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Annex 2 Geological Heritage- Comarca Minera Geopark Project

November, 2015

Annex 2 Geological Heritage- Comarca Minera Geopark Project


November, 2015

CONTENT

Abstract .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1
B.1 General geological description of the proposed Geopark ........................................................................................ 1
B.1.1 Geological context ............................................................................................................................................ 1
B.1.2 Geologic Domains ............................................................................................................................................ 2
B.1.3 General stratigraphy ......................................................................................................................................... 3
B.1.4 Description of the geological units that reflect the Comarca Mineras geological history (Map B.2). ................ 3
B.2 Listing and description of geological sites within the proposed Geopark ................................................................. 7
B.3 Details on the interest of these sites in terms of their international, national, regional or local value ..................... 10
B.4 Listing and description of other sites of natural cultural and intangible interest and how they are related to the
geological sites and how they integrated into the proposed Geopark ...................................................................... 12
B.4.2 Integration of non-geologic sites to Geopark Project. ..................................................................................... 13

Annex 2 Geological Heritage- Comarca Minera Geopark Project


November, 2015

B. GEOLOGICAL HERITAGE

Abstract
The oldest rocks of the Comarca Mineras date from the Albian, when a transgressive event occurred and a carbonate
platform developed (Carrasco-Velsquez, 1971). In the Turonian a clastic platform environment formed and evolved
to deeper conditions during the Santonian (Arellano-Gil, 2005). By the Cretaceous-Tertiaty limit, the rocks were folded
as consequence of the Laramidic Orogeny, caused by the convergence between the Farallon and North American
plates (Eguiluz et al., 2000; Salvador-Flores, 2001; Arellano-Gil, 2005). During the Oligocene-Late Miocene, the
subduction of the Cocos Plate originated calcalkaline volcanism, producing an andesitic to rhyolitic volcanic sequence
(Geyne et al., 1963; McKee et al., 1992), with dacites and trachytes in the Pliocene-Pleistocene (SGM, 2007b). The
Real del Monte word-class silver deposit occurs in the Comarca Minera. It consists in a low-sulfidation epithermal
deposit that was mined for over more than 400 years (Ortega, 1997; Probert, 2011).
B.1 General geological description of the proposed Geopark
The territorys geological nature is essentially volcanic, with a sedimentary basement and ages from 140 Ma to the
present day. Based on geomorphologic criteria, three main topographic surfaces can be distinguished: 1) Surfaces
eroded down to the advanced maturity phase (Sierra de Pachucas Crest). 2) Young eroded slopes (towards the
mountain flanks), and 3) Constructional and relatively low-eroded surfaces (towards the Basin of Mexico). Valleys that
show down-stepping or well-defined terraces towards the bottom, where abruptly increasing slopes can be
distinguished, are also present. The most important factor in relief modeling is the hydrologic transport, whose
migration ends at the Gulf of Mexico and the northern Mexico Basin (Aguilera, 1897; Geyne et al., 1963; SGM, 1997;
SGM, 2007a).
According to Geyne et al. (1963), the geological events in Comarca Minera can be grouped depending on their
temporality, as the following classification suggests:
1. Mesozoic units: (calcareous and clay sequences)
2. Sedimentary and Tertiary volcanic units: Polymictic conglomerates, andesites, dacites, tuffs,
rhyolites and basalts.
3. Quaternary units: basalt, trachytes and alluvial material.
B.1.1 Geological context
The Comarca Mineras geological history started during the Cretaceous, with a large-scale transgression event. When
the seas entirely covered the positive areas during the Albian, a shallow ambient was developed in the so-called
Plataforma de Actopan, originating the sedimentation of El Abra Formation (locally known as El Doctor Formation) in
a carbonated platform ambient, which, according to its lithological and fossiliferous characteristics, corresponds to the
post-reef section (Carrasco-Velsquez, 1971).
During the Turonian, it was a significant change in the sedimentary regime with a large terrigenous contribution,
starting the deposit of calcareous-clay, clay and sandy sediments from the Soyatal Formation, in a clastic platform
ambient under unstable conditions that changed to deeper waters in the Santonian (Arellano-Gil, 2005).
By the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition, the rocks suffered a strong folding as result of the Laramidic Orogeny, whose
origin is attributed to the convergence between the Farallon and North American plates. This event caused, at first,
the deformation of rocks, generating west-overturned folded structures and inverse faulting. By the end of this Eocene
compressive event, a new normal fault system appeared, with NW-SE as main orientation (Eguiluz et al., 2000;
Salvador-Flores, 2001; Arellano-Gil, 2005).
In the Oligocene-Late Miocene, igneous activity from the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (Faja Volcnica
Transmexicana) was registered at Comarca Minera, as a consequence of the Cocos Plate subduction under the North
American Plate. This episode triggered an intense calc-alkaline volcanism that resulted in the Pachuca Groups strong
sequence of andesites, dacites and rhyolites; this rock suite is overlaid by rhyolitic tuffs and rhyolites from the
Tezuantla and Navajas formations, crowned later by basaltic andesites that shape the San Cristobal formation (Geyne
et al., 1963; McKee et al., 1992).

Annex 2 Geological Heritage- Comarca Minera Geopark Project


November, 2015

During the Pliocene, the magmatic activity registered the placement of hypabyssal and volcanic rocks (from quartzdacitic porphyry to basaltic andesites and rhyolites to a lesser extent). Finally, the magmatism ended with two phases,
one with basaltic composition related to the Chichinautzin Formation and other represented by the settling of a
trachytic body from the Guajolote formation (SGM, 2007b).
One of the world-class argentiferous deposits, with a huge historical production, is located inside Comarca Minera:
Real del Monte. It consists of a low-sulfidation epithermal deposit, whose mineralization occurs in vein-like structures.
This mineralization is Eocene-aged and its gangue minerals are quartz and pyrite, predominantly. Locally, calcite,
rhodonite-bustamite, sphalerite, galena and chalcopyrite can be found. The deposit exploitation began more than 400
years ago and goes on even nowadays. The economically important mineralization is rich in sulfides, fundamentally in
argentite and acanthite, but also contains polybasite, miargyrite, proustite, stephanite, stenbergite and native silver
(Geyne et al., 1963; Ortega, 1997; Camprub y Albinson, 2006; Probert, 2011).
B.1.2 Geologic Domains
Within Comarca Minera, the geologic domains (Map B.1) are considered inside the Mexican geologic-physiographic
provinces, described below:
Cinturn Mexicano de Pliegues y Fallas (Provincia Sierra Madre Oriental)
This is the local basement, arranged along the territory as heavily-deformed clayish and calcareous Mesozoic
sequences in sedimentary packages that have been lifted, compressed and transported to the northwest, forming
folds and thrusts during the Laramide Orogeny, near the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition.
It is estimated that the sequence of accumulated sediments in Cinturon Mexicano de Pliegues y Fallas was much
bigger that the actually exposed, and that its lifting and faulting occurred possibly in Late Eocene (Eguiluz et al.,
2000).
Faja Volcnica Transmexicana (Eje Neovolcnico)
This is the most widely distributed domain in Comarca Minera; feature evidenced by the andesitic, rhyolitic and
basaltic rock outcrops with some pyrochlastic flowsand fallout deposits. This geologic-physiographic province is part
of a volcanic arch built over the southern margin of the North American plate. It shows a wide diversity of landforms
and volcanic structures with variable chemical compositions and affinity along the arch. It presents alkaline volcanism,
essentially. The obliquity between the provinces central and oriental parts and the trench, have generated the
noticeable variation in the arch width (Ferrari 2000).

N
Map B.1 Geological domains

Annex 2 Geological Heritage- Comarca Minera Geopark Project


November, 2015

B.1.3 General stratigraphy


It is possible to group the general stratigraphy based on three different episodes that embrace the Cenozoic and
Mesozoic eras: The first one is assumed as Pre-tertiary, contains the Cretaceous period and is marked by the
presence of carbonated and terrigenous rocks; the second is formed by the Tertiary period, starts with polymictic
conglomerate deposits and, subsequently, it presents volcanism with rhyolitic, andesitic, dacitic and basaltic
compositions, cut by Miocene and Pliocene intrusive bodies. The third and last episode, Quaternary, is characterized
by basic to intermediate rocks, from basalts to trachytes covered by alluvial material. Through the geological units, it is
possible to detail the geological history of the Geopark Project, as shown below:

Cenozoico

Cenozoico

Mesozoico

B.1.4 Description of the geological units that reflect the Comarca Mineras geological history (Map B.2).
El Abra Fm. (El Doctor Fm.) (Lower Cretaceous)
Basal unit that consists in packstone limestone with rudist and gastropod shell fragments in strata with a
thickness range between 40 and 200 m; it includes miliolida packstone strata, often recrystallized in the
contacts by thrust; additionally, there are platform border breccia-like facies. The units paleontological and
lithological characteristics indicate a lagoonal platform ambient, where rudist and gastropoda banks flourished.
No sensu stricto reef facies were recognized (Mendoza-Rosales, 1990; Gonzlez-Rodrguez, 2005).
Soyatal- Mezcala Fm. (Upper Cretaceous)
Unit comprised of limestone, marlish limestone, marl, fine sandstone and shale, intercalated with calcareous
breccia banks. It is a transgression deposit in unstable conditions, formed in a neritic ambient, platform facies.
Some observed facies suggest that these were fixed along a slope zone (Carrillo-Bravo, 1971; OchoaCamarillo, 1980; Lpez-Doncel, 2002).

El Morro Fm.(Middle Eocene- Lower Oligocene)


Poor-sorted conglomeratic unit, comprised of limestone and volcanic subangular clasts; matrix primarily made
out by sand-size limestone detritus and quartz, feldspar and micas, to a lesser extent. This unit was
accumulated in a continental environment, as result of intense erosion (Geyne et. al., 1963).
Grupo Pachuca (Pachuca Group)
Group of volcanic lithostratigraphic units with ages between Oligocene and Pliocene. Underneath this group,
lies the Santiago Formation and, on the top, the Tezuantla Formation.
- Santiago Fm. (Lower Oligocene)
Package of interstratified lava flows, breccias and fallout deposits that contain phenocrysts of plagioclase,
pyroxene and amphibole. The matrix varies in texture: from fine to coarse. It is characterized by a wavy fluidal
structure and strong dips; also, it is partially marked by prominent flows (1 2 cm thick). A fraction of this
material is made out by pyroclastic spills more than lavic spills. The average thickness in this formation is
140m, reaching 480m at most.
-Corteza Fm. (Oligocene)
This unit is formed by andesite to basaltic andesite with pigeonite. It is the only non-porphyritic formation in
the Pachuca Group. At the basement lies a tuffaceous body made up by lapilli-sized particles but, in the rest
of the unit, the matrix is dense and fine grained; it contains abundant pigeonite, along with andesine,
oligoclase and labradorite microlites in some flows. Thicknesses in strata fluctuate between 50-300m. This
formation was described by first time in an underground construction called Crucero Fortuna, during the the
Veta Corteza prospection.
-Pachuca Fm. (Mid-Upper Oligocene)
Unit of andesitic affinity, whose basement is made up by a single lithic, tuffaceous member assembled by
laminated materials with well-sorted sand- to silt-sized horizons; inside this tuffaceous member, appears a
thick layer of breccia or volcanic conglomerate composed of boulders and cobblers, from angular to subrounded in shape. To the higher parts, there is an increase in the crystal size and a decrement in sorting. At
the top it presents fluidal fabrics, coarse to fine grained, containing plagioclase and subordinated quartz
phenocrysts; near the Amajac River, towards the Formation bedrock, there are thin layers of fossiliferous
marl. The thickness of this formation varies between 300 and 500 m; its type locality is located westwards
Pachuca.
-Real del Monte Fm. (Miocene))
It consists of an andesitic-dacitic rock sequence that presents sub-angular to sub-rounded breccia deposits
as a distinguishing feature, with massive flows and fallout deposits. On the basal part, it contains a pyroclastic
horizon with lapilli- to ash- sized particles. This formation, which ranges in thickness between 120 and 350
meters, was first described in the northern Real del Montes mining works

Annex 2 Geological Heritage- Comarca Minera Geopark Project


November, 2015

Cenozoico

- Santa Gertrudis Fm. (Miocene)


Thick andesite and porphyrytic dacite deposits with abundant and exceptionally coarse plagioclase, quartz
and mafic phenocrysts (>1 cm). It presents some breccia and pyroclastic beds; the formations basement is
formed by a dacitic-tuffaceous member (<1 m) with lapilli-sized sub-rounded crystals. The thickness varies
between 200 and 370 m. Its type locality is at Barranca Principal, northeast Pueblo de la Reforma.
- Fm Vizcana Fm. (Miocene)
Among the volcanic units in the central part of the Comarca Minera, this is the most widespread and has
andesitic/dacitic composition. At the contact with the Santa Gertrudis Formation, it presents an unconformity;
it includes lava flows and an exceptionally vast basal member made up of pyroclastic breccias. The thickness
varies between 200 and 600 m. The type locality is about 1 km northeast from La Reforma village.
- Cerezo Fm. (Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene)
This unit contains the second unconformity in the volcanic sequence, it is mainly composed of flows, breccia
deposits and epiclastic volcanic layers, alongside volcanic breccia (rhyolitic and rhyodacitic), with an
agglomeratic member of andesitic composition. This formation displays thicknesses between 50 and 220m.
The type locality is in the El Cerezo village.
- Tezuantla Fm. (Lower Pliocene)
This formation consists of rhyolitic tuffs, with a basal conglomerate unit made up by andesitic fragments and
dacitic to rhyolitic lavas. The lava flows that built up this formation present plagioclase, quartz and biotite, and
a banded texture with layers from 2 to 10 mm width. A high percentage of the rock corresponds to the
aphanitic matrix. The thickness of this unit ranges from 50 to 150 m. The type locality is found in the
Tezuantla community.
Don Guiny Fm. (Lower-Mid Pliocene)
This unit is a pyroclastic deposit built up by tuffs and well-consolidated rhyolitic and dacitic breccia; it contains
glass-rich horizons and pumice fragments in an ashy matrix.
This unit is formed by the accumulation of welded cinder deposits, including avalanche debris, and some
parts are considered as a lythic lag breccia. It atttains thicknesses up to 170 m and its type locality is outside
the Comarca Minera, on the Ixqmiquilpan-Huichapan road, in a volcanic zone related to caldera volcanism.
Zumate Fm. (Middle Pliocene)
This is a 300-600m thick sequence formed by lavas, breccias, and epiclastic volcanic rocks of dacitic
composition; it includes pyroclastic breccia layers derived from the eroded material from andesitic, dacitic and
rhyolitic units; andesitic lava flows with amphibole, quartz and feldspar, continue the sequence. The top of
this formation is composed of coarse agglomerate and poorly-sorted lahar deposits that came from this same
formation. This formation was first described in Pea del Zumate, Omitln
San Cristbal Fm. (Upper Pliocene)
Formation composed of andesite, with seldom thin tuffaceous layers that shape the San Cristobals hill
summit, peak that protrudes just beside the Pachuca Citys northwest. In this place, vom Rath discovered two
quartz polymorphs: trydimite (1868) and cristobalite (1887), both occurring within the volcanic vesicles. The
thickness of the formation varies from 10 to 400 m. This formation has the same age than the AtotonilcoTarango and Navajas formations. To the south of Comarca Minera, a caldera-like structure with
approximately 5 km in diameter occur; its composition is hornblende-bearing andesite, informally known as
Andesita Chichicuautla. The aforesaid rock is contemporary to those of the San Cristobal Fm.
Navajas Fm. (Upper Pliocene)
Of predominant rhyolitic to andesitic compositions, this unit consists of lavas with fluidal textures,
holocrystaline porphyries with quartz and sanidine phenocrysts in micrographic matrix, breccia deposits,
surge deposits and ash layers. It presents welded and non-welded breccia with clasts from vitreous ash
flows, including lithic and pumice fragments; also, an irregular horizon of fine obsidian, considered as one of
the worlds most important due to its optical properties and type of occurrence, lies in the Navajas Formation.
The type locality is Cerro Las Navajas. This formation has an average thickness of 500 m.
Atotonilco el Grande -Tarango Fm.(Upper Pliocene)
This formation is composed of coarse deposits on its base and the grainsize decreases as it gets higher. In
the middle and top parts, there are sandstones with limo-sandy intercalations often containing fossils; there
are also congglomerate, lithic greywacke, litharenite, siltstone, silt-shale, marl and volcanic deposits. The
formation's thickness fluctuates among 500 and 600 m.
Cuerpos Intrusivos (Miocene-Pliocene)
Cutting the volcanic and sedimentary sequences, there are intrusive bodies with many different compositions
and textures, the most common are: fine-grained quartz porphyre, coarse-grained quartz porphyre, dacitic
biotite porphyre and olivine andesite.
Basaltos Indiferenciados (Pleistocene)

Annex 2 Geological Heritage- Comarca Minera Geopark Project


November, 2015

To the northern and southern part of the Comarca Minera, a vast volcanic field with lava flows, abundant
cinder cones and associated domes extends; the volcanic rocks are mostly olivine basalt, with minor basaltic
andesites. The southern sector is associated with a fraction of the Apan-Tezontepec volcanic field, and keeps
relation with the Chichinautzin Group, southern Mexico City (Garca-Palomo, 2002).
Toba Cubitos (Pleistocene)
Thin succession of pyroclastic mafic-affinity layers, overlying an important part of the San Cristobal
Formation. This pyroclastic unit has a weakly harden porous deposit, made of well-sorted ash and lapilli. The
type locality is about 500 m southeast the Paricutin mine shaft.
Traquita Guajolote (Holocene)
Volcanic unit of vesicular lava, which contains up to 40% cavities, mostly filled by tridimite and cristobalite;
these rocks are holocrystalline, trachitic-textured and weakly porphyric. The type locality is in Rancho el
Guajolote. The thickness of this formation varies between 60 and 200 m.
Depsitos Aluviales (Alluvial Deposits) (Holocene)
Formed by deposited sediments in alluvial fans and flooding plains that cover vast portions on hillsides at the
topographic heights and boundary sierras. Alluvial deposits may vary from massive to stratified with fine
caliche horizons; in the lower and plain sections, the layers consist of sand, silt and clay.

Map B.2 Geology of Comarca Minera (Simplified). The Geosites number on this map relates to the list of part B.2 and B.4.1.

Annex 2 Geological Heritage- Comarca Minera Geopark Project

November 2015
B.2 Listing and description of geological sites within the proposed Geopark
All the 21 selected sites of geological interest are representative of the regions geological history; in addition, they
have a high-valued landscape result of the relations between biotic and abiotic factors and the natural processes.
Most of these sites are actually visited with recreational, scientific, geoturistic and cultural purposes. The proposed
Geosites have been studied by Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo (UAEH), Universidad Nacional
Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Servicio Geologico Mexicano (SGM), United States Geological Survey (USGS),
Comisin Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas (CONANP) and Compaa de Minas Real del Monte, supporting
the Comarca Mineras scientific relevance.
1. Prismas Baslticos
Prismas Basalticos is the flag Geosite of Comarca Minera. It is located in the center-west section of the aspirant
territory, inside the Santa Maria Regla community, at Huasca de Ocampo municipality.
Here is located an outcrop of prismatic structures with basaltic composition and heights upper than 40 m, these
structures are among andesitic and rhyolitic rocks that came from pyroclastic and fallout deposits; its outcrop is owed
to an extensive structure with a NW-SE trend and N-S inflexions, oblique to the Tulancingo River. At the most, they
are in discordant contact with pyroclastic flows, although in some parts, the columnar basalts lie over terrigen
sequences from Upper Cretacic. These rocks, composed of pyroxene basalts and olivine, and some other
trachybasalt varieties with calco-alkaline affinity are 2.58 0.15 million years old. The basaltic prisms formation is
owed to the obstruction of a fluvial current, as a consequence of the Sierra de las Navajas volcanism, which also
generated isolated water bodies. Subsequently, a significant volcanic activity took place in the whole region, by the
Pleistocenes end and the Quaternarys beginning. When the strong basaltic lava spill and an isolated water body
intersected, a fast cooling in the spills superior and inferior surfaces occurred, trapping the lavic body into the
solidified surfaces. A streamflow over the upper surface caused a constant, fast and homogeneous cooling in the
trapped lava, developing disjunction and processes of volumetric contraction that caused tension fractures, which
when joined, facilitate the formation of three-to-eight-sided prismatic structures.
2. Museo de Mineraloga
Museo de Mineraloga (The Mineralogy Museum) is located at the Pachuca City, westwards Comarca Minera. This
museum has the largest public mineral collection in the State of Hidalgo, it is made up by more than one thousand
samples of minerals, rocks, and fossils that started to being collected in 1879, in the Mexican Republic and some
other places. The collection is exhibit in cedar display cabinets, handcrafted in the XIX century. Descriptions of exhibit
samples are didactic and easy to understand, they give information about the mineral formation processes and
explain how some geological events change the planet through time. Argentiferous mineral specimens extracted from
a Comarca Mineras worldclass deposit, exploited for more than 400 years, are also part of this collection.
3. Depsitos volcnicos El Chico
Located in the center-occidental portion of Comarca Minera, it is part of one of the Protected Natural Areas beyond
national jurisdiction for being a natural mosaic that amalgamates noteworthy physical and biological features,
captured in beautiful scenic landforms such as pinnacles, valleys and narrow passes. The exogenic relief is
manifested in the shape of mountain passes, cliffs, monoliths and overlying plains. The Tertiary volcanic origin,
altitudinal level, relief morphology and actual processes, have allowed the formation of recent homogeneous lowevolved soils, under wet-tempered conditions. The actual Parks relief is east-west aligned and built up by
interstratified variable layers of lavic spills, breccias, volcanic conglomerates, tuffs and tuffaceous sandstone, that
appeared as a product of volcanic activity (Tertiary), these layers are part of the Vizcaina, Cerezo and Zumate
Formations, members of the Pachuca Group.
4. Depsitos tobceos Cubitos
Parque Ecologico Cubitos is located into the deep southwestern part of the territory. Its naming as Natural Protected
Area was proposed as a measure to halt the anthropic pressure over the Cubitos and Zopilote hills, in order to
preserve the biotic riches and the abiotic elements that give high landscape value to the site. This Geosite offers
recreational, cultural and didactic alternatives to the Pachuca City inhabitants, encouraging their ecological
awareness. The vegetation in Cubitos is distinguished by the three xerophyte subtypes (microphyle, rosetophyle and
crasicaule). The Cubitos Ecology Park is also the home of a substantial amount of species of flora (133), amphibious
(2), reptiles (6), birds (22) and some mammals such as rabbits, cacomixtles, motocles and squirrels. Geologically, it is
possible to observe the contact zone between the San Cristobal formation, composed of dense olivinic andesite spills
with small amounts of tuffaceous layers and Pliocene pyroclasts and the Cubitos Tuff, formed by a thin succession of
pyroclastic layers with mafic composition, from the Mid-Pleistocene. (Geyne et al., 1963).

Annex 2 Geological Heritage- Comarca Minera Geopark Project

November 2015
5. Obras mineras El Milagro
Its course travels along the Mineral del Chico Town, in the namesake municipality, and located on it, the San Antonio
mine. This mine, whose exploitation began in 1560, kept production on its three levels for more than 400 years. Inside
the Geosite, we can found the Pachuca Group Formations that consist in a sequence of pyroclastic emissions, mainly
composed of andesite, lava spills, rhyolitic to andesitic and dacitic breccias from the Oligocene-Miocene. Dikes with
associated mineralization are also present. It is worth to mention that the main economic mineralizations are within
this group (Geyne et al., 1963). The sites hydrology and morphology allow activities such as trout fishing, hiking and
rappel. In addition, there are tours inside the mines, guided by qualified personal that perfectly know the sites nature
and history.
6. Cerro de las Navajas
Known in nahuatl language as Itzepetl (Itztli, obsidian; tepetl, hill), Cerro de las Navajas is located in the Epazoyucan
municipality, at 3200 meters above sea level. Its a geological and anthropological site of interest: back in the
prehispanic age, during the Triple Alliances Aztec supremacy (XV century) this site was one of the primary points of
obsidian exploitation, manufacture and distribution (to all Mesoamerica). The oriental portion belongs to Las Navajas,
a Pliocene formation where major andesite and rhyolitic volcanic cones are located; the occidental part belongs to the
minor sierras group, Pliocene, and is formed by major volcanic structures, andesite domes, dacites and shales from
the Pachuca Group. Rocks in here show a color gradient from white to gray, contain microscopic or granulated quartz
fragments, and over them, lies an uneven obsidian horizon, worldwide recognized due its unique characteristics. In
this place is possible to appreciate pine and oak forests and their fauna: rabbits, wild rodents, armadillos, foxes,
tlacuaches (opossums), tuzas (gophers) and birds like cenzontles (Mexican mockingbirds), doves, ravens and owls.
7. Peas Cargadas
Located at 2800 m.a.s.l., is a Protected Natural Area, belonging of the Xoloxtitla Shared Land, in the Comarca
Mineras central part. Peas Cargadas hosts wonderful vegetation, with pines and sacred firs alongside many
different wild flowers and fungus species inhabited by insects, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. Its name is
owed to its rare pinacoidal structures, about 80 m tall, product of atmospheric eroding agents over volcanic structures
through millions of years. The aforesaid structures, rhyolitic-composed, are part of an explosive eruptive event.
8. Aguas termales Amajac
Located at far north Comarca Minera, this Geosite is recognized by its thermal spring waters, whose origin is related,
on the one hand, to volcanic processes that act like heat source, and on the other, to the fault developing that
encourages the circulation and ascension of high temperature hydrothermal fluids. Santa Maria Amajac is an example
of the peoples usage of a geological phenomenon. In the site, outcrops of limestone with calcite veins, from the El
Abra formation, can be seen. Its deposits are post-reef type, with abundant fragments of benthic organisms,
transported by the currents that shattered and leached them. It adjoins with the Atotonilco formation, composed of
clastic rocks (conglomerate, sandstone, limonite and shale) with in situ volcanic ash intercalations and transported
pyroclasts.
9. Pea del Diablo - Piedra del Comal
Formations located inside the Puentesillas Common Land, Omitlan de Juarez municipality. They have exhuberant
flora such as walnut, quebracha, tepozn and madroo, peach, pear, plum, raspberry, fig tree and apple tree, among
others. The fauna inhabiting the surroundings is composed of foxes, badgers, fieldmouses, rabbits, tlacuaches
(opossums), tuzas (gophers), rattlesnakes and diverse bird and arachnid species. Both landforms belong to the
Zumate Formation, which dates back from the Pliocene and its composition is principally dacitic and rhyolitic, being
the characteristic minerals plagioclase, quartz and biotite. The Formations show intermediate-argilization, as a
consequence of natural weathering, through which, feldspars and biotite are replaced by chlorite (chlorination),
revealing some green-colored fragments.
10. Presa San Antonio
The dam is situated in the Santa Mara Regla Community, Huasca de Ocampo municipality, center-west Comarca
Minera. Under this waterbody are the remnants of a mining hacienda devastated by an enormous flooding,
consequence of malfunctions in the local hydroelectric plants back in 1915. The settlements vestiges above the
dams water level are a small tower and a chimney (chacuaco). This Geosite reveals the importance of Geoscience
usage while planning a territory, the knowing of its geological and geographical characteristics (rock types, soils,
climate, vegetation, human activities, etcetera) reduces the possibility of anthropic disasters caused by natural events.
The composition of the predominating rocks in this region is variable from rhyolites and andesites to basalts (spills,
flow deposits and debris) expelled by Pliocene volcanic activity
11. Mirador Cerro del Lobo
Is Located in the Pachuca City, in the Comarca Mineras central part. It is made up by andesitic-type volcanic
material, with ages between 2 and 33 million years. In this Geosite is possible to see many different geologic outcrops

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that are part of the Pachuca Group, in addition, some traits that have been legacy of the mining activity inside the
Mineral de la Reforma and Pachuca municipalities, like the mining districts and architectonic relics from benefit
haciendas, are in this place as well.
12. Pea del Aire (Mirador El Len)
Located westwards Comarca Minera, in the Caon de San Sebastians border, within the Barranca de Metztitlan
Biosphere Reserve, Pea del Aire is an outcrop caused by a fissure eruption. It is slightly faulted, but it has been
damaged by fractures and diaclases, consequence of frost weathering in the Upper Tertiarys basaltic rocks from the
Basaltos Formation. The deformation episodes in the zone are quite complex, due to stratification, faulting, fracturing
and tectonic activity. The presence of Soyatal-Mezcala Formations limestones and shales (Upper and Lower Tertiary,
respectively) indicate that during the Mesozoic, the region was under the sea, and later, the orogenic events lifted and
folded such marine sediments. About the river portion, this one corresponds to an alluvial zone from Quaternary.
13. Traquitas El Guajolote
It is located in the Epazoyucan municipality and its name is owed to a landform very similar in shape to the domestic
bird guajolote (Meleagris gallopavo), whose popular name comes from the nahuatl vocable huexolotl (big monster,
from hueyi, big; xolotl, monster). It is a trachytic landform modeled by the humidity and wind erosion along 2.5 million
years; it is cavity abundant, in cases with tridimite and cristobalite filling the hollows. Due its proximity to Cerro de las
Navajas, in this Geosite is possible to find large amounts of obsidian. The predominant rocks in this zone, lava flows
and basalt, have volcanic origin. The implemented activities turned the site into a Shared Land ecotouristic
development.
14. Peas Las Monjas
This Geosite is located in the Comarca Mineras occident, in the catalogued as Pueblo Magico ("Magical Village")
Mineral del Chico. Its singular shape is the result of erosive processes that acted over the rocks from the Tezuantla
formation (rhyolitic tuffs, andesitic fragments and dacitic and rhyolitic lava spills). Its name comes from the Formations
similar appearance to the nuns habits, so the local population attributed the landforms existence to a nun that
petrified, as a consequence of her bad actions; with tales like this, the Comarca Mineras intangible heritage is built.
Moreover, its possible to see the natural riches of a forest with large diversity of pine species, Mineral del Chicos
characteristic tree.
15. Cantera Tezuantla
Belongs to Mineral del Monte Magical Village, it is a glory-hole mine, dedicated to the ornamental quarry rock
exploitation, sheeting and carving. This deposit is composed of intermediate-volcanic rocks, white-colored with parts
in light pale green, due to hydrothermal alteration. The mining activity in this site have encouraged the growth of
diverse State regions since more than 100 years ago. The material extraction has been performed, until now, by a
communitary enterprise that fulfills the required Mexican regulations. From this stone bench has been obtained the
raw material used to build historical monuments, like the Reloj Monumental de Pachuca (Pachucas Monumental
Clock).
16. Cerro de San Cristbal
It is located in northwest Pachuca City, and is also the highest elevation in this citys surroundings. Its the Type
Locality of the homonymous formation, which is made up by olivinic andesite with thin pyroclastic horizons. It is in
contact with some other Pachuca Groups units. Gerhard vom Rath described here for the first time two important
quartz polymorphs: tridimite (1867) and cristobalite (1887), that are generally found inside cavities in the rocks; due to
these descriptions, Cerro de San Cristobal is the Type Locality for both mineral species. Also, here are located a large
number of the mining woks used to exploit the Real del Monte and Pachucas silver. In this Geosite is located an
enormous fault that have been studied by SGM (Servicio Geologico Mexicano) in order to determinate the potential
hazards to surrounding human settlements.
17. Estructuras volcnicas La Paila
Situated in the Singilucan municipality, southwards Comarca Minera, this is a volcanic structures exposure area
(basic-composed mainly). There are a pair of monogenetic volcanoes (La Paila and El Molcajete) and a cineritic cone
(El tepetongo), whose structure is the result of scoria deposits and lava flows, commonly of andesitic composition.
Southwards can be observed calderic structures that, together with the three previously described formations, are part
of the Chichinautzin volcanic series, contemporaneous to the volcanic emissions from the Cerro de San Cristobal
(Pliocene) volcano.
18. Pea del Cuervo
Pea del Cuervo is a natural viewpoint located in the midst of El Chico National Park that permits to appreciate the
landscape beauty of Comarca Mineras portion. It is possible to watch from this site the rocky landforms known as
Las Monjas (The Nuns) and Los Frailes (The Friars); Flora and fauna is composed of pine and oak forests, and

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birds like falcons and kite birds. The igneous rocks under Pea del Cuervo are scarcely faulted, with no evident
mineralization, affected by dacitic dikes, and were originated 2.5 million years ago as consequence of the Eje
Volcanico Transmexicanos volcanic activity; they belong to the Zumate formation.
19. Presa El Cedral
This is one of the most ancient parks in Mexico, located in the Comarca Mineras west part, at the Mineral del Chico
municipality. In it is located a dam, at 2780 meters above sea leven, first built as a contention work in the 1940s
decade, just after a flood devastated the Pachuca City. At present, it is used for recreation and trout farming.
Rounding this dam, there is a forest: cedars, sacred firs and pines, where different animal species like gray fox,
cacomixtle, tlacuache, armadillo, falcon, kite bird, woodpecker, salamander, mountain chameleon and rattlesnakes
live. Geology is formed by rhyolites, dacites, breccias, basalts, andesites and tuffs.
20. Mirador Las Ventanas
The Geosite is located in the center-occidental part of Comarca Minera, inside the El Chico National Park. It is
characterized by its singular pinnacle shape; it has an altitude of 2090 meters above sea leven being the highest
elevation in the National Park, for this reason, is a natural viewpoint where the Pachuca, Omitln and Mineral del
Chico cities can be watched, together with a landform series result of the volcanic rocks erosion (natural and cultural
heritage of Mineral del Chico). Outcropped rocks in Las ventanas belong to the El Zumate Formation, whose lithology
is formed by rhyolites, dacites and andesites, primarily. Its safeguard and utilization represent benefits to a local
communal organization.
21. Barranca de Aguacatitla
The Aguacatitla gully is an ecoturistic center which forms part of the Barranca de Metztitlan Biosphere Reserve. From
this Geosite, is possible to see the limit between two physiographic provinces; Eje Volcanico transmexicano,
comprised by volcanic rocks like basalt and Sierra Madre Oriental, made up by sedimentary rocks (limestones,
shales, sandstones and limonites). These sedimentary rocks, rich in marine fossils, were formed during the
Cretaceous (100 million years ago), when the region was under the sea. Later, close the Cretaceous end and the
Tertiary beginning (66 million years ago), as an effect of huge movements in the earths crust, these sediments were
lifted, deformed, folded and fractured, getting their actual configuration. The last geological activity registered,
corresponding to the Quaternary Period (2.5 million years ago), originated a basaltic rock spill that formed stunning
prisms related to a phenomenon called columnar disjunction that fractures the rocks by contracting them, due to the
magma fast cooling.

B.3 Details on the interest of these sites in terms of their international, national, regional or local value
No.
Space of Geologic Interest
Interest (value)
Main uses
1
Prismas Baslticos
Regional and International
Didactical and Touristic
At continental level, it is one of the longest basaltic prisms exhibitions; this Geosite was first-time described in
1803, by the German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt. It is located southwards the Santa Maria Regla
historical benefit hacienda. Actually, it acts as an ecotouristic development and it is also an active example of
ejidal development through a Geosite usage.
2
Museo de Mineraloga
Local and regional
Didactical and turstico
In this place diverse mineral, rock and fossil samples can be didactically known. The collection is guarded in a
th
17 century building, that actually is part of the Centro Cultural La Garzas facilities, belonging of Universidad
Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo. It is an accessible place for any Comarca Minera visitor.
3
Depsitos volcnicos El Chico
Local and national
Didactical, Touristic and scientific
El Chico National Park hosts an important variety of biological species consequence of its altimetric variations
and physiographical traits. This is the first Protected Natural area in the country, named by the President Porfirio
Diaz in 1898. In 1922, it was declared as Nations Forrestal Reserve by the General Alvaro Obregn. Later, in
1937, Lazaro Cardenas named it Protector Zone of the Pachuca City, Hidalgo and finally, in 1982 through
presidential decree, the President Lopez Portillo named it National Park.
4
Depsitos tobceos Cubitos
Local and regional
Didactical, scientific and Touristic
The Geosite works as an Ambiental Training and Educational Center that permits the integration between
geology, biology and culture. It has a germplasm bank, an interactive farm, herpetarium, a hedge maze, a
botanical garden and sculptures, wine farm, ecological house, observatory, an Ambiental Technologies Center, a
3D cinema and ecological workshops.
5
Obras mineras El Milagro
Local and regional
Touristic and Didactical
El Milagro river borns in the mountain and travels along the Mineral del Chico Town, creating a worthy of
admiration landscape. Its name alludes to the fact of being a hydric continuous flow, circumstance that is

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considered a miracle by the community. Nowadays it is a ecotouristic development where different activities can
be done, between them is remarkable the guided visit to San Antonio mine.
6
Cerro de las Navajas
International and regional
Touristic-Didactical
It is an ecotouristic site that offers recreational activities. Theres a close bond between the sites geology and
various episodes from the prehispanic age: remains of the cultures that inhabited the site can be appreciated,
guarded by the Anthropology and History National Institute (Instituto Nacional de Antropologa e Historia).
7
Peas Cargadas
Regional y local
Touristic
Because the presence of the resulting structures from volcanic rocks erosion, its great touristic attractiveness has
been used for recreational purposes that are managed by a shared land association under the strict monitoring of
its members.
8
Aguas termales Amajac
Regional and local
Touristic and scientific
The attributed curative properties to the thermal spring waters, due to their physiochemical features, make the
site a point of interest for visitors, as it also offers the possibility to perform recreational activities. This is the most
representative site inside Comarca Minera with regard to calcareous rocks and their geological formation
ambient. The naturalist Alexander von Humboldt traveled the zone and described Santa Maria Amajac, together
with Cerro de las Navajas and the Basaltic Prisms during his visit to New Spain back in 1803.
9
Pea del Diablo - Piedra del Comal
Regional and local
Turstico
These rare formations are the municipalitys emblem. Used with recreational purposes, their forms are the source
of social beliefs and practices that have consolidate a quite important intangible culture around the site.
10
Presa San Antonio
Regional and local
Touristic and Didactical
Inside the dam, boat tours can be taken in order to see the emerged remains of the hacienda, and to watch a
singular perspective from the Basaltic Prisms, this activity confers important touristic value to the site. The site is
managed by the same common land cooperative that guards the Basaltic Prisms. At scientific level, this site
shows natural hazard examples, and implicitly, the importance of geoscience in the relative prevention to the
human settlements planning.
11
Mirador Cerro del Lobo
Regional and local
Touristic and Didactical
In this place, slope movements and terrain collapses associated with mining activity are present, thus, diverse
studies have been performed (e.g. SGM, 2011) in order to mitigate the geological hazards. Because of this, the
Cerro del Lobo Eco-Recreational park is ideal to focus on the geosciences importance during the urban
planning, with the purpose of decreasing the possibility of natural and anthropic disasters.
12
Pea del Aire (Mirador El Len)
International and local
Touristic, scientific and Didactical
In this Geosite, the contact zone between two physiographical and geological provinces can be watched.The
possibility to observe its landforms and the processes that have been occurred over them, through million years,
gives it a great aesthetic and didactic value. Many different ecotouristic activities such as rappel, camping,
Tyrolean traverse, cycling, among others, are performed here. As part of a Biosphere Reserve, authorities look
for a sustainable resources management, also, to explain to people the importance of the ambiental services that
the site gives, without forgetting the biodiversity conservation.
13
Traquitas El Guajolote
International and local
Touristic
It is the only site inside Comarca Minera where trachytic lithology can be found. An important part of this sites
value, lies in the gradual floristic transition that is possible to look at, in addition, this is the home of the guajolote
silvestre (wild turkey). The toponymy refers to some prehispanic customs still alive nowadays.
14
Peas Las Monjas
Regional and local
Touristic
Its formations and lithology make Las Monjas an exceptional touristic development where a series of activities
can be performed, highlighting rappel, under strong safety guidelines and the supervision of trained and qualified
personal. This site is an example of the close tie between natural and geological processes and the intangible
cultural heritage.
15
Cantera Tezuantla
Regional and local
Economic and scientific
This Geosite shows that the importance of Comarca Mineras mining activity is not only restricted to silver
extraction. The Tezuantla quarry works as registry of the narrow relations between the geology, the architectonic
cultural heritage and the communitys economic development.
16
Cerro de San Cristbal
International and regional
Scientific
Historical site among the Comarcas mining tradition. It enjoys great geological and mineralogical relevance for
being the Type Locality for tridimite and cristobalite, globally recognized quartz polymorphs.
Estructuras volcnicas
17
Regional and local
Touristic and Scientific
La Paila
The volcanic structures erosion had generated favorable soils for agriculture, advantageous situation for the
Singilucan municipalitys people. It is also an ecotouristic development with paths that take to the craters of La
Paila and El Molcajete volcanoes, where is possible to see the different episodes of their genesis. The studies of
these volcanoes have brought important data for the investigations about Faja Volcanica Transmexicana.
18
Pea del Cuervo
Regional and local
Touristic and Scientific

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Its scenic value is evident due to the panoramic view that offers towards the dacitic-affinity landscape and the
abies religiosa forest, located both inside the El Chico National Park.
19
Presa El Cedral
Regional and local
Touristic
This Geosite is very important to the information disclosure about natural risks, shows the importance of
infrastructure built to mitigate the aftermaths of natural disasters, especially floods; these buildings can be later
used with recreational and touristic purposes.
20
Mirador Las Ventanas
Regional and local
Touristic
The contrast between a coniferous landscape and the rural and urban communities, have triggered a quite
important cultural heritage for the sites people, who have made possible that the beauty of this singular shapes
coexist with the villages inside the El Chico National Park.
21
Barranca de Aguacatitla
Regional and local
Touristic and Scientific
The zone presents an attractive landscape variety, raised from its pronounced variations in altitude, precipitation,
and temperature linked with the geological substrata. Additionally, the complexity on its geological history has
positively influenced the development of a large amount of vegetal and animal species that can be observed
along the Geosites route.

B.4 Listing and description of other sites of natural cultural and intangible interest and how they are related to
the geological sites and how they integrated into the proposed Geopark
B.4.1 Descriptions (Annex Map 4).
22. Parque Estatal Bosque El Hiloche
This is a 99 hectare Protected Natural Area beyond state jurisdiction, officially declared in 2004. This State of
Hidalgos Natural Protected Reserve is comprised of a forest with sacred fir, tascate, pine and oak, in addition, has a
500 species floristic diversity. About this wonderful coniferous forest, located over a merely volcanic ambient, many
tales have appeared; one of them says that inside this forest, many gold-filled chests and other treasures were hidden
and buried by the ancient miners. At the forests interior, northwestward Mineral del Monte, a network of paths permits
to travel this site. The municipal rodeo, where Charrera, the Mexicos sport, is practiced, is also inside the forest.
23. Reloj Monumental
The Reloj Monumental work was based in a project of the architect Tomas Cordero, and was in charge of the
Francisco Hernandez and Luis Carren engineers between 1904 and 1910. The clock was built to commemorate the
Mexican independence centennial, over the foundations of a structure originally thought to host de States Symphonic
Ensemble concerts. The building material is Tezuantla quarry stone (Scientific interest Geosite) .The tower, 40 m tall,
has four female sculptures (carved in Carrara marble by Italian artists) that depict some of the countrys important
events. Each face points towards one cardinal point.The clockwork is a Londons Big Ben replica, designed by the
company founded by Edward John Dent.
24. Cristo Rey
The Cristo Rey statue is a work of Jos Luis Lugo Vega (engineer) and Csar C. Nrvaez Benitez, architect. Its
construction began in 1922 and was economically supported by the priest Alfonso Romero Ruiz, the parochial
community of San Francisco, the Real del Monte y Pachuca Company and by diverse families and organizations.
Its edification is owed to the promise made by few miners that were trapped in the Paricutn Mine. Afraid to die 300 m
underground, in honor to Christ, they prayed and offered a monument to be built if they could escape from there.
Materials used in the construction were pink quarry stone, brought from the Zacatecas and Queretaro States, and
fiberglass for manufacturing the hands. The statues height from basement to head is 33 m, one for each of Christs
years on earth. Standing at 10 meters tall, theres a viewpoint that shows the landscape, dominated by volcanic
formations, and the village distribution based on the mining activity.
25. Ex-Convento de San Andrs Apstol
The San Andrs Epazoyucan convent began to be built by Augustine priests in 1540. It is plateresque, renaissancecomposed. The paired columns in each main doors side, together with the broad repertoire of classic and gothic
ornaments, are outstanding. The symbolism that covered the convents architecture extends also to the hydraulic
engineering works, as it is testified by the presence of two fountains, one of them located in the convents yard and
the other opposite the church, in a place that might be the villages square. The mural painting was used with
ornamental and didactical purposes. It is worth to highlight the allusive murals to the life, passion and death of Christ;
the employed technique was false fresco painting, using black, grayscale and, exceptionally, the polychromy. The
San Andres convent can be defined as an eminent example of the syncretism and transculturation of diverse ways of
thinking, cosmologies, and epiphanies morphed into rock-carved art. Currently, the convent is a museum, under
management of Instituto Nacional de Antropologa e Historia.

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26. Museo del Paste
Museo del paste was opened on october 12 2012, with the intention of showing part of the regions mining history
through gastronomy. The paste is presently a distinctive element of the Mineral del Monte and Pachuca de Soto
municipalities; The paste began to be elaborated in 1824, along with the arrival of the English miners from the
Cornualles region. The original recipe consisted of a stuffing made of potatoes, leek and meat inside a wheat flour
paste closed with a braid, which was also used by the miners to hold the food and then discarded. Over the years, the
recipe was modified and local ingredients were added, diversifying the flavours from sweet to savoury. This Geosite
offers a (related to the mining activity) cooking utensils exhibit, as well as a historical overview that recreates the
mining-historical context from the nineteenth century beginning, through their characters and works. Without a doubt,
this is the best place to prove that the paste is a food with history, and that it is indispensable to taste it in the region.
27. Panten Ingls
Panten Ingls (The English Graveyard) was founded in the mid-nineteenth century in a land donated by a
functionary from the zones mining companies. There are 775 west-oriented graves made with stonework and marble.
This place hosts the remains of Scot, Irish, German, Dutch and Chinese people, and since 2011, the Mexican
Inocencio Hernandez Lara, also known as Don Chencho, who for over 47 years not only guarded the graveyard but
the stories framed in a mining ambient, -which reflect the Real del Montes esscence-, lies in here.
28. Ex-Convento de San Agustn
The San Agustin Convent was founded in 1536, although the construction of the buildings was Fray Juan de Sevillas
work between 1542 and 1562. The temples faade is plateresque style, quite sober, with paired columns in the first
body; the Saint Paul and Sain Peters medallions hang over the main door. Inside, the lateral chapels and the gothicribbed vault stand out immediately. In the convent is kept a sample of mural painting, with themes related to the
passion of Christ; at the stairwell, a beauty pictorial program can be appreciated, in which are depicted some
passages of the Saint Augustines life and a representation of him surrounded by six Greek philosophers.
Etymologically, the name Atononilco comes from the roots atotonil-li (thermal water) and co (at), then, thermal or
hor water place as name reveals the latent geological processes in here. This site is a demonstration of
miscegenation, conjugated through religiosity and prehispanic customs.
29.Ex-Hacienda La Pursima
The hacienda is considered as the cradle of New Spains mining industrialization. In 1555, the Sevillian miner
Bartolom de Medina created and put in practice the amalgam process that consisted in the addition of mercury, salt
and copper sulphate to mineral grindings and put the mixture in the yards of the haciendas de beneficio to extract
silver and other minerals subsequently taken to furnaces.
The Bartolom de Medinas discovery was taken to several regions in the world because it permitted a larger
production at smaller costs. This system had as consequence a larger silver production and a remarkeable increase
of the Pachuca Citys population. Nowadays, this historic space hosts the Club Universitario Real del Monte (Real del
Monte University Club)
30. San Miguel Regla
It is an ecotouristic park that offers gastronomy-related activities, fishing, recreational walks, zip-cable and boat rides,
in conjunction with legends about the places origin and its mining history.
31. Reserva de la Biosfera Barranca de Metztitln
A fraction of the Natural Protected Area coincides with the Geopark Projects territory, between the Atotonilco el
Grande and Huasca de Ocampo Municipalities. In here, it is possible to observe a geologic contrast between
sedimentary and volcanic rocks that evince the contact between the two geologic provinces of Comarca Minera. The
area is considered as a Pleistocene shelter of the Mexican desert biota, habitat of fragile ecosystems from arid zones
that also contain a wide variety in flora and fauna. Barranca de Meztitln possesses an astonishing scenic beauty,
owed to its orographic, topographic and physiographic features.
The location of the Sites of natural or cultural interests, and those with intangible heritage, can be checked in Annex 4.

B.4.2 Integration of non-geologic sites to Geopark Project.


The Geopark Project, in essence, holistic; combines the geologic and natural heritage with the cultural legacy,
represented by the mining remnants and the vast history of the mining activity. Down below, some examples on how
the non-geologic sites have been integrated to CMGP are described:

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Some examples of how the non-geological sites have been added to the Geopark Project are listed below:
Non-Geological Sites
Parque Estatal Bosque El Hiloche.
Protected Natural Area.

Reloj Monumental
Historic Monument

Cristo Rey
Pachuca City and Regional minings
symbol.
Ex -Convento de San Andrs
Apstol.
Founded by the Order of St.
Augustine, 1540.
Museo del Paste.
Unique museum in Mexico
Panten Ingls.
World Heritage Site
Ex-Hacienda La Pursima
Emblematic site in the Worlds
mining history
Ex-Convento de San Agustn
municipalitys emblematic site, built
between 1542 and 1562.
San Miguel Regla
Ecotouristic Park
Zonas Geoculturales Real, Huasca y
El Chico.
Zona Geocultural Pachuca-Reforma.

Geopark Project integration


Natural and Cultural intangible heritage
Shows the relation between vegetation and soil types
The studies performed by the european scientists and botanics Luis Ne
and Alexander von Humboldt, are mentioned
Natural and Cultural intangible heritage
Facts about its history and architecture are given
It is explained the relation that exists with the Geosite Cantera de
Tezuantla, because the Reloj Monumental Geosite was built with
materials obtained from that place
Natural and Cultural intangible heritage.
In this site is related the Cristo Reys story and its relations with the
mining
The guided visits provide information about the site features. (formation,
rock type, soil, etc).
Natural and Cultural intangible heritage
It is one of the most preserved convents, at national level
Guided Visits in convent permit to appreciate also the sites geologic
features (formation, soil type, etcetera)
Natural and Cultural intangible Heritage
The museum shows the influence of English miners in the states
gastronomy
Natural and Cultural intangible heritage
Site inscribed on UNESCOs World Heritage list. On it, it is explained its
relation with the zones mining history and its remarkable features.
Material and Intangible heritage
Information on the sites history (how it affected the mining when active)
is given to visitors
Natural and Cultural intangible heritage
With a very close location to the sierra, the areas geologic
characteristics (formations, rock types) offer a valuable scenic
complement.
Material and Intangible Heritage
It is showed the relation between vegetation and soil types.
It is given information on the sites history, conjointly with local legends
Zones inside the national Magical Villages Programme, for being sites
where culture, history and gastronomy merge
Zone with an important history, where the mining activitys influence in
the urban development is evident

The Geopark Projects strategy for the integration of these non-geologic sites, consisted in the creation of a 4
georoute system with sundry themes that highlight the singular features of Geosites:1) Ruta Minera Historica
(Historic-Mining route) Includes sites in direct linkage with the legacy of the diverse stages and types of mining activity
through time. 2) Ruta Geo-cultural (Geo-Cultural route) shows the blend between geological traits and cultural
expressions, including religion, architecture, history and intangible cultural heritage. 3) Ruta Geo-Natural (Geo-Natural
route) permits to appreciate the biologic diversity adaptation to the Comarca Mineras geologic traits. 4) Ruta
Humboldt (Humboldt route) it contains the natural and geologic sites that aroused the German Scientists interest.

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REFERENCES

Aguilera J.A., 1897, El Mineral de Pachuca, Instituto Geolgico de Mxico, 183 p.


Arellano-Gil, J., Velasco-de Len P., Silva-Pineda, A., Salvador-Flores, R., Beltrn-Romero F., Origen y
caractersticas geolgicas del paleo-Lago de Amajac, Hidalgo: Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geolgicas,
Vol. 22, nm. 2, 2005, 199-211.
Camprub, A., Albinson, T., 2006, Depsitos epitermales en Mxico: actualizacin de su conocimiento y
reclasificacin emprica: Boletn de la Sociedad geolgica Mexicana, LVIII, 4, 27-81.
Carrasco-Velsquez, B., 1971, Litofacies de la Formacin El Abra en la Plataforma de Actopan, Hidalgo:
Revista del Instituto Mexicano del Petrleo, 3(1), 2-58
Carrillo-Bravo, J., 1971, La Plataforma Valles-San Luis Potos: Boletn de la Asociacin Mexicana de
Gelogos Petroleros, 23(1-6), 102 p.
Eguiluz-de Antuano, S., Aranda-Garca, M., Marrett, R., 2000, Tectnica de La Sierra Madre Oriental,
Mxico: Boletn de la Sociedad Geolgica Mexicana, LIII, 1-26.
Ferrari, L., 2000, Avances en el conocimiento de la Faja Volcnica Transmexicana durante la ltima dcada:
Boletn de la Sociedad Geolgica Mexicana, LIII, 84-92.
Garca-Palomo, A., Macas, J. L., Tolson, G., Valdez G., y Mora, J. C., 2002, Volcanic stratigraphy and
geological evolution of the Apan region, east-central sector of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Geofsica
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