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ACO410/ACX702: Communication Research Methods 2015

Week 2- TOPIC 2: Theoretical Paradigms and Concepts (Prepared by N Weerakkody)


Assigned Readings: Textbook - Chapter 2: Reading 2.1- Kizilos (2008); Reading 2.2- Cooke (2004)
In Topic 1, we learnt about epistemologies and their relationship to theoretical perspectives or paradigms,
methodologies and research methods. This Topic examines a few common paradigms used in media and
communication research along with several keywords such as concepts, constructs, variables etc.
Theoretical Perspectives or Research Paradigms
Paradigms: Thomas Kuhn (1969). In the simplest of terms, a paradigm is a way of looking at something. e.g.
The famous drawing, which can be seen as that of an old or young woman. See Figure 2.2 on page 19 in
textbook (Old /young woman); The earth as flat or round.
Paradigms organize our observations and help us make sense of them. e.g. Looking at food from the points of
view (or paradigms) of nutrition, aesthetics (as art), economics, culture, history, or sociology (social practices).
In other words, the same phenomenon / issue / event etc. can be examined from different angles or paradigms.
However, the paradigm used at a given time locks us into it at the expense of others, at least momentarily, as we
saw with the drawing mentioned above. Different paradigms or points-of-view can provide different
explanations and understandings of the same issue/phenomenon/event etc. In the sciences, well known
paradigms can be Darwins Theory of Evolution; Einsteins Theory of Relativity etc.
Changing paradigms: At any given time in society, some paradigms dominate, to be challenged by others. e.g.
Darwins Theory of Evolution vs Intelligent design. In the pure sciences, paradigms change when they are
disproved or their limitations / shortcomings are pointed out, and are replaced by new ones. e.g. From seeing
the earth as flat to round. Paradigm changes can lead to different research findings. e.g. After seeing the world
as round, Columbus could sail westwards in search on India, which led to his discovering the Americas. In the
social sciences, different paradigms of the same phenomenon may remain side by side with some being more
popular and dominant over others at a given time. Some may even return to favour later. e.g. Marshall
McLuhans theories were very popular in the 1960s but were less so in the late 1970s and 1980s. But they
returned to dominance in the mid-1990s and still remain so. Unlike in the pure sciences, in the social sciences, a
paradigm is neither true nor false- its simply a point of view. (See Objectivism vs Constructionism/
Subjectivism from Topic 1)
Basic Paradigms or Research Traditions in Communication
The five paradigms or ways of knowing examined in this unit are: a) Positivist; b) Systems; c) Interpretivist;
d) Critical; and e) Functionalist approaches.
a) The Positivist Paradigm
Positivism, introduced in the mid19th century by Auguste Comte (1798-1857), argues that society should
be studied using scientific objectivity the same way scientists study nature. It is called positive philosophy
where knowledge is based on observation through the five senses. This view opposed the then dominant
religious paradigm, which explained the differences and changes within and between societies or individuals
as due to Gods Will (or Karma / Fate / luck).
Characteristics of positivism: Positivism assumes that objective reality can only be known through empirical
observation (study of variables, development of theories etc. that allow for prediction, explanation and control).
It proposes searching for generalized laws and observations using quantitative data and methods such as
experiments and surveys. Positivists believe there is an objective reality out there independent of the researcher
(Refer objectivism from Topic 1). Knowledge claims made (what we say we know) are based on empirical data
collected (using observations/experiments) with measures taken to reduce researcher subjectivity (with
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sampling, operational definitions etc.) during the research process. According to positivism, research findings
describe the relationship/s we might logically expect among variables.
Generalised Laws: Positivists rely on two types of explanations or forms of causal reasoning. They are: a)
Nomothetic and b) Idiographic types of explanation.
Nomothetic (i. e. general) Type of Explanation: Nomothetic explanations identify a few causal factors
affecting a category of situations or events (instead of a single situation) in a parsimonious manner. It is a more
generalisable explanation. e.g. Deakin university experienced a fall in demand for IT courses after 2002. This
was found to be common to Universities across Australia, which can be explained as due to a job market slump
for IT workers after the DotCom crash. Often used in quantitative research.
Idiographic (i. e. idiosyncratic) Type of Explanation: Idiographic explanations look at an event or condition,
by looking for the idiosyncratic, unique or peculiar causes affecting it. It explains that one case fully. This
means the explanation is limited in scope or is not generalisable. e.g. Why did person X choose to major in a
given subject? Often used in qualitative research.
Covering Laws: Since positivists generally look for more generalised or nomothetic explanations, they also
look for laws that are generalisable to a larger group of phenomena than a single situation or instance. This is
called the covering law (or specific (small) existing theory- not a paradigm), model, rule or findings from
earlier research used in a new research project) approach because the laws being theorized are expected to
cover or include the broadest possible phenomena or achieve generalisability or external validity (examined
in the unit under Sampling). A few well known covering laws in media and communication are: Agenda setting
theory; gatekeeping; framing; uses and gratifications etc.
b) The Systems Paradigm (Austrian biologist Ludwig Von Bertalanffy in 1968)
This view sees a group, an organization and even a society or any other social entity as an organism, made up
of a system of different parts. Within this system or the dynamic whole, organised interactions take place
continuously in a synergy or interdependently. e.g. The human body has various organs (heart, lungs) and
systems (the respiratory, vascular) that work in coordination with each other to run the body efficiently (at
equilibrium). In case of any disruption to a specific part of the body (disequilibrium), the system is designed
to bring it back to normal or re-equilibrium (e.g. Infections reacted to by the body itself and indicating theres a
problem with us being sick by running a temperature.) A social system is similarly designed with many parts
working together interdependently to run the system efficiently.
According to research grounded (based) in systems theory, for an individual, the system of
communication consists of the interrelated verbal/linguistic and nonverbal aspects. They work together when
we communicate. The whole or the system is greater than the sum of its parts. e.g. An Audio visual message
is better than audio or visual alone; A finished cake is much more than the sum of the ingredients used; The
Kardashians as a family made more money with success for all its members including the in-laws, rather than if
Kim alone had been involved.
Characteristics of Systems Theory: When communication is assumed as a system, one needs to examine it in
a wider context. e.g. When examining one media industry (TV), we need to look at it as interrelated to others
due to the convergence (coming together) of media technologies, functions, industries and ownership patterns
today. For example, TV needs print to advertise and publicize its schedules. TV stations will have websites and
will have their stars on radio interviews, magazines/ newspapers to plug the programs. This is called
Interdependence or synergy. So a change in one medium can affect others.
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In a system, a researcher needs to study it as a whole instead of the different parts in isolation. e.g.
Research involving effects of TV violence on children cannot just study the TV content and kids behaviour.
(Refer to the DVD, Does TV Kill?-1995). They need to examine the context of their lives with respect to their
school / home lives, parents, neighbourhood, and community in which they live, how much TV they watch,
what other programs they watch, what other activities / media are available to them in order to examine their
synergy, interactions, correlations and interrelationships.
Dynamic Equilibrium: Communication systems exist in a dynamic equilibrium where the system stays in a
state of balance and the various parts move (dynamic) all the time. The system may get disrupted and lose its
balance but the system itself works to regain its equilibrium. e.g. After an argument between friends, either one
or both will apologise and make their peace; stay away; or end the friendship.
Types of Systems: Systems can be either open or closed.
Open systems respond to and are being affected by external factors or their environment. e.g. A friendship is
affected by other people, their changes in life styles, the environment such as the distance between them. A
closed system is unaffected by external factors or the environment. e.g. A lab experiment.
Researchers using Systems theory will examine what the system in question is, what its boundaries are (what
separates it from the environment), what the components of the system are, how they function and are
interdependent, what its equilibrium is, and how the components of the system respond to external factors to
maintain its dynamic equilibrium.
Systems Theory vs Positivism: There are common elements as well as differences between the two paradigms.
They both assume the existence of an objective reality and use quantitative data and assume the social world to
be similar to the natural world.
Systems theory does not look for patterned relationships of causes and effects between or among variables as
positivism does. Systems theory examines how the different parts of the system work together to maintain the
system and use variables to examine issues of equilibrium. e.g. The system of a marriage is in equilibrium if
both parties are satisfied with it. Dissatisfaction leads to dis-equilibrium or breakdown. Research based on
Systems Theory will examine the variables and issues responsible for the equilibrium/disequilibrium.
c)
The Interpretivist Paradigm (Paul Ricoeur 1976)
The central assumption of the Interpretivist (and also the Critical) paradigm(s) is that human action as an
activity aimed at meaning-making. Therefore, interpretation (making meanings) of these actions is necessary to
understand human experience (Littlejohn, 2002). Any given action can have different meanings (to different
people). Therefore, meaning cannot simply be discovered but interpreted in an active, inventive process (by
the researcher). (Observe the link to Constructionism)
Charaterisitics of interpretivism: Interpretivist researchers look at the social world (or the human experience)
as different to the natural world because humans have the capacity for self-reflection (see themselves as in a
mirror image / through other peoples eyes). As human action is done for a purpose, humans do things based on
what society means for those actions and are able to give a reason as to why they do something. (Observe the
link to Subjectivism)
Different cultures and social groups have different systems of meaning. Therefore, the interpretivist researcher
tries to understand human action within their specific context- by walking in their shoes or seeing the world
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through the eyes of the researched (e.g. Anthropological research via participant observation or qualitative
interviewing/text analysis), to gain insights as to why people do certain things in a certain way in a given
situation /context /culture and what certain actions/phenomena mean to them. e.g. In the film Donny Brasco,
actor Johnny Depp plays the real life FBI agent Jo Pistone who infiltrated the Mafia. When asked, he explains to
his FBI colleagues what Forgeddabouddid means to Mafia members.
Rules: In the interpretivist paradigm, the study of meaning is related to the study of rules. A rule is a commonly
shared belief among members of a group or subculture about appropriate action. Rules specify what is
allowed/encouraged /not permitted in the social group/society we belong to. e.g. Rules of language such as
grammar, spelling, and style in writing; How to behave in a university classroom in Australia.
An interpretivist researcher examines the communicative actions of a group or setting to understand the rules
applicable to them. e.g. Balinese cockfights and its rules on betting; Shouting in Australian pubs.
The Critical Paradigm (Juergen Habermas,1971)
Critical theory or the critical examination of the social structure tries to examine the power relations and
ideology embedded in a given situation and argues about what is wrong or unfair in society, whose interests are
served in the process (generally the more powerful) and tries to make positive changes to society (make things
better). (e.g. Do Gooders; Bleeding Hearts; Organisations such as Amnesty International; Whistleblowers;
Anti-Globalisation campaigners etc.) It is credited to the Frankfurt School / Institute for Social Research (Max
Horkheimer, Theodore Adorno, Herbert Mercuse,1923). It is Marxist in origin (Karl Marx, 1818-1883) and sees
social behaviour as a process of conflict an attempt to dominate others or to avoid being dominated by others.
Marxs ideas were mainly based on the class struggle. This is now extended to gender, age, race, ethnicity,
sexual orientation etc. It also challenges the assumption that empirical observation (positivism) is the only
pathway to knowledge.
Critical Reflection: Refers to an examination of a data set to identify its ideological bias and how it affects and
indicates the power relations in society. e.g. Looking at teen movie content produced by powerful adults and
studios and how it negatively affects teens (Stern, 2005).
Characteristics of critical theory: The critical paradigm assumes that ideology and power shape social
experience and tries to expose the values embedded in them, hoping to enlighten (educate) and emancipate
(free) the affected members or groups. e.g. Letting oppressed groups (e.g. Teens) know the unfairness of their
situation (e.g. negative media portrayals); that it need not be so; why and how it is maintained and how to
rectify or change it to benefit the disadvantaged/everyone. It also tries to show whose interests (generally of
those in power) are served by the status quo (the way things are). e.g. Powerful men or the patriarchy telling
women that they should not do X or Y for their own good even if the situation is unfair and disadvantageous to
most women.
Applications of Critical Theory: Communication research in the critical paradigm may examine how social
class/patriarchy/ racism/ethnocentrism/ageism etc. are reproduced in TV portrayals of various social groups.
e.g. Ethnic minority members portrayed as villains; teens as selfish; the unemployed as lazy to work/drunks
etc.; Or Feminist research may examine how professional women are portrayed in Sex and the City as
unhappy, dying to marry and become a mother etc. even though professional men are not portrayed that way.
This tries to say that the traditional gender roles were best for women and trying to go against them makes
women unhappy, lonely etc.
e) The Functionalist Paradigm
Introduced by Auguste Comte (1896), Herbert Spencer (1896), Emil Durkheim (1982) and
anthropologists A R Radcliffe-Brown (1935) and Branislaw Malinowski (1948) and others, this paradigm
assumes that social structures and processes (the way we do things) have specific functions (actions or uses) and
a mechanism to maintain those structures and processes.
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Characteristics of functionalism: This paradigm tries to explain why people behave the way they do or the
reasons behind specific social behaviours and what causes people to behave in a particular way. e.g. The Uses
and Gratifications Theory sees people consuming media messages to obtain some uses (functions such as
gaining information and knowledge; fill time etc.) as well as gratifications (pleasures such as entertainment,
escape etc.) in the process.
Later research carried out under this paradigm was used to suggest how things may be improved by
looking at how and why people do things a particular way and how things work. It is known as Administrative
Research and is rooted in the Columbia School. e.g. Paul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson, Hazel Gaudet (1948)
at Columbia U in New York with their studies on Voting behavior; Applications of Persuasion theory in PR
and advertising; Evaluation research or Program evaluation in PR.
The Nature of Explanation under Each Paradigm
There are three types of explanation of research findings. They are:
i) Cause and Effect explanations ii) Function Explanations and iii) Reason Explanations.
i)

Cause and Effect Explanations: Deals with identifying the probable causes of human behaviour
through rigorous, empirical observation. Often used in positivism and the natural sciences. e.g.
Growth of plants as due to light, water, nutrients etc.
ii)
Function Explanations: Interpretivist researchers look for meanings while Systems scholars look
for functions of a persons behaviour as a member of a system or group and how individual actions
may influence the group / society. Functionalist researchers examine how and why things work in a
particular way.
iii)
Reason Explanations: Critical researchers look at an issue as to its inequalities (unfairness) and
reasons for them (whose interests are served in the process) and power imbalances in society.
Multimethod Research
Multimethod research uses more than one methodological tool for a specific study. These tools can be
from the same paradigm or different ones and mix both quantitative and qualitative data in the same project.
Qualitative data can supplement quantitative findings. e.g. Surveys (quantitative) can carry open-ended
questions (qualitative); Using interviews (qualitative), surveys (quantitative), and content analysis (both
quantitative and qualitative) in the same project. Using different methods of data collection in the same project
is called Methodological Triangulation.
Concepts: The Building Blocks of Theory
A Concept: Names given to unique categories of recognizable, distinguishable phenomena and are the
building blocks of a theory or hypothesis. It helps simplify the research process by combining particular
characteristics, objects or people into more general categories understood by those using the concept. e.g. Terms
such as Nerds; Aspirational voters; Mortgage belt; DINKS; Underclass; Generation X/Y; technical terms;
slang etc. e,g, Bogans (outer suburb residents who lack style) or Cashed Up Bogans (CUBs). (Reading 2.1)
These are often used in profiling groups targeted for specific advertising or political campaigns. Also
note that these can be similar to stereotypes as not everyone seen as falling into a category be alike in every
way and some included in a category may not fit the categorization at all and vice versa.
Exercise: List the perceived characteristics of Bogans listed in Reading 2.1: Kizilos (2008).
A Construct: A combination of concepts. A concept is abstract and therefore not directly observable or
measurable. So a construct is created for a particular research project and has a specific meaning for that study
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within a given context. e.g. A keen student for a given research project could be defined as one who attends
80% of classes, and does at least 75% of each weeks assigned readings and Study guide exercises.
Example: The Griffith (Univ) Deprivation Index is a construct designed to measure the concept of suburbs
with Social Advantage/Disadvantage. It measures several variables or characteristics such as a suburbs
employment levels, income, ethnic diversity, family composition, public housing demand and education to rank
suburbs according to their level of deprivation. They found that the least deprived or most advantaged suburbs
of Melbourne were Burney, Docklands, East Melbourne and St Kilda West while the most deprived or least
advantaged were Broadmeadows, Braybrook, Cambellfield, Sunshine and St. Albans. (Carlton was also ranked
as deprived due to its high student population.) (Reading 2.2: Cooke, D 2008. Study finds one metropolis and
two worlds, miles apart, The Age, Feb. 16, p. 2). (To be examined in detail under measurement.)
Note: Constructs and concepts are useful for designing surveys. How they are used will be discussed under
Measurement.
Variables & Correlations
A variable is the empirical (observable or measurable) counterpart of a construct. A variable describes how a
construct is measured and has a set of values assigned to it. These values can be either quantitative or
qualitative. e.g. The variable of sex with the values or categories male or female (Qualitative or nonnumerical) or a persons age as 40 years (quantitative or numerical). It is something that varies or changes
which can be measured and manipulated. e.g. Different observations (say for the variable Grades received in a
class) for the values males and females. A variable can also take different and several values on a continuum.
e.g. Knowledge of a subject as not at all, low, moderate, high and very high.
Changes within a variable can be measured by observing how it changes from one value to another. e.g. How
do you feel about X? can be measured on a scale of 1 to 5 as very little to very much; or How much TV do
you watch? As light (less than 10 hours a week), moderate (11-20 hours a week) or heavy (21-40 hours a week).
This allows the researcher to compare different groups of people e.g. Heavy vs light and moderate TV viewers.
Correlation: By measuring variables, we can examine if changes in one variable, corresponds to changes in
another. e.g. If newspaper reading decreases when TV viewing increases by the same person. Please note that
correlation is not the same as causality (one does not cause changes in the other but they appear to go
together). e.g. A few months after a new CEO takes over at TV Network A, its ratings go down. A change in
management is correlated with low ratings. But this could be due to it being an Olympics year and the rival TV
Network B which had the broadcast rights leading the ratings. The changes to ratings for Network A were not
necessarily caused by the change in CEO or his bad policies/management.
Types of Variables: Variables are also defined based on their relationship to one another. The Independent
variable is the one systematically changed or manipulated by the researcher that produces changes in the
Dependent Variable, the latter being the one which the researcher hopes to explain. e.g. Amount of violent TV
watched by a parent (light, moderate, heavy) as the Independent variable and how parents think of the effects of
violent content on TV on their childrens behaviour (not a problem, somewhat problematic, very problematic) as
the Dependent variable.
What becomes the Dependent or Independent variable is shaped by the purpose of the individual research
project, and the research question/hypothesis examined/tested. When there is more than one independent
variable or several dependent variables, it is called a multivariate analysis.

Relationships between Variables


There are different types of relationships that can exist between the corresponding independent and dependent
variables. (See page 37 in textbook for the relevant Figures 2.3 to 2.7.) They are:
Linear: As one variable changes, so does one or more of the others. This indicates the existence of an
independent and dependent variable and their changes following a predictable pattern. (In a graph between these
variables, one would get a straight line.)
Positive vs Negative: The relationship between variables can be either positive or negative. Positive is when
one variable increases, the other increases as well. In negative, as the values of one variable increases, the
others decreases.
Non-linear: No direct relationship between variables, where many relationships between the elements of a
communication process interacts dynamically with others.
Curvilinear: U-shaped curve or its inverted shape- where an increase in one variable will lead to a
decrease/increase in another only up to a point, thereafter, an increase in one, leads to a decrease/increase in the
other.
Operational Definitions of Variables
The procedure followed in measuring, observing or experiencing a concept is known as its Operational
Definition. It tells a researcher how and what to observe based on what is to be observed and are necessary for
both the independent and dependent variables. e.g. In a research project on ethnic minorities and their opinions,
one needs to find out which are the major ethnic minority groups in Australia/Geelong by examining the latest
census data for Australia/Geelong; The most popular movies in Australia for 2010 are identified using official
box office figures; Most popular TV programs in Aus. identified from OZTAM ratings figures; The major
newspapers in Australia from the circulation figures from the Audited Media Association of Australia (AMAA)
(the Bureau of Circulation (Australia) (http://www.auditedmedia.org.au/)
One could also use a standard measurement such as IQ scores to group high, moderate, low IQ people; a
violence Index; Deprivation index etc.
Logic in Scientific Reasoning used in Research
The two systems of logic in scientific reasoning used in research are: Deductive and Inductive.
Deductive Reasoning: This approach assumes a causal relationship between known variables and goes about to
test if it is so. Often used in quantitative research and hypothesis testing. e.g. The amount of time spent
studying is related to grades earned (theory). High grades imply a student knows the subject matter better.
People know things better when they study more. (Test if the hypothesis: The more time spent studying, the
better the grades a student will receive- is supported or not.)
Inductive Reasoning: This approach begins with an open mind to see Whats going on here? It begins with
observations /data collection to examine correlations. It generally uses research questions. e.g. To examine
What is the relationship between time studied and grades earned?, collect data on time studied and grades
earned by students. Findings show that as time studying increases grades increase up to a point but after 12-25
hours a week of study, grades decrease because the person will be too exhausted to benefit from the extra study.
Hypotheses and Research Questions
Once a researcher identifies an area of interest to study and has reviewed the existing literature, the problem to
be researched needs to be stated as a hypothesis (plural Hypotheses) or a research question/s.
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A Hypothesis: A hypothesis, which is directly tested by a researcher, is a formal statement about the tested
relationship between variables. The predicted relationship in a hypothesis is to be either true or false and not
both. A hypothesis is more specific as to what is being tested and must be falsifiable (proven wrong) by having
only one possibility listed. e.g. It will rain tomorrow and not It will or will not rain tomorrow.
A hypothesis can be a prediction of a relationship / difference between two variables and as statistically related
either positively or negatively. e.g. Watching more of ABC/SBS news makes one more knowledgeable about
current affairs (positive); The higher the job satisfaction of employees at an organisation, the lower its staff
turnover (leaving the organization) will be (negative).
A Research Question: A research question is used when a researcher is not certain about the nature of the
problem under study. A research question is a formally stated question intended to provide an idea about
something and is not limited to investigating relationships between variables. A research question only poses a
general area for examination that helps gather data, which can later lead to the development of testable
hypotheses. e.g. What are the main sources of information for people who are well versed in current affairs?
A Corresponding Research Question (RQ) and Hypothesis (H):
RQ: Does TV lead to distortions of reality for children?
H: A childs level of distortion of reality is directly related to the amount and types of TV programs the child
views.
Goals of Research
Goals of Research: 1. General 2. Theoretical 3. Pragmatic and 4. Political
General Goals: Related to pure research where knowledge is sought for the sake of knowledge. e.g Examine
what causes a certain disease/ailment in humans.
Theoretical Goals: Also related to pure research, research with theoretical goals will check, verify, falsify,
modify or discover a theory. e.g. Examining the scientific/biological basis for a disease/ailment and a theory is
developed as to how it is caused / may be cured.
Pragmatic Goals: Related to applied research, pragmatic goals of a theory seek to examine if it has any
practical or commercial uses. e.g. Develop a PR campaign to educate the public about the disease and its
causes/ prevention or develop a treatment /pharmaceutical drug to treat it.
Political Goals: Related to applied research, research with a political goal will use the findings to develop
social policy, evaluate a (PR) program related to it or provide social criticism. e.g. Advocate a policy on
including the medicines that treat this disease/ailment under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) to make
it affordable to sufferers.
Summary of Paradigms
The Positivist Paradigm: Generally works with quantitative data looking at a phenomenon at the level of each
variable. Data are observable/measurable using the five senses.
The Systems Paradigm: Generally works with quantitative data, but takes a more holistic approach to examine
the phenomena under study.
The Interpretivist Paradigm: Generally uses non-numerical or qualitative data such as words or visual images
(in videotapes etc.). Used to obtain an understanding in a rich, detailed manner and provides a very detailed
picture of ones observations in a process called Thick Description to help the reader of the research report
understand the observed group or setting. In contrast, quantitative findings can be thin descriptions.
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The Critical Paradigm: Uses either quantitative or qualitative data. In addition to the data and their analysis,
critical reflection of the data is used to obtain knowledge. (Goes a step further than the others to examine the
power relations and how to improve things for the better, for those who are disadvantaged.)
The Functionalist Paradigm: Tries to understand why people do what they do.
What each Paradigm does:
Positivists & Systems theorists: Look at abstract theories of explanation- either cause and effect or functional
explanations and go for generalised claims.
Interpretivists: Go for theories of understanding.
Critical Theory: Seeks to change things for the better for all concerned. (The Greenies; Do Gooders;
Bleeding hearts.)
The Functionalist Paradigm: Looks for ways to improve current structures and procedures.
For the most often used covering laws in media and communication, read:
Sparks, G G 2013. Media effects research: A basic overview, 4th edn. Wadsworth-Cengage Learning, Boston,
MA.
Lang, K & Lang, G E 2012. On the development of communication theory: Some reflections. In CT Salmon
(ed.). Communication Yearbook 35, pp. 13-27. Taylor & Francis, Hoboken, NJ.