one, the user can select all the pictures from the inspection
needed and attach them all at once.
1. Begin by going to the Inspection Files sub tab of an open inspection report. Select the
white tab at the top called Attach Multiple Files/Pictures.

SIMS Tip:

C.4.27 ATTACHING
MULTIPLE
FILES/PICTURES TO A
REPORT

Chapter C

In order to attach multiple photos to a report the user must have


Image Uploader ActiveX installed on their computer. This application
only needs to be installed once. The first time the software is used it
may automatically prompt the user to install Image Uploader ActiveX.
If not, simply go to the main Help menu and select Help with
Multiple Photo Upload Install.

2. The user may go through and select the pictures one by one or they can click the Select All
button at the top of the page. When the photo is selected there will be a checkmark in the
upper left hand corner of the picture to show that it has been selected and will be attached
to the report.

Here is a screenshot of how to perform the multiple picture upload.

3. Users are able to rotate the picture, preview it, or add descriptions/captions to each photo
before uploading it. Clicking on any of the three icons when selected will allow the user to
perform these tasks. To edit the description of the photo, click on the identified icon and a
textbox will open allowing the user can enter the description or click on the checkbox that
says Set description to file name on Attach. This will enable the software to change the
pictures file name to the description already designated in your computer upon attachment.
Once the description is added, click on the Save button to continue. This will create a
description of the photo when it is attached to the report. Here is a screenshot showing how
to edit/add a description.

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The checkbox to the right of the pictures (in the open white
area) will enable the software to change the pictures file name
to the description already designated in your computer upon
attachment.

4. After the user chooses the photos/files they want to attach to the report and have added the
descriptions, click on the Attach button. Then go back to the Pictures/Files sub tab and
verify all the photos/files have been attached properly to the report.

C.4.28 HOW TO LINK A


PHOTO TO A SPECIFIC
FIELD

To link a photo to a specific field, the photo must already be attached to the report. This process
is described in the previous section. The process of linking a photo to a field is done by using the
right hand sidebar located on each inspection form and is displayed in the screenshot. A user
may link an unlimited amount of photos to one field.
1. Start by opening a particular form and selecting the field. This will cause the right hand side
bar to open and populate with that fields information. Included in the right hand side bar is
a tab called Pictures/Files. Click on it and the area will expand. There will be a message
saying, There are no pictures linked to this field or there will be pictures visible which were
previously linked. Click on the Select New Picture/File button and choose a picture (from
the ones that were attached to the report) to be linked to the field.

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Here is a screenshot showing how to attach a photo to a specific field:

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2. A window will appear displaying all pictures which were attached to the report. Go through
and select the picture(s) you want to attach to the field by clicking in the checkbox next to
the picture. If there are many photos/files, type a word in the description text box that
describes the photo (i.e. bearing) and click the filter button. This will only show those
photos/files with the description word in it. After the picture(s) are selected, click on the
Attach Files button to link them to the field. From this point forward whenever that field is
selected, the picture or pictures attached will appear in the right hand sidebar.
The next page contains an example of the right hand side bar for the same field whenever
there is a picture attached.

In order to remove the photo simply click on the trash can icon right above the photo.

1.

To set a picture as the cover photo and to include it in the printed report, begin by clicking on
the Inspection Files tab and then the Add New Photos/Files sub-tab. This will open the
page containing all the photos/files that are attached to the report.

2.

Each photo attached to the report will have two choices. One is to include it in the printed
report and the second choice is set it as cover photo. Neither options is required, but can be
used to enhance the quality of the report and provide more information about the asset. The
user can select and deselect the options by using the checkboxes which are located
underneath each picture.
SIMS Tip:

C.4.29 HOW TO SET A


PICTURE AS A COVER
PHOTO AND/OR
INCLUDE A FILE IN THE
PRINTED REPORT

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Only one photo can be set as the cover photo at a time, while every
photo can be include in the printed report. The default setting
automatically includes every file attached in the printed report.

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1.

When editing an inspection report, the user has the ability to change the ordering of the
attached photos. To do so, start by opening the Inspection Files tab and e the Add New
Photos/Files sub-tab. This will open the page containing all the pictures attached to the
report. Photo ordering is relevant because the order the photos are in the software will be
the order in which they appear in the generated report.

2.

As shown in the screenshot, above each photo there is a small white box with a number
inside. This is the order in which the photos were attached to the report. The user can
change the order of the pictures by simply typing into the box the number which they want
the photo to appear. After entering the number the user must click the Change Photo
Ordering button for the changes to take effect. The software will automatically adjust every
picture and place them in the correct order.

Suppose a user wanted Photo 5 to be the first photo in the report. They would change the
number 5 to a number 1 and click the Change Photo Ordering button. The software will
immediately execute the command and picture 5 will move to the first position, and Photo 1
will have moved to the 2nd position, and so on and so forth.

C.4.30 HOW TO CHANGE


THE PHOTO ORDERING
IN A REPORT

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C.4.31 PHOTO VIEWER

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InspectTechs Photo Viewer provides users with a new method to examine inspection photos and
pictures attached to bridges more thoroughly. The Photo Viewer is a link which opens a window
containing all pictures enlarged for viewing purposes. This link can be found in the pictures/files
tab in an inspection report as well as the Pictures/Files section of the Asset Detail Page of the
Manager component of the software.
1.

The user must have an inspection report open to open the Photo Viewer page. Go to the
Inspection Files tab and then the Add New Photos/Files sub-tab. Scroll down to the
photos attached to the report and click on the link labeled Photo Viewer. Shown in the
screenshot below.

2.

This link will open a window which displays all pictures attached to the report or to the bridge
(Manager Component). From here the user can scroll through the list of photos to get a
closer look using their mouse or the Previous / Next buttons at the bottom of the window.
The selected picture is highlighted in blue on the left hand side. Each picture contains a
description, date and file name. Below is a screenshot of the window displaying the Photo
Viewer.

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C.4.32 FILE LIST

The file list link can be found right next to the Photo Viewer link on the pictures page. The file
list is another way to identify all files attached to a report without having to look through each
picture/file. Instead, the user can select this link and a list of all files will appear with their name,
any descriptions and the original order in which they were uploaded. Additionally, this link allows
users to re-order the files and save the new list. Below is a screenshot of the File List window
which appears after selecting the link.

1.

First select and open the inspection report. Then click on the Tabs tab. This will open a
page containing all available tabs associated with the particular assets inspection report.
The sub-tabs are grouped according to the main tabs they fall under. If the sub-tab is
included in the report, then there will be a checkmark next to that sub-tabs name.

SIMS Tip:

C.4.33 HOW TO EDIT


WHICH TABS APPEAR IN
A REPORT

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Chapter C

The default setting is to include every sub-tab in the


report. Different asset types and inspection types
will have different sub-tabs included.

2.

To exclude a particular sub-tab from a report just uncheck the box next to the sub-tabs
name.

Below is an example of what the Tabs tab should look like. The screenshot is displaying
only a few of the many sub-tabs. Notice how the sub-tabs are grouped according to the main
tab they fall under.

3.

Once a sub-tab is unchecked, it will remain hidden the next time a new report is created.
Sub-tabs can be unhidden at any time by re-checking the checkbox under the Tabs tab.

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C.4.34 HOW TO
MANAGE THE REPORT
SECTIONS OF A REPORT

Chapter C

1.

Before a user can edit the sections of the report they must first choose which report these
changes will affect. To begin, click the Edit Report icon for the correct inspection report.

2.

Click on the Print Report tab. This will open a page containing all report sections associated
with that report and will allow the user to manage what the report will look like when its
printed and what sections will be included/excluded in the final report.

3.

This page will show all the report sections along with many options; such as Add
Sections/PDF Attachments, View PDF, Remove Section, Order, Section Name,
View, Print, Include in Table of Contents, Insert Cover Page Before Section, and Save
Order Changes. Here is an example of what the Print Report sub-tab should look like:

5. If the user wishes to exclude a particular report section click


on the checkbox next to the section under the Remove
Section column. This will exclude this section from the
report.

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SIMS Tip:

4. From this point there are several options available. One, the user can view each report
section individually by selecting the View link next to each sections name. The user can
view the entire report in PDF format by clicking on the View PDF button. By checking a
box, the user can include or exclude a section from the entire report, from printing, and/or
from the table of contents. Also, the users are able to re-order the sections. Just change the
section number to a different order by clicking in the box and typing in the number, the rest
will adjust accordingly. Remember to click Save Order Changes for the change to take
effect.
To add the
section back into
the report follow
step number 7.

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SIMS Tip:

6. If a standard report section has been previously excluded from the report it can be added
back quite easily. Click on the Add Sections/PDF Attachment button and open the Add
Report Section by clicking the expand button. This will display all standard sections which
are not included in the report. Select the ones to add again and click Update. Now close
out of the window and the sections will be added back into the report.

To add a PDF attachment or custom sections added to any of the previous asset reports, to
the report click on the Add Sections/PDF Attachment button and find the PDF file by using
the Browse button. Click Upload and the attachment will be added to the report.

SIMS Tip:

7.

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When the section is included again it will be at the


bottom of the report, so you may want to reorder the
sections to the correct order. Below is a screenshot of
this process.

| State of Minnesota

Name the new attachment by using the name textbox.


The default settings for the new attachment are Print,
Show Page Number, and Included in TOC. These settings
can be changed using the checkboxes when the file is
uploaded.

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C.4.35 HOW TO VIEW
THE INSPECTION
REPORT INFORMATION

Located under the Enter Inspection main tab is the Inspection Info sub tab which provides
users with all necessary and pertinent information pertaining to the inspection and generation of
the report. The information included on this form contains items such as the creation date,
inspection date, the type of inspection, the owner of the asset, available users, assigned users,
supplementary inspection information, and report history. This tab provides an easy, convenient
way for all levels of management to view the inspection information.

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Here are two screenshots displaying different sections of the Inspection Info sub-tab:

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C.4.36 INSPECTION
GENERAL NOTES

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Chapter C

SIMS Collector has a general notes tab in which users may take any general notes about the
inspection, the condition of the bridge, or any other relevant information which may help in
future inspections. When the tab is selected the user will be met with a rich text document,
which functions just like a Word document. There is no limit to the amount of the text which can
be entered. Here is an example of the general notes section for a report.

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C.4.37 HOW TO VIEW
THE NBI CALCULATIONS
FROM AN INSPECTION
REPORT

1. To view the National Bridge Inventory (NBI) calculations start by clicking on the edit report
icon for the correct asset. Then open the SI&A tab and choose the NBI Calcs sub-tab.
2. A new page will generate and all the NBI calculations are given. Notice that there are three
NBI fields along with their values at the top of the page. These are fields that are directly
linked from the forms and are used to calculate the sufficiency ratings and determine the
classification of the asset.
The screenshot below makes up only a portion of the NBI Calcs sub-tab. It displays the
calculations portions which calculate the Sufficiency Rating and the Structural and Functional
Classification as well as part of how the ratings were calculated. There are other sections
part of the NBI Calcs tab which are not displayed in this manual.

SIMS Tip:

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Official values are only obtained


via the Federal Highway
Administration from the annual
submission.

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C.4.38 HOW TO VIEW
PAST INSPECTION
REPORTS

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Chapter C

The SIMS Collector software keeps all historical reports and data within its database as far back as
permitting. These past reports are useful in multiple ways and are a valuable source of
information to asset owners. The software allows the inspector to use the last inspection report
data to pre-populate many of the reporting fields when starting a new inspection report. Where
applicable, all fields are filled in and highlighted yellow. When the field is edited the color
changes to white, providing a visual representation that something has changed from the last
inspection. This not only saves time by not having to type in repetitive data from year to year,
but it also points out the changes from the previous inspection report and helps spot any trends
occurring.
1.

To view a past inspection report begin by going to the Main page of the software and using
one of the search functions (quick select, tree search, or filter) to locate the desired asset.

2.

Once located, open the bridge detail page by clicking on the assets name. Scroll down to the
Report Details section and find the Approved Reports heading. Under the Approved
Reports you will see a hammer/wrench symbol (tools icon), click on it and select the View
Report PDF or View Report Form View action to view that particular report.

This is an example of what the screen should look like. Click the radio button next to one of
the options and a window will open which allows the user to choose how to view the PDF
report. The View Report PDF option will open a PDF of the approved report, whereas the
View Report Form View option will open the report as if it were an in progress inspection
report, but its not editable.

3.

If a user selects the Report PDF option they will be met with a window such as the one
below which allows the user to control how to view the report. For instance, suppose a user
wanted to view only the SI&A data for the report in 2010, they can choose the report section
that has that data in it and view/print that particular section. As shown in the screenshot,
there are numerous ways to manipulate the PDF to get the information desired, including
exclude sections, re-order the sections, edit section name, view one section at a time, print,
manage what sections are in the table of contents, and insert cover page before section.

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After the PDF viewing preferences are selected, click on the View PDF button at the top and
find the information being sought.
SIMS Tip:

4.

C.4.39 HOW TO EDIT A


PHOTO USING
INSPECTTECHS IMAGE
EDITOR

Chapter C

Past inspection reports prior to the SIMS software


implementation can be scanned in and uploaded to
the Manager site. These past reports are accessible
via the Manager component.

1.

To begin, locate the desired bridge and its inspection report then click on the Edit Report
icon. When the report is generated, click on the Inspection Files sub tab.

2.

Now, the user will be able to see all the photos attached to the inspection report. Find the
picture to be edited or attach a new photo. Click on the Edit Image icon located
underneath the picture. It is highlighted in the screenshot below.

3. Clicking on the highlighted icon in the screenshot will take you directly to the Image Editor.

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The picture will automatically upload into the editor and be placed on a canvas. From this
point, the user can begin editing or adding graphics to the photo.

Here is a screenshot of the Image Editor when it is first opened. There are five main
buttons across the top which are outlined in red in the screenshot. These options are Edit,
View, Modify, Pages and Full Screen. The Edit option allows users to perform basic
functions, such as Undo, Redo, Cut, Paste, Copy, and Delete. The View option allows users
to add a grid to the canvas or gives them access to an additional toolbox. Modifying an
image permits the user to change specific characteristics of the picture, such as its contrast
and brightness. The Modify button also enables the user to crop the image to the
appropriate size or to eliminate unwanted objects/background in the photo. Finally, the
Modify button has a reset modifications button in case you make changes to the
modifications that are unwanted. The Full Screen button takes the user to an enlarged
version of the screen. This is so the user can see the picture better and make provisions with
greater accuracy.

4. To begin editing select one of the tool options on the left hand side of the screen (section

highlighted in blue) or select Edit, View, or Modify. To see which tools are which, the
user can place the mouse over the icon and the name will appear. The tools allow users to
add boxes, circles, lines, text, and hand drawings to the picture in the form of layers. These
layers are controlled on by the two sections on the right hand side of the screen (highlighted
in yellow): Layer Properties and Layer Templates.

5. Suppose a user wanted to add a box around an important portion of a bridge and also add
some text describing what the box was displaying. When the user adds these two features to
the photo, they become their own layer and are shown in the Layers section. When a layer
is selected its properties are visible in the Layer Properties section. A user can edit those
properties in this section which will change the way the object is viewed in the photo.

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Here is a screenshot showing the layers and their properties. Notice how the text layer is

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Chapter C

highlighted and how the text layer properties are shown in the Layer Properties section. If
you wanted to see the layer properties for the box all you would have to do is click on the
Rectangle layer in the Layers section.

6. Suppose the user wanted to move the text closer to the rectangle, they could go into the

properties section and adjust the X, Y coordinates by using the up and down arrows. If
they did not want the text in the photo anymore all they would have to do is select the text
layer and click the delete button. Users can also hide a layer by clicking on the little eye
icon in the Layers section. This will toggle the layer on and off, giving the user the ability to
focus on one layer at a time.

There is another way to move a text layer. The arrow icon, right above the picture, will
allow you to grab a layer and move it anywhere on the canvas. This is quicker than using the
X, Y coordinates.

7. Once a user is done making modifications and editing the photo, they have two options,

SIMS Tip:

Save Image or Exit without saving. If the user saves the image it will take them back to
the Pics/Files page. The new image will not be visible until the user clicks on the green
refresh button underneath the image. If the user selects Exit without saving it will also take
them back to the Pics/Files page, but the photo will remain unmodified.

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The best way to learn how to use the


image editor is to practice. The more
you use it the easier it becomes to
operate.

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Audit-reporting provides a means to see all actions and changes made via the software. The two
types of audit reports account for any changes made in the software or by users access
(login/outs). The asset and reports changes track any changes made to the assets and
inspection reports. The user access tracks when each user accessed the system. To run an
audit report, follow the steps below.
1.

Start by selecting the Administrative tab and select Audit Reports. This will direct the
user to a new page where he or she can build the audit report.

2.

Choose which type of audit report to generate using the drop down, Asset and Report
Changes or User Access. Also, select the date range relevant to the report and choose the
Name of the Inspector. If you are running an asset and report changes report then you
may want to enter the Asset Name Contains or Changed Object Contains to narrow the
results.
SIMS Tip:

C.4.40 HOW TO RUN AN


AUDIT REPORT

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Chapter C

These three categories are optional


and do not need to be filled out to
run the report.

3.

When all the information is entered click the Run Report button. The results will generate
at the bottom of the page.

Here is a screenshot displaying this process:

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C.4.41 MANAGE EMAIL
ALERTS

The Manage Email Alerts page in SIMS allows users to upload and edit saved email notifications
as well as create new notifications via the software. The purpose of this feature is to set up
reoccurring notifications to particular users on a set schedule (i.e. once a week at 10:00 PM). You
will choose which users receive the notification as well as the frequency and start time. Below is a
screenshot of this feature:

1.

To open/edit an existing alert click on the link labeled load/edit. The information will
generate to the right and you will be able to edit information or disable/enable the
notification using the checkbox at the bottom. Remember to click Save.

2.

To create a new alert click on the button located above the existing alerts labeled Create
New Assets. Fill in the information accordingly. Click Save.

SIMS Collector has an interactive GIS mapping feature which allows users to locate any bridge in
the entire system or look up groups of bridges with just a click of a button.
1.

Begin by clicking on the GIS tab on the Main page navigation bar. Then, click on the Main
Map option. This will open a new page where the user can use the filter to view assets in a
particular District, county, city, or township on the interactive map.

2.

To view the bridges in a particular District, click inside the Show Assets In box and use the
tree search to drill down to the correct District. Click the Show Assets button to generate
the interactive map. This will return all bridges in that District; however, the user is able to
narrow their search down further using the filter function and the checkboxes located
underneath the search bar.

3.

To narrow the results start by selecting the textbox labeled by. This will provide a list of
criteria which you can use to limit the bridges returned. Inside the last textbox type in the
criteria to limit the search. This will only return bridges on the map which meets the criteria
entered. Click Show Assets to generate the map when you are finished.

SIMS Tip:

C.4.42 HOW TO USE


THE GIS MAP

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Entering criteria into the GIS is not a necessary


step; however, there is a limit to the number of
assets the GIS Map will return so in some
instances you will have to narrow your search.

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Chapter C

Here is a screenshot of the GIS search screen. Suppose a user wanted to view only bridges
located in District 3. Use the drop down box to choose the parent asset (shown in
screenshot) and click Show Assets. The second screenshot is of the interactive map that
was generated by the searching criteria entered.

4.

Notice that every bridge in the County is marked with a red pin and the total number of
bridges returned is given in the top left hand corner. Users are able to zoom into and out of
the map to get the best view using the scale on the left hand side of the page or by double
clicking inside the map. Users also have the ability to view the map in four distinct ways: map
view, satellite view, hybrid view or terrain view. When a user places their mouse over a
single pin (bridge) and clicks, the bridges information will generate on the right hand side of
the page. This information section is broken down into two tabs. The first tab automatically
opens when a bridge is selected and it contains general information about the bridge as well
as a link to the bridges detail page and also a button which will focus the map solely on that
bridge. The second tab is labeled Street View and allows the user to view the bridge as if
they were driving across/under the bridge in a vehicle. This Street View feature allows
viewing from other streets as well, such as the ones that intersect and pass underneath the
bridge. Not all bridges will have street view enabled.

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

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Screenshot of the same map above. Its zoomed in and in hybrid view to provide a different
look.

5.

A user is able to print the map. To do so click on the Print link at the top of the page right
above the different views. This will generate a new page and will expand the picture.
Choose the correct printer then click print.

6.

When necessary the user is able to narrow the results even more by using the search bars at
the top of the page. Suppose a user needed a map of the county, but it will only display the
bridges which intersect a creek. To do so, click the drop down box for by and choose
Feature Intersected. Then, in the box next to it type the word creek and click on Show
Assets. Now the map will only show those assets in the county which meet the criteria.

Below is a screenshot only showing bridges in Blue Earth County which have creek in their
name. Notice the count now displays 30, instead of the original 134. Also, the map has been
increased enough to see specific roads and creeks. This will allow inspectors to pinpoint the
exact location of any asset. Again, the user can zoom the map closer to view every road and
surrounding features more in-depth.

SIMS Tip:

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| State of Minnesota

If a bridge coordinate is incorrect in the map (i.e. the pin is located to the left/ right
of the actual bridge), the user may correct the error in the GIS map as well. The
user can grab the pin and move it to the correct spot and drop it into place. The
software will prompt the user with an acknowledgement warning. If the user
selects yes, the position change is accepted and the new GPS coordinates are
changed and recorded throughout the software. This is not available to all users.

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7.

C.4.43 HELP AND


TECHNICAL SUPPORT
CONTRACT
INFORMATION

Chapter C

Overall the GIS map is a very effective and useful tool to locate any bridge. The ability to
view and print customized maps using searching criteria is a powerful feature which can
serve many purposes. Here is a screenshot of what happens when you click the Zoom to
Bridge button on the bottom right hand corner. It focuses the map directly over the bridge
to give the user a clear look at the surroundings and exact location of the bridge. Notice the
Street View tab is opened on the right and shows unparallel views from all angles of the
bridge.

Multiple outlets are provided to reach us with technical difficulties or issues concerning the
software.

To report software issues or to request additional technical support, please


contact David Hedeen at 651-366-4528 or Jennifer Zink at 651-366-4573.
SIMS Support e-mail:
simshelp.dot@state.mn.us
Frequently Asked Questions and Other SIMS Information:

http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/bridgereports/index.html

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C.5 BRIDGEINSPECT
COLLECTOR LAPTOP
MANUAL

C.5.1 INSTALLATION
HELP

C.5.2 REQUIREMENTS
FOR BRIDGEINSPECTTM
COLLECTOR LAPTOP

C.5.3 INSTALLING THE


LAPTOP COMPONENT

Chapter C

The laptop version of BridgeInspectTM Collector allows inspections to be started, picked up,
completed, and even submitted for approval from the inspection site. The laptop component
runs without an Internet connection and is structured identical to the online version of the
software. The laptop version provides users with various tools such as drop down menus,
integrated inspection manuals, and past inspection report data to generate quality inspections
more efficiently and with reduced errors. The laptop component allows inspectors to focus on
their core competency, inspecting assets, rather than transferring data from notepads to a word
processed documents over and over again. This manual will take users through the steps needed
TM
to properly install BridgeInspect Collector on a laptop or tablet computer, or if already installed,
this manual will show users how to update the software to a higher version.
Any problems or issues with completing an installation or upgrade of the software can be
reported to simshelp.dot@state.mn.us or by calling Jennifer Zink at the MnDOT Bridge Office at
651-366-4573.

Screen resolution of at least 1024 x 768 (1280 x 960 is preferred).


A computer system with at least a 1 GHz processor with 1 GB of RAM for optimal
performance.
Adobe Acrobat Reader 6.0 or higher.
10 Gigabytes of free disk space. This is required for the application and basic data associated
with the bridges.

1. The first task is to download a self-extracting file, which contains the database files needed to
install the laptop version. Contact simshelp.dot@state.mn.us to obtain the FTP address, and
the username and password needed to access the FTP site.
Once the file has been downloaded and extracted proceed to Step 2.
2.

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Click Next when the BridgeInspect Collector Setup Wizard window is displayed.

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Chapter C

3. Key in the Client ID, User Name, and Password as mndot. Click Next.

4. Select the Folder in which to install the BridgeInspect Collector software. By default, the
computer will designate a folder. The software must be installed in a folder that allows the
application to write to it. Click Next.

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OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

Chapter C

5. Click Next to start the installation.

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6.

Upon a successful installation, the following will display. Click Close.

7.

To open the application, double click on the BridgeInspect Collector icon now accessible on
the desktop. When prompted, use your SIMS username and password to login to the
BridgeInspectTM Collector.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)


C.5.4 UPDATE AND
SYNCHRONIZATION

Chapter C

Unless there is a major change to the core software, there is no need to go through the entire
installation process. Simply download any updates directly from the application.

When and why do I update the Laptop Version?


The laptop version is a snapshot of the online database and any of those reports you have
permissions to access. As data and code is changed it is important that users have the most
up to date information so that a quality inspection can be performed.
InspectTech recommends Laptop users Update at a minimum of once a week. This process
updates any code, script, and application changes; it may take 2-10 minutes depending on
the amount of data transferred.

When and why do I synchronize the Laptop Version?


As previously noted, the laptop version is a snapshot of the online database. If assets values
and any of the assets report values change online then the laptop must be synchronized to
capture those changes. If assets values and any of the assets report values change on the
laptop then the laptop must be synchronized to send those changes online.
InspectTech recommends Laptop users Synchronize their laptop version once a day or as
often as a stable Internet connection is established. This process updates report values as
well as asset values; it may take 5-30 minutes depending on the amount of data transferred.

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OCTOBER 2014 Structure Information Management System (SIMS)

Chapter C

If you receive an error when trying to synchronize, follow these steps:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Click on the Start menu, then click Control Panel.


Click on Administrative Tools.
Click on Services.
Double click on Distributed Transaction Coordinator.
In the General tab, be sure that the Startup Type is selected as Automatic.
Then click on the Start menu again.
Click Run.
In Open, enter: cmd
Click OK.
An MSDOS prompt screen with then open. Enter: msdtc -install
Press the Enter key. Next enter: net start msdtc
Press the Enter key.

When and why do I Reset from the Update menu?


The reset options from the update menu are much longer processes than the
synchronization and update. This is caused by the amount of data transferred.
The Reset Program Data gets any database files (including code, scripts, and actual files)
needed to run the application. This also resets all non-report data including manual pages
located on the Right Hand Sidebar. This process may take 30 minutes or more to run.
The Reset Program Data with Current Values does the same as Reset Program Data yet
includes a step where it reset all current values from the online server.
InspectTech recommends Laptop users do not use these options unless it has been
recommended by a system administrator or an InspectTech operative.

C.5.5 MOVE A REPORT


FROM THE LAPTOP
VERSION TO THE
ONLINE VERSION

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Find the correct report and click on the Hammer/Wrench icon that is on the right hand side.
Choose the Upload Report action by clicking the bullet next to it.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

Bridge and Structure


Inspection Program
ogram Manual

Chapter D

C ORD IN G AND
O DING G U I DE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
D.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................1
D.2 ABBREVIATIONS..............................................................................................................................1
D.3 MNDOT STRUCTURE INVENTORY REPORT ITEMS ..................................................................... 2
D.4 NBI ITEMS .........................................................................................................................................9
D.5 MNDOT STRUCTURE INVENTORY REPORT FORM (SAMPLE) ................................................. 12
D.6 MNDOT INVENTORY DATA ENTRY IN SIMS................................................................................ 13
D.7 MNDOT STRUCTURE INVENTORY REPORT ............................................................................... 14
D.7.1 GENERAL INFORMATION .....................................................................................................14
D.7.1.1 Bridge ID ....................................................................................................................14
D.7.1.1.1 Current Bridge Numbering System ............................................................ 14
D.7.1.1.2 Past Bridge Numbering System ................................................................. 15
D.7.1.2 Facility Carried By Structure ......................................................................................15
D.7.1.3 Feature Intersected ....................................................................................................15
D.7.1.4 Bridge Name ..............................................................................................................15
D.7.1.5 Agency Bridge Number ..............................................................................................15
D.7.1.6 State/Region ..............................................................................................................16
D.7.1.7 District ........................................................................................................................17
D.7.1.8 County .......................................................................................................................18
D.7.1.9 Place Code ................................................................................................................20
D.7.1.10 Descriptive Location ................................................................................................20
D.7.1.11 Latitude ....................................................................................................................20
D.7.1.12 Longitude .................................................................................................................21
D.7.1.13 Custodian .................................................................................................................21
D.7.1.14 Owner ......................................................................................................................22
D.7.1.15 Year Built .................................................................................................................22
D.7.1.16 Historic Significance ................................................................................................22
D.7.1.17 Border Bridge ...........................................................................................................23
D.7.1.17.1 Border State Region ................................................................................ 23
D.7.1.17.2 Border State Percentage ......................................................................... 23
D.7.1.18 Border Bridge Structure Number .............................................................................23
D.7.1.19 Year Reconstructed .................................................................................................24
D.7.1.20 Township .................................................................................................................24
D.7.1.21 Builder ID .................................................................................................................24
D.7.1.22 Bridge Crew Number ...............................................................................................25
D.7.1.23 Maintenance Area ....................................................................................................26
D.7.1.24 Section, Township, Range .......................................................................................27
D.7.1.25 BMU Agreement Number ........................................................................................28
D.7.1.26 MN Year Reconstructed ..........................................................................................28
D.7.1.27 Bridge Plan Location ................................................................................................28
D.7.1.28 City...........................................................................................................................28
D.7.1.29 Replacement Structure ............................................................................................28
D.7.1.30 UTM-X .....................................................................................................................28
D.7.1.31 UTM-Y .....................................................................................................................28

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D-I

D.7.1.32 Railroad Abandoned Date .......................................................................................29


D.7.1.33 Date Opened to Traffic ............................................................................................29
D.7.1.34 Legislative District ....................................................................................................29
D.7.1.35 On-Off System .........................................................................................................29
D.7.1.36 Maintenance Agreement ..........................................................................................29
D.7.2 STRUCTURE INFORMATION ................................................................................................30
D.7.2.1 Total Lanes Under Structure ......................................................................................30
D.7.2.2 Bridge Median Type ...................................................................................................30
D.7.2.3 Skew Angle ................................................................................................................30
D.7.2.4 Direction of Skew .......................................................................................................31
D.7.2.5 Structure Flared .........................................................................................................31
D.7.2.6 Service On Bridge ......................................................................................................32
D.7.2.7 Service Under Bridge .................................................................................................32
D.7.2.8 Main Span Type (Material) ........................................................................................33
D.7.2.9 Main Span Type (Design) ..........................................................................................33
D.7.2.10 Approach Span Type (Material) ...............................................................................34
D.7.2.11 Approach Span Type (Design) ................................................................................34
D.7.2.12 Number of Main Spans ............................................................................................34
D.7.2.13 Number of Approach Spans ....................................................................................34
D.7.2.14 Total Number of Spans ............................................................................................34
D.7.2.15 Max Span Length .....................................................................................................34
D.7.2.16 Structure Length ......................................................................................................35
D.7.2.17 Curb or Sidewalk Width L/R ..................................................................................37
D.7.2.18 Deck Width ..............................................................................................................39
D.7.2.19 Parallel Structure Designation .................................................................................39
D.7.2.20 Temporary Status ....................................................................................................40
D.7.2.21 Deck Material ...........................................................................................................41
D.7.2.22 Wearing Surface Type .............................................................................................41
D.7.2.23 Deck Membrane Type .............................................................................................42
D.7.2.24 Deck Rebar Protection .............................................................................................43
D.7.2.25 NBIS Bridge Length .................................................................................................44
D.7.2.26 Cantilever ID ............................................................................................................44
D.7.2.27 Culvert Type ............................................................................................................45
D.7.2.28 Culvert Barrel Length ...............................................................................................46
D.7.2.29 Wearing Surface Installation Year ...........................................................................46
D.7.2.30 Deck Rebar Installation Year ...................................................................................46
D.7.2.31 Abutment Foundation Material .................................................................................47
D.7.2.32 Abutment Foundation Type .....................................................................................47
D.7.2.33 Pier Foundation Material ..........................................................................................49
D.7.2.34 Pier Foundation Type ..............................................................................................49
D.7.2.35 Wearing Course/Fill Depth .......................................................................................50
D.7.2.36 MN Actual Fill Depth ................................................................................................50
D.7.2.37 Roadway Area (Curb-to-Curb) .................................................................................50
D.7.2.38 Curb Height (Lt and Rt) ............................................................................................51
D.7.2.39 Railing Codes (Lt and Rt) ........................................................................................51
D.7.2.40 Curved Bridge ..........................................................................................................68
D.7.2.41 Bifurcated.................................................................................................................68
D.7.2.42 Radial Supports .......................................................................................................68

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D-II

D.7.2.43 Two-Girder Bridge ...................................................................................................68


D.7.2.44 Degree of Curvature ................................................................................................68
D.7.2.45 Beam Type (Main Span) ..........................................................................................68
D.7.2.46 Beam Height (Main Span) .......................................................................................68
D.7.2.47 Redundant Railroad Bridge .....................................................................................69
D.7.2.48 Railroad Vertical Underclearance ............................................................................69
D.7.2.49 Bird Nests ................................................................................................................69
D.7.2.50 Median On Structure ................................................................................................69
D.7.2.51 Pedestrian Fencing ..................................................................................................69
D.7.2.52 MN Main Span Material ...........................................................................................70
D.7.2.53 MN Main Span Design .............................................................................................71
D.7.2.54 Main Span Detail Definition .....................................................................................73
D.7.2.55 MN Approach Span Material ....................................................................................74
D.7.2.56 MN Approach Span Design .....................................................................................74
D.7.2.57 Approach Span Detail Definition ..............................................................................74
D.7.2.58 Total Length .............................................................................................................74
D.7.2.59 Deck Area (Out-to-Out) ............................................................................................74
D.7.2.60 MN Temporary Status ..............................................................................................75
D.7.2.61 Field Connection ID .................................................................................................75
D.7.2.62 Hybrid Girder ...........................................................................................................76
D.7.2.63 Multiple Steel Grades ..............................................................................................76
D.7.2.64 Steel Specification ...................................................................................................76
D.7.2.65 Steel Yield Stress 1 .................................................................................................76
D.7.2.66 Steel Yield Stress 2 .................................................................................................76
D.7.2.67 Girder Connection Type ...........................................................................................76
D.7.2.68 Girder Depth (Main Span) ........................................................................................77
D.7.2.69 Girder Depth (Approach Span) ................................................................................77
D.7.2.70 Girder Depth Type (Main Span) ...............................................................................77
D.7.2.71 Number of Beam Lines (Main Span) .......................................................................77
D.7.2.72 Number of Beam Lines (Approach Span) ................................................................77
D.7.2.73 Ornamental Metal Railing ........................................................................................77
D.7.2.74 Metal Traffic Railing .................................................................................................77
D.7.2.75 Design Specification Year ........................................................................................77
D.7.3 INSPECTION INFORMATION ................................................................................................78
D.7.3.1 Status.........................................................................................................................78
D.7.3.2 Routine Inspection Date ............................................................................................79
D.7.3.3 Routine Inspection Frequency ...................................................................................79
D.7.3.4 Pier or Abutment Protection .......................................................................................81
D.7.3.5 Inspector Name .........................................................................................................81
D.7.3.6 Userkey ......................................................................................................................82
D.7.3.7 Deficient Status ..........................................................................................................82
D.7.3.7.1 Unofficial Structurally Deficient .................................................................. 83
D.7.3.7.2 Unofficial Functionally Obsolete................................................................. 84
D.7.3.8 Unofficial Sufficiency Rating ......................................................................................85
D.7.3.9 Fracture Critical Inspection ........................................................................................86
D.7.3.10 Underwater Inspection .............................................................................................87
D.7.3.11 Pinned Assembly Inspection ....................................................................................88
D.7.3.12 Special Feature ........................................................................................................88

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D-III

D.7.4 NBI CONDITION RATINGS ....................................................................................................89


D.7.4.1 Deck Condition Code .................................................................................................89
D.7.4.2 Unsound Deck Percentage ........................................................................................91
D.7.4.3 Superstructure Condition Code .................................................................................92
D.7.4.4 Substructure Condition Code .....................................................................................94
D.7.4.5 Channel & Channel Protection Condition Code .........................................................95
D.7.4.6 Culvert Condition Code ..............................................................................................97
D.7.5 NBI APPRAISAL RATINGS ....................................................................................................98
D.7.5.1 Safety Features .........................................................................................................99
D.7.5.2 Bridge Railing ..........................................................................................................100
D.7.5.3 Guardrail Requirements ...........................................................................................101
D.7.5.3.1 For Bridges ..............................................................................................101
D.7.5.3.2 For Culverts .............................................................................................102
D.7.5.4 Railing Transitions ...................................................................................................104
D.7.5.4.1 Guardrail Transition Checklist .................................................................. 105
D.7.5.4.2 Guardrail Transition Details ..................................................................... 105
D.7.5.5 Approach Guardrail ..................................................................................................110
D.7.5.5.1 Bridge Approach Guardrail Layouts & Length Requirements .................. 111
D.7.5.5.2 Structural Plate-Beam (W-Beam) Guardrail .......................................... 112
D.7.5.6 Approach Guardrail Ends ........................................................................................114
D.7.5.6.1 Twisted End Treatments .......................................................................... 115
D.7.5.6.2 Guardrail Terminals and Crash Cushions (Selection Flow Chart) ........... 116
D.7.5.6.3 Guardrail Terminals and Crash Cushions (Identification Table) .............. 118
D.7.5.7 Structural Evaluation ................................................................................................126
D.7.5.8 Deck Geometry ........................................................................................................128
D.7.5.9 Undeclearances .......................................................................................................132
D.7.5.10 Waterway Adequacy ..............................................................................................134
D.7.5.11 Approach Alignment ..............................................................................................136
D.7.6 LOAD RATINGS ...................................................................................................................138
D.7.6.1 Design Loading ........................................................................................................138
D.7.6.2 Method Used to Determine Operating Rating ..........................................................139
D.7.6.3 Operating Rating ......................................................................................................140
D.7.6.4 Method Used to Determine Inventory Rating ...........................................................140
D.7.6.5 Inventory Rating .......................................................................................................140
D.7.6.6 Bridge Posting .........................................................................................................141
D.7.6.7 MN Operating Rating Type ......................................................................................142
D.7.6.8 MN Operating Rating ...............................................................................................142
D.7.6.9 MN Inventory Rating Type .......................................................................................142
D.7.6.10 MN Inventory Rating ..............................................................................................143
D.7.6.11 Posting ...................................................................................................................143
D.7.6.12 Rating Date ............................................................................................................145
D.7.6.13 Raters Initials ........................................................................................................145
D.7.6.14 MnDOT Permit Codes ...........................................................................................146
D.7.6.14.1 Permit Code A .......................................................................................146
D.7.6.14.2 Permit Code B .......................................................................................147
D.7.6.14.3 Permit Code C .......................................................................................147
D.7.6.15 Load Rating Review Date ......................................................................................147
D.7.6.16 Load Rating Review Notes ....................................................................................147
D.7.7 PAINT SYSTEM INFORMATION ..........................................................................................148
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D-IV

D.7.7.1 Year Painted ............................................................................................................148


D.7.7.2 Unsound Paint Percentage ......................................................................................148
D.7.7.3 Painted Area ............................................................................................................148
D.7.7.4 Primer Type .............................................................................................................149
D.7.7.5 Finish Type ..............................................................................................................150
D.7.7.5.1 Paint Specifications..................................................................................151
D.7.7.5.2 Paint Proportion .......................................................................................151
D.7.8 CLEARANCE AND SIGNS ...................................................................................................152
D.7.8.1 Vertical Clearance Over Bridge Roadway ...............................................................152
D.7.8.2 Vertical Reference and Clearance ...........................................................................152
D.7.8.3 Lateral Reference and Clearance on Right .............................................................154
D.7.8.4 Minimum Lateral Underclearance on Left ................................................................155
D.7.8.5 Posted Load .............................................................................................................156
D.7.8.6 Traffic Sign...............................................................................................................158
D.7.8.7 Horizontal Clearance Sign .......................................................................................159
D.7.8.8 Vertical Clearance Sign ...........................................................................................160
D.7.8.9 Railroad Lateral Underclearance .............................................................................161
D.7.9 WATERWAY DATA ..............................................................................................................162
D.7.9.1 Navigation Control ...................................................................................................162
D.7.9.2 Navigation Vertical Clearance .................................................................................162
D.7.9.3 Navigation Horizontal Clearance .............................................................................162
D.7.9.4 Scour Critical Bridges ..............................................................................................163
D.7.9.5 Navigation Vertical Lift Clearance ............................................................................165
D.7.9.6 Drainage Area ..........................................................................................................165
D.7.9.7 Waterway Opening ..................................................................................................165
D.7.9.8 MN Scour Code .......................................................................................................165
D.7.9.9 Scour Evaluation Year .............................................................................................165
D.7.9.10 Scour Action Plan On File ......................................................................................165
D.7.10 STEEL FATIGUE DATA ......................................................................................................166
D.7.10.1 Steel Fatigue Detail Ranking .................................................................................166
D.7.10.2 Transverse Stiffener Web Gap ..............................................................................167
D.7.10.3 Insufficient Cope Radius ........................................................................................170
D.7.10.4 Partial Length Cover Plate .....................................................................................173
D.7.10.5 Shelf Plate Welded to Girder Web .........................................................................176
D.7.10.6 Stringer of Truss Floorbeam Bracket .....................................................................178
D.7.10.7 Welded Horizontal Stiffener ...................................................................................181
D.7.10.8 Haunch Insert ........................................................................................................184
D.7.10.9 Web Penetration ....................................................................................................186
D.7.10.10 Plug Welded Misplaced Hole ...............................................................................188
D.7.10.11 Field Welded Splice .............................................................................................191
D.7.10.12 Pin and Eyebar Truss or Pin and Hanger ............................................................192
D.7.10.13 Lateral Bracing to Girder Bottom Flange .............................................................195
D.7.10.14 Cantilever Floorbeam Bracket .............................................................................196
D.7.10.15 Backing Bar .........................................................................................................198
D.7.10.16 Intermittent Weld ..................................................................................................200
D.7.10.17 Tack Weld ............................................................................................................202
D.7.10.18 Tied Arch Floorbeam ...........................................................................................204
D.7.10.19 T1 Steel (A514) ....................................................................................................205
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D-V

D.7.11 ROADWAY INFORMATION [ON] .......................................................................................206


D.7.11.1 Roadway Over/Under ............................................................................................206
D.7.11.2 Route Type (Route Signing Prefix) ........................................................................207
D.7.11.3 Level of Service .....................................................................................................207
D.7.11.4 Route Number .......................................................................................................207
D.7.11.5 Directional Suffix ....................................................................................................207
D.7.11.6 Critical Facility........................................................................................................207
D.7.11.7 Vertical Clearance .................................................................................................208
D.7.11.8 Vertical Clearance, NB-EB ....................................................................................208
D.7.11.9 Vertical Clearance, SB-WB ....................................................................................208
D.7.11.10 Mile Point .............................................................................................................208
D.7.11.11 Base Highway Network ........................................................................................209
D.7.11.12 LRS Inventory Route and Subroute Number .......................................................209
D.7.11.13 Detour Length ......................................................................................................210
D.7.11.14 Toll Facility ...........................................................................................................210
D.7.11.15 Functional Classification ......................................................................................211
D.7.11.16 Lanes On the Bridge ............................................................................................211
D.7.11.17 Lanes Under the Bridge .......................................................................................211
D.7.11.18 Average Daily Traffic ...........................................................................................212
D.7.11.19 ADT Year .............................................................................................................212
D.7.11.20 Approach Roadway Width ...................................................................................212
D.7.11.21 Horizontal Clearance ...........................................................................................214
D.7.11.22 Horizontal Clearance, NB-EB ..............................................................................214
D.7.11.23 Horizontal Clearance, SB-WB .............................................................................215
D.7.11.24 Bridge Roadway Width ........................................................................................215
D.7.11.25 MnDOT Roadway Width ......................................................................................216
D.7.11.25.1 NB-EB ..................................................................................................216
D.7.11.25.2 SB-WB .................................................................................................216
D.7.11.26 Maximum Vertical Clearance Over Bridge Roadway, NB-EB ..............................216
D.7.11.27 Maximum Vertical Clearance Over Bridge Roadway, SB-WB .............................217
D.7.11.28 STRAHNET Highway Designation .......................................................................217
D.7.11.29 Direction of Traffic ................................................................................................217
D.7.11.30 National Highway System ....................................................................................218
D.7.11.31 Federal Lands Highways .....................................................................................218
D.7.11.32 Heavy Commercial Average Daily Traffic Percentage .........................................219
D.7.11.33 Truck Network ......................................................................................................219
D.7.11.34 Future Average Daily Traffic ................................................................................219
D.7.11.35 Future Average Daily Traffic Year .......................................................................219
D.7.11.36 Lateral Clearance Left .........................................................................................219
D.7.11.37 Lateral Clearance Right .......................................................................................219
D.7.11.38 Bridge Match ID (TIS) ..........................................................................................220
D.7.11.39 Median Width .......................................................................................................220
D.7.11.40 Traffic Sequence Number ....................................................................................220
D.7.11.41 Inter Reg Corridor ................................................................................................220
D.7.11.42 Control Section (TH Only) ....................................................................................220
D.7.11.43 Roadway Name or Description ............................................................................220
D.7.11.44 MN Roadway Class .............................................................................................221
D.7.11.45 Primary Road .......................................................................................................221

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D.7.11.46 Number of Medians .............................................................................................221


D.7.11.47 Bridge Route System ...........................................................................................222
D.7.11.48 Bridge Reference Point ........................................................................................222
D.7.11.49 MN Route System ................................................................................................222
D.7.11.50 MN Route Number ...............................................................................................223
D.7.11.51 MN Reference Point ............................................................................................224
D.7.11.52 High End (Incr. Ref. Point) ...................................................................................224
D.7.11.53 Low End (Incr. Ref. Point) ....................................................................................224
D.7.11.54 Direction (Incr. Ref. Point) ...................................................................................225
D.7.11.55 Interchange Element ............................................................................................225
D.7.11.56 2nd Roadway ........................................................................................................225
D.7.11.57 NBI Roadway .......................................................................................................225
D.7.12 IMPROVEMENT COST ESTIMATE....................................................................................226
D.7.12.1 Proposed Work and Proposed Work By ................................................................226
D.7.12.2 Improvement Cost- Proposed Structure Type .......................................................227
D.7.12.3 Improvement Length ..............................................................................................228
D.7.12.4 Improvement Width ................................................................................................229
D.7.12.5 Bridge Improvement Cost ......................................................................................229
D.7.12.6 Roadway Improvement Costs ................................................................................229
D.7.12.7 Total Improvment Cost ..........................................................................................229
D.7.12.8 Year of Improvement Cost Estimate ......................................................................230
D.7.12.9 Improvement Cost Estimating Method ...................................................................230
D.7.13 ROADWAY INFORMATION [OFF]] ....................................................................................230

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D-VII

OCTOBER 2014
D.1 OVERVIEW

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

The Recording and Coding Guide Chapter of the MnDOT Bridge and Structure Inspection Program
Manual (BSIPM) is intended to provide detailed guidance of all
Inspector Note:
structure inventory data required to be documented for all
Text in this format
bridges by the State of Minnesota. An accurate bridge
symbolizes an important
inventory reporting system is essential to document bridge
note that is applicable to a
conditions and to protect the publics safety and investment in
bridge inspector to alert of
bridge structures.
an item to verify in the field.
The Federal Highway Association (FHWA) bridge inventory
items are outlined in numerical order in the Recording and
Coding Guide for the Structure Inventory and Appraisal of the Nations Bridges. FHWA bridge
inventory items referenced in this guide
BSIPM User Note:
will be referred to by their FHWA NBI
Item number. The National Bridge
Text in this format indicates that another
Inventory (NBI) is the aggregation of
Chapter of the manual may contain
structure inventory and appraisal data
additional information regarding the topic.
collected by each state to fulfill the
requirements of the National Bridge
Inspection Standards (NBIS).
The state of Minnesota first started a bridge inventory system in the 1930s long before FWHA
mandated a nationwide inventory system in 1971. As a result, the MnDOT bridge inventory
includes numerous items that differ from those in the FHWA Recording and Coding Guide for the
Structure Inventory and Appraisal of the Nations Bridges. Data Items that are applicable only to
MnDOT or have been modified by MnDOT will be labeled as a MnDOT item. Those items that are
reported to FHWA will be labeled as an NBI Item.
MnDOT is responsible for maintaining the inventory database for the NBI as well as the MnDOT
inventory Items.
All items on the MnDOT Structure Inventory Report should be checked during routine bridge
inspections and any required changes or updates should be submitted to the Bridge Asset Data
Management Unit (BADMU). Requested changes can be given to the contacts listed under the
BADMU listed in the Introduction section of the BSIPM.
This guide was created by the MnDOT Bridge Office and is intended to assist MnDOT, FHWA, local
agencies and engineering consultants to understand, update and complete a bridge inventory
report. A PDF version can be downloaded online on the MnDOT Bridge Office Website
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/ - it is listed under Manuals. For questions, comments, or
concerns, please contact Pete Wilson at (651) 366-4574, via email at pete.wilson@state.mn.us.
Or contact Eric Evens at (651) 366-4570, via email at eric.evens@state.mn.us.

D.2 ABBREVIATIONS

D-1

The abbreviations and acronyms for Chapter D - Recording and Coding Guide are located in the
Introduction section of the BSIPM.

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.3 MNDOT
STRUCTURE
INVENTORY REPORT
ITEMS

D-2

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

The following table lists all of the MnDOT Structure Inventory Report Items in order of
appearance on the SIA One Column found in SIMS. The items are listed along with the section
and page number in this guide. Number in front of description represent NBI item numbers.

ITEM NAME

SECTION NUMBER

PAGE
NUMBER

Bridge ID
7. Facility Carried By Structure
6A. Feature Instersected
Bridge Name
Agency Bridge Number
1. State/Region
2. District
3. County
4. Place Code
9. Descriptive Location
16. Latitude
17. Longitude
21. Custodian/Maintenance Responsibility
22. Owner
27. Year Built
37. Historic Significance
98. Border State
98A. Border State Region
98B. Border State Percentage
99. Border State Bridge Number
106. FHWA Year Reconstructed
Township
Builder ID
Bridge Crew Number
Maintenance Area
Section, Township, Range
BMU Agreement Number
MN Year Reconstructed
Bridge Plan Location
City
Replacement Structure
UTM-X
UTM-Y
Railroad Abandoned Date
Date Opened to Traffic
Legislative District
On Off System
Maintenance Agreement
28B. Total Lanes Under Structure

D.7.1.1
D.7.1.2
D.7.1.3
D.7.1.4
D.7.1.5
D.7.1.6
D.7.1.7
D.7.1.8
D.7.1.9
D.7.1.10
D.7.1.11
D.7.1.12
D.7.1.13
D.7.1.14
D.7.1.15
D.7.1.16
D.7.1.17
D.7.1.17.1
D.7.1.17.2
D.7.1.18
D.7.1.19
D.7.1.20
D.7.1.21
D.7.1.22
D.7.1.23
D.7.1.24
D.7.1.25
D.7.1.26
D.7.1.27
D.7.1.28
D.7.1.29
D.7.1.30
D.7.1.31
D.7.1.32
D.7.1.33
D.7.1.34
D.7.1.35
D.7.1.36
D.7.2.1

14
15
15
15
15
16
17
18
20
20
20
21
21
22
22
22
23
23
23
23
24
24
24
25
26
27
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
29
29
29
29
29
30

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

D-3

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

ITEM NAME

SECTION LOCATION

PAGE
NUMBER

33. Bridge Median Type


34. Skew Angle
Direction of Skew
35. Structure Flared
42A. Service On Bridge
42B. Service Under Bridge
43A. Main Span Type (Material)
43B. Main Span Type (Design)
44A. Approach Span Type (Material)
44B. Approach Span Type (Design)
45. Number of Main Spans
46. Number of Approach Spans
Total Number of Spans
48. Max Span Length
49. Structure Length
Sidewalk Width (50A. Lt. and 50B. Rt.)
52. Deck Width (Out-to-Out)
101. Parallel Structure
103. Temporary Structure
107. Deck Material
108A. Wearing Surface Type
108B. Deck Membrane Type
108C. Deck Rebar Protection
112. NBIS Bridge Length
Cantilever ID
Culvert Type
Barrel Length
Wearing Surface Installation Year
Deck Rebar Installation Year
Abutment Foundation Material
Abutment Foundation Type
Pier Foundation Material
Pier Foundation Type
Wear Course/Fill Depth
MN Actual Fill Depth
Roadway Area (Curb-to-Curb)
Curb Height (Lt and Rt)
Rail Type (Lt and Rt)
Curved Bridge
Bifurcated
Radial Supports
Two-Girder Bridge

D.7.2.2
D.7.2.3
D.7.2.4
D.7.2.5
D.7.2.6
D.7.2.7
D.7.2.8
D.7.2.9
D.7.2.10
D.7.2.11
D.7.2.12
D.7.2.13
D.7.2.14
D.7.2.15
D.7.2.16
D.7.2.17
D.7.2.18
D.7.2.19
D.7.2.20
D.7.2.21
D.7.2.22
D.7.2.23
D.7.2.24
D.7.2.25
D.7.2.26
D.7.2.27
D.7.2.28
D.7.2.29
D.7.2.30
D.7.2.31
D.7.2.32
D.7.2.33
D.7.2.34
D.7.2.35
D.7.2.36
D.7.2.37
D.7.2.38
D.7.2.39
D.7.2.40
D.7.2.41
D.7.2.42
D.7.2.43

30
30
31
31
32
32
33
33
34
34
34
34
34
34
35
37
39
39
40
41
41
42
43
44
44
45
46
46
46
47
47
49
49
50
50
50
51
51
68
68
68
68

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

D-4

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

ITEM NAME

SECTION LOCATION

PAGE
NUMBER

Degree of Curvature
Beam Type (Main Span)
Beam Height (Main Span)
Redundant RR Bridge
RR Vertical Underclearance
Bird Nests
Median on Structure
Pedestrian Fencing
MN Main Span Material
MN Main Span Design
Main Span Detail Definition
MN Approach Span Material
MN Approach Span Design
Approach Span Detail Definition
Total Length
Deck Area (Out-to-Out)
MN Temporary Status
Field Connection ID
Hybrid Girder
Multiple Steel Grades
Steel Specification
Steel Yield Stress 1
Steel Yield Stress 2
Girder Connection Type
Girder Depth (Main Span)
Girder Depth (Approach Span)
Girder Depth Type (Main Span)
Number of Beam Lines (Main Span)
Number of Beam Lines (Approach Span)
Ornamental Metal Railing
Metal Traffic Railing
Design Specification Year
41. Status
Routine Inspection Date
91. Routine Inspection Frequency
111. Pier or Abutment Protection
Inspector Name
Userkey
Unofficial Structurally Deficient
Unofficial Functionally Obsolete
Unofficial Sufficiency Rating

D.7.2.44
D.7.2.45
D.7.2.46
D.7.2.47
D.7.2.48
D.7.2.49
D.7.2.50
D.7.2.51
D.7.2.52
D.7.2.53
D.7.2.54
D.7.2.55
D.7.2.56
D.7.2.57
D.7.2.58
D.7.2.59
D.7.2.60
D.7.2.61
D.7.2.62
D.7.2.63
D.7.2.64
D.7.2.65
D.7.2.66
D.7.2.67
D.7.2.68
D.7.2.69
D.7.2.70
D.7.2.71
D.7.2.72
D.7.2.73
D.7.2.74
D.7.2.75
D.7.3.1
D.7.3.2
D.7.3.3
D.7.3.4
D.7.3.5
D.7.3.6
D.7.3.7.1
D.7.3.7.2
D.7.3.8

68
68
68
69
69
69
69
69
70
70
73
74
74
74
74
74
75
75
76
76
76
76
76
76
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
78
79
79
81
81
82
83
84
85

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

D-5

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

ITEM NAME

SECTION LOCATION

PAGE
NUMBER

Fracture Critical Inspection


Underwater Inspection
Pinned Assembly Inspection
Special Feature
Deck Condition Code
Unsound Deck Percentage
Superstructure Condition Code
Substructure Condition Code
Channel and Channel Protection Condition
Culvert Condition Code
36A. Bridge Railings
36B. Railing Transitions
36C. Approach Guardrail
36D. Approach Guardrail Ends
67. Structure Evaluation
68. Deck Geometry
69. Underclearances
71. Waterway Adequacy
72. Approach Alignment
31. Design Load
63. Method Used to Determine Operating Rating
64. Operating Rating
65. Method Used to Determine Inventory Rating
66. Inventory Rating
70. Bridge Posting
MN Operating Rating Type
MN Operating Rating
MN Inventory Rating type
MN Inventory Rating
Posting
Rating Date
Raters Initials
MnDOT Permit Codes
Load Rating Review Date
Load Rating Review Notes
Year Painted
Unsound Paint Percentage
Painted Area
Primer Type
Finish Type
Paint Specification
Paint Proportion
53. Vertical Clearance (Over)

D.7.3.9
D.7.3.10
D.7.3.11
D.7.3.12
D.7.4.1
D.7.4.2
D.7.4.3
D.7.4.4
D.7.4.5
D.7.4.6
D.7.5.2
D.7.5.4
D.7.5.5
D.7.5.6
D.7.5.7
D.7.5.8
D.7.5.9
D.7.5.10
D.7.5.11
D.7.6.1
D.7.6.2
D.7.6.3
D.7.6.4
D.7.6.5
D.7.6.6
D.7.6.7
D.7.6.8
D.7.6.9
D.7.6.10
D.7.6.11
D.7.6.12
D.7.6.13
D.7.6.14
D.7.6.15
D.7.6.16
D.7.7.1
D.7.7.2
D.7.7.3
D.7.7.4
D.7.7.5
D.7.7.5.1
D.7.7.5.2
D.7.8.1

86
87
88
88
89
91
92
94
95
97
100
104
110
114
126
128
132
134
136
138
139
140
140
140
141
142
142
142
143
143
145
145
146
147
147
148
148
148
149
150
151
151
152

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

D-6

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

ITEM NAME

SECTION LOCATION

PAGE
NUMBER

54A. Vertical Reference (Under)


54B. Vertical Clearance (Under)
55A. Lateral Reference (Under)
55B. Lateral Clearance (Right)
56. Lateral Clearance (Left)
Load Posting Sign
Traffic Sign
Horizontal Clearance Sign
Vertical Clearance Sign
Railroad Lateral Underclearance
38. Navigation Control
Navigational Vertical Clearance
Navigational Horizontal Clearance
113. Scour Critical
116. Navigational Vertical Lift Bridge Clearance
Drainage Area
Waterway Opening
MN Scour Code
Scour Evaluation Year
Scour Action Plan on File
Steel Fatigue Detail Ranking
Transverse Stiffener Web Gap
Insufficient Cope Radius
Partial Length Cover Plate
Shelf Plate Welded to Girder Web
Stringer of truss Floorbeam Bracket
Welded Horizontal Stiffener
Haunch Insert
Web Penetration
Plug Welded Misplaced Hole
Field Welded Splice
Pin and Eyebar Truss or Pin and Hanger
Lateral Bracing to Girder Bottom Flange
Cantilever Floorbeam Bracket
Backing Bar
Intermittent Weld
Tack Weld
Tied Arch Floorbeam
T1 Steel (A514)
5A. Roadway On/Under
5B. Route Type (Route Signing Prefix)
5C. Level of Service
5D. Route Number

D.7.8.2
D.7.8.2
D.7.8.3
D.7.8.3
D.7.8.4
D.7.8.5
D.7.8.6
D.7.8.7
D.7.8.8
D.7.8.9
D.7.9.1
D.7.9.2
D.7.9.3
D.7.9.4
D.7.9.5
D.7.9.6
D.7.9.7
D.7.9.8
D.7.9.9
D.7.9.10
D.7.10.1
D.7.10.2
D.7.10.3
D.7.10.4
D.7.10.5
D.7.10.6
D.7.10.7
D.7.10.8
D.7.10.9
D.7.10.10
D.7.10.11
D.7.10.12
D.7.10.13
D.7.10.14
D.7.10.15
D.7.10.16
D.7.10.17
D.7.10.18
D.7.10.19
D.7.11.1
D.7.11.2
D.7.11.3
D.7.11.4

152
152
154
154
155
156
158
159
160
161
162
162
162
163
165
165
165
165
165
165
166
167
170
173
176
178
181
184
186
188
191
192
195
196
198
200
202
204
205
206
207
207
207

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

D-7

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

ITEM NAME

SECTION LOCATION

PAGE
NUMBER

5E. Directional Suffix


6B. Critical Facility
10. Vertical Clearance
MnDOT Vertical Clearance
11. Mile Point
12. Base Network
13A. LRS Route
13B. LRS Subroute
19. Detour Length
20. Toll Facility
26. Functional Classification
28A. Lanes On
28B. Lanes Under
29. ADT
30. ADT Year
32. Approach Roadway Width
47. Horizontal Clearance
MnDOT Horizontal Clearance
51. Bridge Roadway Width
MnDOT Roadway Width
MnDOT Maximum Vertical Clearance
100. STRAHNET
102. Direction of Traffic
104. National Highway System
105. Federal Lands Highway
109. Truck Percentage
110. Truck Network
114. Future ADT
115. Future ADT Year
MnDOT Lateral Clearance Left
MnDOT Lateral Clearance Right
Bridge Match ID (TIS)
Median Width
Traffic Sequence Number
Inter Reg Corridor
Control Section (TH Only)
Roadway Name or Description
MN Roadway Class
Primary Road
Number of Medians
Bridge Route System
Bridge Reference Point
MN Route System

D.7.11.5
D.7.11.6
D.7.11.7
D.7.11.8 and D.7.11.9
D.7.11.10
D.7.11.11
D.7.11.12
D.7.11.12
D.7.11.13
D.7.11.14
D.7.11.15
D.7.11.16
D.7.11.17
D.7.11.18
D.7.11.19
D.7.11.20
D.7.11.21
D.7.11.22 and D.7.11.23
D.7.11.24
D.7.11.25
D.7.11.26 and D.7.11.27
D.7.11.28
D.7.11.29
D.7.11.30
D.7.11.31
D.7.11.32
D.7.11.33
D.7.11.34
D.7.11.35
D.7.11.36
D.7.11.37
D.7.11.38
D.7.11.39
D.7.11.40
D.7.11.41
D.7.11.42
D.7.11.43
D.7.11.44
D.7.11.45
D.7.11.46
D.7.11.47
D.7.11.48
D.7.11.49

207
207
208
208
208
209
209
209
210
210
211
211
211
212
212
212
214
214 and 215
215
216
216 and 217
217
217
218
218
219
219
219
219
219
219
220
220
220
220
220
220
221
221
221
222
222
222

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

D-8

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

ITEM NAME

SECTION LOCATION

PAGE
NUMBER

MN Route Number
MN Reference Point
High End (Incr. Ref. Point)
Low End (Decr. Ref. Point)
Direction (Incr. Ref. Point)
Interchange Element
MN Route System (2nd Roadway)
MN Route Number (2nd Roadway)
Reference Point (2nd Roadway)
High End (Incr. Ref. Point, 2nd Roadway)
Low End (Decr. Ref. Point, 2nd Roadway)
Direction (Incr. Ref. Point, 2nd Roadway)
Interchange Element (2nd Roadway)
NBI Roadway
Proposed Work
Proposed Work By
Proposed Structure Type
Improvement Length
Improvement Width
Bridge Improvement Cost
Roadway Improvement Cost
Total Improvement Cost
Year of Improvement Cost Estimate
Improvement Cost Estimate Method

D.7.11.50
D.7.11.51
D.7.11.52
D.7.11.53
D.7.11.54
D.7.11.55
D.7.11.49
D.7.11.50
D.7.11.51
D.7.11.52
D.7.11.53
D.7.11.54
D.7.11.55
D.7.11.57
D.7.12.1
D.7.12.1
D.7.12.2
D.7.12.3
D.7.12.4
D.7.12.5
D.7.12.6
D.7.12.7
D.7.12.8
D.7.12.9

223
224
224
224
225
225
222
223
224
224
224
225
225
225
226
226
227
228
229
229
229
229
230
230

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.4 NBI ITEMS

D-9

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

The following table lists all of the FHWA NBI Items in sequential order. The item number and
name are listed along with the section and page number in this guide that describing that item.
All the NBI data items are submitted in accordance with the FHWA Recording and Coding Guide
for the Structure Inventory and Appraisal of the Nations Bridges, December 1995. A copy of the
guide is available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/bripub.htm. This data is submitted to
FHWA on an annual basis by April 1st containing the most current inventory and inspection data
on highway bridges carrying public roads.

ITEM
NO.

ITEM NAME

SECTION
LOCATION

PAGE
NUMBER

1
2
3
4
5A
5B
5C
5D
5E
6A
6B
7
8
9
10
11
12
13A
13B
16
17
19
20
21
22
26
27
28A
28B
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

State Code
Highway Agency District
County (Parish) Code
Place Code
Record Type
Route Signing Prefix
Designated Level of Service
Route Number
Directional Suffix
Features Intersected
Critical Facility Indicator
Facility Carried By Structure
Structure Number
Location
Inventory Route, Min Vert Clearance
Mile Point
Base Highway Network
LRS Inventory Route
Subroute Number
Latitude
Longitude
Bypass/Detour Length
Toll
Maintenance Responsibility
Owner
Functional Class Of Inventory Route
Year Built
Lanes On Structure
Lanes Under Structure
Average Daily Traffic
Year Of Average Daily Traffic
Design Load
Approach Roadway Width
Bridge Median
Skew
Structure Flared

D.7.1.6
D.7.1.7
D.7.1.8
D.7.1.9
D.7.11.1
D.7.11.2
D.7.11.3
D.7.11.4
D.7.11.5
D.7.1.3
D.7.11.6
D.7.1.2
D.7.1.1
D.7.1.10
D.7.11.7
D.7.11.10
D.7.11.11
D.7.11.12
D.7.11.12
D.7.1.11
D.7.1.12
D.7.11.13
D.7.11.14
D.7.1.13
D.7.1.14
D.7.11.15
D.7.1.14
D.7.11.16
D.7.2.1
D.7.11.18
D.7.11.19
D.7.6.1
D.7.11.20
D.7.2.2
D.7.2.3
D.7.2.5

16
17
18
20
206
207
207
207
207
15
207
15
14
20
208
208
209
209
209
20
21
210
210
21
22
211
22
211
30
212
212
138
212
30
30
31

| State of Minnesota

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE


ITEM
NO.
36
36A
36B
36C
36D
37
38
39
40
41
42A
42B
43A
43B
44A
44B
45
46
47
48
49
50A
50B
51
52
53
54A
54B
55A
55B
56
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

D-10

| State of Minnesota

ITEM NAME
Traffic Safety Features
Bridge Railings
Transitions
Approach Guardrail
Approach Guardrail Ends
Historical Significance
Navigation Control
Navigation Vertical Clearance
Navigation Horizontal Clearance
Structure Open/Posted/Closed
Type of Service On Bridge
Type of Service Under Bridge
Main Span Kind of Material/Design
Main Span Type of Design/Construction
Approach Span Kind of Material/Design
Approach Span Type of Design/Construction
Number Of Spans In Main Unit
Number Of Approach Spans
Inventory Rte Total Horz Clearance
Length Of Maximum Span
Structure Length
Left Curb/Sidewalk Width
Right Curb/Sidewalk Width
Bridge Roadway Width Curb-To-Curb
Deck Width, Out-To-Out
Min Vert Clear Over Bridge Roadway
Reference Feature
Minimum Vertical Underclearance
Reference Feature
Minimum Lateral Underclearance
Min Lateral Underclear On Left
Deck
Superstructure
Substructure
Channel/Channel Protection
Culverts
Method Used To Determine Operating
Rating
Operating Rating
Method Used To Determine Inventory Rating
Inventory Rating
Structural Evaluation
Deck Geometry

Chapter D

SECTION
LOCATION

PAGE
NUMBER

D.7.5.1
D.7.5.2
D.7.5.4
D.7.5.5
D.7.5.6
D.7.1.16
D.7.9.1
D.7.9.2
D.7.9.3
D.7.3.1
D.7.2.6
D.7.2.7
D.7.2.8
D.7.2.9
D.7.2.10
D.7.2.11
D.7.2.12
D.7.2.13
D.7.11.21
D.7.2.15
D.7.2.16
D.7.2.17
D.7.2.17
D.7.11.24
D.7.2.18
D.7.8.1
D.7.8.2
D.7.8.2
D.7.8.3
D.7.8.3
D.7.8.4
D.7.4.1
D.7.4.3
D.7.4.4
D.7.4.5
D.7.4.6
D.7.6.2

99
100
104
110
114
22
162
162
162
78
32
32
33
33
34
34
34
34
214
34
35
37
37
215
39
152
152
152
154
154
155
89
92
94
95
97
139

D.7.6.3
D.7.6.4
D.7.6.5
D.7.5.7
D.7.5.8

140
140
140
126
128

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE


ITEM
NO.
69
70
71
72
75A
75B
76
90
91
92A
92B
92C
93A
93B
93C
94
95
96
97
98
98A
98B
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108A
108B
108C
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116

D-11

| State of Minnesota

ITEM NAME
Underclear, Vertical & Horizontal
Bridge Posting
Waterway Adequacy
Approach Roadway Alignment
Type of Work Proposed
Work Done By
Length Of Structure Improvement
Inspection Date
Designated Inspection Frequency
Fracture Critical Details
Underwater Inspection
Other Special Inspection
Fracture Critical Details Date
Underwater Inspection Date
Other Special Inspection Date
Bridge Improvement Cost
Roadway Improvement Cost
Total Project Cost
Year Of Improvement Cost Estimate
Border Bridge
Neighboring State Code
Percent Responsibility
Border Bridge Structure Number
STRAHNET Highway Designation
Parallel Structure Designation
Direction Of Traffic
Temporary Structure Designation
Highway System Of Inventory Route
Federal Lands Highways
Year Reconstructed
Deck Structure Type
Type of Wearing Surface
Type of Membrane
Deck Protection
Average Daily Truck Traffic
Designated National Network
Pier/Abutment Protection
NBIS Bridge Length
Scour Critical Bridges
Future Average Daily Traffic
Year Of Future Avg Daily Traffic
Minimum Navigation Vertical Clearance
Vertical Lift Bridge

Chapter D

SECTION
LOCATION

PAGE
NUMBER

D.7.5.9
D.7.6.6
D.7.5.10
D.7.5.11
D.7.12.1
D.7.12.1
D.7.12.3
D.7.3.2
D.7.3.3
D.7.3.9
D.7.3.10
D.7.3.11
D.7.3.9
D.7.3.10
D.7.3.11
D.7.12.5
D.7.12.6
D.7.12.7
D.7.12.8
D.7.1.17
D.7.1.17.1
D.7.1.17.2
D.7.1.18
D.7.11.28
D.7.2.19
D.7.11.29
D.7.2.20
D.7.11.30
D.7.11.31
D.7.1.19
D.7.2.21
D.7.2.22
D.7.2.23
D.7.2.24
D.7.11.32
D.7.11.33
D.7.3.4
D.7.2.25
D.7.9.4
D.7.11.34
D.7.11.35
D.7.9.5

132
141
134
136
226
226
228
79
79
86
87
88
86
87
88
229
229
229
230
23
23
23
23
217
39
217
40
218
218
24
41
41
42
43
219
219
81
44
163
219
219
165

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.5 MNDOT
STRUCTURE
INVENTORY REPORT
FORM (SAMPLE)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

The following is an interactive example of MnDOTs Structure Inventory Report. Click on an


inventory item below to be directed to that items section. Current reports for each bridge are
available on MnDOTs website (http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/bridgereports/index.html).

INVENTORY REPORT
Mn/DOT Structure Inventory Report
Facility Carried By Structure Over Feature Intersected

Bridge ID:
+ GENERAL +

+ ROADWAY +

Agency Br. No.


District
Maint. Area
County
City
Township
Desc. Loc.
Sect., Twp., Range
Latitude
Longitude
Custodian
Owner
Inspection By
BMU Agreement
Year Built
Year Fed Rehab
Year Remodeled
Temp
Plan Avail.
+ STRUCTURE +
Service On
Service Under
Main Span Type
Main Span Detail
Appr. Span Type
Appr. Span Detail
Skew
Culvert Type
Barrel Length

D-12

APPR:

Roadway Function
Roadway Type
Control Section (TH Only)
Ref. Point (TH Only)
Date Opened to Traffic
Detour Length
Lanes
ADT (YEAR)
HCADT
Functional Class.
+ RDWY DIMENSIONS +
If Divided
NB-EB SB-WB
Roadway Width
Vertical Clearance
Max. Vert. Clear.
Horizontal Clear.
Lateral Clr. - Lt/Rt
Approach Roadway Width
Roadway Width
Median Width
+ MISC. BRIDGE DATA +
Structure Flared
Parallel Structure
Field Conn. ID
Cantilever ID

TOTAL:

Main Span Length


Structure Length
Deck Width
Deck Material
Wear Surf Type
Wear Surf Install Year
Wear Course/Fill Depth
Deck Membrane
Deck Protect.
Deck Install Year

Foundations
Abut.
Pier
Historic Status
On-Off System
+ PAINT +
Year Painted Pct. Unsound
Painted Area
Primer Type
Finish Type

Structure Area
Roadway Area
Sidewalk Width L/R
Curb Height - L/R
Rail Codes - L/R

+ BRIDGE SIGNS +
Posted Load
Traffic
Horizontal
Vertical

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

+ INSPECTION +

Bridge Match ID (TIS)


Roadway O/U Key
Route Sys/Nbr
Roadway Name or Description

Number of Spans
MAIN:

Click to go back to:

Chapter D

INVENTORY REPORT

Deficient Status
Sufficiency Rating
Last Inspection Date
Inspection Frequency
Inspector Name
Structure
+ NBI CONDITION RATINGS +
Deck
Superstructure
Substructure
Channel
Culvert
+ NBI APPRAISAL RATINGS +
Structural Evaluation
Deck Geometry
Underclearances
Waterway Adequacy
Approach Alignment
+ Safety Features +
Bridge Railing
GR Transition
Appr.Guardrail
GR Termini
+ IN DEPTH INSP. +
Frac. Critical
Underwater
Pinned Asbly.
Spec. Feat.
+ WATERWAY +
Drainage Area
Waterway Opening
Navigation Control
Pier Protection
Nav. Vert./Horz. Clr.
Nav. Vert. Lift Bridge Clear.
MN Scour Code
Scour Evaluation Year
+ CAPACITY RATINGS +
Design Load
Operating Rating
Inventory Rating
Posting
Rating Date

A:

MnDOT Permit Codes


B:
C:

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.6 MNDOT
INVENTORY DATA
ENTRY IN SIMS

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

In 2011, MnDOT implemented a new Structure Information Management System (SIMS) for
entering bridge inspection and structure inventory data, which replaced the Pontis online
application. While the Pontis system was retained, it is only used by BADMU. Use of SIMS is
required for entering, submitting, and managing all bridge inspection information. The current
reports from Pontis are available through the MnDOT Bridge Data Management webpage. SIMS
updates all approved changes to these reports daily.
SIMS is not only a new interface for inspectors to enter inspection data, but also an electronic
bridge file that serves Program Administrators (PA). Within the SIMS program, PAs now have the
new procedures to review and maintain compliance of their bridge inspection program as
directed by Minnesota Statue 165.03.
For routine, fracture critical, underwater, damage and special inspections, the NBIS requires entry
and approval of the Structure Inventory and Appraisal (SI&A) data into SIMS within 90 days of the
date of inspection for State or Federal agency bridges and within 180 days of the date of
inspection for all other bridges.
For changes in load restriction or closure status, the NBIS requires entry of the SI&A data into
SIMS within 90 days after the change in status of the structure for State or Federal agency bridges
and within 180 days after the change in status of the structure for all other bridges.

Click to go back to:

D-13

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7 MNDOT
STRUCTURE
INVENTORY REPORT

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE


This section gives a detailed description for
each of the inventory items required to be
provided for each bridge in order of
appearance on the SIA-One Column found in
SIMS.
All data is to be recorded in feet unless
otherwise mentioned. Data will automatically
be converted to meters when submitted to
FHWA.

D.7.1 GENERAL
INFORMATION
D.7.1.1 Bridge ID
(NBI Item 8)

Chapter D

Inspector Note:
It is the responsibility of the Bridge
Inspection Team Leader to review and
redline all items on the Structure Inventory
Report that are incorrect. A copy of the
markups should be sent to the MnDOT
BADMU to be corrected or updated.

The general information section provides an overall description to identify the structure
including items such as the bridge ID, location of the structure, Owner information, year built,
and other information related to identifying the structure.
It is required that an official structure number be recorded. It is not necessary to code this
number according to an arbitrary national standard. MnDOT codes the structure number
according to its own internal processing procedures.
The structure number must be unique for each bridge within the State, and once established
should preferably never change for the life of the bridge.

D.7.1.1.1 Current
Bridge Numbering
System

The current bridge numbering system used by MnDOT consists of a five or six alpha-numeric
numbering system. The following table describes what the five or six digits represent:

CODE

LENGTH

DESCRIPTION

8A
8B
8C
8D

2 DIGITS
1 DIGITS
2 DIGITS
1 CHARACTER

MNDOT COUNTY CODE


TYPE OF ROADWAY SYSTEM
INDIVIDUAL BRIDGE NUMBER
USED IF BRIDGE SEPARATED INTO MULTIPLE SEGMENTS

The first two digits are based upon MnDOTs county code. The MnDOT county codes are not
the same numbering system as the NBI county codes. Each county has a two digit number
listed alphabetically that ranges from 01 (Aitkin County) up to 87 (Yellow Medicine County).
For the complete list of the MnDOT county codes see Section D.7.1.8. Temporary structures
should use 99 instead of their county code.
The third digit designates the type of roadway system as described in the following table:

CODE 8B

DESCRIPTION

0, 1, 2, 3, R, T, U
4, 7, 8, 9, V, W
X, Y
5, 6, A through H
J through N, P, Q*

TRUNK HIGHWAY BRIDGES


INTERSTATE BRIDGES
TRUNK HIGHWAY OR INTERSTATE CULVERTS
COUNTY, CITY OR TOWNSHIP BRIDGES
COUNTY, CITY OR TOWNSHIP CULVERTS

*The letters I, O, S, and Z are not to be used, as they can be confused with
the numbers 1, 0, 5, and 2.

Click to go back to:

D-14

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

The fourth and fifth digits are the individual bridge sequence number ranging from 00 through
99 depended on the county.
A sixth alphabetic character (A, B, C, etc.) may be added at the end for those structures
separated into separate segments. An example would include a Y shaped bridge with two
ramps.
D.7.1.1.2 Past Bridge
Numbering System

The State of Minnesota began assigning numbers to highway bridges after the Minnesota State
Highway Commission was created in 1905. Structures built prior to MnDOT adopting its current
numbering system received numbers based off of the following depending on when they were
built:
Bridge numbers were assigned starting with the number 10 and assigned numbers
generally in order of construction or repair contract up to number 9999.
County, municipal, or township bridges have a 5-character alphanumeric number starting
with an L or R.
Culverts, as well as county, municipal, or township bridges, have 5-digit numbers ranging
between 88000 and 98999.

D.7.1.2 Facility Carried


By Structure
(NBI Item 7)

NBI Item 7 is the description of the facility being carried by the structure. In all situations, this
item describes the use on the structure. Use the formal or 911 street names whenever
possible. If the structure is a pedestrian bridge, then input a nearby cross street using formal
names rather than route numbers.
Example:
190 AVE
220 ST E

D.7.1.3 Feature
Intersected
(NBI Item 6A)

NBI Item 6A is the description of the features intersected by the structure and a critical facility
indicator. The information to be recorded for this item shall be the name or names of the
features intersected by the structure.
Example:
BEVENS CREEK
CSAH 41

D.7.1.4 Bridge Name


(MnDOT Item)

This optional input is the official designated, historic, or commonly used name associated with
the structure.
Example:
Duluth Aerial Lift Bridge
St Croix River Crossing

D.7.1.5 Agency Bridge


Number

This item designates the bridge number assigned to the structure by the Local Agency or Bridge
Owner. This number is independent of NBI Item 8 (Bridge ID) found in Section D.7.1.1.

(MnDOT Item)

If the Local Agency does not have their own bridge numbering systems this item is left blank.
Examples of Local Agencies that have their own numbering system include St. Louis County, Polk
County, and the City of Minneapolis.

Click to go back to:

D-15

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.1.6 State/Region
(NBI Item 1)

Click to go back to:

D-16

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

The first two digits of this input represent the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)
code for States, and the third digit is the FHWA region code.

CODE

STATE

CODE

STATE

014
020
049
056
069
088
091
103
113
124
134
159
160
175
185
197
207
214
226
231
243
251
265
275
284
297

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri

308
317
329
331
342
356
362
374
388
395
406
410
423
441
454
468
474
486
498
501
513
530
543
555
568
721

Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Puerto Rico

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.1.7 District

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item represents the MnDOT regional District in which the structure is located. The MnDOT
District can be determined based on the city using the following link:

(NBI Item 2)

http://www.dot.state.mn.us/maintenance/district.html
The District number is based on where the structure is located, not based on any kind of
ownership.

DISTRICT

AREA

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

DULUTH
BEMIDJI
ST. CLOUD
DETROIT LAKES
METRO
ROCHESTER
MANKATO
WILLMAR

Example:
City
Brainerd

Click to go back to:

D-17

Area
St. Cloud

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

District
3

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.1.8 County

Chapter D

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

This item identifies the county in which the structure is located. If a bridge is located on a county
line, only one county can be entered and the code is based on ownership of the bridge.

(MnDOT Item)

The following table is a list of the MnDOT two-digit codes and the NBI three-digit codes. The
MnDOT two-digit code is the number to be used for this inupt. The MnDOT county numbering
system consists of 01 through 87. This is the system that is normally used within state
government.

(NBI Item 3)

Also included, for information only, in the table are the NBI FIPS county codes which are given in
the current version of the Census of Population and Housing Geographic Identification Code
Scheme and apply only to the dataset MnDOT submits to FHWA. Converting to the FIPS system,
simply take the MnDOT number and multiply by two then subtract by one.
Example:
County
Hennepin

Click to go back to:

D-18

MnDOT County Code


27

Conversion
27*2=54; 54-1 =53

NBI County Code


53

MNDOT
COUNTY
CODE

NBI
COUNTY
CODE

COUNTY

MNDOT
COUNTY
CODE

NBI
COUNTY
CODE

COUNTY

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

001
003
005
007
009
011
013
015
017
019
021
023
025
027
029
031
033
035
037
039
041
043
045
047
049

AITKIN
ANOKA
BECKER
BELTRAMI
BENTON
BIG STONE
BLUE EARTH
BROWN
CARLTON
CARVER
CASS
CHIPPEWA
CHISAGO
CLAY
CLEARWATER
COOK
COTTONWOOD
CROW WING
DAKOTA
DODGE
DOUGLAS
FARIBAULT
FILLMORE
FREEBORN
GOODHUE

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

051
053
055
057
059
061
063
065
067
069
071
073
075
077
079
081
083
085
087
089
091
093
095
097
099

GRANT
HENNEPIN
HOUSTON
HUBBARD
ISANTI
ITASCA
JACKSON
KANABEC
KANDIYOHI
KITTSON
KOOCHICHING
LAC QUI PARLE
LAKE
LAKE OF THE WOODS
LE SUEUR
LINCOLN
LYON
MCLEOD
MAHNOMEN
MARSHALL
MARTIN
MEEKER
MILLE LACS
MORRISON
MOWER

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

Click to go back to:

D-19

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

COUNTY
MNDOT NBI
COUNTY COUNTY
CODE
CODE

COUNTY
MNDOT NBI
COUNTY COUNTY
CODE
CODE

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87

101
103
105
107
109
111
113
115
117
119
121
123
125
127
129
131
133
135
137

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

MURRAY
NICOLLET
NOBLES
NORMAN
OLMSTEAD
OTTER TRAIL
PENNINGTON
PINE
PIPESTONE
POLK
POPE
RAMSEY
RED LAKE
REDWOOD
RENVILLE
RICE
ROCK
ROSEAU
ST LOUIS

INVENTORY REPORT

139
141
143
145
147
149
151
153
155
157
159
161
163
165
167
169
171
173

SCOTT
SHERBURNE
SIBLEY
STEARNS
STEELE
STEVENS
SWIFT
TODD
TRAVERSE
WABASHA
WADENA
WASECA
WASHINGTON
WATONWAN
WILKIN
WINONA
WRIGHT
YELLOW MEDICINE

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.1.9 Place Code
(NBI Item 4)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Cities, towns, townships, villages, and other census-designated places shall be identified using
the FIPS codes given in the current version of the Census of Population and Housing
Geographic Identification Code Scheme. If there is no FIPS place code, then code all zeros.
The complete list of FIPS codes can be found in Appendix G.
Example:
City or Township
St. Peter

D.7.1.10 Descriptive
Location
(NBI Item 9)

FIPS Code
58036

This item contains a narrative description of the bridge location up to a maximum of 25


characters. It is recommended that the location be keyed to a distinguishable feature on an
official highway map such as road junctions and topographical features.
Trace the route to an intersection with another roadway on a higher level system (i.e. ISTH,
USTH, MNTH, CSAH, or CR). Use the county line as a possible alternative.
Avoid using a city boundary when possible.
Examples:
0.2 MI N OF JCT CSAH 52
1.3 MI E OF JCT TH 100
0.5 MI N OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER

D.7.1.11 Latitude
(NBI Item 16)

This item identifies the latitude of the structure in degrees, minutes, and seconds to the nearest
hundredth of a second. The point of the coordinate may be along the centerline midpoint of the
bridge in the direction of the inventory or any other consistent point of reference on the bridge
which is compatible with the linear referencing system (LRS). The LRS aligns the linear reference
points in all databases so information from crash statistics, pavement management, and other
business data can be accurately mapped and data more easily analyzed.
FHWA requires this information for all bridges on the National Highway System (NHS), Strategic
Highway Network (STRAHNET), and STRAHNET connector highways, but it is preferable to code
the latitude if available. See section D.7.11.28 for information on NBI Item 100 (STRAHNET) and
Section D.7.11.30 for information on NBI Item 104 (NHS).
MnDOT recommends that coordinates be recoded for every bridge and verified periodically at
routine inspections using a global positioning system (GPS).
Latitude is recorded in degrees minutes seconds format and is separated into three different
inputs. Degrees is the first input, minutes the second, and seconds the third input and truncated
to two decimal places.
Example:
GPS Coordinates
44d23m03.06s

Click to go back to:

D-20

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

Degree
44

Minute
23

INVENTORY REPORT

Seconds
03.06

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.1.12 Longitude
(NBI Item 17)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item identifies the longitude of the structure in degrees, minutes and seconds to the
nearest hundredth of a second. The point of the coordinate may be along the centerline
midpoint of the bridge in the direction of the inventory or any other consistent point of
reference on the bridge which is compatible with the LRS.
FHWA requires this information for all bridges on the National Highway System (NHS), Strategic
Highway Network (STRAHNET), and STRAHNET connector highways, but it is preferable to code
the longitude if available. See section D.7.11.28 for information on NBI Item 100 (STRAHNET)
and Section D.7.11.30 for information on NBI Item 104 (NHS).
MnDOT recommends that coordinates be coded for every bridge and verified periodically at
routine inspections using a GPS.
Latitude is recorded in degrees minutes seconds format and is separated into three different
inputs. Degrees is the first input, minutes the second, and seconds the third input and truncated
to two decimal places.
Example:
GPS Coordinates
93d17m12.03s

D.7.1.13 Custodian
(NBI Item 21)

Degree
93

Minute
17

Seconds
12.03

This item identifies the agency responsible for maintaining the structure. The codes in the table
below shall be used to represent the type of agency that has primary responsibility for
maintaining the structure.
If more than one agency has equal maintenance responsibility, code the agency as it falls in the
hierarchy of state, federal, county, city, railroad, and then other private. Cooperative
agreements may be in place that determines responsibility.

Click to go back to:

D-21

CODE

DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

01
02
03
04
11
12
21
25
26
27
31
32
60
62
64
66
68
69
70
80

STATE HWY
COUNTY
TOWNSHIP
CITY
STATE FOREST
LOCAL PARK
OTHER STATE
OTHER LOCAL
PRIVATE
RAILROAD
STATE TOLL
LOCAL TOLL
OTHER FEDERAL
B.I.A.
NATL FOREST
NATL PARK
B.L.M.
B.R.
CORP ENG
UNKNOWN

State Highway Agency


County Highway Agency
Town or Township Highway Agency
City or Municipal Highway Agency
State Park, Forest, or Reservation Agency
Local Park, Forest or Reservation Agency
Other State Agencies
Other Local Agencies
Private (other than railroad)
Railroad
State Toll Authority
Local Toll Authority
Other Federal Agencies (not listed below)
Bureau of Indian Affairs
U.S. Forest Service
National Park Service
Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Reclamation
Corps of Engineers (Civil)
Unknown

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.1.14 Owner
(NBI Item 22)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item identifies the agency designated as the owner of the structure. The codes in the table
used for NBI Item 21 (Maintenance Responsibility) from Section D.7.1.13 shall be used to
represent the type of agency that has primary ownership of the structure.
If more than one agency has equal ownership, code the agency it falls in the hierarchy of state,
federal, county, city, railroad, and then other private.

D.7.1.15 Year Built


(NBI Item 27)

This item designates the year of construction of the structure. Code the four-digit year found on
the bridge nameplate.
For structures without bridge nameplates, the year of construction shall be the last year the
construction crew was in the field. If the year of construction is unknown, the best estimate
should be provided based on the date on the construction plans.
Example:
Year Built
1956

D.7.1.16 Historic
Significance
(NBI Item 37)

Code
1956

A bridge may be considered historically significant if it is a particularly unique example of the


history of engineering, the crossing itself is historically significant, the bridge is associated with a
historical property or area, or the bridge was associated with significant events or circumstances.
A bridge typically must be at least 50 years old to be eligible for the National Register of Historic
Places (NRHP).
Current MnDOT procedure is that all new bridges entered into the inventory are listed as 5
(not eligible).
Use one of the following codes:

CODE

DESCRIPTION

1
2
3

Bridge is on the NRHP


Bridge is eligible for the NRHP
Bridge is possibly eligible for the NRHP (requires further investigation before
determination can be made) or bridge is on a State or local historic register
Historical significance is not determinable at this time
Bridge is not eligible for the NRHP

4
5

This field should be verified on a regular basis.

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D-22

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.1.17 Border Bridge
(NBI Item 98)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item is composed of two separate segments identifying if a structure is located on a state or
international border and the percent of shared maintenance responsibility.
If the structure is not on a border, code a 0.
This item will automatically populate from the inputs from 98A and 98B. See the following
sections for directions on coding this item.
Example:
Description
A structure connects Minnesota with Wisconsin and Wisconsin is
responsible for 45 percent of future improvement costs.
A structure connects Minnesota with Canada and Canada is not
responsible for any funding of future improvement costs.
A structure connects Minnesota with North Dakota and North Dakota
accepts 100% of the responsibility.

D.7.1.17.1 Border State


Region
(NBI Item 98A)

D.7.1.17.2 Border State


Percentage
(NBI Item 98B)

Code
55545
CAN00
38899

NBI Item 98A is the identification of the neighboring state using the State codes listed for NBI
Item 1. Possible neighboring states bordering with Minnesota and their corresponding codes are
given in the table below. For structures crossing into Canada, code the State code value as
CAN.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

197
388
468
555
CAN

Iowa
North Dakota
South Dakota
Wisconsin
Canada

NBI Item 98B is the percentage of funding for improvements to the existing structure when it is
on a border with a neighboring state or county. Code it with the percentage of total deck area of
the existing bridge that the neighboring state is responsible for funding. If the neighboring state
or country accepts 100% of the responsibility, but is still listed on the Minnesota bridge
inventory, this item should be coded as 99 to represent that Minnesota has no responsibility
for the structure.
The State that conducts the inspection should provide data to the other State in order to keep
both States condition data and inventory data current.

D.7.1.18 Border Bridge


Structure Number
(NBI Item 99)

This item is the neighboring State's 15-digit National Bridge Inventory structure number for any
structure noted in Item 98 - Border Bridge. This number must match exactly the neighboring
State's submitted NBI structure number. The entire 15-digit field must be accounted for
including zeros and blank spaces whether they are leading, trailing, or embedded in the 15-digit
field. If Item 98 is blank, this item is blank.
This number can be found by contacting the other state or county where the structure is located
and getting their structure number.

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D-23

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.1.19 Year
Reconstructed

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE


For a bridge to be defined as reconstructed, the type of
work performed must have been eligible for funding
under any of the Federal-aid funding categories. The
eligibility criteria would apply to the work performed
regardless of whether State or local funds or Federal-aid
funds were used.

(NBI Item 106)

Chapter D

Inspector Note:
It is the responsibility of the
bridge inspector to verify that
items have been updated on
the structure inventory report
after reconstruction.

Types of eligible work not to be considered as


reconstruction are:
Safety feature replacement or upgrading regardless if bridge dimensions are altered (for
example, bridge rail, approach guardrail or impact attenuators)
Painting of structural steel
Overlay of bridge deck as part of a larger highway surfacing project (for example, overlay
carried across bridge deck for surface uniformity without additional bridge work)
Utility work
Emergency repair to restore structural integrity to the previous status following an accident
Retrofitting to correct a deficiency which does not substantially alter physical geometry or
increase the load carrying capacity
Work performed to keep a bridge operational while plans for complete rehabilitation or
replacement are under preparation (for example, adding a substructure element or extra
girder)
If the year of reconstruction is unknown or not applicable, leave blank.
The recorded year of reconstruction shall be the last year the construction crew was in the field.
All four digits of the year reconstruction was completed shall be entered.
There is also a MnDOT item called MN Year Reconstructed and is also used when the bridge
reconstruction does not utilize federal funds. For the MN Year Reconstructed, see Section
D.7.1.26.
D.7.1.20 Township
(MnDOT Item)

This item identifies the township in which the


structure is located. This is a five-digit character
that contains the two character Minnesota county
code and the three character township code
within each county. A structure can only be listed
as being in a city or township. For structures
located in a city, leave blank.

BSIPM User Note:


See Appendix E for a
complete list of townships.

These codes are not the NBI FIPS codes used for
NBI Item 4 (Place Codes) found in Section D.7.1.9
identifying cities, towns, townships, villages and other U.S. census-designated places.
Township
Waconia
D.7.1.21 Builder ID

Code
10010

This item is no longer used by MnDOT and should be left blank.

(MnDOT Item)

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D-24

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.1.22 Bridge Crew
Number
(MnDOT Item)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item identifies the MnDOT Bridge Maintenance Crew assigned to the structure.
This inventory item is only applicable for bridges:
Located on the Trunk Highway; and
Located in the Metro District (NBI Item 2 coded as 5)
Below are the codes for the structures that meet the criteria. Otherwise this item should be left
blank.

Click to go back to:

D-25

CODE

CREW

7627
7628
7629
7647
7648
7639

SPRING LAKE PARK


EDEN PRAIRIE
PLYMOUTH
MENDOTA
FOREST LAKE
MAPLEWOOD

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

D.7.1.23 Maintenance
Area

This item identifies the MnDOT Maintenance Sub-Area in which the structure is located (i.e. the
sub-division of the MnDOT District).

(MnDOT Item)

This item is only required for bridges on the Minnesota Trunk Highway (TH) System. The Trunk
Highway System is a roughly 12,000-mile network of key roads connecting communities
throughout the state and is maintained by MnDOT. It includes the interstate and U.S. highway
systems as well as other state highways. The bulk of funding for the system comes from
transportation-related taxes and federal aid.
If the MnDOT item Bridge Route System (see Section D.7.11.47) is coded as one of the following
the structure is located on the Minnesota Trunk Highway system and therefore requires a
Maintenance Sub-Area code:
01 ISTH
02 USTH
03 MNTH
All Metro District (NBI Item 2 coded as 5) structures on the Minnesota TH System shall be coded
as 5A. The Metro District State TH structures are further subdivided geographically into five
bridge maintenance crews. This separate inventory item is identified in Section D.7.1.22.

Click to go back to:

D-26

CODE

MAINTENANCE SUB-AREA

1A
1B
2A
2B
3A
3B
4A
4B
5A
6A
6B
7A
7B
8A
8B

DULUTH
VIRGINIA
BEMIDJI
CROOKSTON/THIEF RIVER FALLS
BRAINERD/BAXTER
ST. CLOUD
DETROIT LAKES
MORRIS
METRO (MINNEAPOLIS/ST. PAUL)
ROCHESTER
OWATONNA
MANKATO
WINDOM
WILLMAR
MARSHALL

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

D.7.1.24 Section,
Township, Range

This item identifies the section, township, and range where the bridge is located. If the structure
is located on a section border, the following rules apply:

(MnDOT Item)

North South Roadways = assign to the East Section


East West Roadways = assign to the North Section
Each township is identified with a township and range designation. Township designations
indicate the location north or south of the baseline, and range designations indicate the location
east or west of the Principal Meridian. For example, a township might be identified as Township
2 South, Range 3 West, which would mean that it is in the 2nd tier of townships south of a
baseline, and in the 3rd column of townships west of a principal meridian.
The section, township and range can be found on the first page of the bridge plans. If bridge
plans are not available, then MnDOT or Local Agencies will need to be contacted for assistance
to complete this item.
The section, township, and range are input as three separate items.
Example:
Bridge Plans:
Sec. 19
Twp. 29N
R. 22W

Click to go back to:

D-27

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

SIMS Display:
Sect.,
Twp.,
Range

Format
##
###N
##W

INVENTORY REPORT

SIMS Input:
19
029N
22W

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.1.25 BMU
Agreement Number

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item is no longer used by MnDOT and should be left blank.

(MnDOT Item)
D.7.1.26 MN Year
Reconstructed
(MnDOT Item)

This item designates the year of most recent reconstruction of the structure if federal funding
was not used. The recorded year of reconstruction shall be the last year the construction crew
was in the field. All four digits of the year reconstruction was completed shall be entered.

D.7.1.27 Bridge Plan


Location

This item indicates whether or not bridge plans are available and identifies the location of where
the bridge plans are filed.

(MnDOT Item)

TH bridge plans are located at the Central Office and should be coded 1.

D.7.1.28 City

CODE

DISPLAY

0
1
3
4
5

NO PLANS
CENTRAL
COUNTY
MUNICIPAL
OTHER

This item identifies the city in which the structure


is located using the city census four-digit code. A
structure can only be listed as being in a city or
township. For structures located in a township,
leave blank.

(MnDOT Item)

BSIPM User Note:

These codes are not the NBI FIPS codes used for
NBI Item 4 (Place Codes) found in Section D.7.1.9
identifying cities, towns, townships, villages and
other U.S. census-designated places.

See Appendix D for a


complete list of Minnesota
Cities and their MnDOT city
inventory number.

Description
St. Peter
D.7.1.29 Replacement
Structure
(MnDOT Item)

D.7.1.30 UTM-X

Code
3435

This MnDOT item is used to identify if the structure is open or closed to traffic.
A is used for new bridges that are currently open to traffic. G is used for new bridges that are
not yet open to traffic. When this field begins with X this denotes the bridge has been replaced
but the new bridge has not yet been entered into the MnDOT database.

CODE

DISPLAY

A
X

Open to traffic
Not open to traffic

Only BADMU has access to complete this item.

(MnDOT Item)
D.7.1.31 UTM-Y

Only BADMU has access to complete this item.

(MnDOT Item)

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D-28

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.1.32 Railroad
Abandoned Date
(MnDOT Item)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This is a date field which contains the date that a railroad abandoned a highway crossing. This
only applies to a railroad crossing over or under a public road, not for a railroad crossing a
waterway or valley.
Leave blank of not applicable.

D.7.1.33 Date Opened


to Traffic

This item identifies the month, day, and year the structure was initially opened to traffic. This
should relate to the year built.

(MnDOT Item)

Example:
Year Built
1954

Date Opened to Traffic


11/01/1954

D.7.1.34 Legislative
District

This item indicates the Minnesota Legislative District in which the structure is located. This refers
to the Districts for Minnesota State Senators and Representatives.

(MnDOT Item)

Guidance to use for coding the District can be found at the following website:
http://www.sos.state.mn.us/index.aspx?page=1725
After clicking on the above link, click on the individual Districts on the map or the links to the
right to see blown up maps.
Example:
City
Woodbury

D.7.1.35 On-Off System


(MnDOT Item)

Legislative District
53B

This item specifies whether the structure is on or off the Minnesota Trunk Highway system. This
item is used to help determine applicable policies, costs, and for reporting results.
For this item, use one of the following codes:

D.7.1.36 Maintenance
Agreement
(MnDOT Item)

Click to go back to:

D-29

CODE

DESCRIPTION

NBI ITEM 26

0 OFF
1 ON

Local bridges
Trunk Highway bridges (including those
on TH right of way)

08, 09, 19
01, 02, 06, 07, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17,

This item designates who has maintenance jurisdiction when the responsibility is an agency
other than the Bridge Owner. If a structure is maintained by someone other than the Bridge
Owner, a written agreement should be filed with MnDOT.

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2 STRUCTURE
INFORMATION
D.7.2.1 Total Lanes
Under Structure
(NBI Item 28B)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This section contains detailed information about the structure such as type of service, type of
design, material, skew, span lengths, number of spans, wearing surface, rail codes, and
miscellaneous information regarding the superstructure.
This item identifies the number of traffic lanes under the structure. This includes all lanes
carrying highway traffic (i.e., cars, trucks, buses) which are striped or otherwise operated as a
full width traffic lane for the entire length of the structure. This shall include any full width
merge lanes and ramp lanes, and shall be independent of directionality of usage. For example, a
one-lane bridge carrying two-directional traffic is still considered to carry only one lane on the
structure.
Only the number of traffic lanes under the bridge shall be coded.
If there are no traffic lanes under the structure, code 0.

D.7.2.2 Bridge Median


Type
(NBI Item 33)

This item indicates the type of median on the bridge. All bridges that carry either one way traffic
or two-way traffic separated only by a centerline should be coded for no median.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

0
1
2
3

No median
Open median
Closed median with mountable curb (no barrier)
Closed median with non-mountable barrier

Non-mountable barriers are any railing and all curbs that are greater than six inches above the
roadway surface area.
A closed median would allow a truck to drive over the median.
D.7.2.3 Skew Angle
(NBI Item 34)

This item identifies the skew angle in degrees at which the structure is constructed. The skew
angle is the angle between the centerline of a pier, abutment, or culvert barrel and a line normal
(perpendicular) to the centerline of the roadway on the bridge.
The skew angle may be taken from the plans or field measurements. A square bridge with no
skew should be coded as 0. If the structure is curved or the skew varies, the average skew
should be recorded. If the variation is unreasonable, record 99 to indicate a major variation in
skews of substructure units.

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D-30

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.4 Direction of
Skew
(MnDOT Item)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

MnDOT also includes the direction the skew angle between the centerline of the substructure
and the line normal (perpendicular) to the centerline of the roadway on the bridge. The letter
L or R is displayed after the skew angle (see Section D.7.2.3).
In the direction South-to-North or West-to East, as a vehicle approaches a structure, the angle of
skew will be Left if the vehicles left side intersects the back face of the abutment or the outside
wall of a culvert first. It will be Right if the vehicles right side intersects the back face of the
abutment or the outside wall of a culvert first.
This item should be left blank if the skew angle is 0 degrees (both sides of the vehicle will
intersect the back face of the abutment or the outside wall of a culvert at the same time).

CODE

DESCRIPTION

L
R
N

Left Skew
Right Skew
No Skew

Example:
30L

D.7.2.5 Structure Flared


(NBI Item 35)

This item indicates if the width of the structure varies or flares. Generally, such variance will
result from ramps converging with or diverging from the through lanes on the structure, but
there may be other causes.
Minor flares at ends of structures should be ignored. MnDOT considers a minor flare to involve
less than 20% of the structure length.

Click to go back to:

D-31

CODE

DESCRIPTION

0
1

No Flare
Flared

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.6 Service On
Bridge
(NBI Item 42A)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item identifies the type of service on the structure.

CODE

DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

1
2
3
4
5
6

HIGHWAY
RAILROAD
PED-BICYCLE
HWY;RR
HWY;PED
SECOND LVL

Highway (with or without pedestrian)


Railroad
Pedestrian-Bicycle (Recreation Trail)
Highway-railroad
Highway-pedestrian*
Overpass at an interchange or second level of a multilevel
interchange
7
THIRD LVL
Third level of a multilevel interchange
8
FOURTH LVL
Fourth level of a multilevel interchange
9
BUILDING
Building or Plaza
0
OTHER
Other
* The minimum width of sidewalk shall be 30 inches. If the area between the rail face
and the curb is not greater than or equal to 30 inches the type of service should be
coded as 1 = Hwy.
D.7.2.7 Service Under
Bridge
(NBI Item 42B)

Click to go back to:

D-32

This item identifies the type of service under the structure.

CODE

DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0

HWY;PED
RAILROAD
PED;BICYCLE
HWY;RR
STREAM
HWY;STREAM
RR;STREAM
HWY;RR;STREAM
RELIEF
OTHER

Highway (with or without pedestrian)


Railroad
Pedestrian-Bicycle (Recreation Trail)
Highway-railroad
Waterway
Highway-waterway
Railroad-waterway
Highway-waterway-railroad
Relief for waterway
Other

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.8 Main Span Type
(Material)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

This item identifies the main span(s) material type using the codes in the following table.

CODE

(NBI Item 43A)

Chapter D

DESCRIPTION

1
CONCRETE
2
CONCRETE CONTINUOUS
3
STEEL
4
STEEL CONTINUOUS
5
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE*
6
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CONTINUOUS*
7
WOOD OR TIMBER
8
MASONRY
9
ALUMINUM, WROUGHT IRON, OR CAST IRON
0
OTHER
* Post-tensioned concrete should be coded as prestressed concrete.
D.7.2.9 Main Span Type
(Design)
(NBI Item 43B)

This item identifies the main span superstructure design and/or construction type using the
following codes.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

01
SLAB
02
STRINGER/MULTI-BEAM OR GIRDER
03
GIRDER AND FLOORBEAM SYSTEM
04
TEE BEAM
05
BOX BEAM OR GIRDERS MULTIPLE
06
BOX BEAM OR GIRDERS SINGLE OR SPREAD
07
FRAME (EXCEPT FRAME CULVERTS)
08
ORTHOTROPIC
09
TRUSS DECK
10
TRUSS THRU
11
ARCH DECK
12
ARCH THRU
13
SUSPENSION
14
STAYED GIRDER
15
MOVABLE LIFT
16
MOVABLE BASCULE
17
MOVABLE SWING
18
TUNNEL
19
CULVERT (INCLUDES FRAME CULVERTS)
20
MIXED TYPES*
21
SEGMENTAL BOX GIRDER
22
CHANNEL BEAM
00
OTHER
* Applicable only to ach spans Item 44

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D-33

NBI ITEMS
3B

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INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.10 Approach Span
Type (Material)
(NBI Item 44A)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item identifies the approach span material type to a major bridge or for the spans where
the structural material of the main span(s) is different. The codes are the same as for NBI Item
43A (Main Span Material).
Only one approach span type shall be entered. Structures with more than one approach span
type shall code the most predominant type. For structures with no approach spans on the
structure the item shall be coded as 0-Other.

D.7.2.11 Approach Span


Type (Design)
(NBI Item 44B)

This item identifies the approach span design type to a major bridge or for the spans where the
structural material of the main span(s) is different. The codes are the same as for NBI Item 43B
(Main Span Design).
Use code 20-Mixed Type if more than one design types are present. For structures with no
approach spans on the structure the item shall be coded as 00 Other.

D.7.2.12 Number of
Main Spans
(NBI Item 45)

This item indicates the number of spans in the main or major unit of the structure. This item will
include all spans of most bridges, the major unit only of a sizable structure, or a unit of material
or design different from that of the approach spans.
Two or more lines of culverts that are different sizes, but otherwise the same, should be coded
as multiple main spans or approach spans, whichever is appropriate.

D.7.2.13 Number of
Approach Spans

This item indicates the number of spans in the approach unit of the structures, or the number of
spans of a different material/structure type from that of the main span(s).

(NBI Item 46)


D.7.2.14 Total Number
of Spans

This item indicates the total number of spans on the bridge and must equal the combined total
of NBI Items 45(Number of Main Spans) and NBI Item 46(Number of Approach Spans).

(MnDOT Item)
D.7.2.15 Max Span
Length
(NBI Item 48)

This item indicates the length of the longest span of the structure recorded to the nearest tenth
of a foot, as measured along the centerline of the roadway. Tunnel lengths should also be
measured along the centerline of the roadway.
Curved bridges shall be measured along the curve at the centerline of roadway.
For single span bridges, the length should be the clear open distance between abutments. For
bridges with three or more spans, the maximum span length should be the distance between
centerlines of bearings.
For tunnels, the length is the distance between inside faces of the walls.
For culverts, the length should be measured along the centerline of roadway regardless of the
depth below grade.

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D-34

NBI ITEMS
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| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

D.7.2.16 Structure
Length

This item indicates the total length of the structure recorded to the nearest tenth of a foot,
measured along the centerline of the roadway.

(NBI Item 49)

For bridges, this length will be measured back to back of backwalls of abutments or from paving
notch to paving notch (end block).
For culverts, this length should be measured along the center line of roadway regardless of their
depth below grade. This measurement should be taken between inside wall of culvert to inside
wall of culvert. For culverts with multiple barrels the measurement should be between inside
walls of the outside barrels. See pictures below and on following pages for guidance.
For tunnels, this length shall be measured along the centerline of the roadway running under the
tunnel. Measurement should be made from the back to back of the exterior walls for total
length.
FHWA requires inspection of any structure with a total length of 20 feet or greater. Minnesota
State law requires inspection of any structure with a total length of 10 feet or greater. Therefore,
the MnDOT structure inventory includes many 10 to 20 feet structures that are not submitted to
FHWA.
Examples:

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D-35

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

Click to go back to:

D-36

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

Chapter D

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.17 Curb or
Sidewalk Width L/R
(NBI Items 50A & 50B)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item represents the curb or sidewalk width to the nearest tenth of a foot. Code NBI Item
50A for the left curb or sidewalk width and NBI Item 50B for the right curb or sidewalk width.
MnDOT determines the direction of Left and Right by traveling across the bridge in the
South-to-North or West-to-East direction.
Examples:
Curb or Sidewalk Widths
Box Culvert with 2 feet of fill
12 foot sidewalk on right and barrier on left.

NBI 50A
0.0
0.0

NBI 50B
0.0
12.0

See the following illustrations for guidance on determining the correct width for different curb
and sidewalk scenarios.

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D-37

NBI ITEMS
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| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

Click to go back to:

D-38

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

Chapter D

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

D.7.2.18 Deck Width

This item indicates the out-to-out width of the structure recorded to the nearest tenth of a foot.

(NBI Item 52)

If the structure is flared, Varies is added after the average deck width. Minor flares at the ends
of structures should be ignored.
For a through structure, the number to be coded will represent the lateral clearance between
superstructure members.
Where traffic runs directly on the top slab or wearing surface of the culvert (e.g., an R/C box
without fill) code the actual out-to-out width. This will also apply where the fill is minimal and
the culvert headwalls affect the flow of traffic.
Where the roadway is on fill carried across a pipe or box culvert and the culvert headwalls do
not affect the flow of traffic, code 0. This is considered proper inasmuch as a filled section over
a culvert simply maintains the roadway cross-section.
For pictorial guidance on coding the deck width for different scenarios, see illustrations in
Section D.7.2.17.
Examples:
Deck Width
34-6
45-0 to 55-0

D.7.2.19 Parallel
Structure Designation
(NBI Item 101)

Code this item to indicate situations where separate structures carry the inventory route in
opposite directions of travel over the same feature. The lateral distance between structures has
no bearing on the coding of this item. One of the following codes shall be used:

CODE

DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

RIGHT

LEFT

NONE

The right structure of parallel bridges carrying the roadway in the


direction of the inventory. (For a STRAHNET highway, this is west to
east and south to north.)
The left structure of parallel bridges. This structure carries traffic in the
opposite direction.
No parallel structure exists.

Example:
Structure #1
Structure #2

Click to go back to:

D-39

Code
34.5
50.0 ft Varies

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

Code:
R
L

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.20 Temporary
Status

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Code this item to indicate situations where temporary structures or conditions exist. This item
should be left blank if not applicable.

(NBI Item 103)

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Not Applicable
Temporary Structure(s) or conditions exist

Temporary structure(s) or conditions are those which are required to facilitate traffic flow, but
are not intended to be permanent. This may occur either before or during the modification or
replacement of a structure found to be deficient. Such conditions include the following:

Bridges shored up, including additional temporary supports.


Temporary repairs made to keep a bridge open.
Temporary structures, temporary runarounds or bypasses.
Other temporary measures, such as barricaded traffic lanes to keep the bridge open.

Any repaired structure or replacement structure which is expected to remain in place without
further activity, other than normal maintenance, for a significant period of time shall not be
considered temporary. Under such conditions, that structure, regardless of its type, shall be
considered the minimum adequate to remain in place and evaluated accordingly.
If this item is coded as a temporary structure or condition (Code = T), then all of the data
recorded for the structure shall be coded for the condition of the structure as it would be if the
temporary measures did not exist, except for the following items:

Click to go back to:

D-40

ITEM

DESCRIPTION

10
41
47
53
54
55
56
70

Inventory Route, Minimum Vertical Clearance


Structure Open, Posted, or Closed to Traffic
Inventory Route, Total Horizontal Clearance
Minimum Vertical Clearance Over Bridge Roadway
Minimum Vertical Underclearance
Minimum Lateral Underclerance on Right
Minimum Lateral Underclearance on Left
Bridge Posting (The Operating and Inventory Ratings Should be Shown as if
the Temporary Measures do not Exist)

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.21 Deck Material
(NBI Item 107)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item identifies the material of the deck present on the bridge. If more than one type of deck
system is present, record the most predominant.
This item will be coded as N Not Applicable for culverts or filled spandrel arches.

D.7.2.22 Wearing
Surface Type
(NBI Item 108A)

Click to go back to:

D-41

CODE

DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
N

C-I-P CONCRETE
PRECAST CONCRETE
OPEN GRATING
CLOSED GRATING
STEEL PLATE
CORRUGATED STEEL
ALUMINUM
TIMBER
OTHER
N/A

Concrete (Cast-in-Place)
Concrete (Precast Panels)
Open Grating
Closed Grating
Steel Plate (includes orthotropic)
Corrugated Steel
Aluminum
Wood or Timber
Other
Not Applicable (Structures with no Deck)

This item identifies the type of wearing surface present on the bridge deck.

CODE

DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0

MONOLITHIC CONC
INTEGRAL CONC
LATEX CONC
LOW SLUMP CONC
EPOXY OVERLAY
BITUMINOUS
TIMBER
GRAVEL
OTHER
NONE

N/A

Concrete (No overlay)


Integral Concrete (Plain concrete overlay)
Latex Concrete
Low Slump Concrete
Epoxy Overlay
Bituminous
Timber
Gravel
Other
No additional concrete thickness or wearing surface is
included in the bridge deck.
Not Applicable (Structures with no Deck)

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.23 Deck
Membrane Type
(NBI Item 108B)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Concrete bridge deck deterioration is one of the most extensive bridge maintenance problems
affecting the service life of bridges. One cause of the deterioration is the penetration of
moisture and chlorides into the concrete with subsequent corrosion of the steel reinforcement.
The use of membranes is one strategy to prevent moisture and chlorides from reaching the
concrete by providing a barrier on the top of the concrete deck. The membrane is then
protected from traffic by an asphalt overlay.
This item identifies the type of membrane present that typically applies only to bridge decks
with bituminous overlays.

Click to go back to:

D-42

CODE

DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

1
2
3
8
9
0
N

BUILT UP
PREFORMED FABRIC
EPOXY
UNKNOWN
OTHER
NONE
N/A

Built-up (layered)
Preformed Fabric
Epoxy
Unknown
Other
None
Not Applicable (No Deck)

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.24 Deck Rebar
Protection
(NBI Item 108C)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Concrete bridge deck deterioration is one of the most extensive maintenance problems affecting
the service life of bridges. Moisture and chloride intrusion can accelerate concrete bridge deck
distress through corrosion of the steel reinforcement. This item indicates the type of deck
protection system to prevent corrosion of the reinforcement that is present on the bridge.

CODE

DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

1
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
0
N

EPOXY COATED REBAR


GALVANIZED REBAR
OTHER COATED REBAR
CATHODIC PROTECTION
POLYMER
INTERNALLY SEALED
UNKNOWN
OTHER
NONE
N/A

Epoxy Coated Reinforcing


Galvanized Reinforcing
Other Coated Reinforcing
Cathodic Protection
Polymer Impregnated
Internally Sealed
Unknown
Other
None
Not Applicable (applies only to structures with no
deck)

Corrosion of concrete bridge structures in North America did not become a significant concern
until the 1960s as properly designed and constructed bridges before then rarely experienced
corrosion-related distress. In the 1950s, many highway agencies began applying deicing salts to
highways and bridges to keep roadways free of snow and ice.
Following the increased use of deicing salts, corrosion of bridge decks was observed. Epoxycoated reinforcing steel was first used in a bridge in Pennsylvania in 1973. Below is an
approximate timeline to assist in deck protection coding if bridge plans are not available.
Year Built

Type of Reinforcement

Prior to 1940

Single Layer of Uncoated Rebar

1940-1973

Two Layers of Uncoated Rebar

1973-1980

Top Layer Epoxy Coated/Bottom Layer Uncoated Rebar

1980-2009

Two Layers of Epoxy Coated Rebar

2009

Complex Bridges may use Stainless Steel Rebar

Bridge decks with only the top layer of epoxy coated reinforcement shall be coded as 1 Epoxy
Coated Rebar.
Bridge decks with stainless steel rebar shall be coded as 9 Other.

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D-43

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.25 NBIS Bridge
Length
(NBI Item 112)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item indicates if the structure is long enough to meet the NBIS definition of a bridge which is
a structure including supports erected over a depression or an obstruction, such as water,
highway, or railway, and having a track or passageway for carrying traffic or other moving loads,
and having an opening measured along the center of the roadway of more than 20 feet between
under copings of abutments or spring lines of arches, or extreme ends of openings for multiple
boxes; it may also include multiple pipes, where the clear distance between openings is less than
half of the smaller contiguous opening.
Refer to D.7.2.16 for examples of structure lengths.

D.7.2.26 Cantilever ID
(MnDOT Item)

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Y
N
R

Yes
No
Removed

This item describes the type of cantilever hinge assembly present on the bridge. This item is to
be left blank if the structure does not contain any cantilever hinge assemblies.
Only one cantilever type can be selected per bridge.

Click to go back to:

D-44

CODE

DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

F
P
R
S
N

FRICTION HINGE
PINNED HINGE
ROCKER HINGE
PIN & HANGER
NOT APPLICABLE/BLANK

Sliding Plate Hinge Bearing


Hinge Pin Assembly
Rocker Hinge Bearing
Pin & Hanger Assembly
No cantilever hinge bearings are present on the bridge
(it can also simply be left blank)

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.27 Culvert Type
(MnDOT Item)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Culverts are constructed of a variety of materials, including concrete (cast-in-place, or precast),


corrugated steel plate, stone masonry, timber, or aluminum. The size and shape of a culvert is
usually determined by the hydraulic requirements (opening must be large enough to carry the
design discharge). Culvert shapes include arch culverts, box culverts, round pipe culverts, pipearch culverts, or elliptical culverts. A culvert may consist of a single barrel or multiple barrels.
If NBI Item 62 (Culvert) is coded a 0-9, this item shall be coded according to the following coding
system depending on culvert type. The item describes the culvert material, barrel dimensions,
and number of barrels

CODE

DESCRIPTION

__ DIA
C or W sshhz
aXb
PCSTsshhz

Round Pipe Diameter (in tenths of feet)


Cast in place concrete box ('W' Series Old, 'C' Series - New)
Concrete pipe arch
Precast concrete box

cXd
WsshhzTIM
exf

Corrugated Metal Pipe Arch


Timber Box Culvert
Precast arch

Notes:

ss
hh
z

=
=
=

a
b
c
d
e

=
=
=
=
=

Barrel span width in feet


Height in feet
Number of barrels (No code needed for single barrel)
D =
Double
T =
Triple
Q =
Quad
Span in inches
Rise in inches
Span in feet and inches
Rise in feet and inches
Span in feet

Rise in feet

Examples:
Material and Construction
Cast-in-place 10ft by 8ft Concrete Box Culvert, 2 barrels
Steel Pipe Arch with a 16.6ft Main Span and 10.1ft height
A triple Precast Concrete Box Culvert with a 12ft span width and 8ft height
Precast Concrete Box Double Culvert 14-0 span width and 9-0 height
Precast Concrete Pipe Arch with a span length of 10.2ft with a height of 6.4ft
A 1965 10.2ft by 10ft single cast-in-place concrete box culvert
Triple timber box culvert with a main span length of 6.3ft and a height of 5.25ft
Steel Pipe Culvert with a main span length of 8.2ft

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D-45

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

Code
C108D
167X101
PCST128T
PCST149D
122x77
W1010
W65T TIM
8.2 DIA.

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.28 Culvert Barrel
Length
(MnDOT Item)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item gives the culvert barrel length as measured along the centerline of the culvert
regardless of the depth below grade. The length does not include the apron sections of concrete
culverts. Record this length to the nearest foot.
This item shall be left blank if structure is a bridge.
Tunnel function as a bridge and should not have this item or other culvert items coded.
Example:
Culvert Barrel Length

Code

32-0

32

D.7.2.29 Wearing
Surface Installation Year

This item identifies the year in which NBI Item 108A (Wearing Surface Type) was installed on the
bridge deck. All four digits of the year should be entered.

(MnDOT Item)

See Section D.7.2.22 for NBI Item 108A.


This item shall remain blank if structure is a culvert (NBI Item 43B = 19).

D.7.2.30 Deck Rebar


Installation Year

This item identifies the year NBI Item 108C (Deck Protection System) was installed. All four digits
of the year should be entered.

(MnDOT Item)

See Section D.7.2.24 for NBI Item 108C.


This item shall remain blank if structure is a culvert (NBI Item 43B = 19).

Click to go back to:

D-46

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

D.7.2.31 Abutment
Foundation Material

This item identifies the material type of the abutments. For pile bent abutments, the piling
material should be used (not the bearing cap material).

(MnDOT Item)

For abutments that consist of different materials or a combination of materials, record the
material that is the most scour susceptible.

CODE

DISPLAY

N
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

UNKNOWN
CONCRETE
TIMBER
STEEL
MASONRY
STONE
COMBINATION
DIFFER

8
9
D.7.2.32 Abutment
Foundation Type
(MnDOT Item)

DESCRIPTION

C.I.P.
PRE STRESS
CONC

Not applicable Used for Culverts


Unknown
Concrete
Timber
Steel
Masonry
Stone Not Mortared
A Combination of Material Types used in one Substructure Unit.
Abutments are Constructed of Different Material Types or the
Piers are Constructed of Different Material Types.
C.I.P. Piling (Sheet Shell Piling Filled with Concrete)
Prestressed or Post Tensioned Concrete

This item indicates the type of foundation that supports the abutments.
For the abutments that consist of different design types or a combination of design types record
the type of foundation that is the most scour susceptible.
A U Type abutment is coded for pier foundation for those structures which appear to be a
single span structure but have a slab span or a deck girder abutment span. This type of structure
is thus a two span bridge with no piers.

CODE

DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

N
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
U

N/A
UNKNOWN
SPRD/SOIL
SPRD/ROCK
FTNG/PILE
PILE BENT
U TYPE
CAISSON
MSE
INTEGRAL
SEMI INTEGRAL
UNKNOWN

Not applicable
Type Unknown
Spread Footing on Soil
Spread Footing on Rock
Footing Supported on Piling
Pile Bent
U Type Abutment
Caissons Used as Substructure
Mechanically Stabilized Earth*
Integral
Semi Integral
Pier foundation for those structures which appear to be a 1 span
structure but have a slab span or a deck girder abutment span.
This type of structure is thus a 2 span bridge with no piers.

* For mechanically Stabilized Earth abutments, use 6 Combination for the material type
and 7 MSE for the foundation type.
Examples for coding MnDOT Abutment material and type are provided on the next page.
Click to go back to:

D-47

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Examples:
Abutment
Foundation
Material:
TIMBER
Abutment
Foundation Type:
PILE BENT
Description:
Timber slab
supported on timber
piles with timber
lagging.

Abutment
Foundation
Material:
CONCRETE
Abutment
Foundation Type:
FTG PILE
Description:
Concrete footing
supported on piles.

Abutment
Foundation
Material:
STONE
Abutment
Foundation Type:
UNKNOWN
Description:
A stone abutment for
a steel truss bridge
built in 1885.

Click to go back to:

D-48

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

D.7.2.33 Pier
Foundation Material

This item identifies the material type of the piers. For pile bent piers, the piling material should
be used (not the pier cap material).

(MnDOT Item)

For piers that consist of different materials or a combination of materials, record the material
that is the most scour susceptible.

D.7.2.34 Pier
Foundation Type
(MnDOT Item)

CODE

SIMS DISPLAY

N
1
2
3
4
5
6

CONCRETE
TIMBER
STEEL
MASONRY
STONE
COMBINATION

DIFFER

8
9

C.I.P.
PRE STRESS
CONC

D-49

Not Applicable Used for Culverts


Concrete
Timber
Steel
Masonry
Stone-Not mortared
A combination of material types are used in one substructure
unit.
Piers are constructed of different material types or the piers are
constructed of different material types.
C.I.P. Piling (Sheet Shell Piling Filled with Concrete)
Prestressed or post tensioned concrete

This item indicates the type of foundation that supports the piers.
For the piers that consist of different design types or a combination of design types record the
type of foundation that is the most scour susceptible.

CODE

SIMS DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

N
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

N/A
UNKNOWN
SPRD/SOIL
SPRD/ROCK
FTNG/PILE
PILE BENT
U TYPE
CAISSON
UNKNOWN

Not applicable
Type unknown
Spread footing on soil
Spread footing on rock
Footing supported on piling
Pile bent
U Type abutment
Caissons used as substructure
Pier foundation for those structures which appear to be
a 1 span structure but have a slab span or a deck girder
abutment span. This type of structure is thus a 2 span
bridge with no piers.

Click to go back to:

DESCRIPTION

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.35 Wearing
Course/Fill Depth
(MnDOT Item)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item indicates the total depth of wearing surface material on the bridge deck or the total
depth of fill material and wearing surface material placed over the top of a culvert measured to
the nearest hundredths of a foot.
Inspector Note:

The culvert fill depth item indicates the total depth of fill
material (including the wearing surface, if any) that is
supported by the culvert.
Load rating calculations will be based upon the deck
wearing surface type and depth items that are displayed
on the structure inventory report. As the deck wearing
surface can constitute a significant dead load, it will
have a significant effect upon the load-carrying capacity
of the bridge.

The culvert fill or wearing course


depth should be verified at each
inspection. This may affect the
load-carrying capacity of the
structure. BADMU should be
contacted to update the depth as
well as the PA if a load rating
needs to be completed.

A load rating analysis should typically be performed


prior to installing a new wearing surface.
If any changes to the wearing surface type or depth are reported during an inspection, the
load rating should be reviewed - any increase in the dead load will require a new load rating.
In some cases, excess gravel may have to be removed from a bridge deck to maintain the
current posting limits.
D.7.2.36 MN Actual Fill
Depth

Record the actual height for culverts. Use when a culvert has a distribution slab. Recorded to the
nearest hundredth of a foot.

(MnDOT Item)

If a culvert has a distribution slab enter 2.01 for the Wearing Course/Fill Depth. The MN Actual
Fill Depth will have the actual fill depth.

D.7.2.37 Roadway Area


(Curb-to-Curb)

This quantity is only applicable for bridges. It is expressed to the nearest square foot and is
determined by multiplying NBI Item 51 (Roadway Width) or curb-to curb width on the bridge
(excluding medians) by NBI Item 49 (Structure Length). This quantity is used for determining
overlay quantities. See Section D.7.11.24 and D.7.2.16 for information regarding roadway width
and structure length, respectively.

(MnDOT Item)

On highway bridges with sidewalks, the sidewalk is not included in this quantity. This quantity
may also be calculated for pedestrian bridges.
Leave the field blank for culvert or tunnel structures.

Click to go back to:

D-50

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.38 Curb Height (Lt
and Rt)
(MnDOT Item)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE


This item represents the curb height to the nearest
hundredth of a foot, measured from the top of the
wearing surface to the top of the curb or sidewalk. Left
and Right direction is based by traveling in the direction
of increasing reference stationing.
Structures with only barriers shall not be coded and left
blank.

D.7.2.39 Railing Codes


(Lt and Rt)
(MnDOT Item)

Chapter D

Inspector Note:
Anytime a new overlay is placed
on the bridge deck the curb
heights shall be measured for
new dimensions.

The type of vehicular railings present on a bridge should be coded according to the MnDOT
Railing Code List. This table should also be used to assist in coding NBI Item 36A (Bridge Railing).
The Railing Code Table includes diagrams of approximately 50 rail types commonly used in
Minnesota, and indicates if these railing meet current design/safety standards.
They are listed as Left Rail Type ID and Right Rail Type ID (the left and right hand
directions are based by traveling in the direction of
Inspector Note:
increasing reference stationing). This item should be
The railing code diagrams shown
updated if the bridge railings are reconstructed or
in the 1995 FHWA Recording
replaced. The MnDOT Railing Code List (below) is grouped
and Coding Guide are outdated,
by Material Type and shape and provides an abbreviated
and should not be used for
description listed in numerical order.
coding NBI Item 36.
Railing codes #20 and #45 have been eliminated, as there
are no known examples of these rail types in Minnesota.

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D-51

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

MNDOT RAILING CODE LIST


CODE

DESCRIPTION

CODE

DESCRIPTION

NN

Vehicular Railings Not Required

31

Two-Line Concrete Railing

00

Substandard Railing (undefined)

32

Steel Angle Railing (Steel Posts)

01

Meets Standards for All Speeds (undefined)

33

Concrete Through-Girder Bridge

02

Meets Standards 40 MPH (undefined)

34

Steel Through-Girder Bridge

03

35

Steel Pipe Railing (Steel or Concrete Posts)

04

03 One-Line Concrete Railing w/6Brush


Curb
One-Line Concrete Railing w/Split Posts

36

Solid Concrete Railing

05

Two-Line Steel Tube Railing (Steel Posts)

37

Steel Plate Beam Guardrail w/ Timber Posts

06

Timber Post & Beam Railing

38

Timber Plank Railing

07

Concrete Railing (Type G) w/Pipe

39

One-Line Concrete Railing w/Narrow Beam

08

Concrete Railing (Type G)

40

Ornamental Metal Railing

09

One-Line Concrete Railing w/Pipe

41

Open Balustrade Concrete Railing

10

Concrete Railing (Type D) w/Pipe

42

11

Concrete Railing w/Aluminum or Steel Pipe

43

One-Line Steel Bent Plate Railing (Steel


Posts)
Triple Beam Retrofit Guardrail

12

Concrete Railing w/Flat Tube

44

Reconstructed One-Line Railing (J Facing)

13

Concrete Railing w/Pipe

45

This code is no longer used

14

One-Line Concrete Railing w/2-Line Pipe

46

Reconstructed One-Line Railing (2-1 High)

15

Concrete Railing (Type D) w/2-Line Pipe

47

Reconstructed One-Line Railing w/Pipe

16

Concrete Railing w/2-Line Flat Tube

48

One-Line Concrete Railing w/6Flush Curb

17

Concrete Railing w/2-Line Alum. or Steel


Pipe
Concrete Railing w/2-Line Pipe

49

One-Line Concrete Railing w/10Brush Curb

50

Glulam Timber Railing

51

Concrete P-2 Parapet w/Steel Tube (TL-4)

20

Concrete Railing w/2-Line Alum. or Steel


Pipe
This code is no longer used

52

Structural Tube Wyoming Railing (TL-4)

21

Concrete P-1 Parapet w/Fence (Bikeway)

53

Three-Line Steel Tube Railing (TL-4)

22

Concrete Railing (Type F or J)

54

Two-Line Steel Tube Railing (TL-2)

23

Concrete Railing (Type F or J) w/Pipe

55

Timber Railing on Concrete Deck (TL-4)

24

Precast Railing (Type J) w/Straight


Anchors
Precast Railing (Type J) w/Hooked
Anchors
Laminated Timber Railing (Type F or J)

56

Timber Railing on Concrete Deck (TL-2)

57

Concrete Parapet w/Two-Line Tube (TL-4)

59

29

Concrete Parapet w/Two-Pipe Rail


(Bikeway)
Concrete P-1 Parapet w/Metal Rail
(Bikeway)
Reconstructed One-Line Railing (2-4 High)

30

Concrete Railing (Type F or J) w/Fence

62

18
19

25
26
27
28

Click to go back to:

D-52

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

58

Reserved for future use

60
61

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Table D.7.3.28-1 MnDOT Bridge Railing Codes

Code

Description

Diagram (or Description)

NN

Vehicular Railings Not Required

00

Substandard For All Speeds

01

Meets Standards For All Speeds

02

Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH


(Meets Standards 40 MPH)

Use this code for pedestrian bridges, railroad


bridges, or culvert structures that do not
require railings.
Railing cannot be accurately described by any
of the type codes in this table (this code
should also be used if vehicular railings are
required but are not present).
Railing cannot be accurately described by any
of the type codes in this table.
Railing cannot be accurately described by any
of the type codes in this table.

One-Line Concrete Railing with


6 High Brush Curb
(9 Projection)
Meets Standards For All Speeds

03

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design*
Geometrics ( 45 MPH) **
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Top rail beam must be at least 9 wide


to meet 10-kip design requirements.
**For speeds 45 MPH, the curb
projection cannot exceed 9.

One-Line Concrete Railing with


Split Posts
Does not Meet Standards 45 MPH
(Meets Standards 40 MPH)

04

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design*
Geometrics ( 45 MPH) **
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Top rail beam must be at least 9 wide


to meet 10-kip design requirements.
**1 post setback (1) is a snagging
hazard.

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D-53

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RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Two-Line Steel Tube Railing with


Steel Posts
05

Substandard For All Speeds


NCHRP 350 Crash Tested
AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

Timber Post & Beam Railing on


Timber Deck (TL-2)
06

Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH


(Meets Standards 40 MPH)
NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4
NCHRP 350 Crash TL-2
AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No
Yes No

Concrete Railing Type G

(General Motors) with Steel Pipe


Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH
(Meets Standards 40 MPH)

07

NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4


AASHTO 10-kip Design
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Pipe railing is a snagging hazard and


the 2-4base is too short for speeds 45
MPH.

Concrete Railing Type G

(early 1970s General Motors


design)
Meets Standards For All Speeds

08

NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4


AASHTO 10-kip Design
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Railing must be at least 2-8 high for


speeds 45 MPH.

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D-54

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Chapter D

One-Line Concrete Railing with


Steel Upper Pipe & Curb Pipe
Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH
(Meets Standards 40 MPH)

09

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design*
Geometrics ( 45 MPH) **
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Top rail beam must be at least 9 wide


to meet 10-kip design requirements.
**Upper pipe rail is a snagging hazard.

Concrete Railing (Type D)


with One-Line Steel Pipe
Substandard For All Speeds

10

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

Concrete Railing with One-Line


Aluminum or Steel Pipe
Substandard For All Speeds

11

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design*

Yes No
Yes No

*Upper pipe rail does not meet 10-kip


design requirements.

Concrete Railing with One-Line


Flat Tube
12

Substandard For All Speeds


NCHRP 350 Crash Tested
AASHTO 10-kip Design*

Yes No
Yes No

*Upper tube rail does not meet 10-kip


design requirements.

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D-55

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Chapter D

Concrete Railing with One-Line


Steel Pipe
Substandard For All Speeds

13

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design*

Yes No
Yes No

*Upper pipe rail does not meet 10-kip


design requirements.

Concrete Railing with Two-Line


Steel Pipe & Curb Cable
Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH
(Meets Standards 40 MPH)

14

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design*
Geometrics ( 45 MPH) **
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Top rail beam must be at least 9 wide


to meet 10-kip design requirements.
**Upper railings are a snagging hazard.

Concrete Railing (Type D) with


Two-Line Steel Pipe
15

Substandard For All Speeds


NCHRP 350 Crash Tested
AASHTO 10-kip Design*

Yes No
Yes No

Concrete Railing with Two-Line


Flat Tube
Substandard For All Speeds

16

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design*

Yes No
Yes No

*Upper tube railings do not meet 10-kip


design requirements.

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D-56

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Chapter D

Concrete Railing with Two-Line


Aluminum or Steel Pipe
Substandard For All Speeds

17

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design*

Yes No
Yes No

*Upper pipe railings do not meet 10-kip


design requirements.

Concrete Railing with Two-Line


Steel Pipe
Substandard For All Speeds

18

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design*

Yes No
Yes No

*Upper pipe railings do not meet 10-kip


design requirements.

Concrete Railing with Two-Line


Aluminum or Steel Pipe
Substandard For All Speeds

19

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design*

Yes No
Yes No

*Upper pipe railings do not meet 10-kip


design requirements.

Concrete Parapet (Type P-1)


with 6 ft. Chain Link Fence
(Bikeway)

21

Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH


(Meets Standards 40 MPH)
NCHRP 350 Crash TL-2
AASHTO 10-kip Design
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)*
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Fence is a snagging hazard, and the 24parapet is too short for speeds 45
MPH.

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Chapter D

Concrete Railing Type F


(Florida) or Type J (New
Jersey)
22

Meets Standards For All Speeds


NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4
AASHTO 10-kip Design
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

Concrete Railing Type F


(Florida) or Type J (New
Jersey) with One-Line Steel Pipe

Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH


(Meets Standards 40 MPH)

23

NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4


AASHTO 10-kip Design
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*The steel pipe railing is a snagging


hazard and if removed, the 2-4concrete
base is too short for speeds 45 MPH.

Precast Concrete Railing Type


F or J with Straight Anchor
Bolts
Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH
(Meets Standards 40 MPH)

24

NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4


AASHTO 10-kip Design
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Substandard for speeds 45 MPH due


to the questionable deck connection
detail.

Precast Railing (Type J) with


Hooked Anchor Bolts

(MnDOT Standard Plate 5-397-140)


Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH
(Meets Standards 40 MPH)

25

NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4


AASHTO 10-kip Design
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Substandard for speeds 45 MPH due


to the questionable deck connection
detail.

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D-58

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Precast Concrete Railing (Type J)


Code #25
MNDOT
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RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Laminated Timber Railing Type


J (New Jersey)
26

Substandard For All Speeds


NCHRP 350 Crash Tested
AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

Concrete Parapet Railing with


Two-Line Pipe Railing (Bikeway)
Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH
(Meets Standards 40 MPH)

27

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)*
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Railings are a snagging hazard, the 24parapet is too short for speeds 45
MPH.

Concrete Parapet (Type P-1)


with Metal Railing (Bikeway)
Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH
(Meets Standards 40 MPH)

28

NCHRP 350 Crash TL-2


AASHTO 10-kip Design
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)*
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Railing is a snagging hazard, and the


2-4parapet is too short for speeds 45
MPH.

Reconstructed One-Line
Concrete Railing (2-4 high
excluding curb)
Meets Standards For All Speeds*

29

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)*
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*For speeds 45 MPH, the total height


(including curb) must be at least 2-8
and the curb projection cannot exceed
9.

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D-59

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RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Concrete Railing Type F or J


with Chain Link Fence (Bikeway)
Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH
(Meets Standards 40 MPH)

30

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested*


AASHTO 10-kip Design
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)*
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Substandard for speeds 45 MPH due


to the fence mounted on top (snagging
hazard).

Two-Line Concrete Railing


(1940s-1950s design)
31

Substandard For All Speeds


NCHRP 350 Crash Tested
AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

Steel Angle Iron Railing


(Two-Line or Three-Line)
32

Substandard For All Speeds


NCHRP 350 Crash Tested
AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

Concrete Through-Girder Bridge


(early 1900s design)
33

Substandard For All Speeds


NCHRP 350 Crash Tested
AASHTO 10-kip Design

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D-60

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Yes No
Yes No

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Chapter D

Steel Through-Girder Bridge


Substandard For All Speeds

34

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

Steel Pipe Railing with Steel or


Concrete Posts (1930s design)
35

Substandard For All Speeds


NCHRP 350 Crash Tested
AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

Solid Concrete Railing


Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH
(Might Meet Standards 40 MPH)

36

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design*
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)
Geometrics ( 40 MPH) **

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Unless an engineering analysis is


performed, older (pre 1964) concrete
railings should be coded as
substandard.
**Railing must be at least 2-4 high for
design speeds 40 MPH.

Steel Plate Beam Guardrail with


Timber Posts & Curb
37

Substandard For All Speeds


NCHRP 350 Crash Tested
AASHTO 10-kip Design

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D-61

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Yes No

INVENTORY REPORT

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OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Timber Plank Railing


Substandard For All Speeds

38

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

One-Line Concrete Railing


(8 or 7 wide top beam)
Substandard For All Speeds

39

NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4


AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

*As the top rail beam thickness is less


than 9, these railings do not meet the
10-kip design requirements.

Ornamental Metal Railing


Substandard For All Speeds

40

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

Open Balustrade Concrete


Railing
Substandard For All Speeds*

41

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design*
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)
Geometrics ( 40 MPH) **

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Unless an engineering analysis is


performed, older (pre 1964) concrete
railings should be coded as
substandard.
**Railing must be at least 2-4 high for
design speeds 40 MPH.

Click to go back to:

D-62

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INVENTORY REPORT

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RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

One-Line Steel Bent Plate Railing


with Steel Posts
Substandard For All Speeds

42

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

Triple Beam (Thrie Beam)


Retrofit Guardrail
Meets Standards For All Speeds*

43

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested*


AASHTO 10-kip Design*
Geometrics ( 45 MPH) **
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Analysis must be performed to


determine if retrofit railings meet TL-4
and AASHTO 10-kip design requirements.
**Rail height (including curb) must be at
least 2-8 high, and curb projection must
not exceed 9 for speeds 45 MPH.

Reconstructed One-Line
Concrete Railing with Type J
(New Jersey) Facing
Meets Standards For All Speeds

44

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)*
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Railing must be at least 2-8 high for


speeds 45 MPH.

Concrete Railing Type J with


Hooked Anchor Bolts
(Retrofit on Existing Deck)
45

Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH


(Meets Standards 40 MPH)
NCHRP 350 Crash Tested
AASHTO 10-kip Design*
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

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D-63

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Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

INVENTORY REPORT

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE


*Substandard for speeds 45 MPH due
to the questionable deck connection
detail.

Chapter D

Retrofit Concrete Railing (Type J)


Code #45

Reconstructed One-Line
Concrete Railing (2-1 high
excluding curb)
Meets Standards For All Speeds*

46

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)*
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

* For speeds 45 MPH, the total height


(including curb) must be at least 2-8
and the curb projection cannot exceed
9.

Reconstructed Concrete Railing


with One-Line Pipe
Meets Standards For All Speeds

47

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)*
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Rail height (including curb) must be at


least 2-8 high, and curb projection must
not exceed 9 for speeds 45 MPH.

One-Line Concrete Railing with


6 High Curb (Flush with Rail)
Meets Standards For All Speeds

48

NCHRP 350 Crash Tested


AASHTO 10-kip Design*
Geometrics ( 45 MPH)
Geometrics ( 40 MPH)

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

*Top rail beam must be at least 9 wide


to meet 10-kip design requirements.

Click to go back to:

D-64

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MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

One-Line Concrete Railing


(8 wide top beam with 10 High
Brush Curb)
49

Substandard For All Speeds


NCHRP 350 Crash Tested
AASHTO 10-kip Design*

Yes No
Yes No

*As the top rail beam thickness is less


than 9, these railings do not meet the
10-kip design requirements.

Glulam Timber Post & Beam


Railing on Timber Deck (TL-2)
50

Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH


(Meets Standards 40 MPH)
NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4
NCHRP 350 Crash TL-2
AASHTO 10-kip Design

51

Yes No
Yes No
Yes No

Concrete Parapet (Type P-2)


with Structural Steel Tube
Railing
Meets Standards For All Speeds
NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4
AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

Structural Tube Railing


(Type Wyoming)
Meets Standards For All Speeds

52

NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4


AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

Upper rail beam is 6 x 4 x tubular


steel, lower rail beam is 6 x 3 x

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D-65

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Chapter D

Three-Line Tubular Steel Railing


(State Aid Projects)
Meets Standards For All Speeds

53

NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4


AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

5 x 5 x tubular steel rail beams


(top rail beam is 4 x 4 x )

Two-Line Tubular Steel Railing


(State Aid Projects)

54

Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH


(Meets Standards 40 MPH)
NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4
NCHRP 350 Crash TL-2
AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No
Yes No

4 x 4 x tubular steel rail beams

Timber Post & Beam Railing on


Concrete Deck (TL-4)
(State Aid Projects)
Meets Standards For All Speeds

55

NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4*


AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

* The TL-4 design is nearly identical to


the TL-2 design, but the TL-4 design
requires six curb bolts adjacent to each
post.

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D-66

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INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

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RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Timber Post & Beam Railing on


Concrete Deck (TL-2)
(State Aid Projects)
Does Not Meet Standards 45 MPH
(Meets Standards 40 MPH)

56

NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4


NCHRP 350 Crash TL-2*
AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No
Yes No

*The TL-2 design is nearly identical to the


TL-4 design, but will only have 4 curb
bolts adjacent to each rail post.

Concrete Parapet with 2-line


Structural Steel Tube Railing
Meets Standards For All Speeds

57

NCHRP 350 Crash TL-4*


AASHTO 10-kip Design

Yes No
Yes No

*Although not crash tested, this design


exception has been allowed due to the
similarity to Code #51

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D-67

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OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.40 Curved Bridge
(MnDOT Item)

D.7.2.41 Bifurcated
(MnDOT Item)

D.7.2.42 Radial
Supports
(MnDOT Item)

D.7.2.43 Two-Girder
Bridge
(MnDOT Item)

D.7.2.44 Degree of
Curvature

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item indicates if the bridge is curved.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Y
N

Yes, Curved
Not Curved

This item indicates if the bridge is bifurcated or forked.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Y
N

Yes, Bifurcated
Not Bifurcated

This item indicates if the bridge has radial supports. A radial support is a support that is
perpendicular to centerline of roadway.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Y
N

Yes, Radial Supports


No Radial Supports

This item indicates if the bridge is a two girder bridge.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Y
N

Yes, Two Girder Bridge


Not a Two Girder Bridge

For curved bridges located on a horizontal curve, record the degree of curvature between
supports. Round this value to the nearest hundredth.

(MnDOT Item)
D.7.2.45 Beam Type
(Main Span)
(MnDOT Item)

D.7.2.46 Beam Height


(Main Span)
(MnDOT Item)

CODE

DESCRIPTION

I
R

Prestress I Beam
Rectangular Prestress Beam

Record the concrete beam height for the main span beams to the nearest inch.
Example:
Description
MN45 Prestressed Concrete Beams

Click to go back to:

D-68

Record the type of concrete beam used for the main span of the bridge.

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Display
45

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.47 Redundant
Railroad Bridge
(MnDOT Item)

D.7.2.48 Railroad
Vertical Underclearance

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item indicates if the railroad structure is redundant.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Y
N

Yes, Redundant
Not Redundant

This item is used to record the underclearnace for structures with the roadway on the structure
and railroads under the structure. Truncate to a tenth of a foot.

(MnDOT Item)
D.7.2.49 Bird Nests
(MnDOT Item)

D.7.2.50 Median On
Structure
(MnDOT Item)

D.7.2.51 Pedestrian
Fencing
(MnDOT Item)

Click to go back to:

D-69

This item is used to indicate the presence of migratory bird (cliff swallows, barns swallows,
falcons, ravens, owls, etc.) nests on the bridge. This item provides a way to report to different
agencies what structures contain migratory birds. According to the Digest of Federal Resource
Laws of Interest to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918
(http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/migtrea.html), the destruction of swallows or their nests
constitute as a misdemeanor and conviction would result in a fine of not more than $500 or
imprisonment of not more than six months. It is possible to obtain a DNR permit that will allow
the destruction of the nests under certain situations.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Y
N

Yes, Migratory Bird Nests on Structure


No Migratory Bird Nests on Structure

This item is used to simply identify if a median is on the bridge. This item differs from NBI Item
33 (Bridge Median Type) in Section D.7.2.2 as NBI Item 33 indicates the type of median on the
bridge.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Y
N

Yes, Median on Structure


No Median on Structure

This item indicates if pedestrian fencing is present along any sidewalks on the bridge.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

0
1
N

Pedestrian Fencing is not present


Pedestrian fencing is present
Not applicable

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D.7.2.52 MN Main Span
Material

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item identifies the MnDOT Main Span Material type and is similar to NBI Item 43A (Main
Span Material) in Section D.7.2.8.

(MnDOT Item)

MATERIAL
CODE

DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

1
CONC
Concrete
2
CCONC
Concrete (Continuous)
3
STEEL
Steel
4
CSTL
Steel (Continuous)
5
PRECST
Pre-stressed or *Pre-Cast Concrete
6
PRESTR
Pre-stressed Concrete (Continuous)
7
TIMBER
Timber
8
MASONRY
Masonry
9
IRON
Wrought or Cast Iron
0
OTHER
Other/Combination
A
ALUM
Aluminum
P
PSTNSD
Post-tensioned
* If the main span material is 5, and the main span type is 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 21, or 22,
the material will be Pre-cast Concrete (this may or may not be Pre-stressed Concrete).

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D-70

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MNDOT
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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.53 MN Main Span
Design

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item identifies the MnDOT Main Span Design type and is similar to NBI Item 43B (Main Span
Design) in Section D.7.2.9.

(MnDOT Item)

DESIGN
TYPE CODE

DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

1
BM SPAN
Beam Span
2
LOW TRUSS
Low (Pony) Truss
3
HIGH TRUSS
High (Through) Truss
4
DECK TRUSS
Deck Truss
5
CONC THROUGH GIRDER Through Girder
6
DECK GIRD
Deck Girder
7
BOX GIRD
Box Girder
8
RIGID FRAME
Rigid Frame
9
SLAB SPAN
Slab Span
10
VOID SLAB SP
Voided Slab Span
11
CHAN SPAN
Channel Beam
12
ARCH
Arch
13
BOX CULV
Box Culvert
14
PIPE CULVERT
Pipe Culvert (Round)
15
PIPE ARCH
Pipe-Arch Culvert
16
LONG SPAN
Long Span/Ellipse Culvert
17
TUNNEL
Tunnel
18
MOVEABLE
Movable (Swing, Bascule, or Vertical Lift)
19
OTHER
Other
20
DOUB TEE
Double Tee
21
QUAD TEE
Quad Tee
22
BULB TEE
Bulb Tee
23
SUSPENSION
Suspension
24
TIED ARCH
Tied Arch
25
CABLE STAY
Cable Stayed (or Extradosed)
26
INVRT TEE
Inverted Tee
If the main span is type 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 21, or 22, and the main span material is 5,
the material will be Pre-cast Concrete (this may or may not be Pre-stressed Concrete).
Pictorial examples are provided on the next page for the MnDOT Main Span Material and
MnDOT Main Span Design.

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D-71

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INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Examples:

Main Span Type


(MnDOT Item)
(NBI Item 43B)
MnDOT Code:
QUAD TEE
NBI Item 43B Code:
02-STRINGER/MULTIBEAM OR GIRDER
Description:
Prestressed Quad
Tee Beam

Main Span Type


(MnDOT Item)
(NBI Item 43B)
MnDOT Code:
SLAB SPAN
NBI Item 43B Code:
01-SLAB
Description:
Timber Slab Span

Main Span Type


(MnDOT Item)
(NBI Item 43B)
MnDOT Code:
PIPE CULV
NBI Item 43B Code:
19-CULVERT
Description:
Steel Pipe Culvert

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D-72

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.54 Main Span
Detail Definition

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item identifies the specific truss or arch configuration present on the main span(s). Leave
item blank if it does not apply to the structure. The coding for this item is as follows:

(MnDOT Item)

CODE

DISPLAY

PARKER

B
C

PENNSYLVANIA

WARREN

WARREN
W/VERT

WARR W/POLY
TC

PRATT

PRATT HALF-HIP
DBL INTSEC
PRATT
BOWSTRING
ARCH TRUSS
K FRAME

CAMEL BACK

I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
U

BALTIMORE

Parker Truss with five slopes on the top chord.


Alternating diagonals forming equilateral triangles (rarely found in
the pure form - see items E and F).
Warren truss with intermediate verticals. Standard pony truss
design after 1912 - rarely used on through truss bridges.
Warren truss with polygonal or camelback top chord. Used for
pony trusses in the 1930s and long span continuous through
trusses.
Horizontal top and bottom chord with all diagonal members in
tension. Common on through trusses.
Pratt truss with no end verticals used on pony trusses prior to 1912.
Or Whipple Truss.

Subdivided Pratt Truss.

FINK
KING POST

Two triangles

QUEEN POST

Two triangles with braced rectangle

VIERENDEEL
SPANDREL
FILLED ARCH
OPEN
SPANDREL
ARCH

RAINBOW ARCH

D-73

Pratt truss with a polygonal or camelback top chord. Commonly


seen on through truss bridges.
Subdivided Parker Truss.

HOWE

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DESCRIPTION

Closed (Filled) Spandrel Arch (any material)


Open Spandrel Arch (any material)
The arch ribs begin below the deck, and then rise above the deck
(also known as a half-through arch).

ARCH CULVERT

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D.7.2.55 MN Approach
Span Material
(MnDOT Item)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item identifies the MnDOT inventory for the approach span material to a major bridge or for
the spans where the structural material of the main span is different. See Section D.7.2.52 for
the MnDOT inventory codes to be used to code this item.
Only one approach span type shall be entered. Structures with more than one approach span
type shall code the most predominant type. If there are no approach spans on the structure the
item shall be left blank.
This item is similar to NBI Item 44A (Approach Span Material) in Section D.7.2.10.

D.7.2.56 MN Approach
Span Design
(MnDOT Item)

This item identifies the MnDOT inventory for the approach span design to a major bridge or for
the spans where the structural design type of the main span is different. See Section D.7.2.53 for
the MnDOT inventory codes to be used to code this item.
Only one approach span type shall be entered. Structures with more than one approach span
type shall code the most predominant type. If there are no approach spans on the structure the
item shall be left blank.
This item is similar to NBI Item 44B (Approach Span Design) in Section D.7.2.11.

D.7.2.57 Approach Span


Detail Definition
(MnDOT Item)
D.7.2.58 Total Length
(MnDOT Item)
D.7.2.59 Deck Area
(Out-to-Out)
(MnDOT Item)

This item identifies the approach span specific truss or arch configuration to a major bridge or
for the spans where the structural material of the main span is different. See Section D.7.2.54
for the MnDOT inventory codes to be used to identify this item.
This item is the same as NBI Item 49 (Structure Length). See Section D.7.2.16 for coding. Round
length to the nearest tenth of a foot.
This item identifies the total structure area to the nearest square foot. This is determined by
multiplying NBI Item 52 (Deck Width) by NBI Item 49 (Structure Length) See Section D.7.2.18 and
D.7.2.16 for the deck width and structure length, respectively.
This item is not calculated for culverts.

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D-74

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

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D.7.2.60 MN Temporary
Status
(MnDOT Item)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This MnDOT inventory item indicates situations where temporary structures or conditions exist
that are not intended to be a permanent structure or repair. This item relates to NBI Item 103
(Temporary Status) in Section D.7.2.20 but further identifies the location of the temporary
structural repair such as superstructure, deck, or substructure and if the load-carrying capacity
of the structure has been reduced.
The MN Temporary Status is coded a 2 through 8, NBI Item 103 (Temporary Status) should be
coded a T.

CODE
2

BLANK
TEMP SUP/
MAINTAIN
LOAD
TEMP SUP/
REDUCED
LOAD
TEMP DK/
MAINTAIN
LOAD

Not applicable (left blank)


Temporary repairs or temporary superstructure elements have been
added to maintain load posting.
Temporary repairs or temporary superstructure elements have been
added and the posted load has been reduced.
Temporary repairs have been made to the deck to maintain the load
capacity. This may include structural underpinning of the deck, but
does not include temporary repairs to the wearing surface to
maintain ride quality.
Temporary repairs have been made to the deck and posted load
capacity has been reduced. This may include structural underpinning
of the deck, but does not include temporary repairs to the wearing
surface to maintain ride quality.
Temporary repairs have been made to a substructure unit, a
permanent repair is needed.
A temporary substructure unit has been installed to maintain legal
load capacity.

Traffic lanes have been barricaded to keep the bridge open.

This item describes the predominate type of field connection present on the bridge. This item
will only be applicable when there are field splices on a steel beam.

(MnDOT Item)

Click to go back to:

D-75

DESCRIPTION

TEMP
DECK/
REDUCED
LOAD
TEMP SUB/
PERM REP
NEEDED
TEMP
SUBSTR/
MAINTAIN
LOAD
OPEN/
LANE
BARRICAD

D.7.2.61 Field
Connection ID

DISPLAY

CODE

DESCRIPTION

1
2
3
4
5

Pinned
Riveted
Welded
Bolted
Huck Bolt
No Splice

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.62 Hybrid Girder
(MnDOT Item)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item refers to steel girders that consist of different steel grades.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Y
N

Yes, Hybrid Girder


Not a Hybrid Girder

Example:
Description
High Performance Steel (HPS 70W) used for the bottom flange in positive
moment area and typical Grade 50W for the web and top flange.
D.7.2.63 Multiple Steel
Grades
(MnDOT Item)

Code
Y

This item refers to steel girder bridges that consist of different steel grades.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Y
N

Yes, Multiple Steel Grades


Single Steel Grade

Example:
Description
High Performance Steel (HPS 70W) used for the main span girders and
typical Grade 50W for approach spans.
D.7.2.64 Steel
Specification

Code
Y

This item refers to the MnDOT Structural Steel Specification number.


Example:

(MnDOT Item)

3306
3309

D.7.2.65 Steel Yield


Stress 1
(MnDOT Item)

This item is to record the minimum steel yield strength of the steel girders in ksi units.
Example:
Description
Grade 50W

D.7.2.66 Steel Yield


Stress 2

Code
50

This item is used if there are multiple steel grades on a bridge and records the minimum steel
yield strength not coded in Steel Yield Stress 1.

(MnDOT Item)
D.7.2.67 Girder
Connection Type
(MnDOT Item)

Click to go back to:

D-76

This item describes the predominate type of girder connection present on the bridge.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

1
2
3
4
5

Pinned
Riveted
Welded
Bolted
Huck Bolt
No Splice

NBI ITEMS
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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.2.68 Girder Depth
(Main Span)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Record the steel girder depth for the main span in inches.

(MnDOT Item)
D.7.2.69 Girder Depth
(Approach Span)

Record the steel girder depth for the approach span in inches.

(MnDOT Item)
D.7.2.70 Girder Depth
Type (Main Span)
(MnDOT Item)

Record the type of steel girder used for the main span of the bridge.
Example:
Constant
Haunched
Variable

D.7.2.71 Number of
Beam Lines (Main Span)

Record the number of beams in the main span.

(MnDOT Item)
D.7.2.72 Number of
Beam Lines (Approach
Span)

Record the number of beams in the approach span.

(MnDOT Item)
D.7.2.73 Ornamental
Metal Railing
(MnDOT Item)

D.7.2.74 Metal Traffic


Railing
(MnDOT Item)

This item is used to identify if the bridge railing consists of Ornamental Metal Railing.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Y
N

Yes, Ornamental Railing on Bridge


No Ornamental Railing on Bridge

This item is used to identify if the bridge railing consists of Metal Traffic Railing.

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Y
N

Yes, Metal Traffic Railing on Bridge


No Metal Traffic Railing on Bridge

D.7.2.75 Design
Specification Year

Record the AASHTO bridge design specification year that is located on the bridge plans. Record
all four digits of the year. If no bridge plans are available record as UNKN.

(MnDOT Item)

Example:

Click to go back to:

D-77

Description
2012 AASHTO Design Specification

Code
2012

No bridge plans available

UNKN

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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.3 INSPECTION
INFORMATION
D.7.3.1 Status

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This section contains inspection information data about the structure such as the deficiency
status, sufficiency rating, last inspection date, last inspector, inspection frequency, and posting
status for routine, fracture critical, underwater, pinned assembly and special inspection.
This item describes the current operational status of a structure (i.e. opened, posted, or closed
to traffic). The field review could show that a structure is posted, but NBI Item 70 (Bridge
Posting) may indicate that posting is not required. This is possible and acceptable coding since
NBI Item 70 is based on the operating stress level and the governing agency's posting procedures
may specify posting at some stress level less than the operating rating.

(NBI Item 41)

If posting is required, the actual posting will be


displayed on the header of the MnDOT Bridge
Inspection Report. If the load posting signs are
missing, or do not correlate with the inspection
report, the Program Administrator should be
promptly notified.

Inspector Note:
During each inspection, the inspector must
verify that load posting signage (if
required) is in-place, correct, and readable
(see Section D.7.8.5 for examples of load
posting signs).

The inspector should confirm that load posting


signs are present both on or immediately in front of both sides of the bridge and should note if
advanced signs are present. All of these signs must display the correct weight limits. The
condition of load posting signage can be rated
Inspector Note:
using Element #981 (see Section B.4.11.1 of
the MnDOT BSIPM).
The bridge inspector is responsible for
notifying BADMU in writing of a structure
If it is apparent that load postings are not
status change. An example would be
being adhered to, the Inspection Program
changing from A Open to K Closed.
Administrator should be notified. This item is
coded based on the table below.

CODE
A

B-POSTING
RECOMMENDED
D-OPEN
(TEMP SHORING)
E-OPEN
(TEMP
STRUCTURE)
G-NEW-NOT YET
OPEN
K-CLOSED

D
E

G
K
P

P-LOAD POSTED

D-78

DESCRIPTION

A-OPEN

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DISPLAY

R-POSTEDOTHER CAP

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

Bridge is open to traffic (no load restrictions) - this includes


pedestrian or railroad bridges.
Bridge is open to traffic - load posting is recommended but has
not been legally implemented (all signs not in place).
Bridge is open to traffic, but would be posted or closed without
temporary shoring or supports.
Bridge is open to traffic, but is a temporary structure intended
to carry legal loads until the original structure is rehabilitated
(or a new structure is constructed).
New structure - not yet open to traffic.
Bridge is closed to all traffic.
Bridge is posted with a load restriction. This includes bridges
with more than one restriction, or temporary bridges with a
load restriction.
Bridge is posted with other load-capacity restrictions (such as
speed, number of vehicles on bridge, etc.).

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.3.2 Routine
Inspection Date
(NBI Item 90)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item indicates the day, month, and year on which the most recent routine bridge inspection
was performed. For inspections that occur over more than one day, record the last day the
inspection crew was in the field. An effort should be made to schedule equipment use to
minimize time lag between first and last days of an inspection.
A routine inspection is a regularly scheduled inspection consisting of observations and/or
measurements needed to determine the physical and functional condition of the bridge to
identify any changes from initial or previously recorded conditions, and to ensure that the
structure continues to satisfy present service requirements.

D.7.3.3 Routine
Inspection Frequency
(NBI Item 91)

This item refers to the routine inspection frequency. All newly constructed structures are
assigned a routine inspection frequency of 12
months. The initial inspection shall occur within 90
BSIPM User Note:
days of the date that the structure is opened to
traffic for Trunk Highway structures and shall occur
See Section A.5.1 for
within 180 days of the date that the structure is
additional information
opened to traffic for non-Trunk Highway structures.
regarding initial inspections.
The preferred practice is for the initial inspection to
be performed for each structure after construction is
essentially complete and before the bridge is opened
to traffic or returned to service for bridges that have had a major reconstruction. Following the
initial inspection, Bridge Owners can request longer intervals for routine inspections.
Code two digits to represent the number of months between designated inspections of the
structure. A leading zero shall be coded as required.
Examples:
Description
Posted bridge with heavy truck traffic and questionable structural details which is
designated to be inspected each month

Display
01

Bridge is scheduled to be inspected every 24 months

24

The routine inspection frequency for bridges and culverts shall be established in accordance with
the following criteria:
Annual Inspection (12 month frequency)
All newly constructed structures are assigned a routine inspection frequency of 12 months.
Following the initial inspection, Bridge Owners can then request a longer interval for routine
inspections in accordance with the criteria listed on the next page for the biennial inspections
(24-or 48-month) frequencies.
Those structures not meeting the biennial inspection conditions shall be inspected on a 12
month frequency or less depending on the condition of the structure.
The following bridges must be inspected annually:
Railroad bridges over public roadways with non-load path redundant superstructures

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D-79

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INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Biennial Inspection (24 month frequency)


Bridges and culverts can be inspected at an interval not to exceed 24 months if the following
conditions are met:
NBI Condition and Appraisal Ratings are 5 or greater for;
o Deck (NBI Item 58)
o Superstructure (NBI Item 59)
o Substructure (NBI Item 60)
o Culvert (NBI Item 62)
o Structural Evaluation (NBI Item 67)
To be eligible for a 24 month inspection frequency, railroad and pedestrian bridges must meet
the following requirements:
Bridges: The NBI condition ratings for Deck, Superstructure, and Substructure must be 5 or
greater.
Culverts: The NBI condition ratings for Culvert must be 5 or greater
Non-redundant railroad bridges must be inspected on a 12 month frequency
Quadrennial Inspection (48 month frequency)
Culverts can be inspected at an interval not to exceed 48 months if the following conditions are
met:
NBI Item 43 (Structure Type, Main) must be Code 19 (Culvert).
NBI Item 41 (Structure Open, Posted, or Closed to Traffic) must be Code A (Open, No
Restriction).
NBI Item 113 (Scour Critical Bridges) must be Codes N, 8, 5, or 9 (MN Scour Code must be A,
C, E, H, I, K, L, M, or N).
NBI Condition and Appraisal Ratings must be 6 or greater for:
o Culvert (NBI Item 62)
o Channel (NBI Item 61)
o Structural Evaluation (NBI Item 67)
The culvert must have a load rating on file.
Inventory load rating must be equal to or greater than HS 20.
The minimum fill height above the top of culvert must be 2 feet or greater.
An initial inspection and at least two subsequent annual inspections have been conducted.
In order to assure adequate access to all components, culvert inspections must not occur
during the months of December, January, or February.
Bridge Owners with bridges or culverts meeting the requirements for 24 or 48-month inspection
frequency may submit an Inspection Frequency Change Request Form available on the MnDOT
Bridge Office Website:
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/pdf/insp/inspectionfrequencychangerequestform.pdf
If a bridge or culvert no longer meets the condition criteria for 24 or 48-month inspections, it will
be assigned the appropriate frequency based on the criteria stated above. District and Local
Agency Bridge Owners will be notified of these changes to the inspection frequency. Reduction
in inspection frequency (i.e. 24 months to 12 months) shall occur when an NBI Condition rating
for any of the items listed above fall below the established criteria for the 24 month inspection
frequency.
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D-80

NBI ITEMS
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INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Severe weather, concern for bridge inspector safety, concern for inspection quality, the need to
optimize scheduling with other bridges, or other unique situations may be cause to adjust the
scheduled inspection date. The adjusted date should not extend more than one month beyond
the inspection frequency noted above and subsequent inspections should adhere to the
previously established interval.
In addition to the above criteria, Bridge Owners and/or Program Administrators should consider
any other factors which would have a bearing on the appropriate inspection frequency, such as
age of structure, rate of critical element deterioration, traffic characteristics, scour susceptibility,
experience with similar structure types, or in-place warranties. Reduction in inspection
frequency (i.e. 24 months to 12 months) may be determined by the Program Administrator in
regards to initial or routine inspections or the Structural Evaluation Engineer in the case of
Fracture Critical, Underwater, or Special inspections based on inspection findings.
It should be noted that bridges will also require special non-scheduled inspections after unusual
physical traumas such as floods, earthquakes, fires, or collisions. These special inspections may
range from a very brief visual examination to a detailed in-depth evaluation depending upon the
nature of the trauma.
For example, when a substructure pier or abutment is struck by an errant vehicle, in most cases
only a visual examination of the bridge is necessary. After major collisions or earthquakes, indepth inspections may be warranted as directed by the Program Administrator. After and during
severe floods, the stability of the substructure of bridges may have to be determined by probing,
underwater sensors or other appropriate measures.
D.7.3.4 Pier or
Abutment Protection
(NBI Item 111)

D.7.3.5 Inspector Name


(MnDOT Item)

Click to go back to:

D-81

This rating describes the condition of the pier or abutment protection. If NBI Item 38 (Navigation
Control) is coded as 1, use the codes below to indicate the presence and adequacy of pier or
abutment protection features such as fenders, dolphins, etc. The condition of the protection
devices may be a factor in the overall evaluation of NBI Item 60 (Substructure). If NBI Item 38
(Navigation Control) has been coded 0 or N, leave blank to indicate it is not applicable.

CODE

SIMS DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

1
2
3
4
5

NOT REQUIRED
FUNCTIONING
DETERIORATING
EVAL SUGGESTED
EVAL SUGGESTED

Navigation protection not required


In place and functioning
In place but in a deteriorated condition
In place but reevaluation of design suggested
None present but reevaluation suggested

This item is the local agency, MnDOT District, or consultant that performed the most recent
inspection. Inspectors shall record the name of their agency or firm.

NBI ITEMS
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INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.3.6 Userkey
(MnDOT Item)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

This item identifies the agency responsible for ensuring that the structure is regularly inspected.
If more than one agency has equal maintenance responsibility, code one agency in the hierarchy
of State, Federal, county, city, railroad, and other private. A complete list of agencies and their
corresponding coding can be found in Appendix F.
Bridges located on or over a Trunk Highway are inspected by MnDOT. An exception to this
occurs when a Cooperative Agreement is in place assigning inspection jurisdiction to someone
else.
Examples:

D.7.3.7 Deficient Status


(MnDOT Item)

Agency Responsible for Inspection


City of Burnsville

Code
138

MnDOT District 7

22

The deficiency status of a structure identifies if the structure is structurally deficient,


functionally obsolete or adequate. The following sections define structurally deficient and
functionally obsolete structures. It must be noted that, based on the criteria used, a bridge
could be both structurally deficient and functionally obsolete.
The status field however, provides the option of running a query in which a bridge designated as
functionally obsolete is not structurally deficient. In other words, functionally obsolete bridges
are exclusive of structurally deficient bridges.
The status field definition of bridge deficiencies is limited only to those bridges which are 10
years or older and are more than 20 feet in length.

DISPLAY

DESCRIPTION

S.D.
F.O.
ADEQ

Structurally Deficient
Functionally Obsolete
Not Deficient or Obsolete

Any discrepancies should be reported to BADMU.

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D-82

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MNDOT
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BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.3.7.1 Unofficial
Structurally Deficient

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

FHWA designates a bridge as Structurally Deficient if it meets at least one of the following
conditions:

(MnDOT Item)

1.

An NBI condition rating of 4 or less for NBI Item 58 (Deck), NBI Item 59
(Superstructure), NBI Item 60 (Substructure), or NBI Item 62 (Culvert); or

2.

An appraisal rating of 2 or less for NBI Item 67 (Structural Evaluation*); or

3.

An appraisal rating of 2 or less for NBI Item 71 (Waterway Adequacy) and NBI Item
42B (Type of Service Under Bridge) is coded as one of the following:

0 Other
5 Waterway
6 Highway-Waterway
7 Railroad-Waterway
8 Highway-Waterway-Railroad
9 Relief for Waterway

*NBI Item 67 (Structural Evaluation Appraisal Rating) is automatically calculated. A new


bridge load capacity rating that significantly reduces NBI Item 66 (Inventory Rating) may
result in a bridge being designated as structurally deficient.
This item only applies to bridges that carry vehicular traffic. Railroad and pedestrian bridges are
excluded and display as N/A.
FHWA recently established a "10-year rule" that prevents bridges from remaining classified as
structurally deficient after a major reconstruction project. Bridges with NBI Item 27 (Year Built)
or NBI Item 106 (Year Reconstructed) within the past 10 years of the current date will not be
considered to be a deficient bridge, and will not be eligible for Federal Highway Bridge
Replacement and Rehabilitation Program funds.

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D-83

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Y
N

Yes, Structurally Deficient


Not Structurally Deficient

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

D.7.3.7.2 Unofficial
Functionally Obsolete

This item identifies if a bridge is Functionally Obsolete. This item only applies to bridges that
carry vehicular traffic. Railroad and pedestrian bridges are excluded and displayed as N/A.

(MnDOT Item)

FHWA designates a bridge as Functionally Obsolete if it meets at least one of the five following
conditions:
1.

An appraisal rating of 3 or less for NBI Item 68 (Deck Geometry); or

2.

An appraisal rating of 3 or less for NBI Item 72 (Approach Roadway Alignment); or

3.

An appraisal rating of 3 for NBI Item 67 (Structural Evaluation); or

4.

An appraisal rating of 3 for NBI Item 71 (Waterway Adequacy) and NBI Item 42B (Type
of Service Under Bridge) is coded as one of the following:

5.

0 Other
5 Waterway
6 Highway-Waterway
7 Railroad-Waterway
8 Highway-Waterway-Railroad
9 Relief for Waterway; or

An appraisal rating of 3 or less for NBI Item 69 (Vertical & Horizontal UnderClearances) and NBI Item 42B (Type of Service Under Bridge) is coded as one of the
following:

0 Other
1 Highway, with or without Pedestrian
2 Railroad
4 Highway-Railroad
6 Highway-Waterway
7 Railroad-Waterway
8 Highway-Waterway-Railroad

A bridge designated as structurally deficient is excluded from consideration as being


functionally obsolete.

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D-84

CODE

DESCRIPTION

Y
N

Yes, Structurally Deficient


Not Structurally Deficient

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.3.8 Unofficial
Sufficiency Rating
(MnDOT Item)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

The bridge sufficiency rating is a based upon a percentage scale of 0%-100% (with 100% being an
entirely sufficient bridge). The bridge sufficiency rating is used to establish funding eligibility and
priority for bridge replacement and rehabilitation. As a general rule, a sufficiency rating of 80%
or less is required to be eligible for bridge rehabilitation, and a sufficiency rating of 50% or less is
required to be eligible for bridge replacement.
The bridge sufficiency rating takes into consideration the structural adequacy, functional
capacity, and essentiality for public use of the bridge. The formula is explained in detail in
Appendix B of the FHWA Recording & Coding Guide. While the NBI condition ratings are a key
component of the bridge sufficiency rating, only NBI superstructure, substructure, or culvert
condition ratings of 5 or less will significantly reduce the bridge sufficiency rating. Other
factors used to calculate the bridge sufficiency rating include the inventory load-carrying
capacity, the NBI appraisal ratings, the ADT, NBI Item 36 (Safety Features), and the detour
length.
The bridge sufficiency rating is calculated for bridges and culverts that carry vehicular traffic any discrepancies should be reported to MnDOT BADMU. The bridge sufficiency rating is not
calculated for railroad or pedestrian bridges.

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D-85

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.3.9 Fracture Critical
Inspection
(MnDOT Item)
(NBI Item 92A)
(NBI Item 93A)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

A Fracture Critical (FC) structure is a structure that is not load path redundant and that has at
least one FC member or member component. Fracture Critical members (FCM) or member
components are steel tension members or steel tension components of members whose failure
would be expected to result in collapse of or partial collapse of the structure. A FCM lacks
redundancy if when it fails, there is no alternate load path or member to which the failed
member can shed its load. FC
BSIPM User Note:
inspections of non-redundant
structure members that are
See Section A.5.4 for additional information
determined to be FC shall receive a
regarding fracture critical inspections.
hands-on FC inspection at an interval
not to exceed 24 months.
Only bridges carrying vehicular traffic are designated as "Fracture Critical". Railroad and
pedestrian bridges are currently excluded. FC bridges that are closed to traffic should continue
to be inspected annually.
This item contains three inputs. The first input indicates if a structure requires a FC inspection.
If so, code Y, otherwise leave blank. This input relates to NBI Item 92A (Fracture Critical
Detail).
The second input displays how often the structure requires the FC inspection in months. FC
inspections are required every 24 months. Some structures may require more frequent
inspections. This input relates to NBI Item 93A (Fracture Critical Details Date).
The final input displays the most recent month, date, and year of the FC inspection.
Example:
Description
A steel pony truss on a township road with a most recent FC
inspection was completed June 21st, 2011.

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D-86

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

Code
Y 24 06/21/2011

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.3.10 Underwater
Inspection
(MnDOT Item)
(NBI Item 92B)
(NBI Item 93B)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

Underwater (UW) inspections are required for


Inspector Note:
bridge elements that cannot be visibly
evaluated during periods of low flow or
If all structural elements were not
examined by feel for condition, integrity, and
visibly evaluated due to high water for
safe load capacity due to excessive water
the past 5 years; notify Program
depth and turbidity. These elements shall be
Administrator that bridge needs to be
inspected at an interval not to exceed 48
included in the next underwater
months (some structures may require more
contract.
frequent inspections). See Section A.5.7 of the
BSIPM for specific guidance on underwater inspections.
If the water is shallow, the bridge can be inspected with waders; in deeper water, diving
inspections are required.
This MnDOT Item rating contains
three inputs. The first input
indicates if the structure requires an
UW inspection. If so, code Y,
otherwise leave blank. This input
relates to NBI Item 92B (Underwater
Inspection).

BSIPM User Note:


See Section A.5.7 for additional information
regarding underwater inspections.

The second input displays how often the structure requires an UW inspection in months. This
input relates to NBI Item 93B (Underwater Inspection Date). Beginning in 2016 and continuing
into the future, MnDOT will administer the UW inspection contracts for all Trunk Highway,
County, City, and Township bridges so that UW inspections are performed on a 48 month cycle.
The final input displays the most recent month and year of the UW inspection.
Example:
Description

Code

A county bridge whose underwater inspection was completed July 15th,


2014.

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D-87

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

Y 48 07/15/2014

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.3.11 Pinned
Assembly Inspection
(MnDOT Item)
(NBI Item 92C)
(NBI Item 93C)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

On continuous steel bridges with cantilever or suspended spans (where the end of one span is
supported by an adjacent span), the connection detail may consist of a pinned assembly. A
pinned and hanger assembly typically consists of two vertical hanger plates with pinned
connection at the top and bottom this allows both rotation and longitudinal movement of the
superstructure. A fixed pin assembly typically consists of a single pin this allows rotation, but
restricts longitudinal movement of the structure.

Pin and Hanger Assemblies or single Hinge Pin Assemblies require specialized non-destructive
testing (NDT) inspections at intervals not to exceed 60 months. NDT for Pinned Assemblies is
typically done using ultrasonic examination. These NDT inspections are required even if the
structure is load path redundant and the failure of a single pinned connection may not result in
collapse of the structure.
This item rating contains three inputs. The first input indicates if the structure consists of a
pinned assembly. If so, code Y, otherwise leave blank. This input relates to NBI Item 92C
(Other Special Inspections). NDT is used to supplement the visual inspection by providing
information regarding the condition of bridge components that are not detectable by a visual
inspection alone. NDT is a generic name given to repeatable processes applied to components
or structures to determine the condition of the structures material without compromising
structural integrity.
The second input displays how often the structure requires an NDT inspection in months. This
input relates to NBI Item 93C (Other Special Inspection Dates).
The final input displays the most recent month and year of the pinned assembly inspection.
Example:
Description
A steel beam span on a state highway, with a pin and hanger on one
end and hinge pins on the other requiring inspection every 60 months
with the last NDT inspection on May 1st, 2010.
D.7.3.12 Special Feature
(MnDOT Item)
(NBI Item 92C)

Code
Y 60 06/01/2010

Special Features are inspections scheduled at discretion of the Bridge Owner, used to monitor a
particular known or suspected deficiency. This item is used for inspections that change
inventory data and that are not a routine, FC, or UW inspection.
Bridges found to have a defect in a specific element(s), or having the potential to become
structurally deficient within the established routine inspection interval, may be deemed to
require a special inspection. The special inspection shall be independent of the routine
inspection.

(NBI Item 93C)

BSIPM User Note:


See Section A.5.6 for additional information
regarding special inspections.

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D-88

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014
D.7.4 NBI CONDITION
RATINGS
D.7.4.1 Deck Condition
Code
(NBI Item 58)

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

The following five bridge condition ratings should be reviewed during each inspection. These
rate the current condition of the deck, superstructure, substructure, channel or the culvert.

This item describes the overall general condition


rating of the deck or slab this includes the
underside of the deck as well as the wearing
surface. Rate and code the condition in
accordance with the table below. The condition
of the wearing surface/protective system,
railings, sidewalks, curbs, joints, expansion
devices, and deck drains shall not be considered
in this rating. However, their condition should
be noted on the inspection form.

Inspector Note:
For bridges where the deck and the
superstructure are composed as a single
piece, the condition rating shall have the
same code for NBI Item 58 (Deck
Condition Code) and NBI Item 59
(Superstructure Condition Code).

Decks integral with the superstructure will be rated as a deck only and not how they may
influence the superstructure rating (for example, rigid frame, slab, deckgirder or T-beam, voided
slab, box girder, etc.). Similarly, the superstructure of an integral deck-type bridge will not
influence the deck rating.
The primary function of the bridge deck is to transmit the wheel loads to the supporting
members. It also provides a support for curbs, walkway, railings, medians, expansion joints, and
provides a surface to transmit vehicles and drainage off the bridge.

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D-89

NBI ITEMS
3B

| State of Minnesota

INVENTORY REPORT

MNDOT
2B

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

OCTOBER 2014

RECORDING AND CODING GUIDE

Chapter D

NBI Deck Condition Description


Code
N
9
8

Description
Not Applicable: Use for culverts, roadway tunnels, or filled spandrel arch bridges.
Excellent Condition: Deck is in new condition (recently constructed).
Very Good Condition: Deck has very minor (and isolated) deterioration.
Concrete: minor cracking, leaching, scale, or wear (no delamination or spalling).
Timber: minor weathering - isolated (minor) splitting.
Steel: no corrosion (paint/protection system remains sound).
Good Condition: Deck has minor (or isolated) deterioration.
Concrete: minor cracking, leaching, scale, or wear (isolated delamination, spalling, or
temporary patches).

Timber: minor w