Fundamentals of vibrations and analysis of SDOF Systems

© All Rights Reserved

86 views

Fundamentals of vibrations and analysis of SDOF Systems

© All Rights Reserved

- Theory of Mechanics and Mechanisms 4th Edition
- Rail.vibrations.A4
- Vibrations of Cantilever Beam (Continuous System) (2)
- ANSYS Workbench 12官方中文培训教程--Dynamic动力学模块教程及实例
- Pre-Assessment of Vibration Analysis
- Bearing Failure
- 3 - Response_Spectrum
- Hilbert Vibration Decomposition
- Exp6 Theory
- webchapter 2
- 5249.Dynamic properties of soil
- Small-Bore Connections (SBC) Assessment _ BETA Machinery Analysis.pdf
- CIE626-2-FEMA-356
- Analysis of Non-Linear Machine Tool Dynamic Behaviour
- Guidelines for the Avoidance of Vibration Induced Fatigue failure in process p
- 66_LATERAL.pdf
- EnviroBLASTO: A Calculator for Estimating the Environmental Impacts of Rock Blasting
- dynamics.pdf
- Forced Oscillations – Pohl’s Pendulum Determination of Resonance Frequencies by Fourie
- BO0178

You are on page 1of 102

VIBRATION

Topic Outline

Introduction

Basic Concepts of Vibration

Classification of Vibration

Vibration Analysis Procedure

Spring Elements

Mass or Inertia Elements

Damping Elements

Harmonic Motion

Harmonic Analysis

ERT 452

INTRODUCTION

ERT 452

Phenomenon of

Vibration

Musical

instrument (string)

Use monochord

different length are

subject to the same

tension, the shorter one

emits a higher note.

Pythagoras

(582 - 507

BC)

Frequency of

vibration

ERT 452

(1564 1642)

Galileo Galilei

- Founder of modern experimental science.

- Started experimenting on simple pendulum.

- Study the behavior of a simple pendulum (observe pendulum movement of a lamp).

- Describing resonance, frequency, length, tension and density of a vibrating stretched string.

(1642 1727)

Sir Isaac Newton

- Derive the equation of motion of a

vibrating body.

ERT 452

(1902 1909)

Frahm

- Investigate the importance of torsional vibration study in the design of the propeller shafts of steamships.

- Propose the dynamic vibration absorber, which involves the addition of a secondary spring-mass system to eliminate the vibration of main

system.

ERT 452

WHY???

Vibrations can lead to excessive deflections

and failure on the machines and structures.

To reduce vibration through proper design of

machines and their mountings.

To utilize profitably in several consumer and

industrial applications.

To improve the efficiency of certain machining,

casting, forging & welding processes.

To

stimulate earthquakes for geological

research and conduct studies in design of

nuclear reactors.

ERT 452

EXAMPLE OF PROBLEMS

Vibrational

inherent unbalance in the engine.

Wheel of some locomotive rise more than

centimeter off the track high speeds due

to imbalance.

Turbines

vibration cause spectacular

mechanical failure.

ERT 452

DISADVANTAGES

Cause

rapid wear.

Create excessive noise.

Leads to poor surface finish (eg: in metal

cutting process, vibration cause chatter).

Resonance natural frequency of vibration

of a machine/structure coincide with the

frequency of the external excitation (eg:

Tacoma Narrow Bridge 1948)

ERT 452

Applications

ERT 452

10

BASIC CONCEPTS OF

VIBRATION

ERT 452

11

Vibration = any motion that repeats

itself after an interval of time.

Vibratory System consists of:

1) spring or elasticity

2) mass or inertia

3) damper

Involves transfer of potential energy to

kinetic energy and vice versa.

ERT 452

12

Degree of Freedom (d.o.f.) = min. no. of independent coordinates required to determine completely the positions of

all parts of a system at any instant of time

Examples of single degree-of-freedom systems:

ERT 452

13

Examples of single degree-of-freedom systems:

ERT 452

14

Examples of Two degree-of-freedom systems:

ERT 452

15

Examples of Three degree of freedom systems:

ERT 452

16

Example of Infinite number of degrees of freedom system:

Infinite number of degrees of freedom system are termed continuous or distributed systems.

Finite number of degrees of freedom are termed discrete or lumped parameter systems.

More accurate results obtained by increasing number of degrees of freedom.

ERT 452

17

CLASSIFICATION OF

VIBRATION

ERT 452

18

Classification of Vibration

Free Vibration:

A system is left to vibrate on its own after an initial disturbance and no external force acts on the system. E.g. simple pendulum

Forced Vibration:

A system that is subjected to a repeating external force. E.g. oscillation arises from diesel engines

Resonance occurs when the frequency of the external force coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system

19

Classification of Vibration

Undamped Vibration:

When no energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other resistance during oscillations

Damped Vibration:

When any energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other resistance during oscillations

Linear Vibration:

When all basic components of a vibratory system, i.e. the spring, the mass and the damper behave linearly

20

Classification of Vibration

Nonlinear Vibration:

If any of the components behave nonlinearly

Deterministic Vibration:

If the value or magnitude of the excitation (force or motion) acting on a vibratory system is known at any given time

Nondeterministic or random Vibration:

When the value of the excitation at a given time cannot be predicted

21

Classification of Vibration

Examples of deterministic and random excitation:

22

VIBRATION ANALYSIS

PROCEDURE

ERT 452

23

Step 1: Mathematical Modeling

Step 2: Derivation of Governing Equations

Step 3: Solution of the Governing Equations

Step 4: Interpretation of the Results

Derive

system/compone

nt

24

Free body

diagram

(FBD)

Find the

response

(solve problem

method)

Response (result):

Displacement,

velocities &

acceleration

Example of the modeling of a forging hammer:

25

Example 1.1

Mathematical Model of a Motorcycle

Figure below shows a motorcycle with a rider. Develop

a sequence of three mathematical models of the

system for investigating vibration in the vertical

direction. Consider the elasticity of the tires, elasticity

and damping of the struts (in the vertical direction),

masses of the wheels, and elasticity, damping, and

mass of the rider.

26

Example 1.1

Solution

We start with the simplest model and refine it

gradually. When the equivalent values of the mass,

stiffness, and damping of the system are used, we

obtain a single-degree of freedom model of the

motorcycle with a rider as indicated in Fig.(b). In this

model, the equivalent stiffness (keq) includes the

stiffness of the tires, struts, and rider. The equivalent

damping constant (ceq) includes the damping of the

struts and the rider. The equivalent mass includes the

mass of the wheels, vehicle body and the rider.

27

Example 1.1

Solution

28

Example 1.1

Solution

This model can be refined by representing the masses

of wheels, elasticity of tires, and elasticity and

damping of the struts separately, as shown in Fig.(c).

In this model, the mass of the vehicle body (mv) and

the mass of the rider (mr) are shown as a single mass,

mv + mr. When the elasticity (as spring constant kr)

and damping (as damping constant cr) of the rider are

considered, the refined model shown in Fig.(d) can be

obtained.

29

Example 1.1

Solution

30

Example 1.1

Solution

Note that the models shown in Figs.(b) to (d) are not

unique. For example, by combining the spring

constants of both tires, the masses of both wheels,

and the spring and damping constants of both struts

as single quantities, the model shown in Fig.(e) can

be obtained instead of Fig.(c).

31

SPRING ELEMENTS

ERT 452

32

Spring Elements

Linear spring is a type of mechanical

link that is generally assumed to have

negligible mass and damping.

Spring force is given by:

F = kx

( 1.1)

F = spring force,

k = spring stiffness or spring constant, and

x = deformation (displacement of one end

with respect to the other)

33

Spring Elements

Work done (U) in deforming a spring or

the strain (potential) energy is given

by:

1

( 1.2)

U = kx

2

F + F = F ( x + x )

to F:

dF

*

= F ( x* ) +

dx

( x )

x*

1 d 2F

+

( x )2 + ...

2

2! dx x

*

34

( 1.3)

35

Spring Elements

Static deflection of a beam at the free

end is given by:

Wl 3

st =

3 EI

( 1.6 )

E = Youngs Modulus, and

I = moment of inertia of cross-section of beam

W 3 EI

k=

= 3

st

l

( 1.7 )

36

Spring Elements

Combination of Springs:

1) Springs in parallel if we have n

spring constants k1, k2, , kn in parallel,

then the equivalent spring constant keq

( )

k = k + k + ... + k

is:

eq

1.11

37

Spring Elements

Combination of

Springs:

2) Springs in series if

we have n spring

constants k1, k2, , kn

in series, then the

equivalent spring

constant

keq1 is:

1

1 1

k eq

k1

k2

+ ... +

kn

( 1.17 )

38

Example 1.3

Torsional Spring Constant of a Propeller Shaft

Determine the torsional spring constant of the speed

propeller shaft shown in Fig. 1.25.

39

Example 1.3

Solution

We need to consider the segments 12 and 23 of the

shaft as springs in combination. From Fig. 1.25, the

torque induced at any cross section of the shaft (such

as AA or BB) can be seen to be equal to the torque

applied at the propeller, T. Hence, the elasticities

(springs) corresponding to the two segments 12 and

23 are to be considered as series springs. The spring

constants of segments 12 and 23 of the shaft (kt12 and

kt23) are given by:

40

Example 1.3

Solution

GJ 12 G( D124 d 124 ) ( 80 10 9 )( 0.3 4

kt =

=

=

l12

32l12

32( 2 )

0.2 4 )

12

= 25.5255 10 6 N - m/rad

kt =

=

=

l 23

32l 23

32( 3 )

23

= 8.9012 10 N - m/rad

41

0.15 4 )

Example 1.3

Solution

Since the springs are in series, Eq. (1.16) gives

kt =

eq

kt kt

12

23

kt + kt

12

23

( 25.5255 10 6 )( 8.9012 10 6 )

=

6

6

( 25.5255 10 + 8.9012 10 )

6

= 6.5997 10 N - m/rad

42

Example 1.5

Equivalent k of a Crane

The boom AB of crane is a uniform steel bar of

length 10 m and x-section area of 2,500 mm2.

A weight W is suspended while the crane is

stationary. Steel cable CDEBF has x-sectional

area of 100 mm2. Neglect effect of cable CDEB,

find equivalent spring constant of system in the

vertical direction.

43

Example 1.5

Solution

A vertical displacement x of pt B will cause the

spring k2 (boom) to deform by x2 = x cos 45

and the spring k1 (cable) to deform by an

amount x1 = x cos (90 ). Length of cable FB,

l1 is as shown.

l12 = 3 2 + 10 2

l1 = 12.3055 m

44

Example 1.5

Solution

The angle satisfies the relation:

l12 32 2(l1 )(3) cos 102

cos 0.8184,

35.0736

1

1

U = k1 ( x cos 45 )2 + k 2 [ x cos( 90 )] 2

2

2

( E .1)

A1 E1 ( 100 10 6 )( 207 10 9 )

k1 =

=

= 1.6822 10 6 N/m

l1

12.0355

A2 E 2 ( 2500 10 6 )( 207 10 9 )

k2 =

=

= 5.1750 10 7 N/m

l2

10

45

Example 1.5

Solution

Potential Energy of the equivalent

spring is:

U eq =

1

k eq x 2

2

( E .2 )

k eq = 26.4304 10 6 N/m

46

MASS OR INERTIA

ELEMENTS

ERT 452

47

Using mathematical model to represent the actual

vibrating system

E.g. In figure below, the mass and damping of the

beam can be disregarded; the system can thus

be modeled as a spring-mass system as shown.

48

Combination

Masses

of

mass of the frame is

negligible compared to

the masses of the floors.

The masses of various

floor levels represent

the mass elements, and

the elasticities of the

vertical

members

denote

the

spring

elements.

49

by a Rigid Bar

x 2 =

50

l2

x

l1 1

x 3 =

l3

x

l1 1

( 1.18 )

and,

By equating the kinetic energy of the system:

x eq = x 1

( 1.19 )

1

1

1

1

m1 x 12 + m2 x 22 + m3 x 32 = meq x eq2

2

2

2

2

l

meq = m1 + 2

l1

51

l

m2 + 3

l1

( 1.20 )

m3

( 1.21)

Masses Coupled Together

x = translational velocity

= rotational velocity

J0 = mass moment of inertia

Jeq = single equivalent rotational mass

52

Masses Coupled Together

1. Equivalent translational mass:

Kinetic energy of the two masses is given by:

T=

1 2 1 2

mx + J 0

2

2

( 1.22)

by:

Teq =

53

1

meq x eq 2

2

( 1.23)

Masses Coupled Together

Since

gives

x

=

R

and

meq = m +

x eq = x

J0

R2

( 1.24)

Here, eq =

and T gives

x = R

and

, equating Teq

1

1

1

2

J eq 2 = m( R ) + J 0 2

2

2

2

or

54

J eq = J 0 + mR 2

( 1.25)

Example 1.7

Cam-Follower Mechanism

A cam-follower mechanism is used to convert the

rotary motion of a shaft into the oscillating or

reciprocating motion of a valve.

The follower system consists of a pushrod of mass

mp, a rocker arm of mass mr, and mass moment of

inertia Jr about its C.G., a valve of mass mv, and a

valve

spring

of

negligible mass.

Find the equivalent mass (meq) of this camfollower system by assuming the location of meq

as (i) pt A and (ii) pt C.

55

Example 1.7

Cam-Follower Mechanism

ERT 452

56

Example 1.7

Solution

T=

1

1

1

1

m p x 2p + mv x v2 + J r r2 + mr x r2

2

2

2

2

( E .1)

pt

x eq A,

x with

the kinetic energy equivalent

mass system Teq is:1

(

)

Teq =

57

meq x eq2

E .2

Example 1.7

Solution

By equating T and Teq, and note that

hence,

x p = x , x v =

x l 2

x l

x

, x r = 3 , and r =

l1

l1

l1

l32

Jr

l 22

meq = m p + 2 + mv 2 + mr 2

l1

l1

l1

( E .3)

x eq x v ,

Teq =

58

1

1

meq x eq2 = meq x v2

2

2

( E .4 )

Example 1.7

Solution

Equating (E.4) and (E.1) gives

J

l

meq = mv + 2r + m p 1

l2

l2

59

+ mr

l32

l12

( E .5)

DAMPING ELEMENTS

ERT 452

60

Damping Elements

Viscous Damping:

Damping force is proportional to the velocity

of the vibrating body in a fluid medium such

as air, water, gas, and oil.

Coulomb or Dry Friction Damping:

Damping force is constant in magnitude but

opposite in direction to that of the motion of

the vibrating body between dry surfaces.

Material or Solid or Hysteretic Damping:

Energy is absorbed or dissipated by material

during deformation due to friction between

internal planes.

61

Damping Elements

62

Damping Elements

are assumed to vary linearly

Fixed plane

ERT 452

63

Damping Elements

Shear Stress ( ) developed in the fluid layer

at a distance y from the fixed plate is:

=

du

dy

( 1.26 )

Shear or Resisting Force (F) developed at the

bottom surface of the moving plate is:

F = A =

Av

= cv

h

( 1.27 )

plate and

is the damping constant.

64

c=

A

h

Damping Elements

process is used about the operating

velocity (v*) and the equivalent

damping constant

is:

dF

c=

dv

( 1.29 )

v*

65

Example 1.10

Equivalent Spring and Damping Constants of

a Machine Tool Support

A precision milling machine is supported on four shock

mounts, as shown in Fig. 1.37(a). The elasticity and

damping of each shock mount can be modeled as a

spring and a viscous damper, as shown in Fig.

1.37(b). Find the equivalent spring constant, keq, and

the equivalent damping constant, ceq, of the machine

tool support in terms of the spring constants (ki) and

damping constants (ci) of the mounts.

66

Example 1.10

Equivalent Spring and Damping Constants of

a Machine Tool Support

67

Example

1.10 Solution

The free-body diagrams of the four springs and four

dampers are shown in Fig. 1.37(c). Assuming that the

center of mass, G, is located symmetrically with

respect to the four springs and dampers, we notice

that all the springs will be subjected to the same

displacement, x , and all the dampers will be subject to

the same relative velocity x , where x and x denote

the displacement and velocity, respectively, of the

center of mass, G. Hence the forces acting on the

springs (Fsi) and the dampers (Fdi) can be expressed

as

68

Example

1.10 Solution

69

Example

1.10 Solution

Fsi = k i x;

i = 1,2 ,3 ,4

Fdi = ci x ;

i = 1,2 ,3 ,4

( E.1)

Let the total forces acting on all the springs and all the

dampers be Fs and Fd, respectively (see Fig. 1.37d).

The force equilibrium equations can thus be

expressed as

Fs = Fs 1 + Fs 2 + Fs 3 + Fs 4

Fd = Fd 1 + Fd 2 + Fd 3 + Fd 4

70

( E.2)

Example

1.10 Solution

where Fs + Fd = W, with W denoting the total vertical

force (including the inertia force) acting on the milling

machine. From Fig. 1.37(d), we have

Fs = k eq x

Fd = ceq x

( E.3)

k eq = k1 + k 2 + k 3 + k 4 = 4 k

ceq = c1 + c2 + c3 + c4 = 4 c

71

Parallel

( E.4)

Example

1.10 Solution

where ki = k and ci = c for i = 1, 2, 3, 4.

Note: If the center of mass, G, is not located

symmetrically with respect to the four springs and

dampers, the ith spring experiences a displacement

of x and the ith damper experiences a velocity of x

where x and x can be related to the displacement x

and velocity x of the center of mass of the milling

machine, G. In such a case, Eqs. (E.1) and (E.4)

need to be modified suitably.

i

72

HARMONIC MOTION

ERT 452

73

Harmonic Motion

equal

intervals of time

Harmonic Motion: simplest type of

periodic motion

x = A sin = A sin t

Displacement (x):

Velocity:

Acceleration:

74

dx

= A cos t

dt

( 1.31)

d 2x

2 A sin t = - 2 x

2 =

dt

( 1.32)

( 1.30 )

Harmonic Motion

Scotch yoke

mechanism:

The similarity

between

cyclic

(harmonic)

and

sinusoidal

motion.

75

Harmonic Motion

harmonic motion:

X = a + ib

( 1.35)

real and imaginary x and y components

of X, respectively.

76

Harmonic Motion

as

X = A cos + iA sin

X = A( cos + i sin ) = Ae i

Thus,

A j = ( a 2j + b 2j ) ; j = 1,2

j = tan

77

bj

aj

; j = 1, 2

( 1.36 )

( 1.43)

( 1.47 )

( 1.48)

Harmonic Motion

X = Ae it

Rotating Vector,

( 1.51)

( 1.54)

= A cos( t + 90)

( 1.55)

Acceleration = Re[ 2 Ae it ]

= 2 A cos t

= 2 A cos( t + 180)

78

( 1.56 )

Harmonic Motion

Displacement, velocity, and accelerations as rotating vectors

Vectorial addition of

harmonic functions

79

Example 1.11

Addition of Harmonic Motions

Find the sum of the two harmonic motions

x1 ( t ) = 10 cos t and x2 ( t ) = 15 cos( t + 2 ).

Solution:

Method 1: By using trigonometric relations: Since the

circular frequency is the same for both x1(t) and x2(t),

we express the sum as

x( t ) = A cos( t + ) = x1 ( t ) + x2 ( t ) ( E.1)

80

That is,

A( cos t cos

= 10 cos t + 15(cos t cos 2

sin t sin 2 )

( E.2)

That is,

cos t( A cos ) sin t( A sin ) = cos t( 10 + 15 cos 2 )

sin t( 15 sin 2 )

( E.3)

and sint on both sides, we obtain

A cos = 10 + 15 cos 2

A sin = 15 sin 2

2

A = ( 10 + 15 cos 2) + ( 15 sin 2 )2

= 14.1477

( E.4)

81

and

= tan

15 sin 2

10 + 15 cos 2

= 74.5963

( E.5)

t, the harmonic motions x1(t) and x2(t) can be

denoted graphically as shown in Fig. 1.43. By adding

them vectorially, the resultant vector x(t) can be found

to be

x( t ) = 14.1477 cos( t + 74.5963 )

82

( E.6)

Method 3: By using complex number representation:

the two harmonic motions can be denoted in terms of

complex numbers:

x1 ( t ) = Re[ A1 e it ] Re[ 10e it ]

x2 ( t ) = Re[ A2 e i ( t + 2 ) ] Re[ 15e i ( t + 2 ) ]

( E.7)

x( t ) = Re[ Ae i ( t + ) ]

( E.8)

and (1.48) as A = 14.1477 and = 74.5963

83

Harmonic Motion

Definitions of Terminology:

Amplitude (A) is the maximum

displacement of a vibrating body from its

equilibrium position

Period of oscillation (T) is time taken to

2

( 1.59 )

T=

Frequency of1 oscillation

(f) is the no. of

( 1.60 )

f = =

T 2

cycles per unit time

84

Harmonic Motion

Definitions of Terminology:

Natural frequency is the frequency which a system

oscillates without external forces

Phase angle () is the angular difference between

two synchronous harmonic motions

x1 = A1 sin t

( 1.61)

x2 = A2 sin ( t + ) ( 1.62)

85

Harmonic Motion

Definitions of Terminology:

Beats are formed when two harmonic

motions, with frequencies close to one

another, are added

86

Harmonic Motion

Definitions of Terminology:

Decibel is originally defined as a ratio of

electric powers. It is now often used as a

notation of various quantities such as

displacement, velocity, acceleration,

pressure, andPpower

dB = 10 log

dB = 20 log

( 1.68)

P0

X

X0

( 1.69)

is specified reference voltage.

87

HARMONIC ANALYSIS

ERT 452

88

Harmonic Analysis

A periodic function:

89

Harmonic Analysis

Fourier Series Expansion:

If x(t) is a periodic function with period

, its Fourier Series representation is

given by a

x( t ) =

a0

= + ( an cos nt + bn sin nt )

2 n =1

( 1.70 )

90

Harmonic Analysis

Gibbs Phenomenon:

An anomalous behavior observed from a periodic

function that is being represented by Fourier series.

As n increases, the

approximation can be seen

to improve everywhere

except in the vicinity of the

discontinuity, P. The error

in amplitude remains at

approximately 9 percent,

even when k .

91

Harmonic Analysis

Complex Fourier Series:

The Fourier series can also be represented in terms of

complex numbers.

and

Also,

e it = cos t + i sin t

e

it

= cos t

i sin t

e it + e

cos t =

2

e it + e

sin t =

2i

92

( 1.78 )

( 1.79 )

it

( 1.80 )

it

( 1.81 )

Harmonic Analysis

Frequency Spectrum:

Harmonics plotted as vertical lines on a diagram of

amplitude (an and bn or dn and n) versus frequency

(n).

93

Harmonic Analysis

Representation of a function in time

and frequency domain:

94

Harmonic Analysis

Even and odd functions:

Even function & its Fourier

series expansion

x( t ) = x( t )

a0

x( t ) = + an cos nt

2 n =1

( 1.87 )

( 1.88 )

series expansion

x( t ) = x( t )

( 1.89 )

x( t ) = bn sin nt

( 1.90 )

n =1

95

Harmonic Analysis

Half-Range Expansions:

The function is extended to

include the interval to 0 as

shown in the figure. The Fourier

series expansions of x1(t) and

x2(t) are known as half-range

expansions.

96

Harmonic Analysis

Numerical Computation

of Coefficients.

If x(t) is not in a simple

form, experimental

determination of the

amplitude of vibration

and numerical

integration procedure

like the trapezoidal or

Simpsons rule is used

to determine the

coefficients an and bn.

2 N

a0 = x i

N i =1

( 1.97 )

2 nt i

2 N

an = xi cos

N i =1

( 1.98 )

2 nt i

2 N

bn = xi sin

N i =1

( 1.99 )

97

Example 1.12

Fourier Series Expansion

the motion of the valve in the camfollower system shown in the Figure.

98

Example 1.12

Solution

If y(t) denotes the vertical motion of the pushrod, the

motion of the valve, x(t), can be determined from the

relation:

or

where

tan =

y( t ) x( t )

=

l1

l2

x( t ) =

l2

y( t )

l1

t

y( t ) = Y ; 0 t

( E.1)

( E.2)

2

and the period is given by =

.

99

Example 1.12

Solution

By defining

Yl2

A=

l1

t

x( t ) = A ; 0 t

( E.3)

To compute the Fourier coefficients an and bn, we use

Eqs. (1.71) to (1.73):

2

a0 =

2 /

2 / t

A t

x

(

t

)

dt

=

A

dt

=

0

0

2 /

=A

( E.4)

100

Example 1.12

Solution

2 /

a n = 0 x( t ) cos nt

A 2 /

=

t cos nt

0

= 0,

bn =

dt

A cos nt t sin nt

dt = 2

+

2

n2

n

2 /

n = 1, 2, ..

2 /

x( t ) sin nt

A 2 /

=

t sin nt

0

A

=

, n = 1, 2, ..

n

101

2 / t

dt = 0 A cos nt

( E.5)

dt =

2 / t

A sin nt

dt

A sin nt t cos nt

dt = 2

+

2

n2

n

2 /

( E.6)

Example 1.12

Solution

Therefore the Fourier series expansion of x(t) is

x( t ) =

A

2

A

sin 2t

A

=

2

A

sin 2t

2

...

1

1

sin t + sin 2t + sin 3t + ...

2

3

series are shown plotted in

the figure. It can be seen that

the approximation reaches

the sawtooth shape even with

a small number of terms.

102

( E.7)

- Theory of Mechanics and Mechanisms 4th EditionUploaded byTimothy's Spaceship
- Rail.vibrations.A4Uploaded byMai Kawayapanik
- Vibrations of Cantilever Beam (Continuous System) (2)Uploaded byWeam Elsahar
- ANSYS Workbench 12官方中文培训教程--Dynamic动力学模块教程及实例Uploaded byERWINDONG1985
- Pre-Assessment of Vibration AnalysisUploaded byIrfan Uz Zaman
- Bearing FailureUploaded byTuan Noridham Tuan Lah
- 3 - Response_SpectrumUploaded byRani Rabbani
- Hilbert Vibration DecompositionUploaded byAndres Guevara
- Exp6 TheoryUploaded byKaan Günay
- webchapter 2Uploaded byTom Winter
- 5249.Dynamic properties of soilUploaded byBibhu Prasad
- Small-Bore Connections (SBC) Assessment _ BETA Machinery Analysis.pdfUploaded byJose Bijoy
- CIE626-2-FEMA-356Uploaded byRicardo Wong Montoya
- Analysis of Non-Linear Machine Tool Dynamic BehaviourUploaded byjellowis
- Guidelines for the Avoidance of Vibration Induced Fatigue failure in process pUploaded bySoodamany Ponnu Pandian
- 66_LATERAL.pdfUploaded byGerman Toledo
- EnviroBLASTO: A Calculator for Estimating the Environmental Impacts of Rock BlastingUploaded bygnpanagiotou
- dynamics.pdfUploaded byluis cabral
- Forced Oscillations – Pohl’s Pendulum Determination of Resonance Frequencies by FourieUploaded byJose Galvan
- BO0178Uploaded byBalaji Jayadevan
- vocb vibration, 2007.pdfUploaded byStephanie Nixon
- Ce2403 Bdad QbUploaded byUmar Saba
- Thrun Etal Jfr06Uploaded bycristi_pet4742
- Design Analysis 1 Exam 2010-11.pdfUploaded byhazimraad
- Week 2Uploaded bySaqib Anwar
- 121578-334143-1-SMUploaded byVM Ingenieros
- 02_1translationUploaded byHelmi Jasir
- Membranes Under PrestressUploaded bySparrow Jack
- Linear vibration analysis of cantilever plates partially submerged in ﬂuid.pdfUploaded byKing1971
- Dnvgl Ru Naval Pt3ch2Uploaded byvarek29

- Robot Trajectory PlanningUploaded byKoteswara Rao
- Introduction to Finite Element MethodUploaded byPrithviraj Daga
- Riveted JointsUploaded byKoteswara Rao
- Design of Machine Elements ParUploaded byboyo999
- Commercial Software List (Open Sourcs)Uploaded byveereshgk2010
- Ansys Autodyn 120 Workshop 01Uploaded byKoteswara Rao
- Peery and Azar_ Aircraft StructuresUploaded byKoteswara Rao
- JNTUK-DAP-Schedule of Ratification InterviewsUploaded byKoteswara Rao
- 10.1.1.136Uploaded byKoteswara Rao
- Subjects Allotment 2011-12Uploaded byKoteswara Rao
- ch08Uploaded byKoteswara Rao

- The Behavior of Inverted Pendulum Structures During Earthquakes - HousnerUploaded byleotramontin
- If EmUploaded bypawar_kinjal110
- 99516240-Design-of-Steel-truss-Members.xlsUploaded byMantripragada Raju
- lec4Uploaded byharshitakouta
- BogdanovUploaded byGabe Vanderkin
- Introduction of Mechanics Lecture Notes 2 for StudentsUploaded byjianghui
- On Sound Generated Aerodynamically. I. General TheoryUploaded bynascosannascosan
- ME_F311_1267.pdfUploaded byBhaskar Sharma
- Assignment 3.pdfUploaded byManoj
- Quantum theories newUploaded bymaniacraghu
- Paper 9Uploaded byAnubhav Lal
- CPT BibbleUploaded byTrung Phan
- Statics alsoUploaded byMohamed Zainol Ain
- 1402-Paper (E)Uploaded byAlapan Ray
- 01495738308942166Uploaded bysijyvinod
- Iko BearingUploaded bySandhya Sankar
- PHYSICS 72 2ND LE SAMPLEXUploaded byCharmaine Coleta
- 6Uploaded bypride3351
- 94 20 TEC BPI 1002 Hardness MeasurementsUploaded byKevin Steinbach
- RBI Vibration AssesmentUploaded byRockny2011
- Geo5FEM.pdfUploaded byIancu-Bogdan Teodoru
- 6 Second LawUploaded byKeilla Romabiles Leopando
- Ocr 00 088 528 Tire Slip ModelUploaded byHorváth Balázs
- polarizacion (2)Uploaded byMaya Perucini
- Fluid Mixing labUploaded byFatinnnnnn
- fe-takehomeUploaded byTrip Adler
- RCC Beam DesignUploaded byjakeer7
- FM Objective QuestionsUploaded bykirubadurai
- flamelet modeling of spray diffusion flameUploaded byChuck Chen
- Foam as a Soil Conditioner in TunnellingUploaded bySam Jandali