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Thanks to god, with his blessing, this project has been done successfully although we had gone
through miscellaneous of challenges to finish this project.
We would like to thank to our lecture Puan Norbayah binti Yusop for her dedication and support.
Who contributed with insights that reflects her experience in doing research from which we gain
a lot . She had given us a lot of advice about this project.
Thanks a lot to our project Advisor, Miss Siti Nazirah binti Abu Bakar. We will not able to finish
this project without her consistence guidance. She also helped us in clarifying the abstruse concept,
requiring knowledge and perception and understanding the objective of our work.
We highly indebted to our teachers for their continues support, supervision motivation and
guidance throughout the tenure of our project in spite of their hectie schedule who truly remained
driving spirit in our project. Their experience gave us the light in handling research project. We
are very grateful and a lot of contribution and a lot instruction to them we finish this project with
success. Our project had been progressing smoothly.
I would also like to thank our parents and friends who helped us a lot in finalizing this project
within the limited time frame. We all appreciate everything that they had tough us and advice.
Lastly, only God can repay their good deed.


Nur Ain Wahida binti Ismail
Nooraini binti Mokhtar

Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Merbok, Kedah.

Previously, people are manually compress the rubbish once full in dustbin. This project is come
out to help reduce people effort to do that. An Automatic Compress Trash Robot (AUTRACOM)
is develop to solve the problem.
The main objectives of this project is to construct, develop and test the functionality of
AUTRACOM. The software that involved to design the robot is using Lego Digital Designer.
The method that used in this project to construct and ensure the operational of the robot is using
Lego Mindstorms and EV3 programmer.
The infrared sensor are used to detect the level of the rubbish. Once the rubbish had reach on
certain level, it will compress the rubbish and when the rubbish is fully full and cannot be
compressed anymore, it will produce an alarm to inform the user.
In conclusion, this robot can save peoples energy and time. Moreover, it also can save our
surroundings by prevent from pest and unpleasant smells. This project are using solar energy so
that it is environmental friendly. This project is successfully implemented and can be used for
wider application.










Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Literature review
Chapter 3: Methodology
Chapter 4: Results and Discussion
Chapter 5:Conclusions and Recommendations








Public place such like night market, mart, school and playground dumped by a lot of
rubbish dumped everywhere. It is still valid even though there is many bins have been
placed. This is because the trash was already too full and cannot be filled with rubbish
anymore. This will cause unpleasant smells that attract pests such as rats, flies,
mosquitoes and cockroaches. Consequently, it will bring negative effects to our health of
harmful diseases such as dengue fever, food poisoning and breathing difficulty.

This problem can be prevented by creating bins that can help people to compress the trash.
Hereby, people do not need to use their effort to compress the rubbish. This will save their
time to do other work. Once the bins are too full and cannot be filled anymore, notifications
will be sent to waste management council so they can pick the garbage for disposal.
Furthermore, fans littering will also be reduced.

Problem Statement
When people want to fill the dustbin with more rubbish they need to compress the rubbish
by themselves. It required their energy and time to compress the rubbish. Moreover, some
people throw rubbish outside of the dustbin because they are too lazy to compress the
rubbish. The aim of our project are to replace humans work and reduce fans littering.


The objective of this project is to:
1. Design and construct the AUTRACOM
2. Develop and programming the project to ensure the operational of the robot
3. Test the functionality of the AUTRACOM


Scope of Study

This study focusses on programming the project by using EV3 programmer. The function
of the EV3 is to set the movement of the project and make the project works. EV3 is easier
to use because the use of NXT is more complicated and elusive. Secondly, we use Lego
Digital Designer to design the AUTRACOM. It is because it is easy for us to construct by
using LEGO Digital Designer than the other apps. Lastly, we also focus on the use of
sensor. We use infrared sensor to detect the level of the rubbish in the dustbin. The function
of the infrared sensor is to measure distance from the project to the rubbish. Infrared sensor
is very important because it will it will alert AUTRACOM to act by moving the motor to
compress the rubbish. Next, we also use the light sensor to identify and classify them
according to the colours of garbage. Each colour representing a material executes. Light
sensor are used to detect the colour of an object, measure reflected light, or measure
ambient light so we think this is the best to use for our project.
However, this is only first step, more research can be done to make sure that the user is
satisfied with the project.



Automatic Compressor

The Automatic Compressor is a machine added by Greg Tech that is an upgrade to the
normal IndustrialCraft2 Compressor. It serves the same function, but has a slightly different
method of operation. It has two each of input and output slots and also has two extra buttons
in the bottom-left corner of its GUI. Also note that it cannot receive power from its front
face, as is the case with all of the other automatic machines. Therefore, cable should be
hooked up to any of its other faces.
The left button with a blue lightning-bolt icon is a button that, when activated, allows for
the machine to transfer power to other adjacent machines which need it once it has used all
the power it needs from the packets it receives. The right button with an orange and black
icon is a button that, when activated, makes it so that all products of whatever operation
the machine is currently carrying out be deposited into an inventory on the back face of the
machine. This button will not make the machine eject items onto the ground or into
Pneumatic Tubes or into Pipes of any sort.
As with upgrading other IndustrialCraft2 machines into their automatic variants, all that is
necessary is to combine a Conveyor Module with a Compressor in a crafting grid in no
particular shape. As with their non-upgraded variants, automatic IC2 machines can handle
voltages of up to and including 32 EU/p, and will explode if given anything greater.

Diagram 2.1 Trash Compressor



According to the dictionary, compressor means one that compresses, especially:

a. A pump or other machine that increases the pressure of a gas.
b. An instrument or device that compresses, such as a forceps or clamp.
c. A muscle that causes compression of a body part.



The use of sensor

In the broadest definition, a sensor is an object whose purpose is to detect events or changes
in its environment, and then provide a corresponding output. A sensor is a type of
transducer; sensors may provide various types of output, but typically use electrical or
optical signals. For example, a thermocouple generates a known voltage (the output) in
response to its temperature (the environment). A mercury-in-glass thermometer, similarly,
converts measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid, which can be
read on a calibrated glass tube.
Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile
sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base, besides innumerable
applications of which most people are never aware. With advances in micro machinery and
easy-to-use micro controller platforms, the uses of sensors have expanded beyond the most
traditional fields of temperature, pressure or flow measurement,[1] for example into
MARG sensors. Moreover, analogue sensors such as potentiometers and force-sensing
resistors are still widely used. Applications include manufacturing and machinery,
airplanes and aerospace, cars, medicine, and is also included in our day-to-day
A sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the input
quantity being measured changes. For instance, if the mercury in a thermometer moves 1
cm when the temperature changes by 1 C, the sensitivity is 1 cm/C (it is basically the
slope Dy/Dx assuming a linear characteristic). Some sensors can also have an impact on
what they measure; for instance, a room temperature thermometer inserted into a hot cup
of liquid cools the liquid while the liquid heats the thermometer. Sensors need to be
designed to have a small effect on what is measured; making the sensor smaller often
improves this and may introduce other advantages.[citation needed] Technological
progress allows more and more sensors to be manufactured on a microscopic scale as micro
sensors using MEMS technology. In most cases, a micro sensor reaches a significantly
higher speed and sensitivity compared with macroscopic approaches.


Criteria to choose a sensor:

There are certain features which have to be considered when we choose a sensor. They are
as given below:



Environmental condition - usually has limits for temperature/ humidity


Range - Measurement limit of sensor

4. Calibration - Essential for most of the measuring devices as the readings changes with

Resolution - Smallest increment detected by the sensor



Repeatability - The reading that varies is repeatedly measured under the same


Classification of Sensors
The sensors are classified into the following criteria:

Primary Input quantity (Measurand)


Transduction principles (Using physical and chemical effects)


Material and Technology





Sensors can be classified based on power or energy supply requirement of the sensors:

Active Sensor - Sensors that require power supply are called as Active Sensors.
Example: LiDAR (Light detection and ranging), photoconductive cell.

Passive Sensor - Sensors that do not require power supply are called as Passive
Sensors. Example: Radiometers, film photography
Hereby, this AUTRACOM project are active sensor because it require power supply.
There are many types of sensor such as light sensor, heat sensor, sound sensor, touch sensor
and also temperature sensor.
Although that, this project are using infrared sensor as it sensor to measure the distance
between the rubbish and the compressor.


Infrared sensor

We have already discussed how a light sensor works. IR Sensors work by using a specific
light sensor to detect a select light wavelength in the Infra-Red (IR) spectrum. By using an
LED which produces light at the same wavelength as what the sensor is looking for, you
can look at the intensity of the received light. When an object is close to the sensor, the
light from the LED bounces off the object and into the light sensor. This results in a large
jump in the intensity, which we already know can be detected using a threshold.


In this AUTRACOM project, this infrared sensor is used to measure the distance from the
compressor to the trash. When the presence of rubbish, infrared light exposed to the waste
and then reflected. The sensor detect the reflected light and measure the distance. When
the distance reach at certain level, the compressor will compress the rubbish.


Infrared sensors have several advantages. They can receive infrared light that is irradiated
from both living and non-living objects. This is essential for many of the applications that
infrared detectors are used for. In fact, infrared detectors can detect infrared light from far
distances over a large area, much like the human eye is capable of detecting visible light.
Infrared detectors operate in real-time and detect movement, making them ideal for
security purposes. Likewise, infrared detectors help humans see what other devices do not
allow them to see, such as leaks in underground pipes.

Infrared sensors have several advantages. They can receive infrared light that is irradiated
from both living and non-living objects. This is essential for many of the applications that
infrared detectors are used for. In fact, infrared detectors can detect infrared light from far
distances over a large area, much like the human eye is capable of detecting visible light.
Infrared detectors operate in real-time and detect movement, making them ideal for
security purposes. Likewise, infrared detectors help humans see what other devices do not
allow them to see, such as leaks in underground pipes.

Although infrared sensors have many advantages, they also have several disadvantages.
They are incapable of distinguishing between objects that irradiate similar thermal energy
levels. Infrared detectors are also rather expensive, so they are not as widely used as they
could be.

Other applications

Infrared sensors are used in a wide variety of applications and can be used in any
situation that requires thermal energy detection. Infrared detectors are most commonly
used in conjunction with an infrared emitter in order to transfer infrared light. This
involves data transfer through a narrow beam of infrared light that is invisible to the
human eye. For example, television remotes emit infrared light in order to change
channels and the television itself has a built-in infrared detector to receive the remotes
signals. Infrared sensors are also used as motion detectors in order to open doors, track
objects, or activate specific systems based on the thermal energy that is irradiated from
people, animals, and moving objects. They are also used in night-vision applications,
laser range finding, and heat-seeking missiles.




3.1 Materials
EV3 Lego Mindstorms
Mounting board
Hot glue stick
Used box
3.2 Apparatus
Hot glue gun

Built a compressor by using Lego Mindstorms

Program the EV3 programmer.
Built a trash by using mounting board
Place the compactor in the trash.
Test the functionality of the project.






Figure 4.2 Programming start of the project

Diagram 4.1 shows the initial phase of the movement of the robot. Firstly, the 'enter' key
must be pressed to start the program. When the start button is pressed, the waste can be
filled. The screen will display "Waiting load" which means waiting for the garbage to be
filled. Ultrasonic sensors will play a role in calculating the level of waste.


Figure 4.2 Programming of calculating load

When garbage reaches a certain extent, the screen will display "calculating load" which
means calculating the amount of garbage in the trash bin by calculating the height of the
waste. If the waste still not reached the maximum level yet, AUTRACOM will remain
silent and wait for the rubbish be filled. Hereby, if the waste has reached the point of
maximum compressor automatically will compress the waste.


Figure 4.4 Programing of the alarm to inform the user

Diagram 4.3 shows that when the waste has reached the maximum level and cannot be
compressed alarm will be generated to inform the user. After that, we need to press start
button again to activate the progress.






As the conclusion, the use of automatic trash compressor to compress the rubbish is
successfully done. From the observation the result shows that the rubbish can be
compressed by the compressor. With this project, problems of littering could be reduced.
The presence of pests will also be reduced. As a result, the problem of life-threatening
diseases can be prevented. People can live with a clean environment and fresh air. People
can save their time from compressing the rubbish by themselves.

From this project, we have learned that when we fill a bigger waste in the trash, stronger
pressure required to compress the waste. So in this project, we need to use more powerful
compressor and durable to prevent trash damaged when received large waste. In addition,
the compressor speed also plays a role for compressing waste. The faster the movement of
the compressor, the stronger impact on the waste. At first, we use the low speed compressor
causing waste cannot be compressed very well. Later, we added the speed of the
compressor and the waste can be compressed with better than ever.

Therefore, it is clear that the resistance and movement speed of the compressor play an
important role for compressing waste properly. Overall, it is true that this project can be
used to compress the rubbish but depends on the speed of the compressor and compressor
durability to compress the rubbish.




There are several factors that cause waste is not compressed. The first, the compressor is
not strong enough to withstand the pressure caused the bins were damaged. At first we just
used cardboard to compress the compress waste. The compressor could not withstand the
power of the trash bins cause it to lose balance and fall. This is not good as it should be
strong and balanced. Later, we employ the card even harder to compress waste and it
worked. In our opinion, in the future it will be more powerful compressor that uses a strong
PVC, rubber or string to absorb when the load is too strong.

Furthermore, in conducting research, we found that the water from the rest of the trash can
produce electricity. Therefore we are planning for the future is to collect waste water from
the trash and used to generate electricity. Microbial fuel cells use inorganic mediators to
tap into the electron transport chain of cells and channel electrons produced. The mediator
crosses the outer cell lipid membranes and bacterial outer membrane. Then, it begins to
liberate electrons from the electron transport chain that normally would be taken up by
oxygen or other intermediates.

In addition, we can also produce biogas. Biogas is a gas that is produced from organic
matter. It is created by being broken down biologically to create electricity. It is a
commonly used form of renewable energy, mainly used in domestic and industrial spheres.
Biogas is a blend of carbon dioxide and methane, and its created by plant as well as animal
waste. In the home, biogas is mainly used for cooking. It creates less pollution than
traditional cooking gas.

Besides that, since the project is only a prototype, in the future we will use solar panel in
the prototype instead of batteries. Solar panel is renewable energy and not pollute the
environment, so it can save energy and environment. It also can be used for a long time.