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Greeley, Colorado
The Graduate School



A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Arts

Edward Roy Orgill

College of Performing and Visual Arts

School of Music
May, 2008

UMI Number: 3318427


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&L-M~^ OLyi^___
Andrew Dahlke, DMA
Research Advisor

Edward Roy Orgill


Advisory Professor

Advisory Professor
Dana Landry MM
Faculty Representative

U J ? ^ ^
I Norman Pee
6 ^ PhD



Robbyn R. Walter, Ph.D.

Examination Date of Dissertation

Orgill, Edward R. Blue Hayes: An Analysis of the Performance Style of Jazz Saxophonist
Tubby Hayes. Published Doctor of Arts dissertation, University of Northern
Colorado, (2008)
This project is a descriptive analysis of the Jazz Saxophone performance style of
mid 20th century British jazz saxophonist Tubby (Edward Brian) Hayes (1935 - 1973).
Hayes represents the finest of European jazz saxophonists during the late 1950s and
1960s. He was the first British jazz saxophonist with ability equal to his American
contemporaries, and he helped lay the foundation on which the strength of jazz in Europe
during the latter part of the 20 century was built. This analysis focuses on the
performance of Tubby Hayes during two consecutive 1961 recording sessions that took
place in New York City during his first trip to the United States. At this time, Hayes was
in top form as a jazz saxophonist, and performing with an American rhythm section more
accustomed to accompanying virtuosic saxophonists than rhythm sections found in the
United Kingdom. Hayes's brilliant performance, strong contributions from trumpeter
Clark Terry, pianist Horace Parian, bassist George Duvivier, drummer Dave Bailey and
vibraphonist Eddie Costa as well as excellent production quality resulted in an album that
is one of the strongest jazz recordings from the period, Tubbs in New York, re-released in
1990 under the new title Tubby Hayes with Clark Terry: The New York Sessions. This
analysis is based on and includes complete transcriptions of four contrasting tracks, "You
for Me," "Airegin," "Pint of Bitter" and "Soon."


I would like to thank a number of people without whom this project would not
have been possible. First, I would like to thank my advisor Dr. Andrew Dahlke and the
members of my doctoral committee, Dr. Robert Ehle, Professor Dana Landry, and Dr.
Norman Peercy for their service throughout the processes of my exams and writing this
dissertation. Second, I would like to thank Mr. Jim Argiro for his consultation. On a
more personal note, I would like to thank Dr. Tom and Ruth Lawson for their
encouragement, their fresh perspective, and for being such great people, with particular
thanks to Ruth for her editorial assistance. I would also like to thank Irene Mae Orgill for
her love and support, for those first saxophone lessons, and for running down to the
music store to rent a tenor saxophone for me to play 30 years ago. It probably took
longer, but I seem to remember the instrument showing up the day after I asked if I could
play it in the school band. I felt so cool that day. Darold J Orgill is a rock to stand on.
Thank you for that. Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Dr. Sonya Ruth Lawson
particularly for her patience with me, but also for her love, support and assistance with
this project.









Sound: Tone Quality and Texture
Form and Growth



Suggestions for Further Study


A. Transcription of Airegin
B. Transcription of You for Me
C. Transcription of Soon
D. Transcription of Pint of Bitter







Example 1: 1st improvised chorus, B section, measures 2-8,
from "Airegin" (1961)


Example 2: 2nd improvised chorus, B section, measures 3-7,

from "Airegin" (1961)


Example 3: 4 th improvised chorus, B section, measures 4-7,

from "Airegin" (1961)


Example 4: 1st chorus trading fours, B section, measures 1-5,

from "Airegin" (1961)


Example 5: 1st improvised chorus, B section, measure 3,

from "Airegin" (1961)


Example 6: 1st improvised chorus, B section, measure 3,

from "Airegin" (1961)


Example 7: 2 nd improvised chorus, measures 22-26,

from "You for Me" (1961)


Example 8: 2 nd improvised chorus, B section, measure 6,

from "Airegin" (1961)


Example 9: 1st improvised chorus, B section, measure 2,

from "Airegin" (1961)


Example 10:1 st improvised chorus, B section, measures 4-8,

from "Airegin" (1961)


Example 11: introduction, measures 1-8,

from "You for Me" (1961)


Example 12, first improvised chorus, measures 6-8,

from "Pint of Bitter" (1961)



Example 13, fifth and sixth improvised chorus, measures 32,

and 1-6, from "Soon" (1961)
Example 14, fifth improvised chorus, measures 23-32,
from "Airegin"


Example 15, first improvised chorus, solo break and measures 1-8,
from "Soon" (1961)


Example 16, fifth improvised chorus, measures 23-32,

from "Airegin" (1961)


Example 17,2 improvised chorus, measures 70-75,

from "Airegin" (1961)


Example 18, 1st improvised chorus, solo break and measure 1,

from "You for Me" (1961)


Example 19, 1st improvised chorus, measures 1 and 2,

from "Pint of Bitter" (1961)


Example 20, 3 rd improvised chorus, measures 1-5,

from "You for Me" (1961)


Example 21, improvised chorus, B section, measures 1-5,

from "Pint of Bitter" (1961)


Example 22, Solo break and measure 1, from melody choru

and 1st improvised chorus o f Soon" (1961)





This dissertation provides an analysis of the saxophone performing style of the

mid-twentieth century British jazz saxophone sensation Tubby Hayes during a landmark
1961 recording session in New York City that resulted in the album Tubbs in New York,
re-released in 1990 under the new title Tubby Hayes with Clark Terry: The New York
Sessions. The analysis is based on four complete transcriptions appearing in the
appendices, "You for Me," "Airegin," "Pint of Bitter" and "Soon". Hayes' performance
on this album provides an excellent specimen for transcription and analysis which will
add to the growing body of jazz scholarship based on transcription and analysis
documenting the contribution to jazz style made by Europe's finest tenor saxophonist of
his time.
Jazz music began to spread to Europe from the United States early in its history
when musicians such as Sydney Bechet (1897-1959) and James Reese Europe (1880 1919) began a parade of countless American jazz masters across the Atlantic that
continues to this day. This eastward spread of jazz has inspired some significant
contributions to jazz style by European performers; Django Reinhardt and Stephane
Grappelli were among the earliest high-profile examples of this phenomenon and their
style is still studied and practiced worldwide, reminding us that the European jazz
tradition has been alive and well for over half a century.

Although it has not been widely noted in the United States, jazz has had and
continues to have tremendous influence in the United Kingdom where one can easily find
live jazz performances in any of its major cities. This should come as no surprise, since
the most commercially successful era in jazz history, the big band era reached a peak in
the years leading up to and during World War II. British big bands such as the one lead
by Bert Ambrose were established in the U.K. by the 1930s,1 and jazz music received a
tremendous boost during the war. Jazz was a large part of the popular culture brought to
the U.K. when a steady build up of troop strength resulted in roughly one million
American soldiers stationed in the United Kingdom by D-day 1944.2
One could argue that the dance bands of the 1940s did not represent the most
progressive branch ofjazz at the time; the beboppers held that distinction during the war
years, and they were in New York. However, bebop improvisational techniques spread to
the progressive soloists in many of the big bands by the end of that decade, and jazz
music was on the airwaves.3 Bebop's influence was felt across the Atlantic.4
While an analysis of the myriad sources of inspiration for British jazz musicians
is not within the scope of this project, it is clear that the elite group of people that
represent the best in the world of jazz includes a strong albeit comparatively small
contingent from the United Kingdom. Marian McPartland, host of National Public
Radio's longest running show, Marian McPartland's Piano Jazz is an excellent example,
particularly with regard to her ongoing contribution to jazz history as an educator,

Leonard Feather and Ira Gitler. "Ambrose Bert," in The Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz. (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1999), 16.
Sonya O. Rose. Peoples War: Ntional Identity and Citizenship in Britain 1939-45. (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2003), 75.
Alyn Shipton. A New History of Jazz. (London: Continuum, 2001), 562.
Simon Spillett. Liner notes from Tubby Hays: The Little Giant. Proper Records Ltd. PROPERBOX 117


performer and "spokesperson for jazz in the media." McPartland moved to the United
States in 1946 at the age of twenty-six after her marriage to Chicago jazz musician
Jimmy McPartland, whom she met during the war while playing for troops in Belgium.6
Although an American now, Marian McPartland grew up in the United Kingdom. This
included her formal education, and the first part of her professional career. When she
moved to the United States, she made the transition with apparent ease and was
performing as a professional jazz musician with her husband's quintet shortly after her
arrival. Her career has been impressive since then and has continued to this day.7
Another well-known British pianist who moved to the United States is George
Shearing, who emigrated from London in 1937. More recently British bass player and
Miles Davis band alumnus Dave Holland has led two New York-based ensembles, The
Dave Holland Band and the Dave Holland Big Band that are among the most progressive
and skilled jazz groups performing today. Other current British jazz performers of note
include Victor Feldman, John Taylor, John McLaughlin, and Courtney Pine.
A closer look at the middle of the last century reveals other notable jazz musicians
from the United Kingdom such as tenor saxophonist and founder of London's most
famous Jazz club, Ronnie Scott, and Jamaican born trumpeter Dizzy Reece, who spent a
number of years developing his musicianship in London prior to moving to New York.
Another mid-century musician from England, who came be to known as "the
foremost European jazz artist of his generation,"9 was London war child Tubby (Edward

Leonard Feather and Ira Gitler. "McPartland, Marion," in The Biographical Encyclopedia ofJazz. (New
York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 456.
Ibid., 465.
Ibid., 597.
Benny Green and Tony Higgins. Liner notesfromTubbs. London: Mercury Records, 2005.

Brian) Hayes (b. London, 1935 - d. London, 1973), a saxophonist who enjoyed a colorful
career as a performer, band leader, composer, and recording artist in Europe, and the
United States. Hayes was a remarkable musician, and the first world-class European jazz
saxophonist. Primarily a tenor saxophonist who doubled on flute and vibraphone, Hayes
contributed a large body of recordings to the world ofjazz both at home and abroad,
nearly all of which have received critical acclaim. Britain's Melody Maker magazine jazz
polls voted him Britain's top tenor saxophonist six times from 1959-1964 and added the
honor of naming him Britain's musician of the year in 1962,1963, and 1964. America's
Downbeat magazine called him a "talent deserving of wider recognition."10
In the United Kingdom, Hayes has received plenty of attention both during his
career, and since his death, achieving legendary status. But Downbeat was correct in
regard to his popularity in the United States where he has remained relatively unknown;
despite the fact that his skill as a musician was at par with the best in the United States.
In 1961 Hayes was signed with the British record label Fontana,11 a company with
broader distribution which allowed for his recordings to be issued in the United States for
the first time. He traveled to the U.S. that same year in an exchange promoted by Ronnie

Scott that also brought American Jazz saxophonist Zoot Sims to London.

This was the

first of several tours to the United States Hayes made during his short life. He played an
engagement at the Half Note and became the first British jazz soloist to be in residence at
a New York City jazz club.
Barbara Schwarz, Tubby Hayes: A Discography. (Zurich & London: Black Press, 1990), 93-97.
" Higgins.
Les Tomkins, "The Tubby Hayes Story: Les Tomkins' 1963 Survey of a Notable Tenorman's Career,"
Crescendo International, February, 1989: 22
Simon Spillett, The Long Shadow of the Little Giant [Webpage] Accessed July 29, 2007. Available from

Hayes also made his first recording in the United States on that trip. The album,
originally titled Tubbs in New York, did not make a big splash in the United States, where
Hayes was not particularly well known, and there was no shortage of fine American tenor
saxophonists. However, the fact that the album was recorded at all is revealing. Despite
presence on the American jazz scene of so many great jazz saxophonists such as John
Coltrane, Sonny Rollins, Hank Mobley, Stan Getz, Sonny Stitt, Dexter Gordon, Harold
Land, and others, Hayes had developed a good enough reputation from across the
Atlantic to get him a record date with New York jazz musicians.
Tubby Hayes did not disappoint. From the first cut, his virtuosity is obvious. His
improvised solo lines are delivered, often at blistering speeds, with a smooth sound and
clean technique. With the support of seasoned jazz musicians from New York who were
more experienced at accompanying virtuosic saxophonists than the European rhythm
sections he had recorded with in the United Kingdom, the result was arguably the
strongest overall recording of Hayes and certainly the finest recording from that period
featuring a British jazz saxophonist. Hayes' performance, and strong contributions from
trumpeter Clark Terry, bassist George Duvivier, drummer Dave Bailey, pianist Horace
Parian and Eddie Costa on vibraphone resulted in a recording that deserves a place
among the best of all jazz recordings from the period, referred to as Tubbs in New
York/The New York Session for the rest of this document

When compared to the volumes written confirming the contribution to jazz
music's history made by tenor saxophonists such as John Coltrane, Sonny Rollins, Stan
Getz and a number of other American saxophonists from the same period, the body of
work about Tubby Hayes is considerably smaller. In fact, Hayes' music was selected for
this project in part because it has yet to receive the kind of attention accorded his more
famous American counterparts. Hayes' contribution was significant nonetheless, and this
can be confirmed through examination of the information that is in print and on the
internet, the vast majority of which is biographical in nature with some discussion about
the overall quality of his work.
Although there has been mention about a future full-length biography,14 to date
there are no books dedicated solely to the subject of Tubby Hayes. There are, however,
Hayes related entries in a number of biographical dictionaries devoted to music, and he is
mentioned in various written accounts of jazz history. In these sources he is often named
in reference to Europe's greatest jazz saxophonists, or as an example in a discussion of
the strongest non-American jazz musicians of the nineteen sixties.15 There are also
references to his participation in a large number of movie sound tracks,16 which is
consistent with his work as a studio musician in London throughout his career.


Spillett, The Long Shadow.

Bill Kirchner, "Tubby Hayes," in The Oxford Companion to Jazz, (New York: Oxford University Press,
2000): 610.
Ibid., 717.

With regard to biographical dictionaries, there are entries for Tubby Hayes in The
New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. The Encyclopedia of Popular Music. The Penguin
Encyclopedia of Popular Music. The Biographical Dictionary of Jazz. and The
Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz. These books all outline his career in a similar
fashion, painting a virtuosic picture of Hayes in short but dense entries with phrases such
as "Hayes was world-class almost from the outset of his career.. .,"17 and "(Hayes is) the
best-known, best-loved British jazzman of his generation."
As one would expect from sources of this nature, all of the biographical entries
provide a list of the significant groups in which he played and provide a selected list of
important recordings and performances. Hayes is described as a player firmly established
in the bebop tradition. He was a prodigy, and by all accounts was an impressive player
early in life, playing professional engagements by the age of sixteen. He died rather
tragically on the operating table in 1973 during a second surgery to correct a faulty heart
valve discovered a few years earlier. From 1957-59 he co-led The Jazz Couriers,
England's most famous small jazz group of the late 1950s, with older tenor saxophonist
Ronnie Scott who would later open London's most famous jazz club.
A number of printed periodical articles written about Tubby Hayes are currently
available, including record reviews, a reprint of an article featuring an interview with
Hayes,19 and a tribute piece that features an interview with Hayes' former band mate Vic
Ash discussing Hayes life and career.


Record reviews are the most common. This is

Colin Larkin, The Encyclopedia of Popular Music: Vol III. (London: Muze, 1995)
Donald Clark, The Penguin Encyclopedia of Popular Music. (London: Viking, 1989): 529.
Les Tomkins, "The Tubby Hayes Story: Les Tomkins' 1963 Survey of a Notable Tenorman's Career,"
Crescendo International, February, 1989: 22.
Simon Spillett, "Celebrating Tubby: Vic Ash about Tubby Hayes," Jazz Journal International,
November, no. 55 (2002): 14-17.

due to the appearance of several reissued CDs following a recent upsurge in Hayes'
popularity. Like most record reviews, these contemporary reviews provide basic
biographical information and musical commentary.
The British publication Jazz Journal International has printed five such reviews
since November 2000. These articles tend to be fairly concise and sometimes review
more than one album at a time. This is the case with two of the Jazz Journal
International articles by Steve Voce. In the first, appearing in August 2001, he reviews
The Swinging Giant and The Eighth Wonder, two Jasmine Records re-releases.21 In the
second appearing January, 2006 Voce reviews the Harket Records release of On the Air
as well as the Fontana Records releases/ 00% Proof, Tubbs, Constanzo Plus Tubbs,
Return Visit, Tubbs Tours, Mexican Green, and Addictive Tendencies.

Voce provides

background on each album along with the usual commentary on Hayes' outstanding
The most interesting point in this article comes from commentary provided by
Voce. He hints at his displeasure associated with the domination of the jazz world by the
Americans when he comments to his mostly European audience that "The tenet should be
that a good musician is better than a mediocre one, not that an American is automatically
better than a European."23 Voce feels American jazz writers are biased.
In his review Voce also discusses The Eighth Wonder Tubby Hayes (1958), an
album that experiments with multi-tracking. Three tracks on this album feature Hayes
playing the overdubbed tracks on five different saxophone parts, vibes, and piano. While


Steve Voce, "Tubby Hayes, The Swinging Giant, The Eighth Wonder," Jazz Journal International
August, no.54:8. (2001): 29.
Steve Voce, "TubbyHayes," Jazz Journal International, August, no.59:l. (2006): 26-28.
Steve Voce, "Tubby Hayes," Jazz Journal International August, no.54:8. (2001): 29.

overdubbing is common practice in studios of today, it was a novel concept in 1958.
Voce feels that this practice ultimately leads to musical "compromise,"24and the album
quality suffers as a result.
Alun Morgan, also a Jazz Journal International review author, provides a
complimentary and detailed description of a re-issue of a slightly different sort. This
collection of live-recorded broadcasts from 1957 to 1972 titled Tubby Hayes: England's
Late Jazz Great (2005) was compiled and released by the International Association of
Jazz Record Collectors. Originally on LP, the organization's re-release on CD now
includes four additional tracks of live performances by the Jazz Couriers, England's best
and most progressive small jazz group of the late fifties co-led by Hayes and Ronnie
Scott also on tenor sax.25
Morgan's second article for JJI is as equally complimentary to Hayes as the first
and discusses Blue Hayes, the Tempo Records anthology of Hayes recordings from 195569.

Morgan notes that on this album, one can hear previously unreleased music by the

Tubby Hayes Big Band. These tracks were recorded live, in a less-than-ideal setting that
resulted in unfixable balance problems. Perhaps this is why the selections were left
unreleased in the first place.
The most interesting information in this review comes from a conversation about
which Morgan writes. According to Morgan, one of the producers for Tubby Hayes'
Fontana recordings claims that Hayes' best work for the Fontana label was never

Alun Morgan, "Tubby Hayes: England's Late Jazz Great," Jazz Journal International August, no.54:8
(2005): 28.
Alun Morgan, "Blue Hayes: The Tempo Anthology," Jazz Journal International May, no. 58:5 (2005):


If correct, this information is significant because the Fontana label is

responsible for most of the Tubby Hayes recordings, including Mexican Green (1968)
which is considered one of his strongest.
Although fewer in number, there are some Hayes reviews that appear in American
publications. Perhaps the most revealing is one appearing in the "Vinyl Freak" column
of the March 2005 issue of Do wnbeat2* magazine which discusses two albums that have
not been re-issued on CD, Just Friends (1965) and Change of Setting (1967). These two
albums feature, among others, Tubby Hayes and Paul Gonsalves. Gonsalves played the
lead tenor saxophone chair with the Duke Ellington Orchestra from 1951 to 1974,29 and
is famous in part for his crowd inspiring twenty-seven chorus blues solo on Ellington's
"Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blue" during the Band's comeback performance at the
Newport Jazz Festival in 1956. Hayes and Gonsalves recorded the two LPs after Hayes
was called upon to cover for his American counterpart in the Ellington band when
Gonsalves took ill prior to a performance at London's Royal Festival Hall in 1964.
In the Downbeat column author John Corbett describes the recordings in a typical
review fashion, but he also offers a more accurate description of the events leading up to
the famous Duke Ellington performance, correcting some information appearing
originally in the liner notes for the first of the two LP releases and in other places
afterwards.30 Apparently, Ellington called out to the audience in Royal Hall for a
replacement when Gonsalves grew too sick to perform immediately before the show.

"Vinyl Freak" is a regularly occurring column in Down Beat featuring reviews of recordings only
available on vinyl LPs.
Mark C. Gridley. Jazz Styles: Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. (Upper Saddle River New Jersey:
Prentice Hall, 2003), 113.
In the liner notes accompanying the album Tubby Hayes Quartet in Scandinavia, author Alun Morgan
describes the events surrounding the last minute replacement of Ellington saxophonist Paul Gonsalves with
Tubby Hayes as an audience member would have perceived it.

According to Corbett, Tubby Hayes was contacted earlier in the day and planted in the
audience to be singled out by Ellington for a publicity stunt. This is consistent with
Ellington's sense of showmanship. However Corbett offers no way to validate the
information. Nonetheless, Hayes did cover the part for Gonsalves on short notice and
played "splendidly."31
Downbeat is not alone among American periodicals to mention the esteemed
British saxophonist. New York's Cadence magazine, a publication devoted to exploring
the topics of improvised music and improvising musicians, has also published some
favorable reviews of Tubby Hayes recordings. Tubby Hayes, A Tribute, and Tubby
Hayes-Ronnie Scott, The Couriers of Jazz, both reissues, were reviewed in April, 2001
and October, 2004 respectively.32
In addition to record reviews, articles about Tubby Hayes himself can be found in
print. Jazz Journal International featured a piece in 2002 written by Simon Spillett, an
award-winning saxophonist and Tubby Hayes scholar living in the United Kingdom.33
Spillett interviewed Vic Ash on the subject of his friend and fellow saxophonist Tubby
Hayes. Ash, the lead tenor saxophonist with the BBC Big Band in 2002, worked with
Tubby Hayes for the first of many times in 1951 when they both were members of the
London-based Kenny Baker band. Both Ash and Hayes were recorded for the first time
while working with this ensemble. In this interview, Ash supports the widely-held notion
that Hayes was a remarkable musician even at the age of 16. He also helps Spillett

John Corbett, "Paul Gonsalves & Tubby Hayes" and "The Paul Gonsalves All Stars Featuring Tubby
Hayes," Downbeat March, (2005): 19.
Robert Iannapollo, "Tubby Hayes, A Tribute: Tubbs, Spotlight 902." Cadence April, Vol. 27 No. 4
(2001): 26-27; Alan Bargebuhr, "Tubby Hayes-Ronnie Scott, The Couriers of Jazz, Fresh Sound 1609."
Cadence October, Vol. 30 No. 10 (2004): 31-32.
Simon Spillett, "Celebrating Tubby: Vic Ash about Tubby Hayes," Jazz Journal International,
November, no. 55 (2002):14-17.

document the triumphs as well as some of the darker moments in Hayes' career during
the 1960s such as his drug use and the decline of his health.
Spillett's article also supports the idea that Hayes' was at his best as a musician
during the early 1960s, which is the time he traveled to New York to record Tubbs in
New York/The New York Sessions. This is in part because Hayes' health had deteriorated
in the latter part of the sixties and hampered his ability to play, but also because his
playing was rooted in the bebop and hard bop style. Challenged by progressive forces in
the later part of the decade, Hayes:
"had tried to keep up with them (younger more progressive
players) by indulging in some very self conscious free
playing and in attempts to graft rock rhythms onto his
work, but neither held the listener in quite the same way as
his supremely confident and athletic hard bop had done."34
Another article, The Tubby Hayes Story: Les Tomkins' 1963 Survey of a Notable
Tenorman 's Career appearing in the February 1989 issue of Crescendo International
magazine, is chock full of Hayes quotes and specifics about important people and events
in his life. In it, Hayes states that his father, a professional musician in London, started
him on violin and piano instead of the saxophone as Tubby had wished. Hayes claims
that this gave him "good grounding." Hayes also discusses how "right from the start...
(he) was inspired by American jazz musicians," but "never dreamed" he could fulfill the
ambition to play jazz in America.
The Tomkins interview is particularly revealing for this project, because Hayes
discusses his impressions of the New York jazz scene following his trips to the United
States, the first of which resulted in the recording that is the focus for this project: "the


Tomkins, "The Tubby Hayes Story," 22.

musicians that I (Hayes) met over there are very much more conscientious than they are
over here (London). .. .there's so much competition." When comparing the two places,
Hayes mentions how "we (British) do still lack it sadly in a lot of ways in the rhythm
sections."36 Here Hayes himself indirectly supports the perception that The New York
Sessions/Tubbs in New York recording is the strongest of the Tubby Hayes recordings,
not because of Hayes' performance which is as strong on other albums, but because of
the New York based rhythm section.
In addition to the Tubby Hayes sources that are basically biographical in nature,
there are a few discographies. Hayes has received top billing on over twenty albums and
was a side man on countless others. This information is detailed to varying degrees in
three currently available sources, Tubby Hayes: A Discography by Barbara Schwarz,

Tubby Hayes Discography Addendum38 by Tom Davis, and The Shorter Tubby Hayes
Discography?9 Schwarz's discography provides the basis for the other two and is
augmented with a timeline of Hayes' life, a list of his television appearances, and a list of
his participation in at least nine film sound tracks. He even appeared in one titled All
Night Long.40 He hosted his own BBC television program, Tubby Plays Hayes,41 and
made twenty-five appearances on British television as a result.42
Another good source of information on Tubby Hayes can be found in the liner
notes for his recordings. Like most liner notes, these tend to follow a formula that caters


Ibid., 23.
Schwarz, A Discography.
Tom Davis, Tubby Hayes Discography Addendum (2005). [Webpage] Accessed July 26,2007.
Available from
Unsigned website based on Tubby Hayes: A Discography by Barbara Schwarz, [Webpage] Accessed
July 26,2007. Available from
Schwarz, A Discography: 72-73.
Spillett, The Long Shadow.
Ibid., 59-71.

to the casual listener by providing biographical information about the performers and
discussion about individual tracks. Despite their light character, liner notes can be a
valuable resource in projects of this nature, and this is true to varying degrees in the liner
notes for albums that feature Hayes.
It has been over thirty years since his death, and many of his recordings have,
until recently, been difficult to obtain, but fortunately, due to the recent upsurge in
Hayes' popularity, a number of new releases and reissues have become available. The
liner notes for Tubbs in New York/Tubby Hayes with Clark Terry "The New York
Sessions, "(1961)** have proven the most useful for this project, but I have also acquired
fifteen other albums with liner notes, including: Tubbs, (1961)4 also recorded in 1961,
but not to be confused with the title just mentioned; Tubby Hayes and Ronnie Scott: The
Couriers of Jazz (1958) ; Tubby Hayes Quartet: Commonwealth Blues (1965); Tubby
Hayes And The All Stars: Return Visit (1962),47 recorded during Hayes' second visit to
the United States; The Eighth Wonder (1958,1959),48 Tubby Hayes: Live (1969);49 100%
Proof"(1967) , 5 Tubby Hayes: England's Late Jazz Great,5X a compilation of broadcasts
featuring Hayes in performances from 1957 to 1972; Tubby Hayes Quartet in


Tubby Hayes. Tubby Hayes with Clark Terry: The New York Sessions. Columbia ADD 45446, 1990.
Tubby Hayes. Tubbs, Fontana. 983 1887, 1961; Re-released 2005.
Tubby Hayes. Tubby Hayes and Ronnie Scott: The Couriers of Jazz. Fresh Sound Records FSR 1620,
1958. Originally issued on CARLTON Stereo STLP 12/6116.
Tubby Hayes. Tubby Hayes Quartet: Commonwealth Blues. Art of Life Records AL 1016-2, 2005.
Tubby Hayes. Tubby Hayes and the All Stars: Return Visit (1962), LP, Fontana Records
Ltd, CD reissued 2005, Universal Classics and Jazz UK BIEM/SABAM 983, 1888.
Tubby Hayes. "The Eighth Wonder" Tubby Hayes, (1958), LP, Jasmine Records, CD reissued 2000,
Tubby Hayes. Tubby Hayes: Live 1969, CD, Harlequin Records. 1990, HQ CD 05.
Tubby Hayes. 100% Proof: The Tubby Hayes Orchestra (1967), LP, Fontana Records
Ltd, CD reissued 2005, Universal Classics and Jazz UK BIEM/SABAM 983 1885.
Tubby Hayes. Tubby Hayes: England's Late Jazz Great. International Association of
Jazz Record Collectors, 2005, IAJRC CD-1019.


Scandinavia (1972), Night and Day,


a collection of live performances from 1963 to

1967; Live at the Dancing Slipper (1966),54 Live at the Hopbine ,55 recorded c. 1966;56
Mexican Green, (1967)57; and Tubby Hays: The Little Giant,5% a box set covering the
earliest part of his career, which was released in 2007.
Reissues frequently have both the original liner notes and an update written to
accompany the re-release; Tubby Hayes with Clark Terry: The New York Sessions is one
such album. It includes the liner notes from the 1961 LP (Tubbs in New York) and a
follow-up written for the 1990 re-release, both of which were written by jazz critic,
Stanley Dance (1910-1999), most notable for his writings about the Duke Ellington
Orchestra.59 In the original notes, Dance was true to the formula and briefly provided
biographical information about Hayes as well as some keen insight into his visit to New
York and the two consecutive days of recording sessions that comprised the album.
Dance stated in the original liner notes that Hayes spent a number of days at Columbia
"holed up" in a practice room preparing for the sessions, which is easy to believe since
the end product is probably the best recording of Hayes that exists, given the musicians
(especially the rhythm section) Hayes played with on this recording, who were among the
best playing in New York at the time. Most of the tracks were recorded in one take,
according to Dance, and everyone participating in the recording was relaxed. Dance
Tubby Hayes. Tubby Hayes: Quartet in Scandinavia. Denmark: Storyville Records,
1998, STCD 8236.


Tubby Hayes. Night and Day. Ronnie Scott's Jazz House, 1995, JACD 049.

Tubby Hayes. Tubby Hayes Quartet: Live at the Dancing Slipper. Harkit Records, 2006,
HRKCD 8198. Records FSR 1620, 1958. Originally issued on CARLTON Stereo STLP 12/6116.
Tubby Hayes. Tubby Hayes: Live at the Hopbine, (c. 1966), Harkit Records, 2005,
HRKCD 8195.
The liner notes for this recording make an educated guess as to the recording date.
Tubby Hayes. Mexican Green. Fontana 983 1983, 1968 Re-released 2005.
Tubby Hayes. Tubby Hays: The Little Giant. Proper Records Ltd. PROPERBOX 117 2007.
Bob Porter, The Last Post. [Webpage] Accessed June 19,2007. Available from 1.

included a quote from the celebrated New York jazz saxophonist, Al Cohn, which
reinforces the general view of Hayes' virtuosity; Hayes sat in with Cohn and another
famous American saxophonist, Zoot Sims, at the Half Note jazz club following the
recording session. "He came down and made us feel sluggish,"60 said Cohn.
Dance's follow-up notes (written in 1989) for the 1990 reissue are short by
comparison, dealing with Hayes' subsequent visits to the United States and his early
death as well as providing some commentary on four additional tracks that did not appear
on the original LP. Dance's liner notes for both releases are available in the 1990 New
York Sessions version61
Similarly, the liner notes (or sleeve notes in the United Kingdom) for Tubbs
(1961), Tubby Hayes and the All Stars: Return Visit (1962), Mexican Green (1968),
Tubbs' Tours (1964) and 100% Proof (1967) include the original notes and an update to
accompany the re-release. Tony Higgins, the U.K. reissue project consultant for the 2005
series of Tubby Hayes re-issues titled Impressed and Repressed on the UK Fontana label,
authored the updates for each, which along with the original notes offer some colorful
discussion about the music on the recording and some high praise for Hayes'
musicianship.62 The liner notes for The Eighth Wonder, Tubby Hayes include comments
written by Hayes himself, and Hayes is the sole author of the original liner notes for
Mexican Green and Return Visit.

Stanley Dance. Liner notes from Tubby with Clark Terry: The New York Sessions. (New York: CBS,
Benny Green and Tony Higgins, liner notesfromTubbs. (London: Mercury Records, 2005); Terry
Brown and Tony Higgins, liner notesfrom100% Proof'(London: Mercury Records, 2005); Tubby Hayes
and Tony Higgins, liner notes from Tubby Hayes and the All Stars: Return Visit (London: Mercury

In the liner notes for Return Visit, Hayes discusses this second of his recording
dates in the United States. Produced by Quincy Jones, Return Visit features two other
American saxophonists, Roland Kirk and James Moody, who is listed on the album cover
under the pseudonym "Jimmy Gloomy." Walter Bishop Jr., the only player to have met
Hayes prior to this recording date and Hayes' pianist during other engagements in the
United States, was joined by Cannonball Adderley Sextet members, Sam Jones on bass
and Louis Hayes on drums. Hayes reports in the liner notes that his "feelings were
somewhat mixed, possibly apprehensive" due to the impromptu nature of this recording
and because of the reputations of the sidemen; Moody, in fact, did not even know that
Hayes was a saxophonist.

Perhaps this reported apprehensiveness affected Hayes to

some extent as, although his playing is strong and Return Visit is a good record, I find it
the weaker of the two albums Hayes recorded in the United States.
In his notes for the Mexican Green album, Hayes discussed the stagnation he felt
in 1964, which was why he decided to disband his regular quintet and to work instead as
a solo artist in other parts of Europe and to pick up rhythm sections as needed for his
engagements in the United Kingdom. He wrote about forming a new group with
completely different players in order to facilitate the new "freer" direction he wished to
explore musically. In the 1960s, progressive jazz had moved away from bebop and hard
bop, the overlapping styles which were the cornerstones of Hayes' own style, to an
approach that was even more improvisatory and Hayes discussed how this new approach
had been applied to some of the music recorded on Mexican Green. He also discussed

Tubby Hayes, liner notes from Tubby Hayes and the All Stars: Return Visit (Fontana Records Ltd, 1962;
reissued Universal Classics and Jazz UK BIEM/SABAM 983 1888, 2005)

events, including a period of convalescence in California in 196764 that inspired some of
the compositions recorded on the album.
The reissued The Eighth Wonder Tubby Hayes, the multi-tracked recording cited
earlier in my discussion of Steve Voce's review, has original liner notes written by both
Hayes and his producer Tony Hall with an addendum written by the compiler of the
reissue, Brian Davis. Hayes revealed in his notes that his inspiration for experimenting
with multi-tracking lay in his frustration with the level of musicianship displayed by jazz
musicians in Great Britain:
"A major problem that has confronted almost everyone
who has led a group of any size in this country has been the
inability of some British musicians to play together.
Sometimes they drag on certain phrases; often it is a mad
scramble to reach the end of the arrangement, with the first
man home the winner! I have often been appalled when
playing in a small pick-up group at a club, to find the
pianist has a complete disregard of what the front-line man
is doing. They play different patterns on the sequence, one
battling against the other, and the whole thing sounds a
shambles. The whole idea of this record stems from the two
statements I have made. I figured that if the saxophone
section was me, we ought to be able to play together, and
likewise if I played the piano behind my own solos, I
should be able to play the correct backings. It all sounds
logical enough, but to put the idea into practice was not so

Upon listening to The Eighth Wonder, it is evident that Hayes had more success
multi-tracking saxophone lines than he did with his piano playing; the piano voicings he
chose are rather bland and his approach to comping simplistic. In fact, he may have been
better off for purposes of the recording if he had left that job to a pianist. Nevertheless,

Tubby Hayes, liner notesfromMexican Green. (Mercury Records Ltd, 1968; reissued Universal Classics
and Jazz UK. BIEM/SABAM 983 1983,2005)


Tubby Hayes, liner notes from "The Eighth Wonder" Tubby Hayes, (Jasmine Records, 1958,1959;
reissued 2000, JASCD 611)

The Eighth Wonder is an interesting album with only three cuts that use the multitracking technique, all of which were recorded in 1958. The remaining nine tracks on the
album feature a quartet with Hayes on tenor saxophone and were recorded a year and a
half later.
More recently, in 2004, Art of Life Records issued the new release titled Tubby
Hayes Quartet with Gordon Beck, Johnny Butts, JeffClyne: Commonwealth Blues, a
collection of previously unreleased BBC recordings made in 1965 for a series of
broadcasts to a Spanish audience; the notes for this album include yet more colorful
descriptions of Hayes' outstanding musicianship. The author of these notes, Richard
Hyla, underscores Hayes' virtuosity by writing "... [he] achieved an iconic status rarely
accorded any jazz musician outside of the United States" and rose to a ".. .level of
eminence few European jazz men have ever enjoyed."66 Hyla also points out the current
frenzied state of the market for Tubby Hayes-related memorabilia, reporting that vintage
LPs featuring Hayes fetch "frequently exorbitant sums," while the original BBC studio
discs from which Commonwealth Blues was digitally re-mastered commanded a price
that was "nothing less than astronomical."
Six other albums of a similar nature have also been released as a result of the
recent increased demand for Tubby Hayes' recordings: Tubby Hayes Live 1969; Tubby
Hayes Quartet in Scandinavia; Night and Day; Tubby Hayes Quartet Live at the Dancing
Slippe;, Tubby Hayes Live at the Hopbine; and Tubby Hayes: England's Late Jazz Great.
All of these albums feature previously unreleased recordings of Hayes and they all

Richard Hyla, liner notes from Tubby Hayes Quartet with Gordon Beck, Johnny Butts, JeffClyne:
Commonwealth Blues. (London: Art of Life Records, 2004)

contain liner notes that provide information regarding the features of each track on the
album in addition to brief, highly complimentary biographies of Hayes.
Tubby Hayes Quarter in Scandinavia (1997) features Hayes in a live recording
made in Stockholm with another world-class European jazz musician, Niels-Henning
0rsted Pederson, a Danish bass player famous at the time for his work with Oscar
Peterson. In the notes, author Alun Morgan, lists Sonny Rollins, Stan Getz, Hank
Mobley, Johnny Griffin, and Dizzy Gillespie as influences on Hayes.68 He also describes
the events that occurred at the aforementioned Duke Ellington concert at London's Royal
Festival Hall from the perspective of an audience member. Apparently Morgan was not
aware of the additional information brought to light by John Corbett had when he
described a different view of the same events in the 2002 review discussed above.
England's Late Jazz Great is notable because it contains an eclectic group of
recordings selected by a committee representing the International Association of Jazz
Record Collectors. Recorded at various locations from the late 1950s to 1972, this
collection contains some remarkable performances. The liner notes, written by the
American jazz radio host, Vic Hall, include no analysis or commentary on the music,
which, he says, "speaks far more eloquently for itself." Hall instead focuses solely on
biography, reporting Hayes' "trans-Atlantic exchange" with Zoot Sims and Hayes'
subsequent visits to the United States. Hall also praises the very good work done by
studio technicians in order to make these recordings accessible and listenable.69

Alun Morgan, liner notes from Tubby Hayes Quartet In Scandinavia. (Denmark: Storyville Records,
Vic Hall, liner notes from Tubby Hayes: England's Late Jazz Great. (Toronto: International Association
of Jazz Record Collectors, 2005)

The new releases of 2005, Live at the Hopbine and Live at the Dancing Slipper,
are two gems from Harket Records that exhibit some commendable re-mastering. There
are a number of extended solos on these recordings and Hayes is in top form, displaying
some remarkable playing on both albums. The Dancing Slipper recording was made in
the spring of 1966 and Live at the Hopbine (considered the better of the two albums),
while undated, is judged to have been recorded later that same year. A completely
different rhythm section is featured on each album; Hayes apparently preferred the
second group, as it is the same rhythm section he chose to take into the studio for the
most celebrated LP of the latter part of his career, Mexican Green. Simon Spillett
authored the liner notes for both these albums, including biographical details, discussions
of individual tracks, the story of the discovery of the source tapes, and the various
circumstances surrounding each performance.
The liner notes for Night and Day are concerned only with Hayes and make no
references to specific tracks on the CD. In these notes, the jazz journalist, Les Tomkins,
discusses his first encounter with Hayes, who was only fourteen at the time; according to
Tomkins, Hayes "proceeded to blow up a storm"70 after borrowing a baritone saxophone
from the house band at a club owned by Tomkins. This event marked the beginning of
Tomkins' long association with Hayes, which resulted in a number of broadcast
interviews and articles. Tomkins also fostered the first meeting between Hayes and
Ronnie Scott, who later co-led the Jazz Couriers, the United Kingdom's most important
small jazz group of the late 1950s.

Les Tomkins, liner notes from Tubby Hayes: Night and Day. (London: Ronnie Scott's Jazz House,

The Couriers of Jazz: England's Greatest Jazz Combo, was originally recorded in
1958, but reissued on CD by Fresh Sound records in 2003 and features Hayes and Scott's
group, the Jazz Couriers. The liner notes for this re-release consist only of those that
were included with the original LP; in them, Ralph J. Green offered some insight into the
changing atmosphere of the British jazz scene in the late 1950s and, supported by a quote
from George Shearing, pointed out that jazz performance in Britain was improving at the
time, "coming much closer to the American conception" of jazz. He also discussed
how European rhythm sections had tended to lag behind not only their American
counterparts, but European wind players as well. Although Green uses these
observations to emphasize that this was not the case with the Jazz Couriers' rhythm
section, it does support the judgment that The New York Sessions/Tubbs in New York is
the best of the Hayes recordings, not only because of the excellence of Hayes' playing at
the time, but also because of the equal excellence of the American rhythm section.
The most complete published history of Tubby Hayes' life and career through his
twenty-first year comes from the liner notes accompanying another recent release, Tubby
Hayes: The Little Giant, a Proper Records four-CD boxed set issued in 2007, which is a
compilation of early Hayes recordings with various groups from 1954 to 1956. The notes
were written by the previously cited British saxophonist and Tubby Hayes scholar Simon
Spillett who is reportedly doing research for a biography of Hayes.

Spillett's extensive

liner notes for the boxed set follow the model discussed above but they are considerably
longer than most, in part because of the large number of tracks for which he provides
commentary. Spillett also provides a great deal more biographical content in the course

Tubby Hayes, liner notes from "The Eighth Wonder" Tubby Hayes, (Jasmine Records, 1958, 1959;
reissued 2000, JASCD 611)
Spillett, The Long Shadow.

of the informative thirty-three page booklet included in The Little Giant than was
available in any of the previously-discussed liner notes, thus contributing to the historical
significance of the boxed set. A collection of photographs featuring Hayes and his fellow
musicians is also included in the set.
It is quite common for a jazz musician, particularly a wind player, to be a sideman
in addition to having a solo career and Tubby Hayes was no exception; he performed as a
sideman quite frequently in his career, both in live settings and in the studio. He is
mentioned in the liner notes for many of the recordings on which he performed as a
sideman; Dizzy Reece's debut album with Blue Note Records, Blues in Trinity, provides
an excellent example of such information. The liner notes for Blues in Trinity follow the
familiar pattern, focusing primarily on Reece, but there is a paragraph devoted to Hayes
and a quote, credited to jazz trumpeter Donald Byrd: "I first heard Tubby when I spent a
weekend in London. Man, he can play. I'd like to have thrown some really fast tempos at
him, just to get him mad. But he'd have made them."73
As is the case with research in virtually every field, the internet is a fertile place to
find information about Tubby Hayes. However internet sources are not always reliable,
and while a search using the words "Tubby Hayes saxophone" nets tens of thousands of
results, and are thousands of redundancies in those numbers, and most of these are hits
marking on-line record stores that have Tubby Hayes recordings available for purchase.
The task of sorting out all the reliable useful internet based sources would be formidable
to say the least.
Fortunately, there is a regularly updated website that does this already.
Remember Tubbs: A Tribute Website contains a variety of useful entries dating back to

Tony Hall, liner notes from Blues in Trinity (New York: Blue Note Records, 1958)

October, 2004, when it was launched.

The entries found on this website include quotes

about Hayes; dates for Tubby Hayes CD re-releases, tribute concerts, etc., and links to
over twenty other websites that also contain useful Hayes-related material, including
record reviews, discographies, liner notes, video footage, interview transcripts, and a
recently added site (courtesy of Tubby Hayes scholar, Simon Spillett) that contains a
partial transcript of the 1973 BBC tribute broadcast aired shortly after Hayes' death;
there is even a site to help would-be visitors locate Hayes' grave. An opening statement
that appears atop Remember Tubbs: A Tribute Website sums up the site's purpose: "This
web site - launched in June 2004 - is dedicated to the memory of the late, great, Tubby
(Edward Brian) Hayes who was arguably the most prodigiously talented jazz multiinstrumentalist the British Isles has ever produced."
Among the links to be found at the Remember Tubbs website is Andy's Top
Tenors, a website dedicated to sharing transcriptions of solos by many jazz tenor
saxophonists; there are five Hayes solo transcriptions available for viewing or to
download at this website: "Dolphin Dance" from For Members Only; "The Killers of
WWI" from Tubby Tours; and "Tin Tin Deo," "Like Someone in Love," and "Sunny
Monday," which are from both Tubby's Groove and Eighth Wonder?6 These five are the
only transcriptions of Hayes solos currently available and, as transcriptions, they merely
provide the bare notes on a treble clef staff with a title and a tempo marking; some of
them are incomplete and they offer no analysis of any kind. There are no chord changes
indicated above the staves nor are there any articulation indications or dynamic markings.

Webmaster. Remember Tubbs: A Tribute Website. [Webpage] Accessed July 15, 2007.
Available from
Andy Whiteford, Andy's Top Tenors. [Webpage] Accessed July 11, 2007. Available from
http://www. geocities. com/andyw 12 91.

Despite their shortcomings, these transcriptions could prove useful for comparisons to
other solos, although a check for accuracy might be a good idea.
Another useful link on the Remember Tubbs website is one to Jazz Professional, a
UK based website. Here, among some Hayes record reviews and blindfold test
transcripts,77 there are two items of interest to Tubby Hayes enthusiasts: first, there is a
complete transcript of the Les Tomkins interview appearing in the article published in
Crescendo magazine discussed above on pages 13 and 14. This transcript is considerably
longer than the version in print and provides considerable additional information to the
truncated version available in print.
In the portion of the interview omitted from the Crescendo article, Hayes
discussed his first trip to the west coast of the United States and described the various
bands he had heard and played with while he was there, comparing the "pace" of the Los
Angeles jazz scene to that of London and noting that New York's "pace" was faster than
that of either London or Los Angeles. Hayes also had elaborated on his frustration with
British rhythm sections, specifically the lack of good drummers in the United Kingdom,
and speculated that this might be because there was not enough competition or places for
them to perform.78 Hayes also referred to two television appearances he had made as
well as "doing radio interviews all the time" while he was in Los Angeles; he had been a
guest (along with Mel Torme) on a program hosted by George Shearing and a panelist on
an hour-long discussion of jazz hosted by Leonard Feather.79


A blindfold test is when a musician or a group of them are asked to identify another performer by
listening to a recording. This sight features some transcripts of blindfold tests. Tubby Hayes takes part in
one, and is the subject of another.
Les Tomkins, Tubby Hayes (1966). [Webpage] Accessed July 26, 2007. Available from

The second item of interest that is accessible through the Jazz Professional
website is another transcribed interview provided by Les Tomkins; "Anglo American
Exchange: Tubby Hayes Meets Sal Nestico" is one of several dialogue interviews
featuring jazz artists from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean that were recorded by
Tomkins throughout his career. This one features Tubby Hayes interviewing Sal Nestico,
tenor saxophonist with the Woody Herman Orchestra; no date is provided for this
interview, but Nestico had been interviewed by Les Tomkins himself in 1965 and it is
possible the Tubby Hayes/Sal Nestico dialogue occurred close to that time. I use the
word "dialogue" because this transcript does not read like an interview, but is more like a
conversation between two jazz musicians who have a lot in common and an abundance of
ideas to talk about. Both of these tenor saxophonists had their roots in the bebop tradition
and were used to practicing patterns that are designed to fit sequences of chord changes
and they had both earned reputations for playing very fast in the bebop style. They
discussed their frustrations with having to live up to their reputations all the time as well
as their desires for the chance to experiment more; they agreed that the bebop method
could be restrictive when they were playing in the free style of the mid- to late 1960s.
They talked about equipment, doubling on other instruments, other musicians, sound
production, and trends in jazz styles; as a result of this free-ranging conversation, this
transcript provides a particularly fascinating window into the world of the jazz tenor
saxophonists in the 1960s.80
Another web-based source is Jazzscript, a British website devoted to the sale of
jazz books and CDs, which offers a biography of Hayes written by Simon Spillett in 2004


Less Tomkins, "Tubby Hayes Meets Sal Nestico (2000). [Webpage] Accessed July 26, 2007. Available

for their website

As previously cited, Spillett is the British saxophonist and Tubby

Hayes scholar who wrote the liner notes to the 2007 release of the compilation CD set,
Tubby Hays: The Little Giant, which examined the early part of Hayes' life and career.
The Jazzscript document, which was written three years before the Little Giant liner
notes, presents a passionate account of Tubby Hayes' career at its height.82 Taken
together, these articles indicate that Spillett is, at the present time, one person most
knowledgeable about the life of Tubby Hayes.
Spillett is also quite eager to see Hayes take a place among the greats in Jazz. He
begins the Jazzscript article by describing Hayes' career as "most remarkable" and
"central to the trajectory of jazz in the United Kingdom for close to twenty years" and
goes on to state that "no one musician had done more (during the decade prior to offers
from Miles Davis to British performers John McLaughlin and Dave Holland) to raise the
game of the local [British] performers than Tubby Hayes" and "With British musicians
today hopping regularly on and off the American continent, and with truly equal status
irrespective of their country of origin, Hayes' achievements may now seem commonplace
and scarcely raise an eyebrow, but in the 1950s playing the Americans at their own game
was often little more than a pipedream."83
Spillett offers the insight that Hayes did not have to make the awkward transition
from swing player to bebop in order to remain progressive, because his primary
influences came from the music of Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie, and while this is
commonplace today, in the 1950s London Jazz scene, it was an anomaly, because most
British jazz musicians that were playing at a comparable level were older and "steeped in

Spillett, The Long Shadow.


the work of swing players such as Lester Young and Coleman Hawkins."84 Spillett's indepth article documents the meeting of Tubby Hayes and Ronnie Scott, which led to the
formation of The Jazz Couriers and provided Hayes with a place to develop his abilities
beyond those of his peers; in fact, according to Spillett, the Couriers had toured Britain
with the legendary Dave Brubeck group in 1958, earning high praise from the more
famous American jazz pianist, who stated that they "sounded more American" than his
own group did.
According to Spillett, the Dizzy Reece album Blues in Trinity [see above] also
played a pivotal role in Hayes' career. It is described as a "major coup" for British jazz;
one that resulted in both Hayes and Reece being "short-listed" by Art Blakey for
membership in the Jazz Messengers, although neither worked with Blakey.
Later, Spillett describes Hayes as a "consolidator," one who represented the
"finest virtues of saxophone as it stood at the beginning of the 1960s."86 Spillett is wise
in this evaluation, because the jazz innovations at that time were not happening in bebop
and hard bop; Hayes, while a brilliant player, was not an innovator. Spillett puts it
"Tubby Hayes' group at the time.. .could in retrospect be
seen as little more than a second-hand tribute to the sort of
sophisticated hard bop pioneered by Horace Silver five
years previously, were it not for the engaging presence of
Tubby himself."87
Spillett then goes on to discuss Hayes' seminal first trip to the United States, a
time when Hayes was at the "top of his game" (resulting in the Tubbs in New York/New
York Sessions recording) and became the first English jazz soloist to play a residency at a


New York club. Later in the article, Spillett briefly discusses the albums that followed
Hayes' first bout with health issues and identifies Mexican Green [see above], as Hayes'
finest album. Mexican Green might be the best among Hayes albums currently available,
recorded with British musicians in the United Kingdom, and primarily featuring
compositions by Hayes. However, one would be hard pressed to place Hayes' saxophone
playing on Mexican Green above his performance on Tubbs in New York/The New York
Sessions, the album Hayes recorded during the peak of his career in 1961 during that first
trip to New York when he "represented the finest virtues of tenor saxophone."88
Toward the end of the article, Spillett discusses Hayes' abilities on flute and
vibraphone, and includes mention of recordings that feature Hayes playing those
instruments. Spillett writes about Hayes as a composer, arranger, and big band leader and
lists recordings that emphasize those aspects of Hayes' talents. He also discusses the
decline of Hayes' health that began with his collapse from exhaustion and was fueled by
heavy drinking and some drug use. In response to some opinions that there had been a
decline in Hayes' skills after his illness, Spillett points out that Hayes played "with much
the same degree of virtuosity as of yore" just six weeks prior to his death. Spillett
concludes his biographical article by noting:
"Tubby's greatest legacy was his proving once and for all
that it was indeed possible to become a great jazz musician,
to play in an idiom which in his youth was so
quintessentially American, and remain within these
[British] shores.... He was indisputably the most
accomplished and characterful British jazzman of his
generation. His music ranks amongst the finest jazz of his
day and still has the power to move those who, nearly fifty
years later, encounter it for the first time."89



Spillett frequently borders on hyperbole in his colorful descriptions of Tubby
Hayes, and this is particularly true if his reference to McLaughlin and Holland, neither of
which play saxophone, was meant to imply that Hayes had a serious influence on their
playing. But Spillett is a British saxophonist himself, and it is easy to see why he is so
taken with the first truly notable jazz saxophonist form Great Britain. Nonetheless,
Hayes lives up to Spillett's praise for the most part. Downbeat magazine was correct.
Tubby Hayes does deserve wider recognition.



Although considerable attention is devoted to evocative descriptions of

Tubby Hayes career and discourse regarding his outstanding musicianship in extant
Hayes-related documents, his music is a subject that is as yet academically unexplored,
particularly with regard to dissertations; to date, there are none with his name in their title
or abstract. There are, however, a growing number of dissertations about other musicians
that use transcription and analysis as the basis for a style study. For instance, in 2003,
Andrew Dahlke wrote An Analysis of Joe Lovano 's Tenor Saxophone Improvisation on
"Misterioso " by Thelonious Monk: An Exercise in Multi-Dimensional Thematicism,
which examines Lovano's performance style through in-depth transcription and analysis
of a single performance.
Another example is George Weremchuck's 1998 dissertation titled: A
Comparative Analysis of Improvised Solos Based on the Popular Songs "Body and
Soul, " "Night and Day " and "Out of Nowhere " as performed by Selected Jazz Tenor
Saxophonists Representing Different Styles.91 Here, Weremchuck chose to focus his

Andrew Dahlke, "An Analysis of Joe Lovano's Tenor Saxophone Improvisation on "Misterioso" by
Thelonious Monk: An Exercise in Multi-Dimensional Thematicism." DMA dissertation, (University of
North Texas, 2003).
George Weremchuck, "A Comparative Analysis of Improvised Solos Based on the Popular Songs 'Body
and Soul,' 'Night and Day' and 'Out of Nowhere' as Performed by Selected Jazz Tenor Saxophonists
Representing Different Styles." D.M.A. dissertation. (University of Miami, 1998).

attention on more than one musician using transcription and analysis of different soloists
on the same songs in order to compare and contrast different improvisational styles.
A groundbreaking transcription and analysis project cited by many scholars is
Thomas Owens's 1974 dissertation, Charlie Parker: Techniques of Improvisation,
which documents Parker's repertoire of musical motives and discusses the rhythmic and
harmonic context in which he used them during his improvisations. This project laid the
foundation for countless books, dissertations, and articles that use transcription as the
focus for style analysis of jazz improvisatory practice.
Systematic scholarly analysis of jazz music is a relatively recent practice; doctoral
study of the subject is on the rise, but this is also a recent trend. Carol Louise Heen states
in the literature review for her 1981 dissertation, Procedures for Style Analysis of Jazz: A
Beginning Approach, that style analysis can be ".. .effective in tracing relationships and
major trends as well as describing and analyzing the musical facts."93 But she also states
that it "has been rare in jazz," and that it "remains (as of 1981) one of the least prevalent
forms of jazz study."94 Heen mentions six books written prior to hers that employ style
analysis methodology, and of those, most favored style description over transcription and
musical examples.95 This is consistent with publishers' aim at broad appeal; style
descriptions can be read and appreciated by anyone, while in depth analysis is more
difficult to market. The Owens dissertation, a document cited by Heen which relies
heavily on transcription is only available as a dissertation. Heen does not mention


Thomas Owens, "Charlie Parker. Techniques of Improvisation." Ph.D. Dissertation, (University of

California, Los Angeles, 1974).
Carol Louise Heen. Procedures for Style Analysis ofJazz: A Beginning Approach. Ph.D. dissertation,
(University of Minnesota, 1981), 15.
Ibid., 15.

transcription and analysis projects appearing in periodicals. Downbeat magazine has
published articles dating to before 1981 featuring transcription and analysis,96 but to
Heen's credit they are few in number. Heen points out that the rarity of style analyses in
jazz (again as of 1981) is indicative of the "absence of problem-solving methods for style
analysis within the jazz literature."97
Fortunately for those of us currently adding to the canon of jazz style analyses, in
the years since her thesis, Heen and others have made significant contributions both in
the area of problem-solving methods for jazz style analyses, and in the area of jazz style
analysis itself. It will be helpful to examine some of these in order to clarify how the
transcription and analysis portion of this document is organized.
In Procedures for Style Analysis of Jazz, Heen chose to tie her procedures to those
already proven effective in musicology; Jan LaRue's 1970 book, Guidelines for Style
Analysis, now in its second edition and a common framework for analysis in western art
music, was her primary model. It established sound, rhythm, harmony, growth, melody

and text influence as the "basic components for analytic hypotheses."

LaRue then

broke down each of these basic components further by listing a set of parameters within
each that would form the basis for discourse on style.
Heen "expands and develops"99 LaRue's method for jazz by using melody,
rhythm, harmony, timbretexture, and form and growth as her five basic components.
(Timbre and texture were combined in one component as was form and growth. One
might assume that something related to LaRue's "text influence" could be included for

Andrew White. "Coltrane Transcribed," Downbeat July, Vol 46, No. 13 (1970): 45-47.
Heen. 2.
Jan LaRue. Guidelines for Style Analysis, Second Edition. (Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 1992) Inset.
"Heen. 38.

jazz music that uses vocals if need be). Heen, like LaRue, then breaks down and expands
each basic component to include parameters that would form the basis for discourse.
However, each component's selection is based on its relevance to jazz style analysis.
Heen clearly shows that jazz can be analyzed in much the same fashion as other styles of
western art music.
Her melody component is divided into seventeen different parameters including
substitution by improvisation, length of melodic units and their relationships, motion and
range, and more; three of these melodic parameters, improvisation, embellishments, and
riffs are broken down even further. I0 The other four parameters are treated with equal
attention to detail.
Heen demonstrates the effectiveness of this process by applying it in two
contrasting test cases. In the first, she "test(s) the possibilities for comparison of multiple
versions of the same piece of music recorded by various performers,"101 by comparing
and contrasting ten different recordings of the famous jazz tune "Dippermouth
Blues/Sugarfoot stomp" in order to "explore style change, and musical invention and
retention in a standard jazz tune."102
In the second test case, Heen explores the piano style of Count Basie. This case is
more relevant for comparison to a single artist project such as this one, because its
"purpose was to apply the analytical guidelines in order to reveal basic performance
vocabulary of a single instrumentalist."103 She does this quite effectively in her eighteen
page experiment. Her discourse, based on analysis of 120 recordings by Basie and his


Ibid., 35, 36.

Ibid., 84.
Ibid., 80.
Ibid., 120.

band, starts with a short discussion about Count Basie's "understated" style and the
hypothesis that he "had a performance style and vocabulary that was unique."104 Under
the Heading "Melody" she describes Count Basie's famous economical approach: "he
had a high proportion of rests between notes and often played a 'one finger' melody with
the right hand, very sparsely interspersed with block chords with the left hand."105 She
then discusses this sense of economy as it applies to the notes selected in his
improvisations, and follows this with a transcription that clearly demonstrates the style
points discussed thus far.
Her discussion of Count Basie's style is not ground breaking. Anyone who has
listened to him extensively would likely agree with her findings. What is effective is that
she supports her statements with musical examples rather than simply describing them
and moving on. Heen does not address all seventeen melodic parameters mentioned
earlier, because it is only necessary to discuss those parameters relevant to a particular
performer. Heen addresses this point this by mentioning that "every point listed may not
be required for every analysis" prior to outlining her "Range of Factors for the Style
Analysis Process."106
There is further relevant ground-work beyond Heen. As mentioned earlier,
Thomas Owens wrote a landmark dissertation in 1974 titled Charlie Parker: Techniques
of Improvisation. This is one of the few, and certainly the most in-depth style analyses
produced prior to Heen's work that uses transcription and analysis as the basis for an indepth style study of jazz music. In it Owens isolates approximately 100 different
principle motives from 250 transcriptions of Charlie Parker solos. Owens shows that

Ibid., 124.
Ibid., 125.
Ibid., 35.

Parker applied these motives formulaically in his improvisations according to the key and
harmonic plan of each song. It is the identification of these motives that is the crowning
accomplishment of Owens's project which has provided the foundation for many other
similar projects since. Some feel his conclusions tended towards oversimplification,
showing that Parker did little more that string together melodic formulas.107 While
Owens's findings in 1974 are thought provoking and true, they failed to show why
Parker's improvisations were so interesting.
Enter Henry Martin, author of Charlie Parker and Thematic Improvisation
published in 1996, a document that benefits greatly from Owens work, which provides
"an important companion" to Martin's "more thematically oriented material."108 In large
part through a further examination of Owens work, Martin shows that the brilliance of
Charlie Parker lay not in the formulas used by Parker, but rather in "how Parker
transcends the mechanical application of formulas: and how in many instances, their
effectiveness lies in unexpected motivic connection to the original thematic material."109
Martin names seven types of thematic patterns or melodic features such as "Neighbor
Prolongation" and "Characteristic Rhythm(s)"110 that are often used in combination with
each other. Identification of these can illuminate thematic relationships not clearly
apparent from active listening alone.
Martin also points out that repetition of formulas or groups of notes at different
times in different songs by an improvising musician "does not preclude that formula from

Henry Martin. Charlie Parker and Thematic Improvisation. (Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press,
1996), 4, 5.
Ibid., 5.
Martin, 32, 33. Neighbor Prolongation is where a pitch relevant to a thematic relationship is prolonged
through the use of neighboring tones; Characteristic Rhythms can also be helpful in identifying
thematic patterns.

being all or partly thematic."

He further proclaims that while determining the thought

process of great improvisers can be helpful to the aspiring musician, "guessing the
intention of the soloist" in the case of complex thematic relationships can be "more
troublesome than enlightening."
Martin also uses Schenkarian analysis, and while the application of the
Schenkarian method is not within the scope of this project, Martin's use of it and Heen's
adaptation of LaRue provide examples of the effective application to jazz of analytical
techniques commonly used in more traditional genres of Western art music.
Using a combination of the above described analytical methods by Heen, Owens,
and Martin as models, this project provides an analysis of the performance style of Tubby
Hayes at the height of his career using a four step process. Step one is the complete
transcription of selected solos from Tubby Hayes and Clark Terry: The New York
While the term "transcription" can have different meanings within the overall
field of music, in jazz, transcription generally refers to the process of copying a jazz solo,
or in some cases complete arrangements, from a recording. Transcription in this sense
can contain either or both of the following elements: 1. To listen extensively to a
recorded improvised solo, or sometimes a particular interpretation of a melody or an
arrangement, and "transcribe" it onto paper. This is usually done to preserve the
transcription for further study. 2. To listen to a recorded improvised solo and learn to
perform it on an instrument such as a saxophone, trumpet, flute, etc. This second element
often involves memorization in an exercise frequently used by students of jazz


Ibid., 37.
Ibid, 37.

performance in order to assimilate jazz style and language through mimicking master
performers. The transcriptions done for this project will include both of the above
elements. These transcribed solos are provided in their entirety in the appendices 1-4.
They have been learned on the tenor saxophone in order to obtain information about the
idiosyncrasies associated with Tubby Hayes' style of playing that instrument.
Since Tubbs in New York/The New York Sessions represents Tubby Hayes at his
finest, and since his style changed little throughout his career, the tracks selected for
transcription, "You for Me," "Airegin," "Pint of Bitter" and "Soon," provide an effective
cross section of Tubby Hayes' overall performance style. "You for Me" is the first track,
and up tempo. Its unaccompanied introduction ushers in the album with virtuosic fervor
and the chord changes include an abrupt half-step change in tonality. "Airegin" is an
excellent example of Hayes navigating chord changes and tonality shifts in a fast
harmonic rhythm at a fast tempo. This is a cornerstone of bebop style and a tradition
drawn upon in jazz performance to this day. "Soon" features Hayes playing on a classic
jazz standard at a medium swing tempo, and "Pint of Bitter," while not in 12 measure
blues form, provides an excellent example of Hayes improvising in a harmonic
environment heavily influenced by the blues, another cornerstone of jazz style.
Step two in the process of analyzing the performance style of Tubby Hayes is the
selection and identification of significant and relevant formulas, patterns, and motives
employed by Hayes in his improvised solos. Those that serve a melodic function are
categorized according to defining intervallic relationships, and those with a rhythmic
function are categorized by related rhythms. This step uses Thomas Owens's work as a

Step three is the process of examining the transcriptions as a whole in addition to

the significant formulas, patterns, and motives already identified for elements of thematic
unity that contribute to Hayes' overall effectiveness as an improvising saxophonist. This
step uses Henry Martin's work as a model, and is aided by placing the transcriptions in a
format resembling a musical score. Each chorus occupies one "part" in the score. This
layout is convenient when comparing and contrasting consecutive approaches to specific
places within the form of each song. For instance, if one was only interested in
comparing and contrasting each pass a player makes on the turnaround in a specific
twelve measure blues, they could arrange the last four measures of each chorus in a solo
in this format in order to examine how each pass relates to the others. This approach has
proven valuable in examining the complex multiple chorus solos of Tubby Hayes.
The fourth step in the process is a summary of the performance style of Tubby
Hayes based on observations generated from steps one through three as well as extensive
listening to other recordings of Hayes and examination of other Hayes related material
discussed in the chapter two above. This summary is outlined, discussed, and supported
with musical examples supplied from excerpts from the solo transcriptions. The relevant
parameters that form the basis for the style summary are selected from Heen's "Range of
i n

Factors for the Style Analysis Process."

The musical thought process of Tubby Hayes

is discussed when it is relevant. In some cases, more than one thought process might be
at work; some discussion of the different possibilities will follow, but no attempt is made
to guess the soloists intentions.
Since Owens and Heen, transcription books devoted to many prominent figures in
jazz history have become commonplace. The publishing company Hal Leonard has an

Heen, 35.

expanding series titled Artist Transcriptions that includes over fifty books such as John
Coltrane Solos by Carl Coan and Ronny Schiff,114 and The Best of Joe Henderson by Jim
Roberts.115 The books in this series provide accurate transcriptions with little or no
analysis. The Jazz Master Series is another example of expanding collection of
transcriptions devoted to jazz masters, but with the added benefit of analysis. Benny
Goodman'16 is one such title that with thirty complete transcriptions of the renowned
clarinetist followed by a short style description based on analysis of selected solo
The availability of in depth analyses based on transcription has also expanded,
although not to the extent of transcription alone. Coltrane: A Player's Guide to His
Harmony by Walt Weiskopf and Ramon Ricker117 is an excellent example of this kind of
publication. This book focuses entirely on analysis, and while most certainly based on
extensive transcription of the music of John Coltrane, it provides no note-by-note
transcription of any kind within its pages. Instead, it describes John Coltrane's approach
to reharmonization and also provides exercises and etudes that will help an aspiring
improviser assimilate this aspect of Coltrane's style into their own improvising.
Keeping with jazz pedagogy, there is an expanding body of work related to
teaching improvisation that draws upon transcription and analysis. The Study of Sonny
Rollins: A Musical and Historical Perspective by David Baker,'18 and Creative Jazz


Carl Coan, and Ronny Schiff. John Coltrane Solos. (Milwaukee: Hall Leonard, 1995).
Jim Roberts. The Best of Joe Henderson. (Milwaukee: Hall Leonard, 1996).
Stan Ayerhoff. Benny Goodman (New York: Amsco, 1980).
Walt Weiskopf and Ramon Ricker. Coltrane: A Player's Guide to His Harmony. (New Albany,
Indiana: Jamey Abersold, 1991).
David Baker. The Study of Sonny Rollins: A Musical and Historical Perspective. (Miami FL: Belwin,

Improvisation by Scott Reeves

are excellent examples. In the Rollins study Baker

provides complete transcriptions of nine different Sonny Rollins recordings along with a
series of exercises based on patterns extracted from the solos. David Baker has
published a great deal of jazz pedagogy related material, and much of it uses transcription
and analysis. Scott Reeves takes a wider scope and features a different artist and
transcription as examples in each chapter devoted to a specific improvisational concept.
With regard to transcription and analysis, it is important to note the following.
Whether written down or not, transcription is an excellent tool for ear training and is
practically essential for good jazz education. This is particularly true in today's
educational environment where opportunities for aspiring musicians to play along side
more experienced players are less numerous than they were in the middle of the last
century when jazz was in its heyday. Many schools with "jazz programs" simply have
no accomplished jazz performers for their students to emulate. Fortunately, recordings of
accomplished jazz performers are easy to come by, and they can be a great tool. Jazz
students at all levels should be encouraged to transcribe from recordings in order to learn
the subtleties involved with jazz performance, because it is the process of transcription,
and not the finished product that is the most valuable. The act of transcription is an ear
training exercise that develops the kind of sustained, concentrated listening skills
necessary for jazz performance. The more efficient one gets at transcribing, the better
one gets at presenting improvisational ideas of their own from the minds ear so to speak.
It equips a performer to engage in the meaningful musical discourse that is jazz music.
Despite the fact that the real value for jazz performance students lies in
transcription itself, the byproducts of such study such as written transcriptions or a bank

Scott D. Reeves. Creative Jazz Improvisation. (Englewood Cliffs New Jersey: Pretice Hall, 1995)

of jazz motives drawn from those transcriptions still hold value. A thorough analysis of
transcribed jazz solos can yield further information providing insight into the
improvisational process by highlighting procedures and/or thought processes that are
unique to each performer. This is the primary goal of this document and the thousands of
documents like it available today.
A quote from Henry Martin's Charlie Parker and Thematic Improvisation will
help to explain the difficulty with presenting transcriptions in a formal setting: "since a
jazz improvisation is not normally notated by the player who performed it, its
transcription is an analytical statement -an interpretation of what was played, an
analytical first stage, or a 'reading' of the solo. A transcription acknowledges the
analyst's point of view, reveals theoretical agenda, musical background - all the usual,
but significant predispositions."

He discusses the difficulty with interpreting and

distinguishing between harmonic disagreement among performers, harmonic

modification of original chord changes both in arrangements and by accompanying
chordal instruments such as piano, or guitar, and harmonic modification on the part of the
soloist. Martin continues: "In up-tempo improvisation, it is often impossible for the
soloist and rhythm section to anticipate each other's spontaneous modifications or
omissions of prevailing harmonies; hence, changes that remain close to the model
established in the head will usually work well for purposes of notation."121 Martin goes
on to discuss how Parker ignores changes in some places creating harmonic clashes.
There is also the problem of whether or not to present the transcriptions transposed as


Martin, 5-7.

they would be read on the instrument, in this case the B-flat tenor saxophone, or in
concert key.
Since, this project is primarily pedagogical, and aimed at saxophonists; the
transcriptions are presented transposed up a major ninth to key of Bb as they would be
read by a tenor saxophonist. Furthermore, the changes accompanying the notated
improvised solos are those that are played during the performance of the head.
Interpretation of the transcriptions is limited to Tubby Hayes and makes no attempt to
interpret the performance of the rhythm section beyond an attempt to discern the chord
changes played during the melody.
I have also decided to exclude forms of expression such as accents, phrase marks
and dynamics from these transcriptions. The vast majority of published transcriptions,

including most of those consulted for this project, exclude these markings.

This is in

part because in a jazz transcription, particularly a Tubby Hayes transcription, accuracy

would warrant some kind of expression mark on nearly every note. When used this often
these marks become cumbersome and "clutter the notation."123


The published transcriptions consulted for this project that exclude expression marks include those by
Henry Martin, Carol Louise Heen, Carl Woideck, George Weremchuk, John Alexander, those in the Jazz
Master's series published by Amsco, and those found in the Artist Transcription Series published by Hal
Martin, 6.


In the original liner notes for Tubbs in New York, Tubby Hayes is described as "an
overwhelmingly exuberant player, firmly rooted in the bop tradition."124 It is fitting that
liner note author Stanley Dance used the term "bop" without distinguishing between the
bebop style pioneered by Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie and others in the 1940s, and the
hard bop style popularized in the 1950's by musicians such as Clifford Brown and Art
Blakey. Though it was common only among jazz musicians to avoid this distinction at
the time,

it was appropriate for Dance, a writer, to do so as well, because Hayes

performance style includes elements of both bebop and hard bop.

While Hayes certainly had a style of his own, the influence of the bebop
pioneers he idolized is significant. Charlie Parker was his favorite saxophonist; a fact
documented during a 1966 interview with the BBC when Hayes reminisces about staying
up late and forgoing his homework at the age of fourteen in order to listen to radio
broadcasts of Parker performing at the Paris Jazz Fair.126 Certainly Hayes' ability to
navigate fast harmonic rhythm at a fast tempo, and his approach to rhythm reflect bebop
influence as well.


Dance, 4.
Mark C. Gridley. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. (Upper Saddle River New Jersey: Prentice Hall,
2003), 186.
Spillett. The Long Shadow, 8.

On the other hand, Hayes' occasional rhythm-and-blues-like riffs, his relentless
hard-driving swing feel, and the name chosen by Hayes and his fellow band mates for
England's most prized jazz group of the 1950's, The Jazz Couriers, all reflect the
influence of the hard bop style popularized by the famous group led by Art Blakey, The
Jazz Messengers.
Certainly, anyone with an ear for jazz and sufficient knowledge about the style
would place Tubby Hayes among bop musicians, but this classification can be
documented. As mentioned in chapter three, Thomas Owens showed that the use of
formulas and devices represents a significant component of Parker's style, and because
Parker is the quintessential bebop musician, it follows that the use of formulas and
devices should also represent a significant component of bebop style in general. Ergo,
one can examine Tubby Hayes' music for the use of formulas and devices in much the
same way as Owens did with the music of Charlie Parker.
It should be noted that there is much more to bebop style than just the application
of formulas and devices. These aspects of Tubby Hayes style are addressed later in this
document. Furthermore, it is not the object of this project to replicate the work that
Owens did with Parker's music by providing a comprehensive catalogue of the formulas
and devices employed by Hayes. However, an examination of the solos transcribed for
this project will establish that Hayes used formulas and devices in much the same way as
Parker and presumably many other bebop musicians.
Owens showed that formulas and device's can be found in a variety of musical
settings, but perhaps the most obvious place to begin looking for them is in up-tempo
selections. This is because improvisers are more likely to employ what they know, or

what they have practiced with less variation when playing very fast. In other words, the
demands placed on the performers in up-tempo situations leave less room for exploration.
Consequently the artist is more likely to repeat ideas from chorus to chorus, thus
illuminating passages that are formulaic. This is particularly true when things are
complicated by a series of frequent tonality shifts.
Hayes was famous for playing fast, and Tubbs in New York/The New York
Sessions is replete with it. There are two tracks that feature him playing at exceptionally
fast tempos, and he frequently plays extended double-time passages on the other tracks.
Of the two faster tempo tracks on the album, the Sonny Rollins Composition
"Airegin" was selected for transcription, because in addition to being a particularly swift
selection at 280 beats per minute, it features Hayes improvising at a fast harmonic rhythm
with frequent tonality shifts. This harmonic challenge occurs in the B section of
"Airegin's" ABAC song form. The song form of "Airegin" is further complicated by
asymmetry. At 36 measures, the form is unusual when compared to the 32 measure
AABA, or ABAC song forms found in countless other jazz standards. The B section of
"Airegin" is twelve measures in length, and the A and C sections are eight measures
Tricky as it is, Tubby Hayes handles "Airegin" with ease, playing a seemingly
endless series notes in his four-chorus improvised solo pausing occasionally only long
enough to take a breath. In total, all of the rests in the solo amount to only about 15
measures out of the 144 measures in the solo. After solos by the vibraphone and piano
Hayes then trades fours with the vibraphonist before playing the melody for the last time
and finishing the song.


Hayes does repeat himself during his torrent, and this provides an opportunity to
identify some of the formulas he uses. Examples 1 through 4 are excerpts from four
different choruses from the first half of the B section of "Airegin." Notice the similarity
between them. In each, Hayes plays the same series of notes and the same rhythm in the
first measure of the IImin7, V7, IMaj7 sequence in the Key of D-flat (concert B
Example 1: 1st improvised chorus, B section, measures 2-8,from"Airegin" (1961)






Example 2: 2"
improvised chorus, B section, measures 3-7,from"Airegin" (1961)


Example 3:4 improvised chorus, B section, measures 4-7, from "Airegin" (1961)








Example 4: 1st chorus trading fours, B section, measures 1-5, from "Airegin" (1961)


i^rrrr*cj M





A fr 7

i r p r ^ rt[r pp|^r ^idrlr y">


1 Js=

Notice that in examples 1 through 3 the identical phrases continue with the V7
chord 5th and 3 rd acting as non-chord tones in the tonic measure (D-flat Maj7). The chord
5th prepares the 9th of the tonic, while the 3 rd of the V chord is suspended on the first beat
of the tonic measure resolving up to the tonic chord 3 rd on beat two. Examples 1 and 2
continue identically for two more measures through the next IImin7, V7, IMaj7 series in
C resolving on the tonic chord with a slight variation between the two examples.
Further examination of the phrases in examples 1 through 4 reveals that each is
made up of shorter motives that are linked together. This notion can be supported by
isolating the motives and then identifying identical and related motives found in different
contexts elsewhere in the transcriptions.

Isolated in example 5 below is the motive found on beats 1,2 and the first half of
beat 3 in the IImin7, V7 pattern in Db shown in examples 1-4. This motive and related
ones represent one of the most pervasive devices used by Tubby Hayes.
Example 5: 1st improvised chorus, B section, measure 3, from "Airegin" (1961)



Likely ignoring the IImin7 chord, Hayes plays the root of the V chord on the
downbeat of 1, plays an upper neighboring tone on the and of 1 before returning to the
root and descending through the 7th on the downbeat of 2 to the 13th on the and of 2. The
defining aspect of this motive is the upper neighboring tone and descent. Notice the
similarity between example 5 and beats 1, 2, and 3 of the 2nd measure in example 4,
where Hayes starts the pattern on the lx of a Cmin7 chord, this time using the root as the
upper neighboring tone before playing a descending arpeggio on chord tones 5, 3, and 1.
Similarly, in measure 1 of example 1, Hayes plays the same motive starting on the
Emin7 chord root and uses a chromatic upper neighboring tone before playing the chord
7th on beat two followed by a lower chromatic approach to arrive on the C-sharp, or 3rd of
the A7 chord on beat 3.
Hayes plays this motive over 60 times in the four selections transcribed for this

project. Of these, most start on beat one with the root of the respective chord, but there
are some exceptions, such as his use of the pattern starting on a chord 3rd or 7l as shown

above, occasional use the pattern starting on beat 3, and a couple of instances where he
plays the pattern starting on beat 2 or 4.
In example 6 below, another motive frequently used by Hayes is isolated from the
larger excerpts in examples 1-4.

Example 6: 1st improvised chorus, B section, measure 3, from "Airegin" (1961)

7 Wr

This motive is a simple augmentation of the sixteenth-note duplet that occurs on

the offbeat of the first beat in the motive found in example 5. The triplet subdivision of
the offbeat127 allows for smooth voice leading to the chord 5th by way of a chromatic
passing tone on E. The added passing tone is a subtle difference that would be hardly
worth mentioning if it were not for the fact that Hayes frequently strung these two related
motives together such as they are in examples 1-4, and in example 7 below.
Notice in example 7 how Hayes strings the two related motive together twice
inside of five measures, the first time starting on beat 3 in measure 95 and the second
time starting on beat 1 in measure 98.


In the transcriptions, this figure can also be seen notated as four sixteenth notes rather than the eighth
plus a sixteenth note triplet. The four sixteenth notes are often used when the figure is tied from a previous
note. The shortened offbeat associated with swing feel makes the difference between the two figures
negligible at medium-up and fast tempos. Both figures can be interpreted as the same figure rhythmically
in all of the transcriptions except "Pint of Bitter," which has a comparatively slow tempo.


Example 7: 2 improvised chorus, measures 22-26, from "You for Me" (1961)





Notice also in example 7 that Hayes uses the motive from example 5 by itself two
additional times for a total of four inside of five measures. This underscores the
pervasiveness of the device. In fact, listening for this motive can help identify the
saxophone playing of Tubby Hayes by ear.
Another such motive, is isolated below in example 8 on beat two, in measure 50
of example 1 and measure 86 of example 2 above.
Example 8: 2nd improvised chorus, B section, measure 6, from "Airegin" (1961)



Here following another motive closely related to the one shown in example 6
above, the IImin7 chord tones 3, 5, 7, and 9 or F, A, C, and E of Dmin7 are played in an
ascending sixteenth note arpeggio followed by a descending line that begins with a minor
second. Hayes plays this line quite frequently too. In fact, example 8 shows only one of
its two appearances in the phrase shown in example 1.

The first appearance is isolated below in example 9. Here V7 chord tones 3, 5, 7,
and 9 or C-sharp, E, G and B are played in a series of eighth notes starting on beat three.
Notice also that this motive is linked to yet another example of the motive shown in
example 5.
Example 9: 1st improvised chorus, B section, measure 2, from "Airegin" (1961)

Though Hays was certainly aware of this kind of repetition, it is impossible to tell
with absolute certainty whether or not he was conscious of it while soloing. Probably
not, but because he played the exact same sequence of notes in the exact same place in
the song form four times in one improvised solo, and because we see the widespread use
of other identical and related motives, it is logical to assume that a significant portion of
Hayes improvisations took shape in advance of performance.
It is likely that some of the devices came about through habitual use, while others
could have been consciously worked out by Hayes when practicing for use in particular
situations such as the IImin7, V7,1 series in the key of Db shown in examples 1-4. It is
also likely that a good deal of the repetition in Hayes improvisation involves a
combination of these two scenarios.
In some places, Hayes may have been elaborately ornamenting the melody.
Another examination of examples 1-4 reveals that the phrase shown in the examples also
includes the notes of the melody at that point in "Airegin." Example 10 shows the first
phrase from example 1 with the melody notes enlarged.

Example 10: 1st improvised chorus, B section, measures 4-8, from "Airegin" (1961)



I' '




' 'LJU


Again, it is not possible to know exactly what Hayes was thinking when
performing, but the interesting thing is that the patterns perform a role beyond their use
by Hayes as a means to help "make the changes." The identical and related patterns link
the phrases and motives to each other, and common notes often link the phrases to key
notes in the melody. Repetition from song to song, and from chorus to chorus helps to
unify the style of Hayes as he employs patterns that either highlight melody notes as
demonstrated above or as is demonstrated later, exploit strong chromatic voice leading
inherent in the harmony of a song. This is the kind of thematic unity that is discussed in
depth by Henry Martin in Charlie Parker and Thematic Improvisation, and it contributes
to the overall effectiveness of Tubby Hayes' solos.

While the use of formulas is a common element associated with jazz musicians
who are "firmly rooted in the Bop tradition,"

there are other characteristics to consider

in a style analysis. Recall that Carol Louise Heen's Procedures for Style Analysis of
Jazz: A Beginning Approach lists a range of factors that include melody, rhythm,
harmony, timbre, texture, form and growth. Harmony, rhythm, and melody have been
discussed to a small degree already as part of the discussion above about the use of
formulas. These parameters are explored further in this section. Heen groups timbre and
texture together as one category which will serve to provide parameters for a discussion
about sound. Similarly, she combines form and growth in one category which will form
the basis for a broader discussion about how Hayes constructs solos.
Sound: Tone Quality and Texture
Tone quality or timbre is one aspect of jazz performance that cannot be supported
with written musical examples. Some composers indicate specific intentions with regard
to tone quality such as sub-tone, and laid back etc..., and some even have invented their
own type of nomenclature to indicate timbre,130 but to date there is no standardized
system for timbre. Consequently, while transcriptions are effective for analyzing how the

Dance, 4.
Bruno Bartolozzi. New Sounds for Woodwind, 2nd ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1982.

notes in a performance relate to each other, they are not effective tools for a discourse on
One could obtain a recorded sample and analyze it with an oscilloscope for the
relative levels of the harmonics or overtones present in the sound of Tubby Hayes. The
harmonic signature could then be compared to that of other saxophonists, but that would
not put the reader any closer to understanding the cumulative affects of those frequencies,
or simply what it sounds like.
Though the human ear is capable of distinguishing between minute differences in
harmonic signatures such as those that differentiate one saxophonist from the next, it is
interesting that in order to describe these differences, language is forced to borrow
descriptive terms like bright, dark, smooth, round, brittle and edgy, which are generally
used to describe tangible objects. Unfortunately, there is no standard to show how these
borrowed descriptive terms translate into the harmonic signatures they are used to
Even so, an attempt to entirely avoid the use of descriptive terms like those above
would be difficult and unnecessary. They can be helpful, but since these descriptive
terms are more often used to describe things less abstract than sound, a comparison to a
better-known tenor saxophonist from jazz history will help clarify.
Much like his overall performance style, and like other saxophone greats of the
time, Tubby Hayes had a sound all his own. But if one were to seek another more famous
jazz saxophonist with a similar sound for comparison, Stan Getz might be the best choice.
Hayes had at times a light and airy timbre similar to the one that made Getz famous. This
can only be confirmed by listening to Hayes recordings, and just about any will do. In

order to hear the similarity, pay close attention at the beginnings and ends of phrases
where he is likely to be holding a note, particularly in places where Hayes is playing
lyrically such as in the melody of "Soon." It can be difficult to find long notes in his
The similarity in sound between Hayes and Getz may have more to do with two
more characteristics that include a number of variables that contribute a great deal to the
overall sound of a saxophonist. The first of these characteristics is tone bending.
Variables include choice of notes to bend, how far to bend them, and for how long.
Hayes often starts phrases and inflects notes with a specific type of tone bend called a
scoop. A scoop is when a saxophonist starts a note low with a loose embouchure and
then slides up by gradually increasing lower jaw pressure until the desired pitch is met.
This type of inflection can contribute a great deal to the overall sound of a saxophonist.
The most famous example is Johnny Hodges who made a career out of his unique
approach to scooping which was significantly more prominent than the more subtle one
used Hayes. It is possible that Hayes inherited his scoop from Getz, because they are
similar to each other in range and duration.
The second characteristic of sound shared by Hayes and Getz lies in their
approach to vibrato. Vibrato is a method of ornamentation employed to some degree by
virtually all saxophonists. Hayes and Getz both used what is called terminal vibrato, a
vibrato that is applied towards the end of a held note, frequently at the end of a phrase.
Terminal vibrato was very common among mid-twentieth century jazz saxophonists, and
it is still used although to a lesser degree. There are variables associated with vibrato that
contribute to individuality including speed, width, and point of application. Simply put,

musicians choose how wide, how fast, when and where to apply vibrato, and these
decisions contribute to individual sound. Terminal vibrato adds more variables including
where in the sustained pitch will it start and for how long will it be applied. So, while
terminal vibrato was quite common among jazz saxophonists, it did not necessarily
equate to a similarity in sound among all who used it.
In the case of Tubby Hayes and Stan Getz, the variables were similar enough that
it did contribute to a likeness in their sounds. They both used a slow narrow terminal
vibrato that was applied just as a longer note began to decay. This combined with the
occasional scoop, and the light airy timbre gives their sound a laid back relaxed affect.
There is documentation supporting the influence of Getz on Hayes. According to
Hayes himself, "everyone was trying to imitate Getz"131 during the early 1950s when
Hayes was young and impressionable and learning how to play. This is an easy statement
to believe. Getz was world famous by then. There were thousands of saxophonists
listening to and emulating him in the 1950s.
Despite the similarity in their sounds, Hayes and Getz had overall styles that were
markedly different from one another. This is due in large part to each musician's
approach to rhythm. Whereas both players could play very fast, Getz complimented his
laid-back sound with an equally smooth rhythmic vocabulary; Hayes provided a contrast
to his relaxed sound with syncopation and accent, and he often displayed his virtuosic
technical playing. Getz displayed virtuosity less frequently.

Spillett, The Little Giant. Spillett found this quote from an interview of Tubby Hayes by John Martin in

Example 11 below shows the eight measure introduction of "You for Me," which
is the first track on the album Tubbs in New York/New York Sessions. Hayes plays this
eight measure barrage of notes unaccompanied, which is fitting, because it his first salvo
ushering in the album and Tubby Hayes to an American audience. It sets an aggressive
rhythmic tone that is maintained throughout the rest of the album. Hayes plays this
unaccompanied solo introduction in time setting the tempo for "You for Me" at 215 beats
per minute, although after the rhythm section enters at measure nine, the track gradually
slows and eventually settles in at around 208 beats per minute.
The example is marked to show how Tubby Hayes accents. All accented notes
indicated in this excerpt are tongued. In addition, other notes are marked with a "T" to
show where Hayes used his tongue to create an emphasis that was slightly less than that
applied to the accented notes but more than that of the unmarked notes. This essentially
results in two levels of accents.

Example 11: introduction, measures 1-8, from "You for Me" (1961)


ufff f f*r i^f r r r i r ^ j j

The passage, consisting of two phrases each made up of a series of elided

motives, provides a sample of the type of rhythmic variety typical in Hayes
improvisations. There is a balance between duplet, triplet, and quadruplet subdivision of
the beats. The two levels of accent, fast tempo, and frequent juxtaposition of duplet and
triplet subdivision are rhythmic elements of Hayes' performance style that help to create
an overall affect of forward motion which is typical of bebop style.
Hayes uses sixteenth notes only after the midpoint of the introduction has passed
in bar 5. Adding the additional subdivision in the second half serves to build intensity as
the close of the introduction approaches.
Notice also in example 11 the use of the quadruplet on beat two in bar 7 as part
of a 3, 5, 7, 9 formula, and the two sixteenth note neighboring tone motives strung
together in bar 5, both discussed earlier in the section related to formulas.
There is only one eighth-note rest in the excerpt. In general, Hayes left very little
space in his solos. When he did, it was usually only long enough to take a breath. In his
five chorus solo on "You for Me," Hayes only rests for about 15 measures out of a total
of 162. These rests come as one or two beats of rest between long phrases constructed
rhythmically in much the same way as the two shown in the example above. Recall that
he left only about 15 measures rest in his solo on "Airegin" as well. "Soon" and "Pint of
Bitter" both share this quality as do the vast majority of Hayes solos that can be found on
the various recordings listed in the discography.
Notice the tonguing pairs in measures 1, and 4 as well as the four eighth-notes
tongued in succession in the penultimate measure of the introduction shown in example
11. This indicates skill in this area. Despite the fact that Hayes makes it sound simple,

any saxophonist will confirm that it is not easy to tongue swing consecutive eighth notes
at 215 quarter-note beats per minute.
Finally, each of the two phrases starts with a syncopated entrance. The first starts
on upbeat of 3, and the second on the upbeat of 1. Hayes begins most of his improvised
phrases in this way. In "You for Me" Hayes begins phrases on the upbeats roughly twice
as often as he starts a phrase on the beat. The difference is slightly larger in "Pint of
Bitter." This is also consistent with bebop influence. Frequent syncopated entrances
mark one of bebop's contributions to jazz music.
Hayes did play at slow tempos but he was known for playing fast. He indicates
some frustration with this typecasting during a mid 1960s interview/discussion with Sal
Nistico, Woody Herman's tenor saxophone soloist at the time, also known as a fast tenor
saxophonist. Hayes says: "We've got the same sort of problem. We both like to play
ballads, or any kind of thing, but we're sort of stereotyped. Everybody expects the tear-up
tempos all the time."

Hayes then tells a story about playing a ballad as the only

number his group played as part of a multiple group concert. He said it went over well,
but according to Hayes, writers thought he was sick.
The is only one ballad recorded during the sessions that resulted in Tubbs in New
York/The New York Sessions, and it can be found only on the 1990 re-release on CD.
Apparently, there was not enough room on the original vinyl release. "You're My
Everything" is a typical jazz ballad, but even here Hayes still plays a large part of the
song at double and quadruple time. "Pint of Bitter," which is the slowest of the selections
transcribed for this project finds Hays improvising mostly in triple and quadruple

Les Tomkins. Tubby Hayes Meet Sal Nistico (2000). [Webpage] Accessed July 26, 2007. Available

subdivisions. Example 12 below is an excerpt from "Pint of Biter," played at about 110
beats per minute. Notice that he even uses sextuple and octuple subdivision.

Example 12, first improvised chorus, measures 6-8, from "Pint of Bitter" (1961)

Whether at fast or slow tempos, Hayes nearly always played a lot of notes. He
was criticized for this. In the liner notes for Tubby Hayes Quartet in Scandinavia Alun
Morgan briefly mentions that "There were some critics who found his high-speed note
production difficult to accept."134 Morgan does not mention who the critics were, but this
kind of criticism is a typical reaction to improvisers who play a lot of notes. Hayes
stands out from many jazz performers who fall into the musical diarrhea category. The
variety of subdivisions and the accent schemes he employed break up what might
otherwise be considered monotonous rambling.

Alun Morgan, liner notes from Tubby Hayes Quartet In Scandinavia. (Denmark: Storyville Records,


Form and Growth

The devices described above show how Tubby Hayes used increased rhythmic
density and rhythmic variation to hold interest and build intensity within a single phrase.
Hayes also used these concepts to hold interest and build intensity within the larger
context found in an improvised solo as a whole.
We have already seen in example 10 how Hayes used quadruplet subdivision to
build intensity in the second half of the 8 measure unaccompanied introduction to "You
for Me." He used a similar approach to build intensity in selected places within each
chorus of "You for Me," usually in the later half. Notice that he plays double time within
the first 8 measures of the second half of his first four individual choruses in "You for
Me." In this way he expands the scope of this device by playing extended phrases in
double time rather than using the isolated double-time beats found in the second half of
the introduction to "You for Me." Hayes uses extended double time phrases to build
intensity during his solo on "Soon" as well, but the position of the double time passages
varies more from chorus to chorus on that track.
In his final improvised chorus on "You for Me," Hayes achieves greater intensity
in part through contrast by avoiding an extended double time passage. Instead, he builds
intensity by playing phrases with increasingly more syncopated jagged melodic contours.
Put simply, he changes direction more, uses greater rhythmic variety with more frequent
accents. Hayes also helps to increase intensity by playing higher notes and playing with
an overall greater tessitura.

Hayes used a great deal of variation in phrase length,frequentlycomposed of odd
numbers of measures, as well. He played as many 1, 3 and 5 measure phrases as he did
2,4 and 6 measure phrases, and his longest phrases tend to be found towards the end of
his solos where he is building intensity.
Hayes also repeatedly phrased over the bar lines, and hefrequentlyapplied this
strategy at transitional places such as the beginning of a new chorus or at key cadence
points in the song. Combined with increased note density, this was an effective way to
build intensity and keep a sense of forward motion.
Example 13 below shows the beginning of the last chorus of Hayes' improvised
solo on "Soon," which was played at a tempo of 194 beats per minute. Notice that it
begins at measures 168 in the measure before the double bar line marking the beginning
of his final chorus, and it continues for the next six measures. At a total of seven
measures, it is the longest phrase in the solo, and has the highest note density. The
frequent direction changes create a jagged melodic contour, and the overall range of the
melody is also quite large at almost two octaves. These things combine for an overall
intensity level that is quite high leading into the final chorus of the solo.

Example 13,fifthand sixth improvised chorus, measures 32, and 1-6, from "Soon"

Notice the beginning of the next phrase shown in the last two measures of
example 12. Hayes begins this phrase on the upbeat just two counts after the end of the
last phrase, and remains in the upper range of the saxophone. The phrase continues over
the bar line through the cadence point marking the second 8 measure section of the form.
Hayes uses the offbeat entrance, upper range, and playing over the bar line to maintain
the intensity created with thefirstphrase.
Hayes repeatedly used variation in phrase length, increased note density, frequent
direction change and expanded range as devices to create variety and build intensity in
the other improvised solos transcribed for this project. In "Airegin," he played the
longest phrase of the solo at the end of his last chorus. Example 14 below shows the 8measure phrase starting in the measure prior to thefinalC section of his final chorus.

Note the range of this phrase, that fact that it contains highest notes in the solo, and how
the number of direction changes increases as the phrase comes to a close.

Example 14, fifth improvised chorus, measures 23-32, from "Airegin" (1961)




The techniques, i.e., increased note density, phrase length variation, and upward
expansion of range that Hayed uses to build intensity have been proven to be effective
within the context of western music for centuries. It is clear that whether conscious of it
or not Hayes had a firm grasp of how to use these techniques to build phrases and
develop an improvised solo.
Variation in melodic contour is a development technique that has been in use for
centuries, probably since music's inception. We have already seen some aspects of
melodic contour while examining the form and growth involved with the phrase structure
in Tubby Hayes solos. He used a great deal of variation in melodic contour, and this can
be clearly seen in most any phrase in the transcriptions.

In addition, the melodic vocabulary of Tubby Hayes was composed primarily of
tertian chord arpeggios, scale fragments, and approach notes. Example 15 below shows
the two measure solo break and the first 9 measure of Tubby Hayes' solo on "Soon."
This excerpt is quite typical of Hayes constructed jazz. Every note in this passage can be
explained as part of one of the above mentioned melodic devices

Example 15, first improvised chorus, solo break and measures 1-8, from "Soon" (1961)

Measure 31 is derived from an F major scale with chromatic approach notes G#

and B (marked CPT for chromatic passing tone) on the first and fourth sixteenth notes in
beat four. The scale continues through the next three measures with the exception of the
descending arpeggio on chord tones 9, 7, 5, and 3 of an F#9 chord on beat two of
measure 32. Hayes probably derived measures 35, 36 and 37 from the G harmonic minor
scale, although the conclusion of the middle phrase in the excerpt at measure 37could be
analyzed as a G minor arpeggio with two approach notes A, and C.
Measure 38 and the first beat and a half of measure 39 are derived from the Bb
dorian scale while the Gb on the and of two in measure 39 provides a chromatic approach

to the descending 9,7,5,3 arpeggio on Eb9 anticipating the harmony in measure 40.
Measure 40 is quite interesting, but it can be explained within the melodic
parameters set above. Beat one starts with a chromatic approach to the chord 3 rd and
finishes with surrounding tones (marked ENC for enclosure) to the E on beat two, which
along with the G# on the and of two functions as a two note arpeggio on E. The E chord
is a tritone substitution for Bb, and functions secondary dominant resolving back to the
Eb7 on beat three spelled enharmonically here as D#. Beats three and four simply
descend downward through the Eb mixolydian scale to arrive on the F major chord 3 rd on
beat one of measure 41. Hayes then plays an FM6 chord arpeggio using chord tones 3, 5,
6, and 1 to complete the final phrase in the excerpt.
Being able to describe the scale or chord derivation does not do the phrase justice
however, because if fails to explain why the phrase works. One thing that makes Hayes
melodies so effective is his extensive use of chromaticism. This can be seen not only
through his frequent use of chromatic approach tones, but also through some choices he
makes. In example 15, notice the chromatic motion in two places, first from the F# on
the and of 4 in measure 36 to G on beat one of measure 37, and second from the A# on
the and of 4 in measure 40 to the A on one in measure 41. In both cases, Hayes appears
to make the choice of which scale fragment to use and what chord tone to begin the
arpeggio on based on how best to exploit chromatic voice leading inherent in the chord
As mentioned above, Hayes applied a great deal of variation to the overall
melodic contour of each phrase by changing direction, usually once or twice per measure,
and often coupling the direction change with an accent. This adds to the sense of forward

motion and variety that is found in the other aspects of his performance style. Notice that
in the penultimate measure of the third phrase shown in example 15, Hayes changes
direction three times. This is the only measure in the excerpt with three direction
changes, and this helps to build intensity towards the tonic cadence which concludes the
entire excerpt at measure 41.
It is clear that while Hayes did not break new ground with his melodic
vocabulary, he applied it in a sophisticated fashion that is obscured by how logical and
pleasing to the ear his melodies are. Students of jazz could learn a great deal from Hayes,
because even today, forty years after this music was recorded, jazz players strive to be
able to use the same melodic devices shown above as effectively as Hayes did.

The effective use of proven techniques is as evident in Hayes' harmonic approach
as in the other aspects of his style. His harmonic vocabulary, like that of a lot of jazz
musicians in 1961, was based on a combination of the blues and the common practice
tonal system used by so many composers in other genres of Western art music. In
addition to demonstrating the melodic, rhythmic, and phrase structure elements discussed
thus far, examples 1-14 demonstrate a number of harmonic elements as well. These
include arpeggios outlining various 7th chord types and qualities found commonly in jazz
music, and chord scale fragments derived from major, harmonic minor, natural minor,
dorian, and mixolydian scales. These fragments occur in places where anyone familiar
with chord scale relationships in jazz would expect to see them.

In fact, it is fair to say that Tubby Hayes was not particularly innovative from a
harmonic standpoint, but he applied harmony in a way that clearly indicates serious study
of the bebop language. It should also be noted that his application of the harmonic
system was fist-rate. What is interesting about Hayes is how he used various harmonic
devices to add interest through unity and variety, and build intensity.
Example 16 below shows the long phrase concluding Hayes' solo on "Airegin"
(also depicted in example 13) with some added chords and changed chords in parenthesis
to indicate one possible interpretation of the harmony implied by the notes played by
Hayes. There are other possibilities if one considers non-chord tones, altered tones,
upper chord extensions and scalar interpretation.

Example 16, fifth improvised chorus, measures 23-32, from "Airegin" (1961)




It is difficult to tell exactly what cognitive processes Hayes used all the way
through this phrase, but it is clear that the line implies the addition of chords to the
harmony. There is a dominant sound in the first two beats of measure 173, and the II, V

in the key of D major in measure 173 borrowed from the B section of "Airegin" is
obvious too; he played that series of chords every chorus. He substituted a C dominant
chord for a C minor chord in measure 177 and made the same substitution at the same
place in the song form when trading fours.
There are multiple interpretations in some places. For example, rather than
thinking of adding chords in measures 175 and 176, Hayes could have been anticipating
the minor II, V progression in measure 176 by playing the appropriate scale (C harmonic
minor) and adding the B-flat and A on beat two as a double chromatic approach to the Ab
on beat 3. But even if this were the case, the harmonic implications still exist whether
intended or not.
Also, notice the likeness between measures 176 and 180. They are the same
pattern applied in two different keys. This indicates a minor II, V pattern that Hayes
probably practiced.
Example 17 below shows Hayes using a whole tone scale. This phrase is quite
typical of Hayes. As seen before, he plays a phrase over the bar line at the transition
between the first and second choruses of his solo. When he arrives at the first measures
of his second chorus he uses a whole-tone scale anticipating the D7b9#5 chord by four
beats. The whole tone scale is not an uncommon choice in this situation; it fits the chord,
but it does have an exotic sound nonetheless. It is particularly striking in this instance
because it contrasts so heavily with the on chromatic motion so pervasive in Hayes style.
Hayes underscores this unique place in the solo further by decreasing the
rhythmic density to syncopated, off-beat quarter notes. This provides contrast to the
rather constant steady-eighth feel in the solo. His anticipation of the altered dominant

chord also adds color to the line. This combination of devices makes for a particularly
effective phrase and provides an excellent example of Hayes maximizing the effect of the
harmonic vocabulary h e had available to him.

Example 17, 2 n d improvised chorus, measures 70-75, from "Airegin" (1961)







fr-pfr ^ r g g f ^ |Lf f f > i

In addition to the whole tone scale used in measures 73-75, Hayes seems to be
applying another symmetric scale in measures 70 and 71, in this case a symmetric
dominant scale, sometimes referred to as an octatonic or a half-whole diminished scale.
Starting with a half step, this is an 8 note scale that alternates half steps and whole steps.
At first glance, Hayes seems to be ignoring the Bb 6 chord in favor of extending the
F7(b9) sound by playing one of his signature rhythmic patterns on a descending F
symmetric dominant scale that continues until the Am7(b5) in measure 72, and this is a
valid way of analyzing this passage. However, the F# on the last sixteenth note of beat
one in measure 71 moves to an F natural on beat two. This serves to resolve the b9 of
dominant chord in the most expected way to the tonic chord 5 on beat two. The Ab on
the upbeat of beat four serves as a chromatic approach to the A on beat one of measure
72, and when spelled enharmonically as G# implies a secondary dominant. Serving as


the chord 3 of E7 moving chromatically up to A the root of the resolution chord.

Measure 72 could also be interpreted as a symmetric dominant scale, but it perhaps is
better understood as G harmonic minor scale, or as an ornamented arpeggio on D7 with a
b9 added. Again, it is impossible to know exactly what Hayes was thinking here, but
what is truly interesting is that Hayes, like many great jazz musicians did not just play
scales and patterns. He used these devices in such a way as to imply further harmonic
motion and exploit chromatic voice leading inherent in the harmony.
Example 16 above is not the only place where Hayes changed chord qualities.
Another good example of this can be found in "You for Me." Example 18 below shows
the solo break and the first measure of Hayes' solo.

Example 18, 1st improvised chorus, solo break and measure 1, from "You for Me"

Here, during the unaccompanied solo break in measures 89 and 90, Hayes
references the blues by introducing his solo with a phrase derived from the C blues scale.
When the rhythm section enters at measure 91, Hayes continues with the blues scale
which in effect changes the quality of thefirsttonic chord in the form of "You for Me"
from major to dominant.
Hayes references the blues by playing lines derived from a blues scale quite
frequently. He plays a similar phrase to the one shown in example 17 to mark the

beginning of his second, fourth and fifth choruses of "You for Me." Example 19 below
shows that he took a similar approach for his solo on "Pint of Bitter." Hayes plays only
one chorus on this track, but the Bb6 chord comes around three times in the AABA form
and Hayes plays a blues scale derived line each time.

Example 19,1 st improvised chorus, measures 1 and 2, from "Pint of Bitter" (1961)

jfh *pffrrrr%> r i
Example 20 below shows another strong phrase at the beginning of the form in
"You for Me." In this example, Hayes ignores the G7 chord in measures 74 and 76 in
favor of an Eb chord. This works despite the clashing Gb in measure 76 because of the
strength of line established by the chromatically ascending sequence, and because the Gb
happens on the upbeat of three, a weak spot in the measure. Hayes strengthens the line
further by accenting the top note in each sequence.

Example 20, 3 rd improvised chorus, measures 1-5, from "You for Me" (1961)

Notice also in example 19 that measure 77 functions as a II, V progression

tonicizing the D minor chord in measure 78, which in turn functions as the II chord for
the next II, V, I. Tonicizing a chord by inserting secondary dominants and sometimes

subdominants is often called back phrasing, because it extends a harmonic sequence

backwards through a line. It is an improvisational technique that represents a chief style
characteristic of bebop, and it is a device frequently used by Tubby Hayes. There is an
example of it in almost every long phase he plays, and he almost always uses back
phrasing to add interest when playing extremely fast. It can be seen in every double time
phrase in both "You for Me" and "Soon."
One last harmonic device that deserves mention is the tritone substitution. Jazz
musicians consider dominant 7th chords with roots a tritone apart from one another to be
interchangeable because the 3 rd and 7th of one chord are the same pitches as the 7th and
3 rd in the other. The tritone substitution is probably the most common chord substitution
used by jazz musicians, particularly from this era and style.
Hayes used tritone substitutions, but not as frequently as one might expect
considering his penchant for chromatic motion. Beat three of measure 51 in Example 21
below is an excellent example. Hayes is playing a line likely derived from the Eb
mixolydian scale, the chord-scale associated with an Eb7 chord or the appropriate tritone
substitution for the A7 chord written in the chord changes.

Example 21, improvised chorus, B section, measures 1-5, from "Pint of Bitter" (1961)

Example 21 could also be interpreted another way. Hayes could be thinking
about playing a symmetric dominant, or half-whole diminished scale with A as its root.
This is an acceptable chord scale for a dominant seventh chord. If this were the case,
Hayes would be using another harmonic device that is common in jazz and perhaps more
closely aligned with the use of the whole tone scale, another symmetric scale acceptable
for use over dominant 7th shown in example 16. However Hayes was thinking about it,
the harmonic effect is still the same. It really strengthens the line and allows Hayes to
take advantage of the chromatic voice leading.
On occasion Hayes uses the tritone substitution in a rather unconventional way,
and this can be seen in example 22 below.

Example 22, Solo break and measure 1, from melody chorus and I s improvised chorus

Notice in measure 32 (the last measure of the melody chorus) how Hayes inserts a
descending arpeggio on the notes G#, E, C#, and A#. The best explanation for these
notes is as chord tones 9, 7, 5, and 3 of F#9, which is the tri-tone substitute for the C7
chord occurring on beat 3 of the measure. It is interesting that Hayes uses the tri-tone
substitution prior to sounding the C7 chord and not after or in place of it. Anticipation of
a dominant chord using the tri-tone substitution is occasionally used by Hayes and could
be used as an identifier.

It is clear that Tubby Hayes systematically employed harmonic devices such as
tri-tone substitution, back phrasing, and chord anticipation that helped him develop ideas
effective at illuminating the chord changes, but he also used them to strengthen phrases
and build intensity in his improvised solos. This is a mark of a master improviser. It is
also notable that while he effectively employed these harmonic devices, he was not a
slave to the chord changes so to speak. He would allow the strength of a line carry itself
through a series of changes even if it did not fit perfectly. This indicates that he was a
true improviser, and not a paint-by-numbers player who plugged in practiced and
memorized lines into corresponding chords.


Examination of these transcriptions reveals that from a theoretical perspective,
Tubby Hayes was rather conventional. Virtually every definable aspect of his musical
vocabulary including sound, time feel, phrasing, melodic devices, and harmonic approach
was somewhat conventional and can be broken down, documented and shown to exist in
the music of other jazz musicians from the same period and earlier.
Since jazz is so often equated with finding one's own voice, it would seem that
the above observation is rather condemning. But this is not the case, because with the
exception of John Coltrane and Ornette Coleman, the above statement could be applied to
virtually every famous jazz saxophonist performing in 1961. Yet, players like Sonny
Rollins, Sonny Stitt, Canonball Adderly, Stan Getz, Tubby Hayes and many more all
managed to find their own voice and make a contribution to jazz. How did they do it?
Each used these conventional musical elements of tonality in western music as well as
those specific to the jazz language in their own way. They were the consolidators, and
like the consolidators in other areas of music history, they are just as important to the
history of a style as the innovators, because they propagate innovative techniques.
Innovations not propagated are much more likely to be seen as mere novelties.
Tubby Hayes was famous for playing fast, but this alone is not enough to warrant
the admiration he deserves. He had a warm and full laid back sound uniquely his own

but subtly linked to the rest of the jazz world through his admiration for the jazz
saxophonists that came before him. He played with rhythmic ferocity and a hard driving
swing feel comparable to Cannonball Adderly and others from the hard bop period. He
played phrases that were rich in variety of length, accent scheme, beat subdivision,
melodic contour and range, and at the same time he provided unity by connecting his
phrases to each other and song melodies through similarities in rhythm, common notes
and voice leading inherent in the harmony. He connected his music to jazz history by
playing the blues well and by appropriating blues melodies tastefully in his solos. He
built intensity with sophistication using combinations of increased rhythmic density,
greater melodic range, longer phrases, chord substitution and increasing speed of
harmonic rhythm through back-phrasing. He used approach notes as glue, connecting
his ideas in a seamless fashion, and he did all of these things with the ease of a true
Had Tubby Hayes lived in the United States, he might have been better known,
but that would negate one of his most admirable qualities and the one thing about him
that was innovative. He managed to achieve a level of jazz musicianship and fluency in
the language of jazz that was comparable to his American counterparts while growing up
in England.
If one were so inclined, they could make the argument that Hayes was playing
bebop 20 years too late, but he had elements of contemporary playing too. His hard
driving approach to swing places him easily in the hard bop category.

From an educational perspective, Hayes makes an excellent player to study. His
technique is clean and easy to hear even on the extremely fast playing, and his playing is
extremely logical from a theoretical point of view.
The world ofjazz should be proud of Tubby Hayes, because he represents the
blossoming of one of America's greatest artistic contributions to world. He helped make
jazz a genre that is practiced, admired, and patronized world wide.

Suggestions for Further Study

The discussion about tone quality touched on an interesting point. Though it is
widely known that the tone quality or timbre of any vibrating musical sound is
determined by the presence or lack thereof of harmonics or overtones relative to the
fundamental, no study has been done to examine the different harmonic signatures of the
widely disparate body of recorded saxophone music. Since the saxophone has
experienced such a wide range of acceptable timbres in its short history, a researcher
could use an oscilloscope to determine and document the harmonic signature of some of
the more famous saxophonists. A researcher could then compare the various harmonic
signatures to the descriptive terms most often used to describe each performer. This
could lead to a better understanding of how terms like bright, dark, edgy, etc... appear in
harmonic signatures, and it could provide a resource for research addressing the subject
of timbre.
There are now a significant number of recordings of Tubby Hayes available that
chronicle his career from when he was 20 years old to his death in 1973. Tubby Hayes

historians could benefit from further transcription and analysis of representative examples
from various points in his career in order to document his development.
An examination of how jazz in Great Britain and/or Europe has progressed since
the death of Tubby Hayes would also make a good topic of research. One could consult
European jazz musicians in order to examine the scope of the influence of Tubby Hayes.
One could also compare and contrast the rhythm sections Tubby Hayes played
with throughout his career and pay particular attention to how the New York based
rhythm section used in Tubbs in New York/The New York Sessions compares to those that
accompanied him in England. The Mercury records re-release of the Fontana album
Tubbs would make an excellent recording for comparison because it was recorded in the
spring of 1961 just six months prior to the recording date in New York.


Transcription of Airegin






Transcription of "Airegin" as performed by Tubby Hayes on

Tuhbs in New York/The New York Sessions in December, 1961
Composed by Sonny Rollins, Transcription by Edward Orgill

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Transcription of You for Me


Transcription of "You for Me" as performed by Tubby Hayes
Tubbs in New York/The New York Sessions in December, 1961
Composed by B. Haymes, Transcription by Edward Orgill

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Transcription of Soon


Transcription of "Soon" as performed by Tubby Hayes on
Tubbs in New York/The New York Sessions in December, 1961
Composed by George Gershwin, Transcription by Edward Orgill








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Transcription ofPint of Bitter


ranscription of "Pint of Bitter" as performed by Tubby Hayes on
Tubbs in New York/The New York Sessions in December, 1961
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