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You are on page 1of 74

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Winter 2014

7.1 An Overview of Integration Methods

7.2 Integration by Parts

7.3 Integrating Trigonometric Functions

7.4 Trigonometric Substitutions

7.5 Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

7.6 Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

7.8 Improper Integrals

7.7 Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Introduction

Compared to differentiation, integration is much more difficult.

Differentiation rules like the product rule, the quotient rule, the

chain rule, or the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus permit almost

any combination of functions to be easily differentiated in a

mechanical, algorithmic way. Integration is a whole different story.

In Chapter 7 we shall cover the basic techniques of integration, but

even after we have learnt them and practiced them there will

still be many functions that will be difficult or impossible! to

integrate. Putting it another way, MAT187H1S is much more

difficult than MAT186H1F.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Every differentiation formula you know, produces an integration

formula. For example,

Z

de x

x

= e e x dx = e x + C .

dx

And

dx n+1

= (n + 1)x n

dx

x n+1

x dx =

+ C.

n+1

n

Z

1

dx?

x

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

We do know a function that has derivative 1/x, namely ln x. But

ln x is only defined for x > 0. So

Z

1

dx = ln x + C ,

x

if x > 0. What about x < 0? Then x > 0, and

d ln(x)

1

1

=

(1) = .

dx

x

x

So in general,

Z

1

dx = ln |x| + C ,

x

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Z

d sin x

= cos x cos x dx = sin x + C

dx

Z

d cos x

= sin x sin x dx = cos x + C

dx

Z

d tan x

2

= sec x sec2 x dx = tan x + C

dx

Z

d sec x

= sec x tan x sec x tan x dx = sec x + C

dx

Z

d cot x

= csc2 x csc2 x dx = cot x + C

dx

Z

d csc x

= csc x cot x csc x cot x dx = csc x + C

dx

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Integral of tan x

What about the integral of tan x? We can integrate it by using a

simple substitution:

Z

Z

sin x

tan x dx =

dx

cos x

Z

1

(du) if u = cos x

=

u

Z

1

=

du

u

= ln |u| + C

= ln | cos x| + C

= ln | sec x| + C

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Integral of sec x

This is trickier:

Z

sec x dx

sec x + tan x

sec x

dx

=

sec x + tan x

Z

sec2 x + sec x tan x

dx

=

tan x + sec x

Z

1

=

du if u = sec x + tan x

u

= ln |u| + C

Z

ln | sec x + tan x| + C

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Similarly, you can prove

Z

cot x dx = ln | csc x| + C

and

Z

csc x dx = ln | csc x + cot x| + C .

Z

cot x dx = ln | sin x| + C

and

Z

csc x dx = ln | csc x cot x| + C .

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

d sin1 x

1

1

1.

=

dx = sin1 x + C

2

2

dx

1x

1x

Z

1

d tan x

1

1

2.

=

dx = tan1 x + C

2

2

dx

1+x

1+x

Z

d sec1 x

1

1

3.

=

dx = sec1 |x| + C

dx

|x| x 2 1

x x2 1

To have these formulas is the main reason we covered the

derivatives of the inverse trig functions in Chapter 3.

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Every one of the formulas developed above should be memorized.

The rest of Chapter 7 will be all about reducing more complicated

integrals to one of the above basic sixteen formulas. Since you will

often have to make a simple substitution before using one of the

basic sixteen formulas, they are often written in terms of u rather

than x. Here they are:

R

1. e u du = e u + C

Z

u n+1

n

2.

u du =

+ C , n 6= 1

n+1

Z

1

3.

du = ln |u| + C

u

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

4.

cos u du = sin u + C

Z

sin u du = cos u + C

5.

Z

6.

sec2 u du = tan u + C

Z

7.

Z

8.

csc2 u du = cot u + C

Z

9.

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

tan u du = ln | sec u| + C

10.

Z

11.

Z

cot u du = ln | csc u| + C

12.

Z

13.

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

u

1

du = sin1 + C

a

a2 u 2

Z

1

1

1 u

15.

du

=

tan

+C

a2 + u 2

a

a

Z

1

1

1 u

16.

du = sec + C

a

a

u u 2 a2

14.

Anton lists 28 integral formulas on pp 489-90 in Section 7.1. They

include the above 16. You can memorize all 28 if you want, but its

not necessary.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1

x

dx

x4 + 9

=

=

=

=

Z

2x

1

dx

2

(x 2 )2 + 9

Z

1

1

du, if u = x 2

2

2

2

u +3

1 1

u

tan1 + C , by Formula 15

2 3

3

1

x2

tan1

+C

6

3

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2

1

(2 + 3 ln x)7 dx

x

=

=

=

Z

1

u 7 du, if u = 2 + 3 ln x

3

1 1 8

u + C , by Formula 2

3 8

1

(2 + 3 ln x)8 + C

24

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 3

Z

1

dx

1 + ex

Z

1 + ex ex

ex

=

dx =

dx

1

1 + ex

1 + ex

Z

Z

ex

=

dx

dx

1 + ex

Z

1

= x

du, if u = 1 + e x

u

= x ln |u| + C , by Formula 3

Z

x ln |1 + e x | + C

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

1

dx

1 + ex

(optional )

Z

e x

e x

=

dx

=

dx

(1 + e x )e x

e x + 1

Z

1

=

(du), if u = 1 + e x

u

= ln |u| + C , by Formula 3

Z

ln |1 + e x | + C

x

e +1

ln

+C

ex

ln(1 + e x ) + ln(e x ) + C = x ln(1 + e x ) + C

=

=

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Recall the product rule:

(fg )0 (x) = f (x)g 0 (x) + f 0 (x)g (x).

If you integrate both sides of this equation with respect to x you

obtain

Z

Z

Z

(fg )0 (x) dx = f (x)g 0 (x) dx + f 0 (x)g (x) dx.

Simplifying the left side, and letting u = f (x), v = g (x), you obtain

Z

Z

Z

Z

uv = u dv + v du u dv = uv v du,

which is the integration by parts formula.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Using

u dv = uv

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

v du

R

The

hope

is

that

if

you

cant

do

u dv , you will be able to do

R

v du. However, to apply integration by parts, you always have to

make a choice what is u? what is dv ? and you have to be able

to calculate both

Z

du

and v = dv .

dx

You will find that some choices are better than others. You will

also find that although integration by parts is a very useful

method, not all integrals can be solved by this method. Indeed,

there is no single method that can solve all integrals. That is why

you have to learn all the different methods in Chapter 7.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1

Z

xe dx

u dv , for u = x, dv = e x dx

Z

= uv v du, by the parts formula

Z

Z

= xe x e x dx, since du = dx, v = e x dx = e x

=

= xe x e x + C

Note that the constant of integration, C , was not added in until

the last step. You could have used v = e x + K , but then

Z

uv v du = x(e x + K ) (e x + Kx) + C = xe x e x + C .

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2

For

Z

du = dx and v = sin x dx = cos x.

So

Z

Z

x sin x dx =

Z

u dv

= uv

v du

Z

= x( cos x) ( cos x) dx

Z

= x cos x + cos x dx

= x cos x + sin x + C

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 3

Sometimes

you have to use parts more than once. For example, for

R 2 x

x e dx, let u = x 2 , dv = e x dx. Then du = 2x dx, v = e x , and

Z

Z

Z

2 x

x e dx = u dv = uv v du

Z

= x 2 e x 2xe x dx

Z

2 x

= x e 2 xe x dx

= x 2 e x 2 [xe x e x ] + C , by Example 1

= x 2 e x 2xe x + 2e x + C

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 4

R

What about x 7 ln x dx? You might think you should let u = x 7

and use

R parts seven times. But then dv = ln x dx, and

v = ln x dx, which we dont know. Instead, let u = ln x, and

dv = x 7 dx. Then

Z

Z

Z

7

x ln x dx = u dv = uv v du

Z

1 8

1 8 1

=

x ln x

x dx

8

8

x

Z

1 8

1

=

x ln x

x 7 dx

8

8

1 8

1

=

x ln x x 8 + C

8

64

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 5

The method of the previous example can be used to find

Let

u = ln x, and dv = dx.

ln x dx.

Then

Z

Z

ln x dx =

Z

u dv

= uv

v du

Z

1

= x ln x x dx

x

Z

= x ln x dx

= x ln x x + C

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 6

R

Use the same approach for x tan1 x dx. That is, let

u = tan1 x, let dv = x dx. Then

Z

Z

Z

x tan1 x dx = u dv = uv v du

Z

1 2

1 2

1

1

=

x tan x

x

dx

2

2

1 + x2

Z

1 2

1

x2

1

=

x tan x

dx

2

2

1 + x2

Z

1 2

1

1

1

=

x tan x

1

dx

2

2

1 + x2

1 2

1

=

x tan1 x

x tan1 x + C

2

2

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Some Generalizations

You can generalize the previous six examples as follows. Let n be a

non-negative integer. To integrate integrals of the form

Z

Z

Z

x n e x dx, x n sin x dx, x n cos x dx,

let u = x n and use parts n times. To integrate integrals of the

form

Z

Z

Z

x n ln x dx, x n tan1 x dx, x n sin1 x dx,

let dv = x n dx, and use parts once.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Consider the definite integral, based on Example 4 above:

Z e

Z e

Z e

x 7 ln x dx =

u dv = [uv ]e1

v du

1

1

1

Z e

e

1 8

1 8 1

=

x ln x

x dx

8

8

x

1

1

Z

e8 1 e 7

=

x dx

8

8 1

e8

1 8 e

e8 e8 1

=

x 1 =

8

64

8

64

8

1 + 7e

=

64

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

e sin x dx

=

=

=

=

=

u dv , with u = e x , dv = sin x dx

Z

e x ( cos x) e x ( cos x) dx

Z

x

e cos x + e x cos x dx

Z

e x cos x + s dt, with s = e x , dt = cos x dx

Z

e x cos x + e x sin x e x sin x dx

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7, Continued

So we have:

Z

e x sin x dx

Z

2 e x sin x dx

Z

e x sin x dx

= e x cos x + e x sin x

e x sin x dx

= e x cos x + e x sin x + C

1

1

= e x cos x + e x sin x + C

2

2

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

sec3 x dx

sec x sec x dx

=

=

=

=

=

Z

sec x tan x tan x sec x tan x dx

Z

sec x tan x sec x tan2 x dx

Z

sec x tan x sec x sec2 x 1 dx

Z

Z

3

sec x tan x sec x dx + sec x dx

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 8, Continued

So we have:

Z

sec3 x dx

Z

2 sec3 x dx

Z

2 sec3 x dx

Z

sec3 x dx

Z

= sec x tan x

sec3 x dx +

Z

sec x dx

Z

= sec x tan x +

sec x dx

=

1

1

sec x tan x + ln | sec x + tan x| + C

2

2

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Reduction Formulas

A reduction formula is an integral formula that gives an integral

with a higher power of some part of it in terms of a very

similar integral with a lower or reduced power of the same part.

For example,

Z

Z

1.

x n e x dx = x n e x n x n1 e x dx

Z

Z

1

n1

n1

n

2.

x+

cos x dx = sin x cos

cosn2 x dx

n

n

are both reduction formulas. Almost all reduction formulas are

proved by using integration by parts. Note: in reduction formulas,

n is almost always a non-negative integer.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

x n e x dx

Let u = x n , dv = e x dx :

Z

Z

Z

x n e x dx = u dv = x n e x n x n1 e x dx

Z

So

3 x

x e dx

3 x

x 2 e x dx, since n = 3

Z

x 3 e x 3 x 2 e x 2 xe x dx , using n = 2

Z

x 3 e x 3x 2 e x + 6 xe x e x dx , using n = 1

x 3 e x 3x 2 e x + 6xe x 6e x + C

= x e 3

=

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

cos x cos

n1

cosn x dx

Z

x dx

=

=

=

=

=

Z

sin x cosn1 x (n 1) cosn2 x( sin x) sin x dx

Z

n1

sin x cos

x + (n 1) cosn2 x sin2 x dx

Z

sin x cosn1 x + (n 1) cosn2 x 1 cos2 x dx

Z

n1

sin x cos

x + (n 1)

cosn2 x cosn x dx

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

So we have

Z

(n 1 + 1)

Z

n

cos x dx

Z

cosn x dx

cosn x dx

= sin x cosn1 x + (n 1)

= sin x cos

=

n1

cosn2 x dx

cosn2 x dx

x + (n 1)

1

n1

sin x cosn1 x +

n

n

cosn2 x dx

For Example, if n = 2 :

Z

Z

1

1

1

1

2

cos x dx = sin x cos x +

dx = sin x cos x + x + C

2

2

2

2

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 11

Z

=

=

=

=

cos6 x dx

1

sin x cos5 x

6

1

sin x cos5 x

6

1

sin x cos5 x

6

1

sin x cos5 x

6

+

+

+

+

Z

5

cos4 x dx, with n = 6

6

Z

5 1

3

sin x cos3 x +

cos2 x dx , with n = 4

6 4

4

Z

5

5

sin x cos3 x +

cos2 x dx

24

8

5

5

5

sin x cos3 x +

sin x cos x + x + C

24

16

16

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

of integration by parts for certain types of integrals is described on

pp 495-96 in Section 7.2. You are not responsible for memorizing

it. Whether or not you use this approach is optional and totally up

to you.

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Recall the following results about sin x and cos x :

1. sin2 x + cos2 x = 1

2. sin0 (x) = cos x

3. cos0 (x) = sin x

These results can be used to integrate integrals of the form

Z

sinm x cosn x dx,

for m, n both non-negative integers.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

sinm x cosn x dx

2. If n is odd, let u = sin x.

3. If m and n are both even, use the double angle formulas

sin2 x =

1 + cos(2x)

1 cos(2x)

and cos2 x =

,

2

2

4. Note: if both m and n are odd, let u = sin x, or let u = cos x.

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1

Z

sin4 x cos3 x dx

=

=

Z

=

=

=

u 4 u 6 du

1 5 1 7

u u +C

5

7

1 5

1

sin x sin7 x + C

5

7

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2

Z

sin3 x dx

Z

=

=

=

1 cos2 x sin x dx

1 u 2 (du), with u = cos x

u 2 1 du

=

=

sin2 x sin x dx =

1 3

u u+C

3

1

cos3 x cos x + C

3

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 3

Z

sin x cos x dx

u 2 (1 2u 2 + u 4 ) du

u 2 2u 4 + u 6 du

=

=

=

=

=

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 3, Continued

So

Z

sin x cos x dx

Z

=

=

=

u 2 2u 4 + u 6 du

1 3 2 5 1 7

u u + u +C

3

5

7

1 3

2

1

sin x sin5 x + sin7 x + C

3

5

7

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 4

Z

1

(1 + cos(2x)) dx

2

1

1 1

=

x + sin(2x) + C

2

2 2

1

1

=

x + sin(2x) + C

2

4

If you substitute sin(2x) = 2 sin x cos x, then this answer becomes

Z

1

1

1

1

cos2 x dx = x + (2 sin x cos x) + C = x + sin x cos x + C ,

2

4

2

2

which is the result we got using integration by parts. Either

answer is acceptable.

2

cos x dx

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 5

Z

sin2 x cos2 x dx

Z

=

=

=

=

=

1

1

(1 cos(2x)) (1 + cos(2x)) dx

2

2

Z

1

(1 cos2 (2x)) dx

4

Z

1

sin2 (2x) dx

4

Z

1

1

(1 cos(4x)) dx

4

2

1

1

x sin(4x) + C

8

4

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Recall the following results about tan x and sec x :

1. tan2 x + 1 = sec2 x

2. tan0 (x) = sec2 x

3. sec0 (x) = sec x tan x

These results can be used to integrate integrals of the form

Z

tanm x secn x dx,

for m, n both non-negative integers.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

tanm x secn x dx

2. If m is odd, let u = sec x.

3. If m is even and n is odd, use integration by parts, or some

other method.

4. Note: if m is odd and n is even, let u = tan x, or let u = sec x.

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 6

Z

tan2 x sec4 x dx

(u 2 + u 4 ) du

=

=

=

=

=

1 3 1 5

u + u +C

3

5

1

1

tan3 x + tan5 x + C

3

5

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7

Z

tan3 x sec3 x dx

(u 4 u 2 ) du

=

=

=

=

=

1 5 1 3

u u +C

5

3

1

1

sec5 x sec3 x + C

5

3

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 8

Z

tan x sec x dx

=

=

1 8

u +C

8

1

=

sec8 x + C

8

You could use the substitution, u = tan x, but thatd be messier:

Z

Z

Z

3 2

2

8

tan x sec x dx = tan x sec x sec x dx = u(1 + u 2 )3 du.

=

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 9

We have already seen how

Similarly,

Z

tan2 x sec3 x dx

Z

Z

2

3

(sec2 x 1) sec3 x dx

tan x sec x dx =

Z

Z

=

sec5 x dx sec3 x dx

Now look up the reduction formula for

Z

secn x dx.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 10

Z

tan x dx

tan2 x tan2 x dx

Z

=

=

=

=

tan2 x(sec2 x 1) dx

Z

Z

tan2 x sec2 x dx tan2 x dx

Z

1

3

tan x (sec2 x 1) dx

3

1

tan3 x tan x + x + C

3

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

cotm x cscn x dx

These

are handled similarly to integrals of the form

R

m

tan x secn x dx, using

1. 1 + cot2 x = csc2 x

2. cot0 (x) = csc2 x

3. csc0 (x) = cot x csc x

In particular,

If n is even, let u = cot x.

If m is odd, let u = csc x.

If n is odd, and m is even, use integration by parts,

or some other method.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 11

There are many other trig integrals that can be done, which dont

use the methods of this section, or use a combination of methods,

some from this section, and some form other sections. In general

trig integrals can be very tricky! Consider

Z

Z

1

1 + sin x

dx =

dx

2

1 sin x

1

sin

x

Z

1 + sin x

=

dx

cos2 x

Z

Z

=

sec2 x dx + tan x sec x dx

=

tan x + sec x + C

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

sin x(cos x + sin x)

sin x

dx

dx =

cos x sin x

cos2 x sin2 x

Z

sin x cos x + sin2 x

dx

cos2 x sin2 x

Z

sin(2x) + 1 cos(2x)

1

dx

2

cos(2x)

Z

Z

Z

1

1

1

tan(2x) dx +

sec(2x) dx

dx

2

2

2

1

1

1

ln | sec(2x)| + ln | sec(2x) + tan(2x)| x + C

4

4

2

=

=

=

=

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

sin x + 12 cos x + 12 sin x 12 cos x

=

dx

cos x sin x

Z

Z

sin x + cos x

sin x cos x

1

1

dx +

dx

=

2

cos x sin x

2

cos x sin x

Z

Z

1

1

1

=

du

dx, with u = cos x sin x

2

u

2

1

1

= ln |u| x + C

2

2

1

1

= ln | cos x sin x| x + C

2

2

This gives a different answer; but both are correct.

Z

sin x

dx

cos x sin x

1

2

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Integrand Contains

a2

a2

x2

x2

x2

a2

Trig Substitution

try x = a sin

or = sin

x

a

try x = a tan

or = tan

try x = a sec

or = sec

x

a

x

a

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

1

dx

(1 + x 2 )3/2

1

2

sec

d

(1 + tan2 )3/2

Z

1

2

sec

d

(sec2 )3/2

Z

sec2

d

sec3

Z

1

d

sec

Z

cos d

sin + C

=

=

=

=

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1, Continued

So far we have

Z

1

dx = sin + C .

(1 + x 2 )3/2

1. In simplifying (sec2 )3/2 = sec3 , we assumed sec > 0.

Unless we have information otherwise, this will be our usual

approach in simplifying trig integrals after making a trig

substitution.

2. To finish the problem, we must put our answer back in terms

of x. To do this, we need to find sin in terms of x, given

that x = tan . This is most commonly done with the help of

a triangle.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1, Concluded

I

x = tan .

The

length of the hypotenuse

is 1 + x 2 .

So

l

l

l

l

2

l 1+x

l

l

l

l

l

l

sin =

I

x

.

1 + x2

Thus

Z

1

x

dx

=

+C

(1 + x 2 )3/2

1 + x2

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

x3

dx

4 x2

8 sin3

Z

=

=

=

=

=

2 cos d

4 4 sin2

Z

sin3

8

cos d

cos

Z

Z

8 sin3 d = 8 sin2 sin d

Z

8 (1 u 2 ) (du), if u = cos

p

8

8u + u 3 + C

3

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2, Continued

Z

x3

8

8

dx = 8u + u 3 + C = 8 cos + cos3 + C .

3

3

4 x2

I

l

l

l

l 2

l

l

l

l

l

l

4 x2

x = 2 sin sin =

I

So

cos =

4 x2

.

2

x

.

2

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2, Concluded

Thus

Z

x3

dx

4 x2

(optionally)

8

cos3 + C

3

!

!3

2

2

4x

8

4x

+

+C

2

3

2

= 8 cos +

=

=

=

1

4 x 2 + (4 x 2 )3/2 + C

3

p

1

4 x 2 4 + (4 x 2 ) + C

3

1p

4 x2 x2 + 8 + C

3

p

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

x 2 25

dx =

x

25 sec2 25

5 sec tan d

5 sec

Z p

l

= 5

sec2 1 tan d

l

l

Z

l

= 5 tan2 d

l x

2 25

x

l

Z

l

l

= 5 (sec2 1) d

= 5 tan 5 + C

p

1 x

2

=

x 25 5 sec

+C

5

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

l

l

l

l

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

In a definite integral, you should change the limits as you make the

substitution. This will make it unnecessary to change back to x :

Z

0

1

dx

(1 + x 2 )3/2

/4

=

0

Z

=

1

sec2 d

3/2

2

(1 + tan )

/4

cos d

0

/4

[sin ]0

1

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Consider the integral

x3

dx.

1 x2

In keeping with the methods of this section, we could let x = sin :

Z

Z

x3

sin3

p

dx =

cos d

1 x2

1 sin2

Z

=

sin3 d

Z

1

= cos + cos3 + C

3

p

3/2

1

= 1 x2 +

1 x2

+C

3

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

x3

dx

1 x2

Z

=

x2

x

dx

1 x2

=

=

=

=

x

u dv , with u = x 2 , dv =

dx

2

1

x

p

Z p

2

x 1 x2

1 x 2 2x dx

Z p

p

x 2 1 x 2 +

1 x 2 2x dx

x

1 x2

3/2

2

1 x2

+C

3

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

x3

dx

1 x2

Z

1

2x

=

x2

dx

2

2

1

x

Z

1

1u

du, with u = 1 x 2

=

2

u

Z

1

1/2

1/2

=

u

u

du

2

1

= u + u 3/2 + C

3

p

3/2

1

= 1 x2 +

1 x2

+C

3

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

x3

dx

1 x2

x2

1 u2

u du, with u 2 = 1 x 2

u

=

=

=

=

=

x

dx

1 x2

(u 2 1) du

1 3

u u+C

3

p

1

(1 x 2 )3/2 1 x 2 + C

3

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

l

l

=

=

=

=

1

l

dx

l

x

1 + x2

2

2

(x + 1)

l

Z

l

1

2

l

sec d

l

(1 + tan2 )2

Z

Z

ll

1

1

cos2 d =

(1 + cos(2)) d

2

1

2

1

1

+ sin(2) + C = + sin cos + C

2

4

2

4

1

1

x

1

tan1 x +

+C

2

2 x2 + 1

x2 + 1

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7

In integrals involving quadratic expressions, you may have to

complete the square before you make a trig substitution.

Z

Z

1

1

=

dx, let x + 3 = 5 sec

dx

(x + 3)2 25

x 2 + 6x 16

Z

1

=

5 sec tan d

25 sec2 25

Z

1

sec tan

=

d

5

tan2

Z

1

=

csc d

5

1

= ln | csc + cot | + C

5

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7, Continued

I

x + 3 = 5 sec .

The

length of the third side is

y = x 2 + 6x 16.

So

l

l

l

l

l x +3

l

l

l

l

csc =

I

x +3

.

x 2 + 6x 16

And

l

l

cot =

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

5

.

x 2 + 6x 16

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7, Concluded

Z

1

dx

x 2 + 6x 16

(optionally)

1

= ln | csc + cot | + C , so far

5

1

x +3

5

+C

= ln

+

2

2

5

x

+

6x

16

x

+

6x

16

2

1 x + 6x 16

=

ln

+C

5

x +8

r

1 x 2

1 x 2

=

ln

ln

+C

+C =

5 x + 8

10 x + 8

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 8

1

dx

x 2 + 2x + 2

1

dx, let x + 1 = tan

(x + 1)2 + 1

Z

1

sec2 d

2

tan +1

Z

d, since tan2 + 1 = sec2

+C

tan1 (x + 1) + C

=

=

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 9

Z

dx

9 + 16x 4x 2

Z

=

1

q

x2

4x

Z

=

4x + 4

1

4(x

1

So let 2x 4 = 5 sin x =

x2

2)2

+ 25

52 (2x 4)2

5

2

dx

1

q

9

4

25

4

dx

dx

dx

sin + 2.

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 9, Concluded

We have

2x 4 = 5 sin x =

Then

Z

1

p

52 (2x 4)2

dx

=

=

=

=

5

sin + 2.

2

1

5

cos d

25 25 sin2 2

Z

1

d

2

1

+C

2

1 1 2x 4

sin

+C

2

5

MAT187H1S Lec0102 Burbulla

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 10

x 3

3/2

(x 2

x 3

Z

dx

+ 4x + 13)

2)2

32 )3/2

dx

((x +

+

3 tan 2 3

=

3 sec2 d

3/2

2

(9 tan + 9)

Z

1

3 tan 5

=

d

9

sec

Z

Z

1

5

=

sin d

cos d

3

9

1

5

= cos sin + C

3

9

Z

( let x + 2 = 3 tan )

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

I

l

l

l

x +2

cos =

l

x 2 + 4x + 13

l

l

l

l

l

l

ll

3

x 2 + 4x + 13

sin =

x +2

x 2 + 4x + 13

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

x 3

Z

So

3/2

(x 2

dx

+ 4x + 13)

1

5

= cos sin + C

3

9

1

3

5

x +2

=

+C

3

x 2 + 4x + 13 9

x 2 + 4x + 13

1

5x + 19

=

+C

9

x 2 + 4x + 13

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

If u = x 2 + 4x + 13, then du = (2x + 4) dx. It follows that:

x 3

Z

(x 2

Z

3/2

dx

+ 4x + 13)

1

2 (2x + 4) 5

(x 2 + 4x + 13)3/2

1

2

3/2

u

1

5

u

dx

Z

du 5

Z

dx

(x 2 + 4x + 13)3/2

dx

(x 2 + 4x + 13)3/2

Z

1

dx

5

x 2 + 4x + 13

(x 2 + 4x + 13)3/2

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Now use the trig substitution x + 2 = 3 tan on

integral:

Z

x 3

1

dx

=

x 2 + 4x + 13

(x 2 + 4x + 13)3/2

1

=

x 2 + 4x + 13

1

=

x 2 + 4x + 13

1

=

x 2 + 4x + 13

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

the remaining

Z

5

dx

Z

3 sec2 d

5

(9 tan2 + 9)3/2

Z

5

cos d

9

5

sin + C

9

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

l

l

l

x +2

l

x 2 + 4x + 13

l

l

l

l

l

l

ll

sin =

x +2

.

x 2 + 4x + 13

So, as before,

x 3

(x 2 + 4x + 13)3/2

dx =

1

5

x +2

+C

x 2 + 4x + 13 9 x 2 + 4x + 13

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Rational Functions

This section is about how to integrate a rational function.

I If p(x) and q(x) are polynomials, then

p(x)

q(x)

I

If the degree of p(x) is greater than or equal to the degree of

q(x), then long division will result in a polynomial plus a

rational expression in which the highest degree is in the

denominator.

The method of partial fractions applies to rational functions in

which the highest degree is in the denominator.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1

x 2 + 6x 5

dx

x +7

Z

=

=

2

x 1+

x +7

dx, by long division

1 2

x x + 2 ln |x + 7| + C

2

be integrated will have the highest power in the denominator, so

that no long division will be necessary. But the rational functions

to be integrated will be much more complicated than this example,

so that some new techniques will have to be developed.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Since

2

3

x 1

3x 3 + x 2

+

=

,

x + 1 (x + 1)2 x 2 + 1

(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)

as you can check,

Z

Z

Z

Z

3x 3 + x 2

2

3

x 1

dx

=

dx

dx.

dx+

(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)

x +1

(x + 1)2

x2 + 1

To integrate the left side, we will integrate the right side term by

term.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2: Commentary

2

3

x 1

+

x + 1 (x + 1)2 x 2 + 1

are called the partial fractions of

3x 3 + x 2

.

(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)

To integrate

3x 3 + x 2

(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)

we integrate the partial fractions, each of which is easier than the

original expression.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2; Concluded

3x 3 + x 2

dx

(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)

Z

Z

Z

3

2

x 1

=

dx

dx

+

dx

x +1

(x + 1)2

x2 + 1

Z

Z

Z

Z

2

3

x

1

=

dx

dx

+

dx

dx

x +1

(x + 1)2

x2 + 1

x2 + 1

3

1

= 2 ln |x + 1| +

+ ln(x 2 + 1) tan1 x + C

x +1 2

This example also exhibits all possible terms in the answer for the

integral of a rational function: rational expressions, logarithms, and

inverse tangents.

Z

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

First you must factor the denominator, q(x).

1. For every linear factor ax + b which is repeated m times, the

partial fraction decomposition includes

A1

A2

Am

+

+

+

,

ax + b (ax + b)2

(ax + b)m

for constants A1 , A2 , . . . , Am , which need to be determined.

2. For every irreducible quadratic factor ax 2 + bx + c which is

repeated m times, the partial fraction decomposition includes

A1 x + B1

A2 x + B2

Am x + Bm

+

+

+

,

ax 2 + bx + c

(ax 2 + bx + c)2

(ax 2 + bx + c)m

for constants A1 , B1 , A2 , B2 , . . . , Am , Bm , to be determined.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

The factors of the denominator were given: x + 1 is a linear factor,

repeated twice; x 2 + 1 is an irreducible factor. Thus we need to

find constants A, B, C and D such that

=

=

=

3x 3 + x 2

(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)

B

A

Cx + D

+

+

x + 1 (x + 1)2

x2 + 1

A(x + 1)(x 2 + 1) + B(x 2 + 1) + (Cx + D)(x + 1)2

(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)

(A+C )x 3 +(A+B+2C +D)x 2 +(A+C +2D)x+A+B+D

(x+1)2 (x 2 +1)

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Since the denominators of two equal fractions are the same, the

numerators must be equal. Comparing coefficients, we obtain the

system of 4 equations in 4 unknowns:

A

+ C

=

3

A + B + 2C + D =

0

A

+ C + 2D =

1

A + B

+ D = 2

Solve this system any way you like! By subtracting the third from

the first equation, you obtain 2D = 2 D = 1. By subtracting

the fourth from the second equation, you obtain 2C = 2 C = 1.

Then A = 2, and B = 3 quickly follow.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

We have A = 2, B = 3, C = 1, D = 1, so that

3x 3 + x 2

(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)

=

=

A

B

Cx + D

+

+

x + 1 (x + 1)2

x2 + 1

2

3

x 1

,

+

x + 1 (x + 1)2 x 2 + 1

Example 2. Other examples follow. Note: needless to say, the

method of partial fractions involves lots and lots of algebra. That

may be why it is not very popular!

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Z

Example 3:

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

2x + 1

dx

x 2 + 3x + 2

2x + 1

x 2 + 3x + 2

A(x + 1) + B(x + 2)

A

B

=

+

(x + 2)(x + 1)

x +2 x +1

2x + 1 = (A + B)x + A + 2B

A + B = 2

A = 3 and B = 1, and so

A + 2B = 1

Z

Z

Z

3

1

2x + 1

=

dx

dx = 3 ln |x+2|ln |x+1|+C

dx

x +2

x +1

x 2 + 3x + 2

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Z

Example 4:

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

6x 2 + 5x 3

dx

3

x x

6x 2 + 5x 3

x3 x

=

=

6x 2 + 5x 3

A

B

C

+

+

x

x 1 x +1

A(x 2 1) + Bx(x + 1) + Cx(x 1)

x(x 1)(x + 1)

= (A + B + C )x 2 + (B C )x A

A + B + C

B C

=

6

=

5

= 3

(A, B, C ) = (3, 4, 1)

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 4, Continued

Thus

6x 2 + 5x 3

3

4

1

=

+

;

x3 x

x

x 1 x +1

and so

Z

6x 2 + 5x 3

dx

x3 x

Z

Z

3

4

1

=

dx +

dx

dx

x

x 1

x +1

= 3 ln |x| + 4 ln |x 1| ln |x + 1| + C

Z

Example 5:

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

2x 2 4x + 3

dx

3

2

x x

x 3 x 2 = x 2 (x 1). So let

2x 2 4x + 3

x3 x2

A

B

C

+ 2+

x

x

x 1

Ax(x 1) + B(x 1) + Cx 2

x 2 (x 1)

=

=

2x 2 4x + 3

A

+ C

A + B

(A + C )x 2 + (A + B)x B

=

2

= 4

=

3

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 5, Continued

Thus

1

3

1

2x 2 4x + 3

;

=

+

x

x2 x 1

x3 x2

and so

Z

2x 2 4x + 3

dx

x3 x2

Z

Z

1

3

1

dx

dx

=

dx

+

x

x2

x 1

3

= ln |x| + + ln |x 1| + C

x

Z

Example 6:

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

6x 2 + 29x + 36

dx

3

2

x + 6x + 9x

6x 2 + 29x + 36

x 3 + 6x 2 + 9x

=

=

6x 2 + 29x + 36

A

B

C

+

+

x

x + 3 (x + 3)2

A(x + 3)2 + Bx(x + 3) + Cx

x(x + 3)2

(A + B)x 2 + (6A + 3B + C )x + 9A

A = 4, B = 2, and C = 1.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 6, Continued

Thus

6x 2 + 29x + 36

4

2

1

=

+

;

x 3 + 6x 2 + 9x

x

x + 3 (x + 3)2

and so

Z

6x 2 + 29x + 36

dx

x 3 + 6x 2 + 9x

Z

=

=

4

dx +

x

2

dx

x +3

4 ln |x| + 2 ln |x + 3| +

1

dx

(x + 3)2

1

+C

x +3

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Z

Example 7:

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

6x 2 x + 5

dx

3

x +x

6x 2 x + 5

x3 + x

=

=

6x 2 x + 5

A Bx + C

+ 2

x

x +1

2

A(x + 1) + (Bx + C )x

x(x 2 + 1)

(A + B)x 2 + Cx + A

A = 5, B = 1, and C = 1.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7, Continued

Thus

6x 2 x + 5

5

x 1

=

+

;

x3 + x

x

x2 + 1

and so

Z

6x 2 x + 5

dx

x3 + x

Z

5

x 1

=

dx +

dx

x

x2 + 1

Z

Z

Z

5

x

1

=

dx +

dx

dx

2

2

x

x +1

x +1

1

= 5 ln |x| + ln(x 2 + 1) tan1 x + C

2

Z

Z

Example 8:

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

x 3 + 6x 2 + x

dx

4

x 1

Then

A

B

Cx + D

x 3 + 6x 2 + x

=

+

+

x 1 x +1

x2 + 1

x4 1

A(x + 1)(x 2 + 1) + B(x 1)(x 2 + 1) + (Cx + D)(x 2 1)

(x 1)(x + 1)(x 2 + 1)

x 3 + 6x 2 + x

=

(A + B + C )x 3 + (A B + D)x 2 + (A + B C )x + A B D

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 8, Continued

We must

A +

A

A +

B + C

B

B C

B

=

+ D =

=

D =

1

6

1

0

x 3 + 6x 2 + x

2

1

3

=

+

.

x4 1

x 1 x + 1 x2 + 1

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 8, Conclusion

Finallly,

Z 3

x + 6x 2 + x

dx

x4 1

Z

Z

2

1

3

=

dx

dx +

dx

x 1

x +1

x2 + 1

= 2 ln |x 1| ln |x + 1| + 3 tan1 x + C

Z

Example 9:

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

2x 3 + 7x 2 x + 13

dx

4

2

x + 5x + 4

quadratic factors. So let

2x 3 + 7x 2 x + 13

x 4 + 5x 2 + 4

=

=

Ax + B

Cx + D

+

x2 + 4

x2 + 1

(Ax + B)(x 2 + 1) + (Cx + D)(x 2 + 4)

(x 2 + 4)(x 2 + 1)

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 9, Continued

We must solve the system of 4

A

+ C

B

+ D

A

+ 4C

B

+ 4D

equations in 4 unknowns:

=

2

=

7

= 1

= 13

2x 3 + 7x 2 x + 13

3x + 5

2x

=

+

.

x 4 + 5x 2 + 4

x2 + 4 x2 + 1

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 9, Concluded

Finally,

Z

2x 3 + 7x 2 x + 13

dx

x 4 + 5x 2 + 4

Z

Z

3x + 5

2x

=

dx

+

dx

x2 + 4

x2 + 1

Z

Z

Z

Z

3x

5

2

x

=

dx

+

dx

+

dx

dx

x2 + 4

x2 + 4

x2 + 1

x2 + 1

3

5

1

2

1 x

=

ln(x + 4) + tan

+ 2 tan1 x ln(x 2 + 1) + C

2

2

2

2

Z

Example 10:

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

3x 4 + x 3 + 4x 2 + 1

dx

2

2

x(x + 1)

3x 4 + x 3 + 4x 2 + 1

x(x 2 + 1)2

=

=

A Bx + C

Dx + E

+ 2

+ 2

x

x +1

(x + 1)2

A(x 2 + 1)2 + (Bx + C )(x 3 + x) + Dx 2 + Ex

x(x 2 + 1)2

from which we see A = 1, C = 1, B = 2, D = 0, and E = 1.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Thus

3x 4 + x 3 + 4x 2 + 1

dx

x(x 2 + 1)2

Z

Z

Z

1

2x + 1

1

=

dx +

dx

dx

x

x2 + 1

(x 2 + 1)2

Z

Z

Z

Z

1

2x

1

1

=

dx +

dx

+

dx

dx

x

x2 + 1

x2 + 1

(x 2 + 1)2

1

1 x

= ln |x| + ln(x 2 + 1) + tan1 x tan1 x

+C

2

2 x2 + 1

1

1 x

= ln |x| + ln(x 2 + 1) + tan1 x

+C

2

2 x2 + 1

Z

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Integral Tables

In the inside covers of the textbook there is a table of integrals

that lists 122 integral formulas. Using the methods of Chapter 7

we could prove all of these 122 formulas. In practice, if you are a

working scientist and you need an integral, you would probably

consult a table of integrals, or some mathematical software like

Maple or Mathematica. If you consult an integral table to solve an

integral, you will often first have to do some manipulation, or make

a substitution, before you can use the integral formula. An

example follows. By the way, there are tables of integrals that are

much longer than the 122 formulas listed in our book!

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1

Formula 81 inside the back cover of our textbook says

Z

u2

a2 1 u u p 2

du =

sin

a u2 + C .

2

2

2

a

2

a u

To apply this formula to

Z

x2

dx,

25 16x 2

you have to first make a substitution, namely u = 4x, so that

du = 4dx. Then

2

Z

Z

1

u

x2

1

4

dx =

du

4

25 16x 2

25 u 2

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

So

Z

x2

dx

25 16x 2

=

=

=

=

2

Z

1

u

1

4

du

4

25 u 2

Z

u2

1

du

64

52 u 2

1 25 1 u u p

sin

25 u 2 + C

64 2

5 2

4x

25

x p

sin1

25 16x 2 + C

128

5

32

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Maple is a very powerful computer algebra system, which can

basically do all calculus:

> integrate(x 2 /sqrt(25 16 x 2 ), x);

1

25

x sqrt(25 16x 2 ) +

arcsin

32

128

4

x

5

algebra systems are Matlab and Mathematica. These packages use

the same methods we have covered, plus many other substitutions

that we have not explicitly stated. See the next few slides.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2

Z

x

dx

1+ 3x

=

=

=

=

=

u6

6u 5 du, if x = u 6

3

1 + u6

Z

Z

u3

u8

5

6u

du

=

6

du

1 + u2

1 + u2

Z

1

6

u6 u4 + u2 1 +

du

1 + u2

6u 7 6u 5

+ 2u 3 6u + 6 tan1 u + C

7

5

6x 7/6 6x 5/6

7

5

Z

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

This is sometimes referred to as the worlds sneakiest substitution.

Check that:

l

x

x

2u

l

sin x = 2 sin

cos

=

l

2

2

1 + u2

l

l

2

u

l 1+u

1 u2

l

2 x

2 x

cos x = cos

sin

=

l

2

2

1 + u2

l

l

2du

1 + u2

1

It can be used to transform integrands which are rational functions

of sin x and cos x.

l

x/2

l

x = 2 tan1 u dx =

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 3

dx

1 sin x + cos x

2du

1+u 2

Z

=

1

2u

1+u 2

1u 2

1+u 2

, with u = tan(x/2)

du

= ln |1 u| + C

1u

= ln |1 tan(x/2)| + C

=

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

sin x

dx

cos x sin x

Z

=

1u 2

1+u 2

2u

1+u 2

2u

1+u 2

2du

1 + u2

4u

du

(u 2 + 2u 1)(1 + u 2 )

1

1

(partial fractions) =

ln(u 2 + 1) ln |u 2 + 2u 1| tan1 u + C

2

2

1

x

x 1 2 x

x

u = tan

= ln sec ln tan

+ 2 tan 1 x + C

2

2

2

2

2

2

=

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Rb

a

f (x) dx

things occurs:

1. the integrand, f (x), has an infinite discontinuity at some

point in the interval [a, b].

2. one, or both, of the limits of integration, a or b, are infinite.

In either case, an improper integral is evaluated by calculating a

limit of a proper definite integral. If the limit exists, the improper

integral exists, or converges, or is finite. If the limit doesnt exist,

then the improper integral doesnt exist, or diverges, or is infinite.

Some examples follow.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Example 1:

R1

1

0

x

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

1

dx

x

0

Z 1

1

dx

= lim+

x

a0

a

1

= lim+ 2 x a

a0

= lim+ 2 2 a

a0

= 20

= 2

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Example 2:

R1

1

0 x

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

1

Z

0

1

dx

x

Z 1

lim+

a0

1

dx

x

a0

lim (ln 1 ln a)

a0+

= 0 ()

=

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Example 3:

R

1

1

x

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

=

=

=

1

dx

x

Z b

lim

b 1

lim (ln b ln 1)

= 0

=

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

1

dx

x

Example 4:

R

1

1

x2

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

1

dx

x2

1

Z b

1

lim

dx

b 1 x 2

1 b

lim

b

x 1

1 1

lim +

b

b 1

0+1

=

=

=

=

= 1

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Example 5:

R

0

1

1+x 2

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

1

dx

1 + x2

0

Z b

1

= lim

dx

b 0 1 + x 2

b

= lim tan1 x 0

b

=

=

=

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

0

2

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Example 6:

R0

1

1+x 2

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

dx

This is the mirror image of the previous integral, that is, the

reflection of the previous one in the y -axis. It is calculated as

follows:

Z 0

Z 0

1

1

dx

=

lim

dx

2

a a 1 + x 2

1 + x

0

=

lim tan1 x a

a

=

lim tan1 0 tan1 a

a

= 0

2

=

2

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

(x) dx

Z

Z 0

Z

f (x) dx =

f (x) dx +

f (x) dx

Z

=

lim

a a

Z

f (x) dx + lim

b 0

Z 0

Z

f (x) dx and

f (x) dx

f (x) dx

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

f (x) dx

to exist.

Example 7:

Z

1

1+x 2

1

dx

1 + x2

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

dx

Z

=

=

1

dx +

1 + x2

Z

0

1

dx

1 + x2

+ , by previous examples

2

2

integral to a proper integral:

Z

Z /2

Z /2

1

1

2

dx

=

sec

d

=

d

=

1 + x2

1 + tan2

2

0

0

0

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Escape Velocity

Suppose an object of mass M2 is fired with speed v off a planet

with mass M1 and radius R. What is the objects escape velocity?

the speed needed to become free of the planets gravity?

Z

1

GM1 M2

2

M2 v

=

dr

2

r2

R

GM1 M2

GM1 M2

=

=

r

R

R

r

1

GM1

2GM1

v2 =

v =

2

R

R

For the earth, this works out to be 11.2 km/sec. (This is also the

speed with which an asteroid would hit the earth.)

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

The Gamma function is an example of whats called a special

function. For t > 0, define

Z

(t) =

x t1 e x dx.

0

For example,

Z

(1)

Z

dx = lim

b 0

e x dx

b

lim e x 0 = 0 (1) = 1

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

To see this, we prove the recursion formula (n + 1) = n(n) :

Z

x n e x dx

(n + 1) =

0

Z

= [uv ]0

v du, with u = x n , dv = e x dx

n 0 Z

x

= x

+n

x n1 e x dx

e 0

0

n

x

= lim x + 0 + n (n)

x e

= 0 + n (n)

=

n (n)

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Thus

(1) = 1 = 0!

(2) = 1(1) = 1 = 1!

(3) = 2(2) = 2 1 = 2!

(4) = 3(3) = 3 2! = 3!

(5) = 4(4) = 4 3! = 4!

etc, etc.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

The definition of (t) can be extended to t < 0. (See your

complex analysis course!) The resulting graph is:

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

We know that if F 0 = f on [a, b], then

a

However, there are at least two reasons why this approach may be

impractical.

1. For one thing, it may be extremely difficult it may be

impossible to find the antiderivative of f (x). For example, it

2

is known that none of these functions e x , cos(cos x), or

(1 + x 2 )2/3 has an elementary antiderivative in terms of x.

2. Secondly, even if you know FZ, it may not be easy to evaluate

5

1

dx = ln 5; but what is ln 5?

F (a) or F (b). For example,

1 x

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

The Trapezoid Rule: To Approximate

f (x) dx

a

a

r

x0

x1

xi1

r``

`r

#

#

r#

Ai Ai+1

xi1

xi

xi+1

xi

xn1

ba

:

n

b

r

xn

Z b

1

Ai = (f (xi1 ) + f (xi )) x; so A =

f (x) dx

2

a

n

n

X

X

1

'

(f (xi1 ) + f (xi )) x

Ai =

2

i=1

i=1

x

=

(f (x0 ) + 2f (x1 ) + + 2f (xn1 ) + f (xn )) = Tn

2

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Z

Example 1: Approximate

1

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

1

dx with n = 4; yi = f (xi ).

x

f (x) =

T4 =

=

=

Z

Example 2: Approximate

1

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

1

51

; n = 4; x =

=1

x

4

1

(y0 + 2y1 + 2y2 + 2y3 + y4 )

2

1 1 2 2 2 1

+ + + +

2 1 2 3 4 5

101

' 1.683333 . . .

60

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

1

dx with n = 8

x

1

51

; n = 8; x =

= 0.5

x

8

1 1

2

2

2

=

+

+ +

+

4 1 1.5 2 2.5

2

2

2

2

1

+

+ +

+

3 3.5 4 4.5 5

' 1.628968254 . . .

f (x) =

T8

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 3: Approximate

x 2

4

1+

f (x) =

1+

dx with n = 2

; n = 2; x =

x 2

4

40

=2

2

2

(f (0) + 2f (2) + f (4))

2

2

1

= 1+

+

1 + (0.5)2 1 + 12

= 3.1

T2 =

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 4: Approximate

0

1+

x 2

4

1

f (x) =

1+

dx; n = 4; yi = f (xi )

; n = 4; x =

x 2

4

40

=1

4

1

(y0 + 2y1 + 2y2 + 2y3 + y4 )

2

1

2

2

=

1+

+

2

1 + (0.25)2 1 + (0.5)2

2

1

+

+

1 + (0.75)2 1 + 12

' 3.131176471 . . .

T4 =

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Let (xi1 , yi1 ), (xi , yi ) and (xi+1 , yi+1 ) be three consecutive data

points;

and qi (x) theZ quadratic function that passes through them.

Z xi+1

xi+1

x

(yi1 + 4yi + yi+1 ).

Let

f (x)dx '

qi (x) dx = Ai =

3

xi1

xi1

Z

f (x) q (x)

r i

'

f (x) dx

a

=

r

xi

A2i1 = A1 + A3 + + An1

i=1

xi1

n/2

X

x

(y0 + 4y1 + 2y2 + 4y3 +

3

+ + 2yn2 + 4yn1 + yn )

= Sn

xi+1

Z

Example 5: Approximate

1

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

1

dx with n = 4; yi = f (xi )

x

f (x) =

S4 =

=

=

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

1

51

; n = 4; x =

=1

x

4

1

(y0 + 4y1 + 2y2 + 4y3 + y4 )

3

1 1 4 2 4 1

+ + + +

3 1 2 3 4 5

73

' 1.6222222 . . .

45

Z

Example 6: Approximate

1

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

1

dx with n = 8

x

51

1

= 0.5

; n = 8; x =

8

x

1 1

4

2

4

=

+

+ +

+

6 1 1.5 2 2.5

2

4

2

4

1

+

+ +

+

3 3.5 4 4.5 5

' 1.610846561 . . .

f (x) =

S8

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7: Approximate

0

1+

x 2

4

1

f (x) =

1+

dx; n = 4; yi = f (xi )

; n = 4; x =

x 2

4

40

=1

4

1

(y0 + 4y1 + 2y2 + 4y3 + y4 )

3

1

4

2

=

1+

+

3

1 + (0.25)2 1 + (0.5)2

4

1

+

+

1 + (0.75)2 1 + 12

' 3.141592502 . . .

S4 =

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

10

Example 8: Approximate

0

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

10

Example 9: Approximate

0

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

10

0

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Z

Example 11: Approximate

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

10

0

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Error Estimates

The accuracy of Trapezoid or Simpsons Rule approximations can

be calculated with the help of the following error estimates:

1.

M2 (b a)3

f (x) dx Tn

12n2

M4 (b a)5

f (x) dx Sn

180n4

2.

derivative of f on the interval [a, b].

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.8

7.7

Z

Example 12: Approximating

Integration by Parts

Integrating Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric Substitutions

Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions

Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals

Improper Integrals

Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

f (x) dx; a = 1; b = 5

1

1

2

6

24

1 0

; f (x) = 2 ; f 00 (x) = 3 ; f (3) (x) = 4 ; f (4) = 5 .

x

x

x

x

Z 5 x

2(5 1)3

32

f (x) dx Tn

=

1. M2 = 2

12n2

3n2

1

Z 5

24(5 1)5

2048

2. M4 = 24

f (x) dx Sn

=

180n4

15n4

1

Z 5

32

If n = 8 then

= 0.16666666 . . ., and

f (x) dx Tn

2

3

8

1

Z 5

2048

f

(x)

dx

S

= 0.03333333 . . .

n

15 84

1

f (x) =

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