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F 4.

Flow of Particulate Solids in Bunkers and Flow Problems


Funnel or Core Flow Mass Flow Mass Flow with Funnel Flow Effect
(Expanded Flow)
angle of
repose
b
b

3
2 2

height
4 levels of
free bulk
5 surface

velocity
profiles

5
4

4
2

3
2

plug
flow

1 1
8

8
7

11

Numbers show the sequence of discharge of bulk layers


Channelling,

Piping, Ratholing

dead
zones

Bridging, Arching

dead
zones

F 4.2

F 4.3

F 4.4

Dynamics of Force Balance at Cohesive Powder Bridge


B

dFT

dFG

slot length l

dh B

VF
W

dFf
dFV

dFV

F = 0 = - dFG + dFT + dFV + dFf


dFG = b. g.b.dhB. l
dFV =

'.sin . dhB. cos .2l

Wall force

dFT = dFG .

dFf =

Dead weight of powder bridge

Eu .

a
g

3 . f .u2 .(1 - )
4 .d . 2

Force of inertia

. b. l. dh

Drag force of penetrating fluid

Apparatus Design of Silo Hopper to Avoid Bridging


F 4.5
1. Mass Flow
- Avoid Channelling:
Hopper angle = f(wall friction angle
friction e)
see diagrams F 4.6 and F 4.7

, effektive angle of internal

- Avoid Bridging:
1.1 Free Flowing Bulk Solid (avoid machanical blocking of coarse lumps or rocks):
(1a)
(1b)

slot width (1c)


bmin

article size
k = 0.6 ... 1.4 shape dependent parameter

1.2 Cohesive Powder (avoid cohesive bridges):


- Effective wall stress at arch:

- Flow factor (diagram F 4.11):

ff = f( e,

(2)
, )

bmin

(3)
(4)

/ff

gb

c,crit

critical uniaxial compressive strength

b,crit
g

bulk density at 1,crit


gravitational acceleration

F 4.6

Bounds between Mass and Core Flow


axisymmetric Flow
(conical hopper)
effective angle of
internal friction
e = 70
60
50
40
30

45

in deg

30

angle of wall friction

35

40
Core Flow

25
20
Mass Flow

15
10
5
0

10
20
30
hopper angle versus vertical

1
1 - sin
180 - arccos
2
2 sin

select

e
e

40
in deg

50

- arc sin sin


sin

W
e

60

F 4.7

Bounds between Mass and Core Flow


Plane Flow
(wedge-shaped hopper)
55

effective angle of
internal friction
e = 70
60
50
40
30

50

angle of wall friction

in deg

45

Core Flow

40
35
30
25
20
Mass Flow

15
10
5
0

10
20
30
hopper angle versus vertical

50 - e
7,73
15,07

40
in deg

50

60

arc tan
60,5 +

with

3 and

60

1-

42,3 + 0,131 exp(0,06

F 4.8

- Conical Hopper (axisymmetric stress field)


Cone

Pyramid

max

max
wall

bmin

mi
n

shape factor m = 1

[ 3a ]

Wedge-shaped Hopper (plane stress field)


vertical front walls

max

b min

lm

in

>3

b min

lm

in >3

mi

shape factor m = 0

mi

F 4.9

inclined front walls

B
L
1max

2max

1,5

mi

b min
3b

mi

lm

in

>6

1,5

mi

mi

F 4.10

uniaxial compressive strength

unconfined yield strength

effective wall stress

'

Arching/Flow Criterion of a Cohesive Powder


in a Convergent Hopper

'=

/ ff

= a1

c,0

c,crit
'

'

c,crit

flow

bmin

'

'

stable arch

c,0

major principal stress during


consolidation (steady-state flow)

'

Ascertainment of Approximated Flow Factor


(angle of wall friction

F 4.11

= 10 - 30)

flow factor ff

1,5

conical hopper

wedge-shaped hopper
1
20

30

40
50
effective angle of internal friction

60
e in deg

70

F 4.12

F 4.13

Consolidation Functions of a Cohesive Powder for Hopper Design


for Reliable Flow
b,crit

bulk density

bulk density

b,st

*
b,0

1
0
90

angles of internal
friction e, st, i

effective angle of internal friction

stationary angle of internal friction

angle of internal friction

st

= const.

const.

unconfined yield strength

'
effective wall stress

uniaxial compressive strength


c

'=
1

1 / ff

= a1

c,0

bmin

c,crit

ff = 1

'

'

c,st
c,0
1

bmin,st
c,st

major principal stress during


consolidation (steady-state flow)

F 4.14

Consolidation Functions of Cohesive Powders for Hopper Design


b,crit

bulk density

b,st

b=

*
b,0

)n

(1 +

b,0

0<n<1
1
0
90

st

effektive angle of internal friction

angles of internal friction

= arc sin sin

e
1

st

+ 0
- sin

stationary angle of internal friction

angle of internal friction

st

st

= const.

const.

unconfined yield strength

effective wall stress

'

a1 =

c,0

'=

c,0

c,crit =

1 - a1 ff

/ ff

2 (sin
(1 + sin

st

- sin i)

st)

(1 - sin i)

2 (1 + sin i) sin st

(1 + sin st) (1 - sin i)


c

= a1

c,0

'

'
1

c,st

bmin =

(m+1)

sin 2(

c,crit

b,crit

+ )

bmin,st

c,st

bmin

ff = 1

c,0

major principal stress during consolidation

F 4.15

F 4.16

F 4.17

2. Core Flow

Avoid channelling (stable funnel)


Hopper angle
2.1 Free Flowing Bulk Solid

see 1.1

2.2 Cohesive Powder


a) Maximum approach at filling and
consolidation:
Vertical pressure at filling, F 4.20:
1 pv = f ( e,
W, b, shaft cross section,
silo height)
(8a)

pv

see F 4.19

c,crit

CF

bC,min

(9a)
G (angle of internal friction

or

it)

- function, see F 4.22

2. Core Flow - Supplement

F 4.18

Avoid channelling (stable funnel)


Hopper angle:

2.1 Free Flowing Bulk Solid

see 1.1

2.2 Cohesive Powder

A - A: Ring stress 1'' at surface of


channel wall

Channel

''

''

bC,min

bC,min

Two additional options:


c) Flow and radial stress field,
F 4.10, Ring stress:

b) Filling, consolidation and


anisotropy1):

'' =

Horizontal pressure at filling, F 4.20:


1'' ph = f ( e,
W, b, shaft cross section
(8b)
silo height)

(8c)

ffd

Flow factor of channelling:

(8d)
(9b)
G (Angle of internal friction

or

it)

- function, see F 4.22

effective wall stress

uniaxial compressive strength

1
w
i

and
it

angle of wall friction angle of internal friction


st

stationary angle of
internal friction

st

effective angle of
internal friction

bulk density
b

Consolidation Functions of Cohesive Powders for Hopper Design

c,crit

F 4.19

ct,crit(core

c,crit(core

ct,crit(mass

flow)

flow)
st
1

it
1

flow)

ct

mass flow hopper


core flow hopper

major principal stress

Calculation of Silo Pressures according to Slice-Element Method


Force Balance F = 0

g dy

Shaft (Filling F):


dy

pv
H

pW

ph

ph

pW

pv + dpv
pv + dpv
HTr

dy

H*

pn p
W
b

g dy

Hopper:

pv

pW pn

dA
y

F 4.20

Lateral Pressure Ratio = ph/pv versus Effective Angle


of Internal Friction e and Angle of Wall Friction w
F 4.21

D
pv

ph
pw pw

1.7

1 + sin e
1 - sin e
passive soil pressure
p

1.6

pw ph pv

passive - plastic

1.5
1.4
1.3

= 0.5 0.1
TGL 32 274/09
=
32
4
e
= 0.6 0.1 DIN 1055 part 6

1.2
1.1

isostatic pressure ph = pv

active - plastic

1.0
0.9

w=5

0.8
0.7
w=25

0.6

w=30

0.5

lateral pressure ratio

1 - sin2
=
1 +sin2

w=0

w=35
w=40
w=45
w=50
w=55
w=60
w=65

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

w=10
w=15
w=20

rough wall

1 - sin

e
smooth wall
a = 1 + sin

=0

a =

1 - sin2
1 +sin2

w-

(1 - sin2

).(sin2

- sin2

w+

(1 - sin2

).(sin2

- sin2

generally 0

= 1 - sin

0
0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
effective angle of internal friction e in deg

soil pressure at rest

F 4.22

Function G( i) to Design a Hopper for Core Flow


10

function G

0
0

10

20

30

40

angle of internal friction

50
i

60
in deg

70

80

Estimation of Minimum Shaft Diameter

F 4.23

Process Parameters and Geometrical Apparatus Parameters


shaft diameter Dmin

heigth H

height H

pressures p

pW p
h

pv

a) Calculation of vertical pressure


(1b)

(1a)

(1c)
a

1 - sin w - (1 - sin2
1 + sin2 w+ (1 - sin2
2

) (sin

- sin

).(sin2

- sin2

Filling /Storage

(2)

b) Consolidation function
c

(3)

c,0

c) Shaft design equation


(4)

or
(5)

F 4.24

maximum roof loads:


filter load: 6 kN
snow load: 1 kN /m2
gangway:
walking monoload: 1,5 kN
evenly distributed: 0,75 kN/m2
Fl 100 x15 d3

earthing

detail

250
100

2)

work opening

level indication

safety device

lifting arm
~ TGL 31 - 461

carrier eye
~ TGL 31 - 343

p5

r1

r2

s1

s2

t1

t2

B 90
A 250
B 110
893 x
200
200
666

B 220
B 325

d = vessel outer diameter


total mass for Al Mg 3 (

[ ]

[ ]

35

25

sS

d1)

600 600 150/50 200 B 160 A 300

300

rated
volume d1) R1
R2
V
m3
20 3000
40 3000
775 1050
80 3000
100 3000
160 5000
1750 1550
320 5000
1)

p4

work opening

p3

h1

h2

h3
=30

5920 3000
8920 6000
40
325
13920 11000
16920 14000
11870 7000
30
420
20870 16000

= 2,7 t / m3)

h4

h5

=30

3200

3000 3075 24
5000 5080 36

h7

h9 mass2)
kg

300
1130
1550
800
750
2990
2800
200
3480
4290
3875
300
- 900
8180
350
150

1820

d3

number of
bolts

20
40
80
100
160
320

p2

filter link
FTFN
reserve

input

rated
volume
V
m3
p1

output ND 6
TGL 0 - 2501
by-pass

name and rated width of support

"Z"

h3

h2

Standard Silo

18

cohesionless

hopper
shape

air drag

Comparison of Models to Calculate the


Hopper Discharge Mass Flow Rate

cohesive

valid for:

consider:
flow
conditions

pressure
dependency of

F 4.25

F 4.26

F 4.27

Stationary Discharge Flow Rate versus Particle Size for Sand

conical mass flow hopper


kb =3, = 1, ffc > 10

discharge flow rate vs in m/s

1,5

calculated (Tomas)
measured (Carleton)

1,4
1,3

b = 0,156 m
= 10

1,2
1,1
1,0

b = 0,036 m
= 10

0,9
0,8

b = 0,036 m
= 15

0,7

b = 0,0167 m
= 10

0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
b = 0,0103 m
= 10

0,2
0,1
0
5 10

-2

10-1

2 5

10

particle size d in mm

101

102

F 4.28

F 4.29

Equipment for Filling of Silos

- to avoid segregation

F 4.30

F 4.31

Methods to Control the Level of Silos

1. Pressure gauges

2. Mechanical
plumb

3. Revolving blade devices

5. Conductivity measurement
4. Membrane pressure switch

7. Radiometric measurement

6. Capacity measurement

8. Ultra-sonic measurement

F 4.32

Revolving Blade Level Indicator LS 40


LS 40/A - 0,1 to
LS 40/A - 3,0

rated length

rated length

LS 40/B - 0,25 to
LS 40/B - 6,0

normal edition
with protection pipe from
carbon (St) or
stainless steel (N)

LS 40/C - 0,25 to
LS 40/C - 1,0

LS 40/C - 0,4 - 0,14

installation at
inclined wall

blade
type

145

0,14 C

material

St
0,14

N
St

0,36

N
St

installation
length in m

type

0,25
0,5
1,0
0,25
0,5
1,0

C - 0,25 - 0,14 - N
C - 0,5 - 0,14 - N
C - 1,0 - 0,14 - N
C - 0,25 - 0,14 - St
C - 0,5 - 0,14 - St
C - 1,0 - 0,14 - St
C - 0,4 - 0,14 - N
C - 0,4 - 0,14 - St

145

10

360

110

0,11

N
St

0,4
bended
protection
pipe

C - 0,4 - 0,36 - N
C - 0,4 - 0,36 - St
C - 0,4 - 0,11 - N
C - 0,4 - 0,11 - St

F 4.33

Hopper Locks

horizontal gate

vertical gate

ball valve

discharge chute with


claw lever lock

horizontal rotary
slide-valve

double rotary
slide-valve

rotary disk valve

lock with swivel chute

F 4.34

Hopper gates
Size in mm b1
d1
h1
h2
l1
kg
250
250
120 86 1097
315
315
1230
400
410 315 140 100 1420
500
515
1630
630
630
1925
800
800 400 160 114 2652
1000
1000
180 132 3100

l2
982
1115
1305
1515
1810
2362
2810

l3

Mass in

180
218
265
318
380
465
570

70
92
123
147
221
393
570

Hopper gates with drive


Size in mm

h1

h2

250
120 136
315
118
400
140
500
119
630
160 111
800
1000
180 101
b1 see table above

l1
1245
1450
1735
2050
2405
2915
3530

l2

l3

905
1045
1235
1445
1685
2025
2435

180
217
265
317
380
465
570

Mass P
in kg in kW
200
230
0.55
260
325
0.75
410
535
1.1
785