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The TL431 in the Control of

Switching Power Supplies

Agenda
Feedback generalities
The TL431 in a compensator
Small-signal analysis of the return chain
A type 1 implementation with the TL431
A type 2 implementation with the TL431
A type 3 implementation with the TL431
Design examples
Conclusion

Agenda
Feedback generalities
The TL431 in a compensator
Small-signal analysis of the return chain
A type 1 implementation with the TL431
A type 2 implementation with the TL431
A type 3 implementation with the TL431
Design examples
Conclusion

What is a Regulated Power Supply?


Vout is permanently compared to a reference voltage Vref.
The reference voltage Vref is precise and stable over temperature.
The error, = Vref Vout, is amplified and sent to the control input.
The power stage reacts to reduce as much as it can.
Power stage - H
Vout

Control
variable

Error amplifier - G
Rupper

Vin

Modulator - GPWM

Vp

Vref

Rlower

How is Regulation Performed?


Text books only describe op amps in compensators
Vout

Verr

The market reality is different: the TL431 rules!


Vout

Im the
law!

Verr

TL431

optocoupler

How do we Stabilize a Converter?


We need a high gain at dc for a low static error
We want a sufficiently high crossover frequency for response speed
Shape the compensator G(s) to build phase and gain margins!
T (s)

fc = 6.5 kHz
0 - 0 dB

T ( s )
GM = 67 dB

-88
m = 92

-180
10

T ( s ) = 67 dB
100

1k

10k

100k

1Meg

How Much Phase Margin to Chose?


a Q factor of 0.5 (critical response) implies a m of 76
a 45 m corresponds to a Q of 1.2: oscillatory response!
1.80

Q < 0.5 over damping


Q = 0.5 critical damping
Q > 0.5 under damping

Q=5
Q=1

1.40

10

7.5

Q = 0.707
Asymptotically stable

1.00

600m

Q = 0.5 Fast response


and no overshoot!

200m

2.5

15.0u

0
25.0u

35.0u

76

Q = 0.5

Q = 0.1
5.00u

45.0u

25

50

75

100

phase margin depends on the needed response: fast, no overshoot


good practice is to shoot for 60 and make sure m always > 45

Which Crossover Frequency to Select?


crossover frequency selection depends on several factors:
switching frequency: theoretical limit is Fsw 2
in practice, stay below 1/5 of Fsw for noise concerns
output ripple: if ripple pollutes feedback, tail chasing can occur.
crossover frequency rolloff is mandatory, e.g. in PFC circuits
presence of a Right-Half Plane Zero (RHPZ):
you cannot cross over beyond 30% of the lowest RHPZ position
output undershoot specification:
select crossover frequency based on undershoot specs

Vp
Vout(t)

I out
2 f c Cout

What Compensator Types do we Need?


There are basically 3 compensator types:
type 1, 1 pole at the origin, no phase boost
type 2, 1 pole at the origin, 1 zero, 1 pole. Phase boost up to 90
type 3, 1 pole at the origin, 1 zero pair, 1 pole pair. Boost up to 180

10

20

270

270

G ( s )
50

100 200

Type 1

500

1k

10

100

1k

Type 2

10k

100k 10

boost

boost

G ( s ) = 270
1

G (s)

G (s)

G (s)

G ( s )
100

1k

Type 3

10k

100k

Agenda
Feedback generalities
The TL431 in a compensator
Small-signal analysis of the return chain
A type 1 implementation with the TL431
A type 2 implementation with the TL431
A type 3 implementation with the TL431
Design examples
Conclusion

The TL431 Programmable Zener


The TL431 is the most popular choice in nowadays designs
It associates an open-collector op amp and a reference voltage
The internal circuitry is self-supplied from the cathode current
When the R node exceeds 2.5 V, it sinks current from its cathode
K
R
K
R

TL431A

A
2.5V
R
A
K

The TL431 is a shunt regulator

The TL431 Programmable Zener


The TL431 lends itself very well to optocoupler control
Vdd

Slow lane

Fast lane

Vout

Vout
R pullup

RLED

RLED

R1

I1

VFB

I bias =

I LED
Rbias
C2

Rbias

V f 1V

I1

C1
TL431

1V
Rbias

Rlower

Vmin = 2.5 V

dc representation

RLED must leave enough headroom over the TL431: upper limit!

The TL431 Programmable Zener


This LED resistor is a design limiting factor in low output voltages:
RLED ,max

Vout V f VTL 431,min


Vdd VCE , sat + I bias CTR min R pullup

R pullup CTR min

When the capacitor C1 is a short-circuit, RLED fixes the fast lane gain
Vout ( s )

Vdd

RLED

R1

VFB ( s ) = CTR R pullup I1

I1
I1 =

R pullup
VFB ( s )

Ic

0V
in ac

Rlower

Vout ( s )
RLED

R pullup
VFB ( s )
= CTR
Vout ( s )
RLED

This resistor plays a role in dc too!

The TL431 the Static Gain Limit


Let us assume the following design:
Vout = 5 V
Vf = 1V

RLED ,max

5 1 2.5

20k 0.3
4.8 0.3 + 1m 0.3 20k

VTL 431,min = 2.5 V


Vdd = 4.8 V

RLED ,max 857

VCE , sat = 300 mV


I bias = 1 mA
CTR min = 0.3
R pullup = 20 k

G0 > CTR

R pullup
RLED

> 0.3

20
> 7 or 17 dB
0.857

In designs where RLED fixes the gain, G0 cannot be below 17 dB


You cannot amplify by less than 17 dB

The TL431 the Static Gain Limit


You must identify the areas where compensation is possible
dB
40.0

180

20.0

90.0

-17 dB
-20.0 -90.0

-40.0

Not ok
H (s)

f c > 500 Hz

Requires
less
than 17 dB
of gain

arg H ( s )

ok

-180

10

Requires
17 dB
or more

100

500

1k

10k

100k

TL431 Injecting Bias Current


A TL431 must be biased above 1 mA to guaranty its parameters
If not, its open-loop suffers a 10-dB difference can be observed!
> 10-dB difference

Ibias = 1.3 mA

Easy
solution

Ibias
Rbias

Ibias = 300 A

Rbias =

1
= 1 k
1m

Agenda
Feedback generalities
The TL431 in a compensator
Small-signal analysis of the return chain
A type 1 implementation with the TL431
A type 2 implementation with the TL431
A type 3 implementation with the TL431
Design examples
Conclusion

TL431 Small-Signal Analysis


The TL431 is an open-collector op amp with a reference voltage
Neglecting the LED dynamic resistance, we have:
Vout ( s )

RLED
I1

R1
C1

I1 ( s ) =

Vout ( s ) Vop ( s )

1
sC1
1
= Vout ( s )
Vop ( s ) = Vout ( s )
Rupper
sRupper C1

1
1
I1 ( s ) = Vout ( s )
1 +

RLED sRupper C1

We know that:

Vop ( s )

RLED

Rlower

VFB ( s )

VFB ( s ) = CTR R pullup I1

R pullup CTR 1 + sRupper C1


=

Vout ( s )
RLED
sR
C

upper 1

TL431 Small-Signal Analysis


In the previous equation we have:
9 a static gain G0 = CTR

R pullup
RLED

9 a 0-dB origin pole frequency po =


1

9 a zero z =

1
C1 Rupper

Rupper C1

We are missing a pole for the type 2!


Vdd
Type 2 transfer function

R pullup

VFB ( s )

C2

Add a cap. from


collector to ground

R pullup CTR
1 + sRupper C1

=
Vout ( s )
RLED
sRupper C1 (1 + sR pullup C2 )
VFB ( s )

TL431 Small-Signal Analysis


The optocoupler also features a parasitic capacitor
it comes in parallel with C2 and must be accounted for
Vout(s)
Vdd

Rpullup
VFB(s)

FB

C2 = C || Copto

Copto
e

optocoupler

TL431 Small-Signal Analysis


The optocoupler must be characterized to know where its pole is
Cdc
10uF

Ic
2

Rled
20k
5

O ( s )

Rpullup
20k
Rbias
VFB
Vdd
5

X1
SFH615A-4

Vbias

Vac

IF

O (s)
-3 dB
4k

Adjust Vbias to have VFB at 2-3 V to be in linear region, then ac sweep


The pole in this example is found at 4 kHz
Copto =

1
2 R pullup f pole

1
2 nF
6.28 20k 4k

Another design
constraint!

Agenda
Feedback generalities
The TL431 in a compensator
Small-signal analysis of the return chain
A type 1 implementation with the TL431
A type 2 implementation with the TL431
A type 3 implementation with the TL431
Design examples
Conclusion

The TL431 in a Type 1 Compensator


To make a type 1 (origin pole only) neutralize the zero and the pole

R pullup CTR
1 + sRupper C1

=
Vout ( s )
RLED
sRupper C1 (1 + sR pullup C2 )
VFB ( s )

sRupper C1 = sR pullup C2
CTR
po =
C2 RLED

C1 =

R pullup
Rupper

substitute

C2

po =

1
Rupper RLED
R pullup CTR

CTR
C2 =
2 f po RLED

Once neutralized, you are left with an integrator


1
G (s) =
s

po

| G ( f c ) |=

f po
fc

f po = G fc f c

C2 =

CTR
2 G fc f c RLED

C1

TL431 Type 1 Design Example


We want a 5-dB gain at 5 kHz to stabilize the 5-V converter
Vout = 5 V
Vf = 1V
VTL 431,min = 2.5 V
Vdd = 4.8 V
VCE , sat = 300 mV

RLED ,max 857

Apply 15%
margin

RLED = 728

I bias = 1 mA
CTR min = 0.3
R pullup = 20 k
G fc = 10

5
20

= 1.77

f c = 10 kHz

C2 =

CTR
0.3
=
7.4 nF
2 G fc f c RLED 6.28 1.77 5k 728

Copto = 2 nF

C = 7.4n 2n = 5.4 nF

C1 =

R pullup
Rupper

C2 14.7 nF

TL431 Type 1 Design Example


SPICE can simulate the design automate elements calculations
parameters
Vout=5
Vf=1
Vref=2.5
VCEsat=300m
Vdd=4.8
Ibias=1m
A=Vout-Vf-Vref
B=Vdd-VCEsat+Ibias*CTR*Rpullup
Rmax=(A/B)*Rpullup*CTR

Vdd
{Vdd}
4.80V
6

Rpullup
{Rpullup}

Rupper=(Vout-2.5)/250u
fc=5k
Gfc=-5
VFB

RLED
{RLED}

3.97V
4

Rpullup=20k

Cpole
{Cpole}

RLED=Rmax*0.85

R2
{Rupper}
2

2.50V

R5
100m
10

C3
1k

R6
1k
C1
{C1}

2.96V

4.99V

err

4.99V

Fpo=G*fc

4.99V
7

2.50V

2.50V

G=10^(-Gfc/20)
pi=3.14159

L1
1k

4.99V

E1
-1k

0V

B1
Voltage
V(err)<0 ?
0 : V(err)

V2
2.5

V3
AC = 1

C1=Cpole1*Rpullup/Rupper
X2

Cpole1=CTR/(2*pi*Fpo*RLED)
Optocoupler
Cpole=Cpole1-Copto
Cpole = Copto
CTR = CTR

Fopto=4k
Copto=1/(2*pi*Fopto*Rpullup)
CTR = 0.3

X1
TL431_G

R3
10k

Automatic bias
point selection

TL431 Type 1 Design Example


Hu?

We have a type 1 but 1.3 dB of gain is missing?


dB

G (s)

20.0
10.0

3.7 dB

0
-10.0
-20.0

270

arg G ( s )

180
90.0
0
-90.0
100

200

500

1k

2k

5k

10k

20k

50k

100k

TL431 Type 1 Design Example


The 1-k resistor in parallel with the LED is an easy bias
However, as it appears in the loop, does it affect the gain?
Vout(s)

VFB = I c R pullup = I L R pullup CTR

ac representation

VFB(s)

I1
Ib

IL
Rd

Ic
Rpullup

Rbias
Vf

Rbias
Rbias + Rd
Vout
Rbias
IL =
RLED + Rbias || Rd Rbias + Rd
I L = I1

RLED

VFB
Vout

R pullup CTR

s =0

Rbias
=
RLED + Rbias || Rd Rbias + Rd

CTR

Both bias and dynamic resistances have a role in the gain expression

TL431 Type 1 Design Example


A low operating current increases the dynamic resistor
SFH615A-2 -FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS

Rpullup = 20 k, IF = 300 A (CTR = 0.3)


Rd = 158

0.002000
0.001800

IF Forward Current(A)

0.001600

Rpullup = 1 k, IF = 1 mA (CTR = 1)
Rd = 38

0.001400
0.001200

IF = 1 mA

0.001000

IF @ 110C
IF @ 70C

0.000800

IF @ 25C

0.000600

IF @ -20C
IF @ -40C

0.000400

IF = 300 A

0.000200
0.000000

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

VF Forward Voltage (Volts)

Make sure you have enough LED current to reduce its resistance

TL431 Type 1 Design Example


The pullup resistor is 1 k and the target now reaches 5 dB
dB
20.0

Yes!

G (s)

10.0

5 dB
0
-10.0
-20.0

270
180

arg G ( s )

90.0
0
-90.0
100

200

500

1k

2k

5k

10k

20k

50k

100k

Agenda
Feedback generalities
The TL431 in a compensator
Small-signal analysis of the return chain
A type 1 implementation with the TL431
A type 2 implementation with the TL431
A type 3 implementation with the TL431
Design examples
Conclusion

The TL431 in a Type 2 Compensator


Our first equation was already a type 2 definition, we are all set!
Vdd
Vout
R pullup

RLED

R1

VFB

G0 = CTR

z =
1

Rbias
C2

C1

p =
1

TL431

Rlower

R pullup
RLED

1
Rupper C1
1
R pullup C2

Just make sure the optocoupler contribution is involved

TL431 Type 2 Design Example


You need to provide a 15-dB gain at 5 kHz with a 50 boost

f p = tan ( boost ) + tan 2 ( boost ) + 1 f c = 2.74 5k = 13.7 kHz

f z = fc

f p = 25k 13.7k 1.8 kHz

G0 = CTR

R pullup
RLED

= 1015 20 = 5.62

With a 250-A bridge current, the divider resistor is made of:


Rlower = 2.5 250u = 10 k

R1 = (12 2.5 ) 250u = 38 k

The pole and zero respectively depend on Rpullup and R1:


C2 = 1 2 f p R pullup = 581 pF

C1 = 1 2 f z R1 = 2.3 nF

The LED resistor depends on the needed mid-band gain:


RLED =

R pullup CTR
G0

= 1.06 k

ok

RLED ,max 4.85 k

TL431 Type 2 Design Example


The optocoupler is still at a 4-kHz frequency:
C pole 2 nF

Already above!

Type 2 pole capacitor calculation requires a 581 pF cap.!


The bandwidth cannot be reached, reduce fc!
For noise purposes, we want a minimum of 100 pF for C
With a total capacitance of 2.1 nF, the highest pole can be:
f pole =

1
1
=
= 3.8 kHz
2 R pullup C 6.28 20k 2.1n

For a 50 phase boost and a 3.8-kHz pole, the crossover must be:
fc =

fp
tan ( boost ) + tan ( boost ) + 1
2

1.4 kHz

TL431 Type 2 Design Example


The zero is then simply obtained:
fc 2
fz =
= 516 Hz
fp

We can re-derive the component values and check they are ok


C2 = 1 2 f p R pullup = 2.1 nF

C1 = 1 2 f z R1 = 8.1 nF

Given the 2-nF optocoupler capacitor, we just add 100 pF


In this example, RLED,max is 4.85 k
G0 > CTR

R pullup
RLED

> 0.3

20
> 1.2 or 1.8 dB
4.85

You cannot use this type 2 if an attenuation is required at fc!

TL431 Type 2 Design Example


The 1-dB gain difference is linked to Rd and the bias current
dB
30.0

G (s)

20.0
10.0
0

14 dB @ 1.4 kHz

-10.0

140

arg G ( s )

130
120

50

110
100
10

100

1k

10k

100k

TL431 Suppressing the Fast Lane


The gain limit problem comes from the fast lane presence
Its connection to Vout creates a parallel input
The solution is to hook the LED resistor to a fixed bias
Vdd
R pullup

Vout

Vbias
RLED

R1
Comp. network
changes!

VFB

Vdd
R pullup

Rbias
C2

C1
TL431

Rz

RLED

VFB

Rbias
C2

Vout

Vz

Rlower

R2

C1
TL431

Rlower

R1

TL431 Suppressing the Fast Lane


The equivalent schematic becomes an open-collector op amp
Vdd
R pullup

Vout

Vz
RLED

Vout ( s )

R1

G1 ( s )

VFB
C1

G (s)

R2

C2
Transmission
chain O(s)

Vref
Compensaton
chain G1(s)

Rlower

O (s)
VFB ( s )

TL431 Suppressing the Fast Lane


The small-signal ac representation puts all sources to 0
Vout

O(s) =

R pullup
RLED

CTR

1
1+ sR pullup C pole

R1

G (s)
O (s)

C1

VFB
IC

C2
CTR

R pullup

R2

G1 ( s ) =

IL
RLED

Rlower

1+ R 2 C1
sR1C1

TL431 Suppressing the Fast Lane


The op amp can now be wired in any configuration!
Just keep in mind the optocoupler transmission chain

O(s) =

R pullup
RLED

CTR

1
1+ sR pullup C pole

Wire the op amp in type 2A version (no high frequency pole)

G1 ( s ) =

1+ R 2 C1
sR1C1

When cascaded, you obtain a type 2 with an extra gain term

G(s) =

R pullup
RLED

G2

1+ R2C1
CTR
sR1C1 (1+ sR pullup C pole )

TL431 Type 2 Design Example No Fast Lane


We still have a constraint on RLED but only for dc bias purposes
RLED ,max

Vz V f VTL 431,min
Vdd VCE , sat + I bias CTR min R pullup

R pullup CTR min

You need to attenuate by -10-dB at 1.4 kHz with a 50 boost


The poles and zero position are that of the previous design
Vz = 6.2 V
Vf = 1V
VTL 431,min = 2.5 V
Vdd = 4.8 V
VCE , sat = 300 mV

RLED ,max 1.5 k

Apply 15%
margin

RLED = 1.27 k

I bias = 1 mA
CTR min = 0.3
R pullup = 20 k

f z = 516 Hz f p = 3.8 kHz

TL431 Type 2 Design Example No Fast Lane


We need to account for the extra gain term:

G2 =

R pullup
RLED

20k
CTR =
0.3 = 4.72
1.27k

The required total mid-band attenuation at 1.4 kHz is -10 dB

G fc = 1010 20 = 0.316
The mid-band gain from the type 2A is therefore:

G0 0.316
G1 =
=
= 0.067 or 23.5 dB
G2
4.72
Calculate R2 for this attenuation:

R2 = G1 R1

fc
+ 1
fp
2

fz
+1
fc

= 2.6 k

TL431 Type 2 Design Example No Fast Lane


An automated simulation helps to test the calculation results
parameters
Vout=12
Rupper=(Vout-2.5)/250u
fc=1.4k
Gfc=10
Vf=1
Zener
Ibias=1m
Vref=2.5
value
VCEsat=300m
Vdd=5
Vz=6.2
Rpullup=20k
Fopto=4k
Copto=1/(2*pi*Rpullup*Fopto)
CTR=0.3
Vout
G1=Rpullup*CTR/RLED
G2=10^(-Gfc/20)
G=G2/G1
pi=3.14159
C2
fz=516
{C2}
fp=3.8k
C1=1/(2*pi*fz*R2)
Cpole2=1/(2*pi*fp*Rpullup)
C2=Cpole2-Copto
a=(fz^2+fc^2)*(fp^2+fc^2)
c=(fz^2+fc^2)
R2=(sqrt(a)/c)*G*fc*Rupper/fp
Rmax1=(Vz-Vf-Vref)
Rmax2=(Vdd-VCEsat+Ibias*(Rpullup*CTR))
RLED=(Rmax1/Rmax2)*Rpullup*CTR*0.85

D1
1N827A

C4
0.1u

Vdd
{Vdd}
5.00V

R5
1k

6.17V
6

12.0V

Err

R4
{Rpullup}
2.51V

E1
-1k

12

X2
Optocoupler
Cpole = Copto
CTR = CTR

11

2.50V
1

10

C1
{C1}

X1
TL431_G

LoL
1kH

R2
{R2}

Rlower
10k

2.50V
9

12.0V
13

2.50V

Rbias
1k
3.31V

0V
14

Rupper
{Rupper}

4.32V
4

CoL
1kF

12.0V

R1
{RLED}

Vac

B1
Voltage
V(err)

Vref
2.5

TL431 Type 2 Design Example No Fast Lane


The simulation results confirm the calculations are ok
dB
10.0

G (s)

0
-10.0
-20.0

-10 dB @ 1.4 kHz

-30.0

150

arg G ( s )

130

50

110
90.0
70.0
10

100

1k

10k

100k

TL431

Agenda
Feedback generalities
The TL431 in a compensator
Small-signal analysis of the return chain
A type 1 implementation with the TL431
A type 2 implementation with the TL431
A type 3 implementation with the TL431
Design examples
Conclusion

The TL431 in a Type 3 Compensator


The type 3 with a TL431 is difficult to put in practice
Vdd

R pullup

Vout
RLED

R pz

R1

fz1 =

f p1 =

C pz

G=

Rbias
C2

C1
Rlower

1
2 R1C1

f z2 =

1
2 ( RLED + R pz ) C pz

1
2 R pz C pz

f p2 =

1
2 R pullup ( C2 || Copto )

R pullup
RLED

CTR

RLED fixes the gain and


a zero position

Suppress the fast lane for an easier implementation!

TL431

The TL431 in a Type 3 Compensator


Once the fast lane is removed, you have a classical configuration
Vdd

R pullup

Vout

Vz
Rz

RLED

R1

C1

1
2 R2C1

f z2 =

1
2 R1C3

f p1 =

1
2 R3C3

f p2 =

1
2 R pullup ( C2 || Copto )

G=

R pullup

R3

C3

Rbias
C2

fz1 =

R2
Rlower

RLED

CTR

TL431

TL431 Type 3 Design Example No Fast Lane


We want to provide a 10-dB attenuation at 1 kHz
The phase boost needs to be of 120
place the double pole at 3.7 kHz and the double zero at 268 Hz
Calculate the maximum LED resistor you can accept, apply margin
RLED ,max

Vz V f VTL 431,min
Vdd VCE , sat + I bias CTR min R pullup

R pullup CTR min 1.5 k

X 0.85

1.3 k

We need to account for the extra gain term:

G2 =

R pullup
RLED

20k
CTR =
0.3 = 4.6
1.3k

The required total mid-band attenuation at 1 kHz is -10 dB

G fc = 1010 20 = 0.316
TL431

TL431 Type 3 Design Example No Fast Lane


The mid-band gain from the type 3 is therefore:

G0 0.316
G1 =
=
= 0.068 or 23.3 dB
G2
4.6
Calculate R2 for this attenuation:

R2 =

G1 R1 f p1
f p1 f z1

fc
1+
f p
1

f z1
1+
fc

fc
1+
f p
2
fc
1+
f z
2

= 744

C1 = 800 nF C2 = 148 pF C3 = 14.5 nF Copto = 2 nF


The optocoupler pole limits the upper double pole position
The maximum boost therefore depends on the crossover frequency

TL431 Type 3 Design Example No Fast Lane


The decoupling between Vout and Vbias affects the curves
dB

G (s)

10.0

-9.3 dB @ 1 kHz

0
-10.0

Isolated 12-V
dc source

-20.0

-10 dB @ 1 kHz

-30.0

arg G ( s )

240
200
160

135
120
80.0
1

10

100

1k

10k

100k

TL431

Agenda
Feedback generalities
The TL431 in a compensator
Small-signal analysis of the return chain
A type 1 implementation with the TL431
A type 2 implementation with the TL431
A type 3 implementation with the TL431
Design examples
Conclusion

Design Example 1 a Single-Stage PFC


The single-stage PFC is often used in LED applications
It combines isolation, current-regulation and power factor correction
Here, a constant on-time BCM controller, the NCL30000, is used
141V

Ip

X2
XFMR
RATIO = -250m

Vout

Iout = 2.4 A

52.5V

-210V
8.74V
7

vc

154mV

X1
PWMBCMVM
L=L

GAIN

3.09V

V1
{Vrms*1.414}

PWM switch BCM

Fsw

Ip

68.4V

Dc

1 V = 1 s

19

Fsw (kHz) duty-cycle

598mV

R1
100m
0V

R2
50m

X5
K = Gpwm
GAIN

D4
1N965

52.5V

R7
65k
26.9V

9
4

11

50 V
2 A string

1.57V
22

L1
{L}

C5
0.1uF

C1
2.2mF

B1
Voltage
V(errac)-0.6

Rsense
1.24V
0.5
Vsense

23

parameters

Vdd
15.1V
{Vdd}

Vrms=100
L=400u

1.25 V

1.24V
ILED

14

R5
{RLED}

5.00V

R4
{Rupper}

18

Ct=1.5n
Icharge=270u
Gpwm=(Ct/Icharge)*1Meg

On-time
selection

VFB
errac

LoL
1k

2.17V

CoL
1k
20

AC = 1
V3

12.2V
17

16

X4
Optocoupler
Cpole = Copto
CTR = CTR
C2
{C2}

Ac out

R6
{Rpullup}
2.17V

29

0V

ac in

2.17V

10

11.1V
13

1.24V
15

X3
TLV431

R9
{R2}

C4
{C1}
28

1.24V

Average simulation

Design Example 1 a Single-Stage PFC


Once the converter elements are known, ac-sweep the circuit
Select a crossover low enough to reject the ripple, e.g. 20 Hz
dB
8.00
4.00

H (s)

-2.5 dB
20 Hz

0
-4.00
-8.00

80.0
40.0

arg H ( s )

-11

0
-40.0
-80.0
1

10

20

50

100

200

500

1k

Design Example 1 a Single-Stage PFC


Given the low phase lag, a type 1 can be chosen
Use the type 2 with fast lane removal where fp and fz are coincident
dB

20.0

2
1

10.0

fc = 19 Hz

13

0.5

15 V

-10.0
3

-20.0

5V

10

6.1 k

11

ton
generation

10 k

20 k

180
90.0

T (s)

m = 90

586 nF 13.6 k
395 nF

-90.0

12

G (s)

-180
1

argT ( s )
2

10

20

50 100 200

500 1k

Design Example 1 a Single-Stage PFC


A transient simulation helps to test the system stability
6.00
4.00

2.2 A

2.00

I LED ( t )

0
-2.00

VFB ( t )

5.00
4.60
4.20
3.80
3.40

4.00
2.00
0

I in ( t )

-2.00
-4.00
20.0m

60.0m

100m

140m

180m

Vin = 100 V rms

Design Example 2: a DCM Flyback Converter

We want to stabilize a 20 W DCM adapter


Vin = 85 to 265 V rms, Vout = 12 V/1.7 A
Fsw = 65 kHz, Rpullup = 20 k
Optocoupler is SFH-615A, pole is at 6 kHz
Cross over target is 1 kHz
Selected controller: NCP1216
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Obtain a power stage open-loop Bode plot, H(s)


Look for gain and phase values at cross over
Compensate gain and build phase at cross over, G(s)
Run a loop gain analysis to check for margins, T(s)
Test transient responses in various conditions

Design Example 2: a DCM Flyback Converter


Capture a SPICE schematic with an averaged model

DC

vc

a
duty-cycle

389mV

90.0V

X2x
XFMR
RATIO = -166m
3

PWM switch CM

839mV

-76.1V

Vin
90
AC = 0

D1A
mbr20200ctp

12.0V

vout

12.6V

R10
20m

0V

X9
PWMCM
L = Lp
Fs = 65k
Ri = 0.7
Se = Se

vout

13

L1
{Lp}
8

V(errP)/3 > 1 ?
1 : V(errP)/3

12.0V
1

C5
3mF

B1
Voltage

Coming from FB

Look for the bias points values: Vout = 12 V, ok

Rload
7.2

Design Example 2: a DCM Flyback Converter


Observe the open-loop Bode plot and select fc: 1 kHz
dB
40.0

180

20.0

90.0

H (s)

Phase at 1 kHz
-70
0

-20.0 -90.0

-40.0

-180

10

arg H ( s )
Magnitude at 1 kHz
-23 dB
100

1k

10k

100k

Design Example 2: a DCM Flyback Converter


Apply k factor or other method, get fz and fp
fz = 3.5 kHz fp = 4.5 kHz

Vout(s)

Vdd

38 k

2 k
20 k

k factor
gave

C = 3.8 nF

FB

VFB(s)

10 nF

2.5 nF

install

C2 = 3.8n 1.3n 2.5 nF

10 k
Copto = 1.3 nF

Design Example 2: a DCM Flyback Converter


Check loop gain and watch phase margin at fc
4

dB
180

80.0

90.0

40.0

T (s)
argT ( s )

m = 60
0

-90.0 -40.0

Crossover
1 kHz

-180 -80.0

10

100

1k

10k

100k

Design Example 2: a DCM Flyback Converter


Sweep ESR values and check margins again
12.04

Vout(t)
Hi
line

12.00

Excellent!
11.96

11.92

100
mV

Low
line

11.88

200 mA to 2 A in 1 A/s
3.00m

9.00m

15.0m

21.0m

27.0m

Use an Automated Design Tool


To speed-up your design studies, use the right tool!
1.
Enter
calculated
values

3.
Compute
pole/zero
check open
loop gain

2.
Show power
stage gain
and phase

4.
See final
values on
TL431
www.onsemi.com
NCP1200, design tools

Conclusion
Classical loop control theory describes op amps in compensators
Engineers cannot apply their knowledge to the TL431
Examples show that the TL431 with an optocoupler have limits
Once these limits are understood, the TL431 is simple to use
All three compensator types have been covered
Design examples showed the power of averaged models
Use them to extensively reproduce parameter dispersions
Applying these recipes is key to design success!
Merci !
Thank you!
Xi-xie!

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