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Chapter 7: Principles of Integral Evaluation

MAT187H1S Lec0102 Burbulla

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Winter 2014

Chapter 7: Principles of Integral Evaluation

7.1 An Overview of Integration Methods
7.2 Integration by Parts
7.3 Integrating Trigonometric Functions
7.4 Trigonometric Substitutions
7.5 Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
7.6 Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
7.8 Improper Integrals
7.7 Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Introduction
Compared to differentiation, integration is much more difficult.
Differentiation rules like the product rule, the quotient rule, the
chain rule, or the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus permit almost
any combination of functions to be easily differentiated in a
mechanical, algorithmic way. Integration is a whole different story.
In Chapter 7 we shall cover the basic techniques of integration, but
even after we have learnt them and practiced them there will
still be many functions that will be difficult or impossible! to
integrate. Putting it another way, MAT187H1S is much more
difficult than MAT186H1F.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Some Basic Integral Formulas

Every differentiation formula you know, produces an integration
formula. For example,
Z
de x
x
= e e x dx = e x + C .
dx
And

dx n+1
= (n + 1)x n
dx

x n+1
x dx =
+ C.
n+1
n

Even this is tricky! Obviously, n 6= 1. What is

Z
1
dx?
x
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Integral of 1/x with respect to x

We do know a function that has derivative 1/x, namely ln x. But
ln x is only defined for x > 0. So
Z
1
dx = ln x + C ,
x
if x > 0. What about x < 0? Then x > 0, and
d ln(x)
1
1
=
(1) = .
dx
x
x
So in general,
Z

1
dx = ln |x| + C ,
x

for x 6= 0. Memorize it!

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Six Trigonometric Integrals

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Z
d sin x
= cos x cos x dx = sin x + C
dx
Z
d cos x
= sin x sin x dx = cos x + C
dx
Z
d tan x
2
= sec x sec2 x dx = tan x + C
dx
Z
d sec x
= sec x tan x sec x tan x dx = sec x + C
dx
Z
d cot x
= csc2 x csc2 x dx = cot x + C
dx
Z
d csc x
= csc x cot x csc x cot x dx = csc x + C
dx
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Integral of tan x
What about the integral of tan x? We can integrate it by using a
simple substitution:
Z
Z
sin x
tan x dx =
dx
cos x
Z
1
(du) if u = cos x
=
u
Z
1
=
du
u
= ln |u| + C
= ln | cos x| + C
= ln | sec x| + C
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Integral of sec x
This is trickier:
Z
sec x dx


sec x + tan x
sec x
dx
=
sec x + tan x
Z
sec2 x + sec x tan x
dx
=
tan x + sec x
Z
1
=
du if u = sec x + tan x
u
= ln |u| + C
Z

ln | sec x + tan x| + C

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Two Other Trig integrals

Similarly, you can prove
Z
cot x dx = ln | csc x| + C
and

Z
csc x dx = ln | csc x + cot x| + C .

Both of these formulas have alternate forms:

Z
cot x dx = ln | sin x| + C
and

Z
csc x dx = ln | csc x cot x| + C .
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Three Integral Formulas with Inverse Trig Functions

Z
d sin1 x
1
1

1.
=
dx = sin1 x + C

2
2
dx
1x
1x
Z
1
d tan x
1
1
2.
=

dx = tan1 x + C
2
2
dx
1+x
1+x
Z
d sec1 x
1
1

3.
=

dx = sec1 |x| + C
dx
|x| x 2 1
x x2 1
To have these formulas is the main reason we covered the
derivatives of the inverse trig functions in Chapter 3.

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Sixteen Integral Formulas

Every one of the formulas developed above should be memorized.
The rest of Chapter 7 will be all about reducing more complicated
integrals to one of the above basic sixteen formulas. Since you will
often have to make a simple substitution before using one of the
basic sixteen formulas, they are often written in terms of u rather
than x. Here they are:
R
1. e u du = e u + C
Z
u n+1
n
2.
u du =
+ C , n 6= 1
n+1
Z
1
3.
du = ln |u| + C
u
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z
4.

cos u du = sin u + C
Z
sin u du = cos u + C

5.
Z
6.

sec2 u du = tan u + C

Z
7.

sec u tan u du = sec u + C

Z

8.

csc2 u du = cot u + C

Z
9.

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z
tan u du = ln | sec u| + C

10.
Z

sec u du = ln | sec u + tan u| + C

11.
Z

cot u du = ln | csc u| + C

12.
Z

13.

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

u
1
du = sin1 + C
a
a2 u 2
Z
1
1
1 u
15.
du
=
tan
+C
a2 + u 2
a
a
Z

1
1
1 u

16.
du = sec + C
a
a
u u 2 a2
14.

Memorize all of them!

Anton lists 28 integral formulas on pp 489-90 in Section 7.1. They
include the above 16. You can memorize all 28 if you want, but its
not necessary.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1

x
dx
x4 + 9

=
=
=
=

Z
2x
1
dx
2
(x 2 )2 + 9
Z
1
1
du, if u = x 2
2
2
2
u +3
1 1
u
tan1 + C , by Formula 15
2 3
3
1
x2
tan1
+C
6
3

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2

1
(2 + 3 ln x)7 dx
x

=
=
=

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Z
1
u 7 du, if u = 2 + 3 ln x
3
1 1 8
u + C , by Formula 2
3 8
1
(2 + 3 ln x)8 + C
24

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 3
Z

1
dx
1 + ex


Z 
1 + ex ex
ex
=
dx =
dx
1
1 + ex
1 + ex
Z
Z
ex
=
dx
dx
1 + ex
Z
1
= x
du, if u = 1 + e x
u
= x ln |u| + C , by Formula 3
Z

x ln |1 + e x | + C

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 3; Alternate Approach

Z

1
dx
1 + ex

(optional )

Z
e x
e x
=
dx
=
dx
(1 + e x )e x
e x + 1
Z
1
=
(du), if u = 1 + e x
u
= ln |u| + C , by Formula 3
Z

ln |1 + e x | + C

ln(1 + e x ) + C , since 1 + e x > 0, for all x

 x

e +1
ln
+C
ex
ln(1 + e x ) + ln(e x ) + C = x ln(1 + e x ) + C

=
=

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Integration by Parts Formula

Recall the product rule:
(fg )0 (x) = f (x)g 0 (x) + f 0 (x)g (x).
If you integrate both sides of this equation with respect to x you
obtain
Z
Z
Z
(fg )0 (x) dx = f (x)g 0 (x) dx + f 0 (x)g (x) dx.
Simplifying the left side, and letting u = f (x), v = g (x), you obtain
Z
Z
Z
Z
uv = u dv + v du u dv = uv v du,
which is the integration by parts formula.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Using

u dv = uv

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

v du

R
The
hope
is
that
if
you
cant
do
u dv , you will be able to do
R
v du. However, to apply integration by parts, you always have to
make a choice what is u? what is dv ? and you have to be able
to calculate both
Z
du
and v = dv .
dx
You will find that some choices are better than others. You will
also find that although integration by parts is a very useful
method, not all integrals can be solved by this method. Indeed,
there is no single method that can solve all integrals. That is why
you have to learn all the different methods in Chapter 7.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1
Z

xe dx

u dv , for u = x, dv = e x dx
Z
= uv v du, by the parts formula
Z
Z
= xe x e x dx, since du = dx, v = e x dx = e x
=

= xe x e x + C
Note that the constant of integration, C , was not added in until
the last step. You could have used v = e x + K , but then
Z
uv v du = x(e x + K ) (e x + Kx) + C = xe x e x + C .
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2
For

x sin x dx, let u = x, dv = sin x dx. Then

Z
du = dx and v = sin x dx = cos x.

So
Z

Z
x sin x dx =

Z
u dv

= uv

v du
Z

= x( cos x) ( cos x) dx
Z
= x cos x + cos x dx
= x cos x + sin x + C
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 3
Sometimes
you have to use parts more than once. For example, for
R 2 x
x e dx, let u = x 2 , dv = e x dx. Then du = 2x dx, v = e x , and
Z
Z
Z
2 x
x e dx = u dv = uv v du
Z
= x 2 e x 2xe x dx
Z
2 x
= x e 2 xe x dx
= x 2 e x 2 [xe x e x ] + C , by Example 1
= x 2 e x 2xe x + 2e x + C
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 4
R
What about x 7 ln x dx? You might think you should let u = x 7
and use
R parts seven times. But then dv = ln x dx, and
v = ln x dx, which we dont know. Instead, let u = ln x, and
dv = x 7 dx. Then
Z
Z
Z
7
x ln x dx = u dv = uv v du
Z
1 8
1 8 1
=
x ln x
x dx
8
8
x
Z
1 8
1
=
x ln x
x 7 dx
8
8
1 8
1
=
x ln x x 8 + C
8
64
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 5
The method of the previous example can be used to find
Let
u = ln x, and dv = dx.

ln x dx.

Then
Z

Z
ln x dx =

Z
u dv

= uv

v du
Z
1
= x ln x x dx
x
Z
= x ln x dx
= x ln x x + C

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 6
R
Use the same approach for x tan1 x dx. That is, let
u = tan1 x, let dv = x dx. Then
Z
Z
Z
x tan1 x dx = u dv = uv v du
Z
1 2
1 2
1
1
=
x tan x
x
dx
2
2
1 + x2
Z
1 2
1
x2
1
=
x tan x
dx
2
2
1 + x2

Z 
1 2
1
1
1
=
x tan x
1
dx
2
2
1 + x2

1 2
1
=
x tan1 x
x tan1 x + C
2
2
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Some Generalizations
You can generalize the previous six examples as follows. Let n be a
non-negative integer. To integrate integrals of the form
Z
Z
Z
x n e x dx, x n sin x dx, x n cos x dx,
let u = x n and use parts n times. To integrate integrals of the
form
Z
Z
Z
x n ln x dx, x n tan1 x dx, x n sin1 x dx,
let dv = x n dx, and use parts once.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Integrating Definite Integrals by Parts

Consider the definite integral, based on Example 4 above:
Z e
Z e
Z e
x 7 ln x dx =
u dv = [uv ]e1
v du
1
1
1


Z e
e
1 8
1 8 1
=
x ln x
x dx
8
8
x
1
1
Z
e8 1 e 7
=

x dx
8
8 1
e8
1  8 e
e8 e8 1
=

x 1 =

8
64
8
64
8
1 + 7e
=
64
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7: A Tricky Example

Z

e sin x dx

=
=
=
=
=

u dv , with u = e x , dv = sin x dx
Z
e x ( cos x) e x ( cos x) dx
Z
x
e cos x + e x cos x dx
Z
e x cos x + s dt, with s = e x , dt = cos x dx


Z
e x cos x + e x sin x e x sin x dx

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7, Continued
So we have:
Z
e x sin x dx
Z
2 e x sin x dx
Z
e x sin x dx

= e x cos x + e x sin x

e x sin x dx

= e x cos x + e x sin x + C
1
1
= e x cos x + e x sin x + C
2
2

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

sec3 x dx

sec x sec x dx

=
=
=
=
=

u dv , with u = sec x, dv = sec2 x dx

Z
sec x tan x tan x sec x tan x dx
Z
sec x tan x sec x tan2 x dx
Z

sec x tan x sec x sec2 x 1 dx
Z
Z
3
sec x tan x sec x dx + sec x dx

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 8, Continued
So we have:
Z
sec3 x dx
Z
2 sec3 x dx
Z
2 sec3 x dx
Z
sec3 x dx

Z
= sec x tan x

sec3 x dx +

Z
sec x dx

Z
= sec x tan x +

sec x dx

= sec x tan x + ln | sec x + tan x| + C

=

1
1
sec x tan x + ln | sec x + tan x| + C
2
2

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Reduction Formulas
A reduction formula is an integral formula that gives an integral
with a higher power of some part of it in terms of a very
similar integral with a lower or reduced power of the same part.
For example,
Z
Z
1.
x n e x dx = x n e x n x n1 e x dx
Z
Z
1
n1
n1
n
2.
x+
cos x dx = sin x cos
cosn2 x dx
n
n
are both reduction formulas. Almost all reduction formulas are
proved by using integration by parts. Note: in reduction formulas,
n is almost always a non-negative integer.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 9; Reduction Formula for

x n e x dx

Let u = x n , dv = e x dx :
Z
Z
Z
x n e x dx = u dv = x n e x n x n1 e x dx
Z
So

3 x

x e dx

3 x

x 2 e x dx, since n = 3


Z
x 3 e x 3 x 2 e x 2 xe x dx , using n = 2


Z
x 3 e x 3x 2 e x + 6 xe x e x dx , using n = 1

x 3 e x 3x 2 e x + 6xe x 6e x + C

= x e 3
=

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z
cos x cos

n1

cosn x dx

Z
x dx

=
=
=
=
=

u dv , with u = cosn1 x, dv = cos x dx

Z
sin x cosn1 x (n 1) cosn2 x( sin x) sin x dx
Z
n1
sin x cos
x + (n 1) cosn2 x sin2 x dx
Z

sin x cosn1 x + (n 1) cosn2 x 1 cos2 x dx
Z

n1
sin x cos
x + (n 1)
cosn2 x cosn x dx

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 10, Continued

So we have
Z
(n 1 + 1)
Z
n

cos x dx
Z

cosn x dx

cosn x dx

= sin x cosn1 x + (n 1)
= sin x cos
=

n1

cosn2 x dx

cosn2 x dx

x + (n 1)

1
n1
sin x cosn1 x +
n
n

cosn2 x dx

For Example, if n = 2 :
Z
Z
1
1
1
1
2
cos x dx = sin x cos x +
dx = sin x cos x + x + C
2
2
2
2
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 11
Z

=
=
=
=

cos6 x dx

1
sin x cos5 x
6
1
sin x cos5 x
6
1
sin x cos5 x
6
1
sin x cos5 x
6

+
+
+
+

Z
5
cos4 x dx, with n = 6
6


Z
5 1
3
sin x cos3 x +
cos2 x dx , with n = 4
6 4
4
Z
5
5
sin x cos3 x +
cos2 x dx
24
8
5
5
5
sin x cos3 x +
sin x cos x + x + C
24
16
16

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

This method for organizing computations involved in repeated use

of integration by parts for certain types of integrals is described on
pp 495-96 in Section 7.2. You are not responsible for memorizing
it. Whether or not you use this approach is optional and totally up
to you.

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Connections Between Sine and Cosine

Recall the following results about sin x and cos x :
1. sin2 x + cos2 x = 1
2. sin0 (x) = cos x
3. cos0 (x) = sin x
These results can be used to integrate integrals of the form
Z
sinm x cosn x dx,
for m, n both non-negative integers.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

sinm x cosn x dx

1. If m is odd, let u = cos x.

2. If n is odd, let u = sin x.
3. If m and n are both even, use the double angle formulas
sin2 x =

1 + cos(2x)
1 cos(2x)
and cos2 x =
,
2
2

or some other method.

4. Note: if both m and n are odd, let u = sin x, or let u = cos x.

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1
Z

sin4 x cos3 x dx

=
=
Z
=
=
=


u 4 u 6 du

1 5 1 7
u u +C
5
7
1 5
1
sin x sin7 x + C
5
7

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2
Z

sin3 x dx

Z
=

=
=


1 cos2 x sin x dx


1 u 2 (du), with u = cos x


u 2 1 du

=
=

sin2 x sin x dx =

1 3
u u+C
3
1
cos3 x cos x + C
3

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 3
Z

sin x cos x dx

u 2 (1 u 2 )2 du, with u = sin x

u 2 (1 2u 2 + u 4 ) du


u 2 2u 4 + u 6 du

=
=
=
=
=

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 3, Continued

So
Z

sin x cos x dx

Z
=
=
=


u 2 2u 4 + u 6 du

1 3 2 5 1 7
u u + u +C
3
5
7
1 3
2
1
sin x sin5 x + sin7 x + C
3
5
7

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 4
Z

1
(1 + cos(2x)) dx
2
1
1 1
=
x + sin(2x) + C
2
2 2
1
1
=
x + sin(2x) + C
2
4
If you substitute sin(2x) = 2 sin x cos x, then this answer becomes
Z
1
1
1
1
cos2 x dx = x + (2 sin x cos x) + C = x + sin x cos x + C ,
2
4
2
2
which is the result we got using integration by parts. Either
2

cos x dx

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 5
Z

sin2 x cos2 x dx

Z
=
=
=
=
=

1
1
(1 cos(2x)) (1 + cos(2x)) dx
2
2
Z
1
(1 cos2 (2x)) dx
4
Z
1
sin2 (2x) dx
4
Z
1
1
(1 cos(4x)) dx
4
2


1
1
x sin(4x) + C
8
4

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Connections Between Tangent and Secant

Recall the following results about tan x and sec x :
1. tan2 x + 1 = sec2 x
2. tan0 (x) = sec2 x
3. sec0 (x) = sec x tan x
These results can be used to integrate integrals of the form
Z
tanm x secn x dx,
for m, n both non-negative integers.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

tanm x secn x dx

1. If n is even, let u = tan x.

2. If m is odd, let u = sec x.
3. If m is even and n is odd, use integration by parts, or some
other method.
4. Note: if m is odd and n is even, let u = tan x, or let u = sec x.

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 6
Z

tan2 x sec4 x dx

u 2 (1 + u 2 ) du, with u = tan x

(u 2 + u 4 ) du

=
=
=
=
=

1 3 1 5
u + u +C
3
5
1
1
tan3 x + tan5 x + C
3
5

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7
Z

tan3 x sec3 x dx

(u 2 1)u 2 du, with u = sec x

(u 4 u 2 ) du

=
=
=
=
=

1 5 1 3
u u +C
5
3
1
1
sec5 x sec3 x + C
5
3

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 8
Z

tan x sec x dx

u 7 du, with u = sec x

=
=

1 8
u +C
8
1
=
sec8 x + C
8
You could use the substitution, u = tan x, but thatd be messier:
Z
Z
Z
3 2
2
8
tan x sec x dx = tan x sec x sec x dx = u(1 + u 2 )3 du.
=

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 9
We have already seen how
Similarly,
Z

tan2 x sec3 x dx

can also be done by parts, or by using a reduction formula. First:

Z
Z
2
3
(sec2 x 1) sec3 x dx
tan x sec x dx =
Z
Z
=
sec5 x dx sec3 x dx
Now look up the reduction formula for
Z
secn x dx.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 10
Z

tan x dx

tan2 x tan2 x dx

Z
=
=
=
=

tan2 x(sec2 x 1) dx
Z
Z
tan2 x sec2 x dx tan2 x dx
Z
1
3
tan x (sec2 x 1) dx
3
1
tan3 x tan x + x + C
3

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

cotm x cscn x dx

These
are handled similarly to integrals of the form
R
m
tan x secn x dx, using
1. 1 + cot2 x = csc2 x
2. cot0 (x) = csc2 x
3. csc0 (x) = cot x csc x
In particular,
If n is even, let u = cot x.
If m is odd, let u = csc x.
If n is odd, and m is even, use integration by parts,
or some other method.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 11
There are many other trig integrals that can be done, which dont
use the methods of this section, or use a combination of methods,
some from this section, and some form other sections. In general
trig integrals can be very tricky! Consider
Z
Z
1
1 + sin x
dx =
dx
2
1 sin x
1

sin
x
Z
1 + sin x
=
dx
cos2 x
Z
Z
=
sec2 x dx + tan x sec x dx
=

tan x + sec x + C

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 12: A Very Tricky Example

Z
sin x(cos x + sin x)
sin x
dx
dx =
cos x sin x
cos2 x sin2 x
Z
sin x cos x + sin2 x
dx
cos2 x sin2 x
Z
sin(2x) + 1 cos(2x)
1
dx
2
cos(2x)
Z
Z
Z
1
1
1
tan(2x) dx +
sec(2x) dx
dx
2
2
2
1
1
1
ln | sec(2x)| + ln | sec(2x) + tan(2x)| x + C
4
4
2

=
=
=
=

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 12; An Alternate Approach

sin x + 12 cos x + 12 sin x 12 cos x
=
dx
cos x sin x
Z
Z
sin x + cos x
sin x cos x
1
1
dx +
dx
=
2
cos x sin x
2
cos x sin x
Z
Z
1
1
1
=
du
dx, with u = cos x sin x
2
u
2
1
1
= ln |u| x + C
2
2
1
1
= ln | cos x sin x| x + C
2
2
This gives a different answer; but both are correct.
Z

sin x
dx
cos x sin x

1
2

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Trigonometric Substitutions; aka Inverse Trig Substitutions

Integrand Contains

a2

a2

x2

x2

x2

a2

Trig Substitution

try x = a sin

or = sin

x 
a

try x = a tan

or = tan

try x = a sec

or = sec

x 
a
x 
a

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

1
dx
(1 + x 2 )3/2

1
2
sec
d
(1 + tan2 )3/2
Z
1
2
sec
d
(sec2 )3/2
Z
sec2
d
sec3
Z
1
d
sec
Z
cos d

sin + C

=
=
=
=

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1, Continued
So far we have
Z

1
dx = sin + C .
(1 + x 2 )3/2

At this point two comments are in order:

1. In simplifying (sec2 )3/2 = sec3 , we assumed sec > 0.
Unless we have information otherwise, this will be our usual
approach in simplifying trig integrals after making a trig
substitution.
2. To finish the problem, we must put our answer back in terms
of x. To do this, we need to find sin in terms of x, given
that x = tan . This is most commonly done with the help of
a triangle.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1, Concluded
I

In the triangle to the left,

x = tan .

The
length of the hypotenuse
is 1 + x 2 .

So

l
l
l

l
2
l 1+x
l
l
l
l
l
l

sin =
I

x
.
1 + x2

Thus
Z

1
x

dx
=
+C
(1 + x 2 )3/2
1 + x2

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2: x = 2 sin ; dx = 2 cos d

x3

dx
4 x2

8 sin3

Z
=
=
=
=
=

2 cos d
4 4 sin2
Z
sin3
8
cos d
cos
Z
Z
8 sin3 d = 8 sin2 sin d
Z
8 (1 u 2 ) (du), if u = cos
p

8
8u + u 3 + C
3

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2, Continued
Z

x3
8
8
dx = 8u + u 3 + C = 8 cos + cos3 + C .
3
3
4 x2
I

l
l
l

l 2
l
l
l
l
l
l

4 x2

x = 2 sin sin =
I

So

cos =

4 x2
.
2

x
.
2

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2, Concluded
Thus
Z

x3
dx
4 x2

(optionally)

8
cos3 + C
3
!
!3

2
2
4x
8
4x
+
+C
2
3
2

= 8 cos +
=

=
=

1
4 x 2 + (4 x 2 )3/2 + C
3


p
1
4 x 2 4 + (4 x 2 ) + C
3

1p

4 x2 x2 + 8 + C
3
p

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 3: x = 5 sec ; dx = 5 sec tan d

Z

x 2 25
dx =
x

25 sec2 25
5 sec tan d
5 sec

Z p
l
= 5
sec2 1 tan d
l
l
Z
l
= 5 tan2 d

l x
2 25
x
l
Z
l
l
= 5 (sec2 1) d
= 5 tan 5 + C
 
p
1 x
2
=
x 25 5 sec
+C
5
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

l
l

l
l

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 4; Example 1 Revisited, x = tan

In a definite integral, you should change the limits as you make the
substitution. This will make it unnecessary to change back to x :
Z
0

1
dx
(1 + x 2 )3/2

/4

=
0

Z
=

1
sec2 d
3/2
2
(1 + tan )

/4

cos d
0
/4

[sin ]0
1

It will not always be as easy to change the limits as in this example.

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 5: An Integral That Can De Done Four Ways

Consider the integral
x3
dx.
1 x2
In keeping with the methods of this section, we could let x = sin :
Z
Z
x3
sin3

p
dx =
cos d
1 x2
1 sin2
Z
=
sin3 d
Z

1
= cos + cos3 + C
3
p
3/2
1
= 1 x2 +
1 x2
+C
3
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 5, Using Integration by Parts

Z

x3

dx
1 x2

Z
=

x2

x
dx
1 x2

=
=
=
=

x
u dv , with u = x 2 , dv =
dx
2
1

x
 p
 Z  p

2
x 1 x2
1 x 2 2x dx
Z p
p
x 2 1 x 2 +
1 x 2 2x dx
x

1 x2

3/2
2
1 x2
+C
3

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 5, Using a Simple Substitution

Z

x3

dx
1 x2

Z
1
2x
=
x2
dx
2
2
1

x
Z
1
1u
du, with u = 1 x 2
=
2
u
Z 

1
1/2
1/2
=
u
u
du
2

1
= u + u 3/2 + C
3
p
3/2
1
= 1 x2 +
1 x2
+C
3

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 5, Using Another Substitution

Z

x3

dx
1 x2

x2

1 u2
u du, with u 2 = 1 x 2
u

=
=
=
=
=

x
dx
1 x2

(u 2 1) du

1 3
u u+C
3
p
1
(1 x 2 )3/2 1 x 2 + C
3

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 6: x = tan ; dx = sec2 d

l
l

=
=
=
=

1
l

dx
l
x
1 + x2
2
2
(x + 1)
l
Z
l
1
2
l
sec d
l
(1 + tan2 )2
Z
Z
ll
1
1
cos2 d =
(1 + cos(2)) d
2
1
2
1
1
+ sin(2) + C = + sin cos + C
2
4
2
4
1
1
x
1
tan1 x +

+C
2
2 x2 + 1
x2 + 1
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7
In integrals involving quadratic expressions, you may have to
complete the square before you make a trig substitution.
Z
Z
1
1
=
dx, let x + 3 = 5 sec
dx
(x + 3)2 25
x 2 + 6x 16
Z
1
=
5 sec tan d
25 sec2 25
Z
1
sec tan
=
d
5
tan2
Z
1
=
csc d
5
1
= ln | csc + cot | + C
5
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7, Continued
I

In the triangle to the left,

x + 3 = 5 sec .

The
length of the third side is
y = x 2 + 6x 16.

So

l
l
l

l
l x +3
l
l
l
l

csc =
I

x +3
.
x 2 + 6x 16

And

l
l

cot =
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

5
.
x 2 + 6x 16

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7, Concluded
Z

1
dx
x 2 + 6x 16

(optionally)

1
= ln | csc + cot | + C , so far
5

1
x +3
5
+C
= ln
+

2
2
5
x
+
6x

16
x
+
6x

16

2
1 x + 6x 16
=
ln
+C

5
x +8
r

1 x 2
1 x 2
=
ln
ln
+C
+C =
5 x + 8
10 x + 8

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 8

1
dx
x 2 + 2x + 2

1
dx, let x + 1 = tan
(x + 1)2 + 1
Z
1
sec2 d
2
tan +1
Z
d, since tan2 + 1 = sec2

+C

tan1 (x + 1) + C

=
=

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 9
Z

dx
9 + 16x 4x 2

Z
=

1
q

x2

4x

Z
=

4x + 4

1
4(x
1

So let 2x 4 = 5 sin x =

x2

2)2

+ 25

52 (2x 4)2

5
2

 dx

1
q

9
4

25
4

 dx

dx

dx

sin + 2.

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 9, Concluded
We have
2x 4 = 5 sin x =
Then
Z

1
p

52 (2x 4)2

dx

=
=
=
=

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

5
sin + 2.
2
1

5
cos d
25 25 sin2 2

Z
1
d
2
1
+C
2


1 1 2x 4
sin
+C
2
5
MAT187H1S Lec0102 Burbulla

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 10
x 3

3/2

(x 2

x 3

Z
dx

+ 4x + 13)

2)2

32 )3/2

dx

((x +
+
3 tan 2 3
=
3 sec2 d
3/2
2
(9 tan + 9)
Z
1
3 tan 5
=
d
9
sec
Z
Z
1
5
=
sin d
cos d
3
9
1
5
= cos sin + C
3
9
Z

( let x + 2 = 3 tan )

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

I

l
l
l

x +2

cos =

l
x 2 + 4x + 13
l
l
l
l
l
l
ll

3
x 2 + 4x + 13

sin =

x +2
x 2 + 4x + 13

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

x 3

Z
So

3/2

(x 2

dx

+ 4x + 13)
1
5
= cos sin + C
3
9
1
3
5
x +2
=

+C
3
x 2 + 4x + 13 9
x 2 + 4x + 13
1
5x + 19
=
+C
9
x 2 + 4x + 13

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 10: Alternate Approach

If u = x 2 + 4x + 13, then du = (2x + 4) dx. It follows that:
x 3

Z
(x 2

Z
3/2

dx

+ 4x + 13)

1
2 (2x + 4) 5
(x 2 + 4x + 13)3/2

1
2
3/2
u

1
5
u

dx

Z
du 5
Z

dx
(x 2 + 4x + 13)3/2
dx

(x 2 + 4x + 13)3/2
Z
1
dx

5
x 2 + 4x + 13
(x 2 + 4x + 13)3/2

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 10; Alternate Approach, Continued

Now use the trig substitution x + 2 = 3 tan on
integral:
Z
x 3
1

dx
=

x 2 + 4x + 13
(x 2 + 4x + 13)3/2
1
=
x 2 + 4x + 13
1
=
x 2 + 4x + 13
1
=
x 2 + 4x + 13
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

the remaining
Z
5

dx

Z
3 sec2 d
5
(9 tan2 + 9)3/2
Z
5

cos d
9
5
sin + C
9

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

l
l
l

x +2

From the triangle,

l
x 2 + 4x + 13
l
l
l
l
l
l
ll

sin =

x +2
.
x 2 + 4x + 13

So, as before,

x 3
(x 2 + 4x + 13)3/2

dx =

1
5
x +2

+C
x 2 + 4x + 13 9 x 2 + 4x + 13

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Rational Functions
This section is about how to integrate a rational function.
I If p(x) and q(x) are polynomials, then
p(x)
q(x)
I

is called a rational function.

If the degree of p(x) is greater than or equal to the degree of
q(x), then long division will result in a polynomial plus a
rational expression in which the highest degree is in the
denominator.
The method of partial fractions applies to rational functions in
which the highest degree is in the denominator.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1

x 2 + 6x 5
dx
x +7

Z 
=
=

2
x 1+
x +7


dx, by long division

1 2
x x + 2 ln |x + 7| + C
2

For all remaining examples in this section, the rational function to

be integrated will have the highest power in the denominator, so
that no long division will be necessary. But the rational functions
to be integrated will be much more complicated than this example,
so that some new techniques will have to be developed.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2; The Idea Behind Method of Partial Fractions

Since
2
3
x 1
3x 3 + x 2

+
=
,
x + 1 (x + 1)2 x 2 + 1
(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)
as you can check,
Z
Z
Z
Z
3x 3 + x 2
2
3
x 1
dx
=
dx
dx.
dx+
(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)
x +1
(x + 1)2
x2 + 1
To integrate the left side, we will integrate the right side term by
term.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2: Commentary
2
3
x 1

+
x + 1 (x + 1)2 x 2 + 1
are called the partial fractions of
3x 3 + x 2
.
(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)
To integrate
3x 3 + x 2
(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)
we integrate the partial fractions, each of which is easier than the
original expression.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2; Concluded
3x 3 + x 2
dx
(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)
Z
Z
Z
3
2
x 1
=
dx
dx
+
dx
x +1
(x + 1)2
x2 + 1
Z
Z
Z
Z
2
3
x
1
=
dx
dx
+
dx

dx
x +1
(x + 1)2
x2 + 1
x2 + 1
3
1
= 2 ln |x + 1| +
+ ln(x 2 + 1) tan1 x + C
x +1 2
This example also exhibits all possible terms in the answer for the
integral of a rational function: rational expressions, logarithms, and
inverse tangents.
Z

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

How to Find Partial Fractions of p(x)/q(x)

First you must factor the denominator, q(x).
1. For every linear factor ax + b which is repeated m times, the
partial fraction decomposition includes
A1
A2
Am
+
+

+
,
ax + b (ax + b)2
(ax + b)m
for constants A1 , A2 , . . . , Am , which need to be determined.
2. For every irreducible quadratic factor ax 2 + bx + c which is
repeated m times, the partial fraction decomposition includes
A1 x + B1
A2 x + B2
Am x + Bm
+
+

+
,
ax 2 + bx + c
(ax 2 + bx + c)2
(ax 2 + bx + c)m
for constants A1 , B1 , A2 , B2 , . . . , Am , Bm , to be determined.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2 Revisited: Finding The Partial Fractions

The factors of the denominator were given: x + 1 is a linear factor,
repeated twice; x 2 + 1 is an irreducible factor. Thus we need to
find constants A, B, C and D such that

=
=
=

3x 3 + x 2
(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)
B
A
Cx + D
+
+
x + 1 (x + 1)2
x2 + 1
A(x + 1)(x 2 + 1) + B(x 2 + 1) + (Cx + D)(x + 1)2
(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)
(A+C )x 3 +(A+B+2C +D)x 2 +(A+C +2D)x+A+B+D
(x+1)2 (x 2 +1)
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

An Application of Linear Algebra

Since the denominators of two equal fractions are the same, the
numerators must be equal. Comparing coefficients, we obtain the
system of 4 equations in 4 unknowns:

A
+ C
=
3

A + B + 2C + D =
0
A
+ C + 2D =
1

A + B
+ D = 2
Solve this system any way you like! By subtracting the third from
the first equation, you obtain 2D = 2 D = 1. By subtracting
the fourth from the second equation, you obtain 2C = 2 C = 1.
Then A = 2, and B = 3 quickly follow.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2; the Last Word

We have A = 2, B = 3, C = 1, D = 1, so that
3x 3 + x 2
(x + 1)2 (x 2 + 1)

=
=

A
B
Cx + D
+
+
x + 1 (x + 1)2
x2 + 1
2
3
x 1

,
+
x + 1 (x + 1)2 x 2 + 1

which are precisely the partial fractions we started with, in

Example 2. Other examples follow. Note: needless to say, the
method of partial fractions involves lots and lots of algebra. That
may be why it is not very popular!
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Z
Example 3:

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

2x + 1
dx
x 2 + 3x + 2

x 2 + 3x + 2 = (x + 2)(x + 1). So let

2x + 1
x 2 + 3x + 2

A(x + 1) + B(x + 2)
A
B
=
+
(x + 2)(x + 1)
x +2 x +1

2x + 1 = (A + B)x + A + 2B


A + B = 2
A = 3 and B = 1, and so
A + 2B = 1
Z
Z
Z
3
1
2x + 1
=
dx
dx = 3 ln |x+2|ln |x+1|+C
dx
x +2
x +1
x 2 + 3x + 2
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Z
Example 4:

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

6x 2 + 5x 3
dx
3
x x

x 3 x = x(x 2 1) = x(x 1)(x + 1). So let

6x 2 + 5x 3
x3 x

=
=

6x 2 + 5x 3

A
B
C
+
+
x
x 1 x +1
A(x 2 1) + Bx(x + 1) + Cx(x 1)
x(x 1)(x + 1)

= (A + B + C )x 2 + (B C )x A

A + B + C
B C

=
6
=
5
= 3

Chapter 7: Principles of Integral Evaluation

(A, B, C ) = (3, 4, 1)

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 4, Continued
Thus

6x 2 + 5x 3
3
4
1
=
+

;
x3 x
x
x 1 x +1

and so
Z
6x 2 + 5x 3
dx
x3 x

Z
Z
3
4
1
=
dx +
dx
dx
x
x 1
x +1
= 3 ln |x| + 4 ln |x 1| ln |x + 1| + C

Z
Example 5:

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

2x 2 4x + 3
dx
3
2
x x

x 3 x 2 = x 2 (x 1). So let
2x 2 4x + 3
x3 x2

A
B
C
+ 2+
x
x
x 1
Ax(x 1) + B(x 1) + Cx 2
x 2 (x 1)

=
=

2x 2 4x + 3

A
+ C
A + B

(A + C )x 2 + (A + B)x B
=
2
= 4
=
3

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 5, Continued
Thus

1
3
1
2x 2 4x + 3

;
=
+
x
x2 x 1
x3 x2

and so
Z
2x 2 4x + 3
dx
x3 x2

Z
Z
1
3
1
dx
dx
=
dx
+
x
x2
x 1
3
= ln |x| + + ln |x 1| + C
x

Z
Example 6:

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

6x 2 + 29x + 36
dx
3
2
x + 6x + 9x

x 3 + 6x 2 + 9x = x(x 2 + 6x + 9) = x(x + 3)2 . So let

6x 2 + 29x + 36
x 3 + 6x 2 + 9x

=
=

6x 2 + 29x + 36

A
B
C
+
+
x
x + 3 (x + 3)2
A(x + 3)2 + Bx(x + 3) + Cx
x(x + 3)2
(A + B)x 2 + (6A + 3B + C )x + 9A

By inspection, you can see that

A = 4, B = 2, and C = 1.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 6, Continued
Thus

6x 2 + 29x + 36
4
2
1
=
+

;
x 3 + 6x 2 + 9x
x
x + 3 (x + 3)2

and so
Z
6x 2 + 29x + 36
dx
x 3 + 6x 2 + 9x

Z
=
=

4
dx +
x

2
dx
x +3

4 ln |x| + 2 ln |x + 3| +

1
dx
(x + 3)2

1
+C
x +3

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

Z
Example 7:

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

6x 2 x + 5
dx
3
x +x

x 3 + x = x(x 2 + 1). x 2 + 1 is an irreducible quadratic; so let

6x 2 x + 5
x3 + x

=
=

6x 2 x + 5

A Bx + C
+ 2
x
x +1
2
A(x + 1) + (Bx + C )x
x(x 2 + 1)
(A + B)x 2 + Cx + A

By inspection, you can see that

A = 5, B = 1, and C = 1.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7, Continued
Thus

6x 2 x + 5
5
x 1
=
+
;
x3 + x
x
x2 + 1

and so
Z
6x 2 x + 5
dx
x3 + x

Z
5
x 1
=
dx +
dx
x
x2 + 1
Z
Z
Z
5
x
1
=
dx +
dx
dx
2
2
x
x +1
x +1
1
= 5 ln |x| + ln(x 2 + 1) tan1 x + C
2
Z

Z
Example 8:

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

x 3 + 6x 2 + x
dx
4
x 1

x 4 1 = (x 2 1)(x 2 + 1) = (x 1)(x + 1)(x 2 + 1).

Then

A
B
Cx + D
x 3 + 6x 2 + x
=
+
+
x 1 x +1
x2 + 1
x4 1
A(x + 1)(x 2 + 1) + B(x 1)(x 2 + 1) + (Cx + D)(x 2 1)
(x 1)(x + 1)(x 2 + 1)

x 3 + 6x 2 + x
=

(A + B + C )x 3 + (A B + D)x 2 + (A + B C )x + A B D
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 8, Continued
We must

A +

A
A +

B + C
B
B C
B

=
+ D =
=
D =

1
6
1
0

x 3 + 6x 2 + x
2
1
3
=

+
.
x4 1
x 1 x + 1 x2 + 1

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 8, Conclusion

Finallly,
Z 3
x + 6x 2 + x
dx
x4 1

Z
Z
2
1
3
=
dx
dx +
dx
x 1
x +1
x2 + 1
= 2 ln |x 1| ln |x + 1| + 3 tan1 x + C

Z
Example 9:

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

2x 3 + 7x 2 x + 13
dx
4
2
x + 5x + 4

x 4 + 5x 2 + 4 = (x 2 + 4)(x 2 + 1), which are both irreducible

quadratic factors. So let
2x 3 + 7x 2 x + 13
x 4 + 5x 2 + 4

=
=

Ax + B
Cx + D
+
x2 + 4
x2 + 1
(Ax + B)(x 2 + 1) + (Cx + D)(x 2 + 4)
(x 2 + 4)(x 2 + 1)

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 9, Continued
We must solve the system of 4

A
+ C

B
+ D
A
+ 4C

B
+ 4D

equations in 4 unknowns:
=
2
=
7
= 1
= 13

as you may check. Thus

2x 3 + 7x 2 x + 13
3x + 5
2x
=
+
.
x 4 + 5x 2 + 4
x2 + 4 x2 + 1

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 9, Concluded
Finally,
Z

2x 3 + 7x 2 x + 13
dx
x 4 + 5x 2 + 4
Z
Z
3x + 5
2x
=
dx
+
dx
x2 + 4
x2 + 1
Z
Z
Z
Z
3x
5
2
x
=
dx
+
dx
+
dx

dx
x2 + 4
x2 + 4
x2 + 1
x2 + 1
 
3
5
1
2
1 x
=
ln(x + 4) + tan
+ 2 tan1 x ln(x 2 + 1) + C
2
2
2
2

Z
Example 10:

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

3x 4 + x 3 + 4x 2 + 1
dx
2
2
x(x + 1)

Since the denominator has already been factored, let

3x 4 + x 3 + 4x 2 + 1
x(x 2 + 1)2

=
=

A Bx + C
Dx + E
+ 2
+ 2
x
x +1
(x + 1)2
A(x 2 + 1)2 + (Bx + C )(x 3 + x) + Dx 2 + Ex
x(x 2 + 1)2

3x 4 +x 3 +4x 2 +1 = (A+B)x 4 +Cx 3 +(2A+B+D)x 2 +(C +E )x+A,

from which we see A = 1, C = 1, B = 2, D = 0, and E = 1.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 10, Continued (using Example 6, from Sec 7.4)

Thus
3x 4 + x 3 + 4x 2 + 1
dx
x(x 2 + 1)2
Z
Z
Z
1
2x + 1
1
=
dx +
dx

dx
x
x2 + 1
(x 2 + 1)2
Z
Z
Z
Z
1
2x
1
1
=
dx +
dx
+
dx

dx
x
x2 + 1
x2 + 1
(x 2 + 1)2
1
1 x
= ln |x| + ln(x 2 + 1) + tan1 x tan1 x
+C
2
2 x2 + 1
1
1 x
= ln |x| + ln(x 2 + 1) + tan1 x
+C
2
2 x2 + 1
Z

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Integral Tables
In the inside covers of the textbook there is a table of integrals
that lists 122 integral formulas. Using the methods of Chapter 7
we could prove all of these 122 formulas. In practice, if you are a
working scientist and you need an integral, you would probably
consult a table of integrals, or some mathematical software like
Maple or Mathematica. If you consult an integral table to solve an
integral, you will often first have to do some manipulation, or make
a substitution, before you can use the integral formula. An
example follows. By the way, there are tables of integrals that are
much longer than the 122 formulas listed in our book!
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1
Formula 81 inside the back cover of our textbook says
Z
u2
a2 1 u u p 2

du =
sin

a u2 + C .
2
2
2
a
2
a u
To apply this formula to
Z
x2

dx,
25 16x 2
you have to first make a substitution, namely u = 4x, so that
du = 4dx. Then
2
Z
Z
1
u
x2
1

4
dx =
du
4
25 16x 2
25 u 2
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

So
Z

x2

dx
25 16x 2

=
=
=
=

2
Z
1
u
1
4
du
4
25 u 2
Z
u2
1

du
64
52 u 2


1 25 1 u u p
sin

25 u 2 + C
64 2
5 2
4x
25
x p
sin1

25 16x 2 + C
128
5
32

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 1 with Maple

Maple is a very powerful computer algebra system, which can
basically do all calculus:
> integrate(x 2 /sqrt(25 16 x 2 ), x);
1
25
x sqrt(25 16x 2 ) +
arcsin
32
128

4
x
5

Note: no constant of integration. Other commonly used computer

algebra systems are Matlab and Mathematica. These packages use
the same methods we have covered, plus many other substitutions
that we have not explicitly stated. See the next few slides.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 2
Z

x
dx
1+ 3x

=
=
=
=
=

u6

6u 5 du, if x = u 6
3
1 + u6
Z
Z
u3
u8
5
6u
du
=
6
du
1 + u2
1 + u2

Z 
1
6
u6 u4 + u2 1 +
du
1 + u2
6u 7 6u 5

+ 2u 3 6u + 6 tan1 u + C
7
5
6x 7/6 6x 5/6

7
5
Z

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

The Substitution u = tan(x/2)

This is sometimes referred to as the worlds sneakiest substitution.
Check that:
l
x 
x 
2u
l
sin x = 2 sin
cos
=
l
2
2
1 + u2
l

l
2
u
l 1+u
 
 
1 u2
l
2 x
2 x
cos x = cos
sin
=
l
2
2
1 + u2
l
l

2du
1 + u2
1
It can be used to transform integrands which are rational functions
of sin x and cos x.
l
x/2
l

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

x = 2 tan1 u dx =

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 3

dx
1 sin x + cos x
2du
1+u 2

Z
=
1

2u
1+u 2

1u 2
1+u 2

 , with u = tan(x/2)

du
= ln |1 u| + C
1u
= ln |1 tan(x/2)| + C
=

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 4: Example 12 from Section 7.3


Z

sin x
dx
cos x sin x

Z
=

1u 2
1+u 2

2u
1+u 2

2u
1+u 2

2du
1 + u2

4u
du
(u 2 + 2u 1)(1 + u 2 )
1
1
(partial fractions) =
ln(u 2 + 1) ln |u 2 + 2u 1| tan1 u + C
2
2

1


x
x 1 2 x
x

u = tan
= ln sec ln tan
+ 2 tan 1 x + C
2
2
2
2
2
2
=

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Rb
a

f (x) dx

An improper integral is a definite integral in which one of two

things occurs:
1. the integrand, f (x), has an infinite discontinuity at some
point in the interval [a, b].
2. one, or both, of the limits of integration, a or b, are infinite.
In either case, an improper integral is evaluated by calculating a
limit of a proper definite integral. If the limit exists, the improper
integral exists, or converges, or is finite. If the limit doesnt exist,
then the improper integral doesnt exist, or diverges, or is infinite.
Some examples follow.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Example 1:

R1

1
0
x

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

dx; Vertical Asymptote at x = 0

Z

1
dx
x
0
Z 1
1
dx
= lim+
x
a0
a
 1
= lim+ 2 x a
a0

= lim+ 2 2 a
a0

= 20
= 2
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Example 2:

R1

1
0 x

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

1

Z
0

1
dx
x
Z 1

lim+

a0

1
dx
x

lim+ [ln x]1a

a0

lim (ln 1 ln a)

a0+

= 0 ()
=
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Example 3:

R
1

1
x

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z

=
=
=

1
dx
x
Z b

lim

b 1

lim [ln x]b1

lim (ln b ln 1)

= 0
=
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

1
dx
x

Example 4:

R
1

1
x2

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

dx; Infinite Limit of Integration

Z

1
dx
x2
1
Z b
1
lim
dx
b 1 x 2


1 b
lim
b
x 1


1 1
lim +
b
b 1
0+1

=
=
=
=

= 1
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Example 5:

R
0

1
1+x 2

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

dx; Infinite Limit of Integration

Z

1
dx
1 + x2
0
Z b
1
= lim
dx
b 0 1 + x 2

b
= lim tan1 x 0
b

=
=
=
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

0
2

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

Example 6:

R0

1
1+x 2

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

dx

This is the mirror image of the previous integral, that is, the
reflection of the previous one in the y -axis. It is calculated as
follows:
Z 0
Z 0
1
1
dx
=
lim
dx
2
a a 1 + x 2
1 + x

0
=
lim tan1 x a
a

=
lim tan1 0 tan1 a
a
 
= 0
2

=
2
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

(x) dx

Z
Z 0
Z
f (x) dx =
f (x) dx +
f (x) dx

Z
=

lim

a a

Z
f (x) dx + lim

b 0

Z 0
Z
f (x) dx and

f (x) dx

f (x) dx

must exist independently of each other for

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

f (x) dx

to exist.

Example 7:
Z

1
1+x 2

1
dx
1 + x2

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

dx
Z

=
=

1
dx +
1 + x2

Z
0

1
dx
1 + x2

+ , by previous examples
2
2

Note: sometimes a change of variable will transform an improper

integral to a proper integral:
Z
Z /2
Z /2
1
1

2
dx
=

sec

d
=
d
=
1 + x2
1 + tan2
2
0
0
0
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Escape Velocity
Suppose an object of mass M2 is fired with speed v off a planet
with mass M1 and radius R. What is the objects escape velocity?
the speed needed to become free of the planets gravity?
Z
1
GM1 M2
2
M2 v
=
dr
2
r2
R


GM1 M2
GM1 M2
=

=
r
R
R
r
1
GM1
2GM1
v2 =
v =
2
R
R
For the earth, this works out to be 11.2 km/sec. (This is also the
speed with which an asteroid would hit the earth.)
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

The Gamma Function

The Gamma function is an example of whats called a special
function. For t > 0, define
Z
(t) =
x t1 e x dx.
0

For example,
Z
(1)

Z
dx = lim

b 0

e x dx


b
lim e x 0 = 0 (1) = 1

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Significance of the Gamma Function: (n + 1) = n!

To see this, we prove the recursion formula (n + 1) = n(n) :
Z
x n e x dx
(n + 1) =
0
Z

= [uv ]0
v du, with u = x n , dv = e x dx
 n  0 Z
x
= x
+n
x n1 e x dx
e 0
0
n
x
= lim x + 0 + n (n)
x e
= 0 + n (n)
=

n (n)
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Thus
(1) = 1 = 0!
(2) = 1(1) = 1 = 1!
(3) = 2(2) = 2 1 = 2!
(4) = 3(3) = 3 2! = 3!
(5) = 4(4) = 4 3! = 4!
etc, etc.
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Graph of the Gamma Function

The definition of (t) can be extended to t < 0. (See your
complex analysis course!) The resulting graph is:

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Approximating Definite Integrals

We know that if F 0 = f on [a, b], then

f (x) dx = F (b) F (a).

a

However, there are at least two reasons why this approach may be
impractical.
1. For one thing, it may be extremely difficult it may be
impossible to find the antiderivative of f (x). For example, it
2
is known that none of these functions e x , cos(cos x), or
(1 + x 2 )2/3 has an elementary antiderivative in terms of x.
2. Secondly, even if you know FZ, it may not be easy to evaluate
5
1
dx = ln 5; but what is ln 5?
F (a) or F (b). For example,
1 x
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Z
The Trapezoid Rule: To Approximate

f (x) dx
a

Use a regular partition of [a, b] into n subintervals; x =

a
r

x0

x1

xi1

r``
`r
#
#
r#

Ai Ai+1

xi1

xi

xi+1

xi

xn1

ba
:
n
b
r

xn

Z b
1
Ai = (f (xi1 ) + f (xi )) x; so A =
f (x) dx
2
a
n
n
X
X
1
'
(f (xi1 ) + f (xi )) x
Ai =
2
i=1
i=1
x
=
(f (x0 ) + 2f (x1 ) + + 2f (xn1 ) + f (xn )) = Tn
2
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

Chapter 7: Principles of Integral Evaluation

Z
Example 1: Approximate
1

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

1
dx with n = 4; yi = f (xi ).
x

f (x) =
T4 =
=
=

Chapter 7: Principles of Integral Evaluation

Z
Example 2: Approximate
1

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

1
51
; n = 4; x =
=1
x
4
1
(y0 + 2y1 + 2y2 + 2y3 + y4 )
2

1 1 2 2 2 1
+ + + +
2 1 2 3 4 5
101
' 1.683333 . . .
60

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

1
dx with n = 8
x
1
51
; n = 8; x =
= 0.5
x
8

1 1
2
2
2
=
+
+ +
+
4 1 1.5 2 2.5

2
2
2
2
1
+
+ +
+
3 3.5 4 4.5 5
' 1.628968254 . . .

f (x) =
T8

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 3: Approximate


x 2
4

1+

f (x) =
1+

dx with n = 2

 ; n = 2; x =
x 2
4

40
=2
2

2
(f (0) + 2f (2) + f (4))
2
2
1
= 1+
+
1 + (0.5)2 1 + 12
= 3.1

T2 =

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 4: Approximate
0

1+


x 2
4
1

f (x) =
1+

dx; n = 4; yi = f (xi )

 ; n = 4; x =
x 2
4

40
=1
4

1
(y0 + 2y1 + 2y2 + 2y3 + y4 )
2
1
2
2
=
1+
+
2
1 + (0.25)2 1 + (0.5)2

2
1
+
+
1 + (0.75)2 1 + 12
' 3.131176471 . . .

T4 =

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Simpsons Rule. Let yi = f (xi ). Let n be even.

Let (xi1 , yi1 ), (xi , yi ) and (xi+1 , yi+1 ) be three consecutive data
points;
and qi (x) theZ quadratic function that passes through them.
Z xi+1
xi+1
x
(yi1 + 4yi + yi+1 ).
Let
f (x)dx '
qi (x) dx = Ai =
3
xi1
xi1
Z
f (x) q (x)
r i

'

f (x) dx
a

=
r

xi

A2i1 = A1 + A3 + + An1

i=1

xi1

n/2
X

x
(y0 + 4y1 + 2y2 + 4y3 +
3
+ + 2yn2 + 4yn1 + yn )

= Sn

xi+1

Chapter 7: Principles of Integral Evaluation

Z
Example 5: Approximate
1

MAT187H1S Lec0102 Burbulla

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

1
dx with n = 4; yi = f (xi )
x

f (x) =
S4 =
=
=

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

1
51
; n = 4; x =
=1
x
4
1
(y0 + 4y1 + 2y2 + 4y3 + y4 )
3

1 1 4 2 4 1
+ + + +
3 1 2 3 4 5
73
' 1.6222222 . . .
45

Chapter 7: Principles of Integral Evaluation

Z
Example 6: Approximate
1

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

1
dx with n = 8
x
51
1
= 0.5
; n = 8; x =
8
x

1 1
4
2
4
=
+
+ +
+
6 1 1.5 2 2.5

2
4
2
4
1
+
+ +
+
3 3.5 4 4.5 5
' 1.610846561 . . .

f (x) =
S8

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Example 7: Approximate
0

1+


x 2
4
1

f (x) =
1+

dx; n = 4; yi = f (xi )

 ; n = 4; x =
x 2
4

40
=1
4

1
(y0 + 4y1 + 2y2 + 4y3 + y4 )
3
1
4
2
=
1+
+
3
1 + (0.25)2 1 + (0.5)2

4
1
+
+
1 + (0.75)2 1 + 12
' 3.141592502 . . .

S4 =

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

10

Example 8: Approximate

0

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

10

Example 9: Approximate

0

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

10

0

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

Chapter 7: Principles of Integral Evaluation

Z
Example 11: Approximate

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

10

0

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

Error Estimates
The accuracy of Trapezoid or Simpsons Rule approximations can
be calculated with the help of the following error estimates:
1.

M2 (b a)3
f (x) dx Tn
12n2

M4 (b a)5
f (x) dx Sn
180n4

2.

where Mk is the maximum of the absolute value of the kth

derivative of f on the interval [a, b].
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.8
7.7

Chapter 7: Principles of Integral Evaluation

Z
Example 12: Approximating

An Overview of Integration Methods

Integration by Parts
Integrating Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Substitutions
Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions
Using Computer Algebra Systems and Tables of Integrals
Improper Integrals
Numerical Integration; Simpsons Rule

f (x) dx; a = 1; b = 5
1

1
2
6
24
1 0
; f (x) = 2 ; f 00 (x) = 3 ; f (3) (x) = 4 ; f (4) = 5 .
x
x
x
x
Z 5 x

2(5 1)3
32
f (x) dx Tn
=
1. M2 = 2
12n2
3n2
1
Z 5

24(5 1)5
2048

2. M4 = 24
f (x) dx Sn
=
180n4
15n4
1
Z 5

32
If n = 8 then
= 0.16666666 . . ., and
f (x) dx Tn
2
3

8
1
Z 5

2048

f
(x)
dx

S
= 0.03333333 . . .
n

15 84
1
f (x) =