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# FUNDAMENTALS OF

VIBRATION

Topic Outline

Introduction
Basic Concepts of Vibration
Classification of Vibration
Vibration Analysis Procedure
Spring Elements
Mass or Inertia Elements
Damping Elements
Harmonic Motion
Harmonic Analysis
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INTRODUCTION

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## Brief History of Vibration

Phenomenon of
Vibration

Musical
instrument (string)

Use monochord

## Observed that if 2 string of

different length are
subject to the same
tension, the shorter one
emits a higher note.

Pythagoras
(582 - 507
BC)

Frequency of
vibration
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## Brief History of Vibration

(1564 1642)
Galileo Galilei
- Founder of modern experimental science.
- Started experimenting on simple pendulum.
- Study the behavior of a simple pendulum (observe pendulum movement of a lamp).
- Describing resonance, frequency, length, tension and density of a vibrating stretched string.

(1642 1727)
Sir Isaac Newton
- Derive the equation of motion of a
vibrating body.
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## Brief History of Vibration

(1902 1909)
Frahm
- Investigate the importance of torsional vibration study in the design of the propeller shafts of steamships.
- Propose the dynamic vibration absorber, which involves the addition of a secondary spring-mass system to eliminate the vibration of main
system.

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## Importance of the Study of Vibration

WHY???
Vibrations can lead to excessive deflections
and failure on the machines and structures.
To reduce vibration through proper design of
machines and their mountings.
To utilize profitably in several consumer and
industrial applications.
To improve the efficiency of certain machining,
casting, forging & welding processes.
To
stimulate earthquakes for geological
research and conduct studies in design of
nuclear reactors.

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## Importance of the Study of Vibration

EXAMPLE OF PROBLEMS
Vibrational

## problems of prime movers due to

inherent unbalance in the engine.
Wheel of some locomotive rise more than
centimeter off the track high speeds due
to imbalance.
Turbines
vibration cause spectacular
mechanical failure.

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## Importance of the Study of Vibration

Cause

rapid wear.
Create excessive noise.
Leads to poor surface finish (eg: in metal
cutting process, vibration cause chatter).
Resonance natural frequency of vibration
of a machine/structure coincide with the
frequency of the external excitation (eg:
Tacoma Narrow Bridge 1948)

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Applications

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BASIC CONCEPTS OF
VIBRATION

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## Basic Concepts of Vibration

Vibration = any motion that repeats
itself after an interval of time.
Vibratory System consists of:
1) spring or elasticity
2) mass or inertia
3) damper
Involves transfer of potential energy to
kinetic energy and vice versa.
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## Basic Concepts of Vibration

Degree of Freedom (d.o.f.) = min. no. of independent coordinates required to determine completely the positions of
all parts of a system at any instant of time
Examples of single degree-of-freedom systems:

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## Basic Concepts of Vibration

Examples of single degree-of-freedom systems:

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## Basic Concepts of Vibration

Examples of Two degree-of-freedom systems:

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## Basic Concepts of Vibration

Examples of Three degree of freedom systems:

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## Basic Concepts of Vibration

Example of Infinite number of degrees of freedom system:

Infinite number of degrees of freedom system are termed continuous or distributed systems.
Finite number of degrees of freedom are termed discrete or lumped parameter systems.
More accurate results obtained by increasing number of degrees of freedom.

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CLASSIFICATION OF
VIBRATION

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Classification of Vibration
Free Vibration:
A system is left to vibrate on its own after an initial disturbance and no external force acts on the system. E.g. simple pendulum
Forced Vibration:
A system that is subjected to a repeating external force. E.g. oscillation arises from diesel engines
Resonance occurs when the frequency of the external force coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system

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Classification of Vibration
Undamped Vibration:
When no energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other resistance during oscillations
Damped Vibration:
When any energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other resistance during oscillations
Linear Vibration:
When all basic components of a vibratory system, i.e. the spring, the mass and the damper behave linearly

20

Classification of Vibration
Nonlinear Vibration:
If any of the components behave nonlinearly
Deterministic Vibration:
If the value or magnitude of the excitation (force or motion) acting on a vibratory system is known at any given time
Nondeterministic or random Vibration:
When the value of the excitation at a given time cannot be predicted

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Classification of Vibration
Examples of deterministic and random excitation:

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VIBRATION ANALYSIS
PROCEDURE

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## Vibration Analysis Procedure

Step 1: Mathematical Modeling
Step 2: Derivation of Governing Equations
Step 3: Solution of the Governing Equations
Step 4: Interpretation of the Results

Derive
system/compone
nt

24

Free body
diagram
(FBD)

Find the
response
(solve problem
method)

Response (result):
Displacement,
velocities &
acceleration

## Vibration Analysis Procedure

Example of the modeling of a forging hammer:

25

Example 1.1
Mathematical Model of a Motorcycle
Figure below shows a motorcycle with a rider. Develop
a sequence of three mathematical models of the
system for investigating vibration in the vertical
direction. Consider the elasticity of the tires, elasticity
and damping of the struts (in the vertical direction),
masses of the wheels, and elasticity, damping, and
mass of the rider.

26

Example 1.1
Solution
gradually. When the equivalent values of the mass,
stiffness, and damping of the system are used, we
obtain a single-degree of freedom model of the
motorcycle with a rider as indicated in Fig.(b). In this
model, the equivalent stiffness (keq) includes the
stiffness of the tires, struts, and rider. The equivalent
damping constant (ceq) includes the damping of the
struts and the rider. The equivalent mass includes the
mass of the wheels, vehicle body and the rider.
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Example 1.1
Solution

28

Example 1.1
Solution
This model can be refined by representing the masses
of wheels, elasticity of tires, and elasticity and
damping of the struts separately, as shown in Fig.(c).
In this model, the mass of the vehicle body (mv) and
the mass of the rider (mr) are shown as a single mass,
mv + mr. When the elasticity (as spring constant kr)
and damping (as damping constant cr) of the rider are
considered, the refined model shown in Fig.(d) can be
obtained.

29

Example 1.1
Solution

30

Example 1.1
Solution
Note that the models shown in Figs.(b) to (d) are not
unique. For example, by combining the spring
constants of both tires, the masses of both wheels,
and the spring and damping constants of both struts
as single quantities, the model shown in Fig.(e) can

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SPRING ELEMENTS

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Spring Elements
Linear spring is a type of mechanical
link that is generally assumed to have
negligible mass and damping.
Spring force is given by:
F = kx

( 1.1)

F = spring force,
k = spring stiffness or spring constant, and
x = deformation (displacement of one end
with respect to the other)
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Spring Elements
Work done (U) in deforming a spring or
the strain (potential) energy is given
by:
1
( 1.2)
U = kx
2

## When an incremental force F is added

F + F = F ( x + x )
to F:
dF
*

= F ( x* ) +

dx

( x )

x*

1 d 2F
+
( x )2 + ...
2
2! dx x
*

34

( 1.3)

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Spring Elements
Static deflection of a beam at the free
end is given by:
Wl 3
st =
3 EI

( 1.6 )

## W = mg is the weight of the mass m,

E = Youngs Modulus, and
I = moment of inertia of cross-section of beam

## Spring Constant is given by:

W 3 EI
k=
= 3
st
l

( 1.7 )

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Spring Elements
Combination of Springs:
1) Springs in parallel if we have n
spring constants k1, k2, , kn in parallel,
then the equivalent spring constant keq
( )
k = k + k + ... + k
is:
eq

1.11

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Spring Elements
Combination of
Springs:
2) Springs in series if
we have n spring
constants k1, k2, , kn
in series, then the
equivalent spring
constant
keq1 is:
1
1 1
k eq

k1

k2

+ ... +

kn

( 1.17 )

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Example 1.3
Torsional Spring Constant of a Propeller Shaft
Determine the torsional spring constant of the speed
propeller shaft shown in Fig. 1.25.

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Example 1.3
Solution
We need to consider the segments 12 and 23 of the
shaft as springs in combination. From Fig. 1.25, the
torque induced at any cross section of the shaft (such
as AA or BB) can be seen to be equal to the torque
applied at the propeller, T. Hence, the elasticities
(springs) corresponding to the two segments 12 and
23 are to be considered as series springs. The spring
constants of segments 12 and 23 of the shaft (kt12 and
kt23) are given by:

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Example 1.3
Solution
GJ 12 G( D124 d 124 ) ( 80 10 9 )( 0.3 4
kt =
=
=
l12
32l12
32( 2 )

0.2 4 )

12

= 25.5255 10 6 N - m/rad

## GJ 23 G( D234 d 234 ) ( 80 10 9 )( 0.25 4

kt =
=
=
l 23
32l 23
32( 3 )
23

= 8.9012 10 N - m/rad
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0.15 4 )

Example 1.3
Solution
Since the springs are in series, Eq. (1.16) gives

kt =
eq

kt kt
12

23

kt + kt
12

23

( 25.5255 10 6 )( 8.9012 10 6 )
=
6
6
( 25.5255 10 + 8.9012 10 )
6

= 6.5997 10 N - m/rad

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Example 1.5
Equivalent k of a Crane
The boom AB of crane is a uniform steel bar of
length 10 m and x-section area of 2,500 mm2.
A weight W is suspended while the crane is
stationary. Steel cable CDEBF has x-sectional
area of 100 mm2. Neglect effect of cable CDEB,
find equivalent spring constant of system in the
vertical direction.

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Example 1.5
Solution
A vertical displacement x of pt B will cause the
spring k2 (boom) to deform by x2 = x cos 45
and the spring k1 (cable) to deform by an
amount x1 = x cos (90 ). Length of cable FB,
l1 is as shown.
l12 = 3 2 + 10 2

## 2( 3 )( 10 ) cos 135 = 151.426

l1 = 12.3055 m

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Example 1.5
Solution
The angle satisfies the relation:
l12 32 2(l1 )(3) cos 102
cos 0.8184,

35.0736

## The total potential energy (U):

1
1
U = k1 ( x cos 45 )2 + k 2 [ x cos( 90 )] 2
2
2

( E .1)

A1 E1 ( 100 10 6 )( 207 10 9 )
k1 =
=
= 1.6822 10 6 N/m
l1
12.0355

A2 E 2 ( 2500 10 6 )( 207 10 9 )
k2 =
=
= 5.1750 10 7 N/m
l2
10
45

Example 1.5
Solution
Potential Energy of the equivalent
spring is:
U eq =

1
k eq x 2
2

( E .2 )

## By setting U = Ueq, hence:

k eq = 26.4304 10 6 N/m

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MASS OR INERTIA
ELEMENTS

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## Mass or Inertia Elements

Using mathematical model to represent the actual
vibrating system
E.g. In figure below, the mass and damping of the
beam can be disregarded; the system can thus
be modeled as a spring-mass system as shown.

48

Combination
Masses

of

## E.g. Assume that the

mass of the frame is
negligible compared to
the masses of the floors.
The masses of various
floor levels represent
the mass elements, and
the elasticities of the
vertical
members
denote
the
spring
elements.
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by a Rigid Bar

x 2 =

50

l2
x
l1 1

x 3 =

l3
x
l1 1

( 1.18 )

## Mass or Inertia Elements

and,
By equating the kinetic energy of the system:

x eq = x 1

( 1.19 )

1
1
1
1
m1 x 12 + m2 x 22 + m3 x 32 = meq x eq2
2
2
2
2

l
meq = m1 + 2
l1

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l
m2 + 3
l1

( 1.20 )

m3

( 1.21)

## Case 2: Translational and Rotational

Masses Coupled Together

## meq = single equivalent translational mass

x = translational velocity
= rotational velocity
J0 = mass moment of inertia
Jeq = single equivalent rotational mass
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## Case 2: Translational and Rotational

Masses Coupled Together
1. Equivalent translational mass:
Kinetic energy of the two masses is given by:
T=

1 2 1 2
mx + J 0
2
2

( 1.22)

by:
Teq =

53

1
meq x eq 2
2

( 1.23)

## Case 2: Translational and Rotational

Masses Coupled Together
Since
gives

x
=
R

and

meq = m +

x eq = x

J0
R2

( 1.24)

## 2. Equivalent rotational mass:

Here, eq =
and T gives

x = R
and

, equating Teq

1
1
1
2
J eq 2 = m( R ) + J 0 2
2
2
2
or
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J eq = J 0 + mR 2

( 1.25)

Example 1.7
Cam-Follower Mechanism
A cam-follower mechanism is used to convert the
rotary motion of a shaft into the oscillating or
reciprocating motion of a valve.
The follower system consists of a pushrod of mass
mp, a rocker arm of mass mr, and mass moment of
inertia Jr about its C.G., a valve of mass mv, and a
valve
spring
of
negligible mass.
Find the equivalent mass (meq) of this camfollower system by assuming the location of meq
as (i) pt A and (ii) pt C.
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Example 1.7
Cam-Follower Mechanism

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Example 1.7
Solution

## The kinetic energy of the system (T) is:

T=

1
1
1
1
m p x 2p + mv x v2 + J r r2 + mr x r2
2
2
2
2

( E .1)

## If meq denotes equivalent mass placed at

pt
x eq A,
x with
the kinetic energy equivalent
mass system Teq is:1
(
)
Teq =

57

meq x eq2

E .2

Example 1.7
Solution
By equating T and Teq, and note that

## Similarly, if equivalent mass is located at point C,

hence,

x p = x , x v =

x l 2
x l
x
, x r = 3 , and r =
l1
l1
l1

l32
Jr
l 22
meq = m p + 2 + mv 2 + mr 2
l1
l1
l1

( E .3)

x eq x v ,
Teq =

58

1
1
meq x eq2 = meq x v2
2
2

( E .4 )

Example 1.7
Solution
Equating (E.4) and (E.1) gives

J
l
meq = mv + 2r + m p 1
l2
l2

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+ mr

l32
l12

( E .5)

DAMPING ELEMENTS

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Damping Elements

Viscous Damping:
Damping force is proportional to the velocity
of the vibrating body in a fluid medium such
as air, water, gas, and oil.
Coulomb or Dry Friction Damping:
Damping force is constant in magnitude but
opposite in direction to that of the motion of
the vibrating body between dry surfaces.
Material or Solid or Hysteretic Damping:
Energy is absorbed or dissipated by material
during deformation due to friction between
internal planes.
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Damping Elements

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Damping Elements

## Velocity of intermediate fluid layers

are assumed to vary linearly

Fixed plane

## Plate be moved with a velocity v in its own plane

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Damping Elements
Shear Stress ( ) developed in the fluid layer
at a distance y from the fixed plate is:
=

du
dy

( 1.26 )

## where du/dy = v/h is the velocity gradient.

Shear or Resisting Force (F) developed at the
bottom surface of the moving plate is:
F = A =

Av
= cv
h

( 1.27 )

## where A is the surface area of the moving

plate and
is the damping constant.
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c=

A
h

Damping Elements

## If a damper is nonlinear, a linearization

process is used about the operating
velocity (v*) and the equivalent
damping constant
is:
dF
c=

dv

( 1.29 )

v*

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Example 1.10
Equivalent Spring and Damping Constants of
a Machine Tool Support
A precision milling machine is supported on four shock
mounts, as shown in Fig. 1.37(a). The elasticity and
damping of each shock mount can be modeled as a
spring and a viscous damper, as shown in Fig.
1.37(b). Find the equivalent spring constant, keq, and
the equivalent damping constant, ceq, of the machine
tool support in terms of the spring constants (ki) and
damping constants (ci) of the mounts.

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Example 1.10
Equivalent Spring and Damping Constants of
a Machine Tool Support

67

Example
1.10 Solution
The free-body diagrams of the four springs and four
dampers are shown in Fig. 1.37(c). Assuming that the
center of mass, G, is located symmetrically with
respect to the four springs and dampers, we notice
that all the springs will be subjected to the same
displacement, x , and all the dampers will be subject to
the same relative velocity x , where x and x denote
the displacement and velocity, respectively, of the
center of mass, G. Hence the forces acting on the
springs (Fsi) and the dampers (Fdi) can be expressed
as
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Example
1.10 Solution

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Example
1.10 Solution
Fsi = k i x;

i = 1,2 ,3 ,4

Fdi = ci x ;

i = 1,2 ,3 ,4

( E.1)

Let the total forces acting on all the springs and all the
dampers be Fs and Fd, respectively (see Fig. 1.37d).
The force equilibrium equations can thus be
expressed as
Fs = Fs 1 + Fs 2 + Fs 3 + Fs 4
Fd = Fd 1 + Fd 2 + Fd 3 + Fd 4
70

( E.2)

Example
1.10 Solution
where Fs + Fd = W, with W denoting the total vertical
force (including the inertia force) acting on the milling
machine. From Fig. 1.37(d), we have
Fs = k eq x
Fd = ceq x

( E.3)

## Equation (E.2) along with Eqs. (E.1) and (E.3), yield

k eq = k1 + k 2 + k 3 + k 4 = 4 k
ceq = c1 + c2 + c3 + c4 = 4 c
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Parallel

( E.4)

Example
1.10 Solution
where ki = k and ci = c for i = 1, 2, 3, 4.
Note: If the center of mass, G, is not located
symmetrically with respect to the four springs and
dampers, the ith spring experiences a displacement
of x and the ith damper experiences a velocity of x
where x and x can be related to the displacement x
and velocity x of the center of mass of the milling
machine, G. In such a case, Eqs. (E.1) and (E.4)
need to be modified suitably.
i

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HARMONIC MOTION

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Harmonic Motion

## Periodic Motion: motion repeated after

equal
intervals of time
Harmonic Motion: simplest type of
periodic motion
x = A sin = A sin t
Displacement (x):
Velocity:
Acceleration:
74

## (On horizontal axis)

dx
= A cos t
dt

( 1.31)

d 2x
2 A sin t = - 2 x
2 =
dt

( 1.32)

( 1.30 )

Harmonic Motion
Scotch yoke
mechanism:
The similarity
between
cyclic
(harmonic)
and
sinusoidal
motion.

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Harmonic Motion

harmonic motion:

X = a + ib

( 1.35)

## where i = (1) and a and b denote the

real and imaginary x and y components
of X, respectively.

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Harmonic Motion

## Also, Eqn. (1.36) can be expressed

as

X = A cos + iA sin

X = A( cos + i sin ) = Ae i

Thus,

A j = ( a 2j + b 2j ) ; j = 1,2

j = tan

77

bj
aj

; j = 1, 2

( 1.36 )
( 1.43)

( 1.47 )

( 1.48)

Harmonic Motion

X = Ae it

Rotating Vector,

( 1.51)
( 1.54)

## Velocity = Re[ iAe it ] = A sin t

= A cos( t + 90)

( 1.55)

Acceleration = Re[ 2 Ae it ]
= 2 A cos t
= 2 A cos( t + 180)

78

## Where Re denotes the real part.

( 1.56 )

Harmonic Motion
Displacement, velocity, and accelerations as rotating vectors

harmonic functions

79

Example 1.11
Find the sum of the two harmonic motions
x1 ( t ) = 10 cos t and x2 ( t ) = 15 cos( t + 2 ).

Solution:
Method 1: By using trigonometric relations: Since the
circular frequency is the same for both x1(t) and x2(t),
we express the sum as

x( t ) = A cos( t + ) = x1 ( t ) + x2 ( t ) ( E.1)
80

That is,
A( cos t cos

## sin t sin ) = 10 cos t + 15 cos( t + 2 )

= 10 cos t + 15(cos t cos 2

sin t sin 2 )

( E.2)

That is,
cos t( A cos ) sin t( A sin ) = cos t( 10 + 15 cos 2 )
sin t( 15 sin 2 )

( E.3)

## By equating the corresponding coefficients of cost

and sint on both sides, we obtain
A cos = 10 + 15 cos 2
A sin = 15 sin 2
2
A = ( 10 + 15 cos 2) + ( 15 sin 2 )2

= 14.1477

( E.4)
81

and
= tan

15 sin 2
10 + 15 cos 2

= 74.5963

( E.5)

## Method 2: By using vectors: For an arbitrary value of

t, the harmonic motions x1(t) and x2(t) can be
denoted graphically as shown in Fig. 1.43. By adding
them vectorially, the resultant vector x(t) can be found
to be
x( t ) = 14.1477 cos( t + 74.5963 )

82

( E.6)

## Example 1.11 Solution

Method 3: By using complex number representation:
the two harmonic motions can be denoted in terms of
complex numbers:
x1 ( t ) = Re[ A1 e it ] Re[ 10e it ]
x2 ( t ) = Re[ A2 e i ( t + 2 ) ] Re[ 15e i ( t + 2 ) ]

( E.7)

## The sum of x1(t) and x2(t) can be expressed as

x( t ) = Re[ Ae i ( t + ) ]

( E.8)

## where A and can be determined using Eqs. (1.47)

and (1.48) as A = 14.1477 and = 74.5963
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Harmonic Motion

Definitions of Terminology:
Amplitude (A) is the maximum
displacement of a vibrating body from its
equilibrium position
Period of oscillation (T) is time taken to
2
( 1.59 )
T=

## complete one cycle of motion

Frequency of1 oscillation
(f) is the no. of

( 1.60 )
f = =
T 2
cycles per unit time
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Harmonic Motion

Definitions of Terminology:
Natural frequency is the frequency which a system
oscillates without external forces
Phase angle () is the angular difference between
two synchronous harmonic motions
x1 = A1 sin t

( 1.61)

x2 = A2 sin ( t + ) ( 1.62)

85

Harmonic Motion

Definitions of Terminology:
Beats are formed when two harmonic
motions, with frequencies close to one

86

Harmonic Motion

Definitions of Terminology:
Decibel is originally defined as a ratio of
electric powers. It is now often used as a
notation of various quantities such as
displacement, velocity, acceleration,
pressure, andPpower
dB = 10 log

dB = 20 log

( 1.68)

P0
X
X0

( 1.69)

## where P0 is some reference value of power and X0

is specified reference voltage.

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HARMONIC ANALYSIS

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Harmonic Analysis
A periodic function:

89

Harmonic Analysis
Fourier Series Expansion:
If x(t) is a periodic function with period
, its Fourier Series representation is
given by a
x( t ) =

## +b1 sin t + b2 sin 2t + ...

a0
= + ( an cos nt + bn sin nt )
2 n =1

( 1.70 )

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Harmonic Analysis
Gibbs Phenomenon:
An anomalous behavior observed from a periodic
function that is being represented by Fourier series.
As n increases, the
approximation can be seen
to improve everywhere
except in the vicinity of the
discontinuity, P. The error
in amplitude remains at
approximately 9 percent,
even when k .
91

Harmonic Analysis
Complex Fourier Series:
The Fourier series can also be represented in terms of
complex numbers.
and
Also,

e it = cos t + i sin t
e

it

= cos t

i sin t

e it + e
cos t =
2
e it + e
sin t =
2i

92

( 1.78 )
( 1.79 )

it

( 1.80 )
it

( 1.81 )

Harmonic Analysis
Frequency Spectrum:
Harmonics plotted as vertical lines on a diagram of
amplitude (an and bn or dn and n) versus frequency
(n).

93

Harmonic Analysis
Representation of a function in time
and frequency domain:

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Harmonic Analysis
Even and odd functions:
Even function & its Fourier
series expansion
x( t ) = x( t )
a0
x( t ) = + an cos nt
2 n =1

( 1.87 )
( 1.88 )

## Odd function & its Fourier

series expansion
x( t ) = x( t )

( 1.89 )

x( t ) = bn sin nt

( 1.90 )

n =1

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Harmonic Analysis
Half-Range Expansions:
The function is extended to
include the interval to 0 as
shown in the figure. The Fourier
series expansions of x1(t) and
x2(t) are known as half-range
expansions.

96

Harmonic Analysis
Numerical Computation
of Coefficients.
If x(t) is not in a simple
form, experimental
determination of the
amplitude of vibration
and numerical
integration procedure
like the trapezoidal or
Simpsons rule is used
to determine the
coefficients an and bn.

2 N
a0 = x i
N i =1

( 1.97 )

2 nt i
2 N
an = xi cos
N i =1

( 1.98 )

2 nt i
2 N
bn = xi sin
N i =1

( 1.99 )
97

Example 1.12
Fourier Series Expansion

## Determine the Fourier series expansion of

the motion of the valve in the camfollower system shown in the Figure.

98

Example 1.12
Solution
If y(t) denotes the vertical motion of the pushrod, the
motion of the valve, x(t), can be determined from the
relation:
or
where

tan =

y( t ) x( t )
=
l1
l2

x( t ) =

l2
y( t )
l1

t
y( t ) = Y ; 0 t

( E.1)

( E.2)

2
and the period is given by =
.

99

Example 1.12
Solution
By defining

Yl2
A=
l1

t
x( t ) = A ; 0 t

( E.3)

## Equation (E.3) is shown in the Figure.

To compute the Fourier coefficients an and bn, we use
Eqs. (1.71) to (1.73):
2

a0 =

2 /
2 / t
A t
x
(
t
)
dt
=
A
dt
=

0
0

2 /

=A

( E.4)

100

Example 1.12
Solution
2 /
a n = 0 x( t ) cos nt

A 2 /
=
t cos nt
0
= 0,

bn =

dt

A cos nt t sin nt
dt = 2
+
2
n2
n

2 /

n = 1, 2, ..

2 /
x( t ) sin nt

A 2 /
=
t sin nt
0
A
=
, n = 1, 2, ..
n
101

2 / t
dt = 0 A cos nt

( E.5)

dt =

2 / t
A sin nt

dt

A sin nt t cos nt
dt = 2
+
2
n2
n

2 /

( E.6)

Example 1.12
Solution
Therefore the Fourier series expansion of x(t) is
x( t ) =

A
2

A
sin 2t

A
=
2

A
sin 2t
2

...

1
1
sin t + sin 2t + sin 3t + ...
2
3

## The first three terms of the

series are shown plotted in
the figure. It can be seen that
the approximation reaches
the sawtooth shape even with
a small number of terms.
102

( E.7)