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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

Chapter 09
Muscular System

Multiple Choice Questions


1. Functions of muscles are for
A. the heartbeat.
B. muscle tone.
C. distribution of heat.
D. moving bones.
E. all of the above.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.01
Topic: Muscular System

2. The outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle is the


A. epimysium.
B. perimysium.
C. endomysium.
D. sarcomysium.
E. myomysium.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.02
Topic: Muscular System

9-1

Chapter 09 - Muscular System

3. Myofibrils are composed primarily of


A. actin and myosin.
B. ATP and ADP.
C. troponin and tropomyosin.
D. fascia and tendons.
E. perimysium and endomysium
Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Learning Outcome: 09.02
Topic: Muscular System

4. The striated appearance of skeletal muscle results from the


A. transverse tubule pattern.
B. sarcoplasmic reticulum network.
C. sarcomere organization.
D. cisternae placement.
E. distribution of mitochondria.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.02
Topic: Muscular System

5. Transverse tubules
A. store sodium ions for the action potential at the cell surface.
B. transmit muscle impulses into the cell interior.
C. store calcium ions.
D. connect actin and myosin.
E. transmit nerve impulses out of the muscle.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.02
Topic: Muscular System

9-2

Chapter 09 - Muscular System

6. The severe pain of compartment syndrome is caused by


A. tears in the compartment wall.
B. too much fluid in the compartment.
C. damaged muscle tissue.
D. stretched tendons.
E. lack of fluid in the compartment.
Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Learning Outcome: 09.02
Topic: Muscular System

7. The discoloration and swelling of a muscle strain is due to


A. excess myofibrils.
B. separated tendons.
C. severed nerves.
D. ruptured blood vessels.
E. torn ligaments

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.02
Topic: Muscular System

8. A tendon is ______, whereas an aponeurosis is ______.


A. cordlike and connects bones to bones; a broad, fibrous sheet of connective tissue that
connects muscles to muscles
B. a broad, fibrous sheet of connective tissue that connects muscles to muscles; cordlike and
connects bones to bones
C. cordlike and connects muscles to bones; a broad, fibrous sheet of connective tissue that
connects muscles to muscles
D. found in humans; found in apes.
E. none of the above

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.02
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

9. Muscle fibers are basically a collection of


A. muscles.
B. sarcomeres.
C. connective tissue fibers.
D. alpha and beta subunits.
E. synapses.
Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Learning Outcome: 09.02
Topic: Muscular System

10. Transverse tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum are well developed in


A. smooth muscle fibers.
B. skeletal muscle fibers.
C. cardiac muscle fibers.
D. motor neurons.
E. nervous muscle fibers.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.02
Topic: Muscular System

11. The functional unit of muscle contraction is


A. the muscle.
B. the muscle fiber.
C. the myosin cross-bridge.
D. the sarcomere.
E. the myomere.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.02
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

12. Neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles in


A. myofibrils.
B. motor units.
C. motor end plates.
D. motor neuron endings.
E. sarcomeres
Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

13. The enzyme acetylecholinesterase causes acetylcholine to


A. bond to actin.
B. be secreted from the motor end plate.
C. decompose.
D. form cross-bridges.
E. none of the above.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

14. creatine phosphate


A. decomposes ATP.
B. decomposes ADP.
C. supplies energy for the synthesis of ATP.
D. supplies energy for the breakdown of ATP to ADP.
E. binds to Ach receptors.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

15. The amount of oxygen liver cells require to react lactic acid to produce glucose or the
glycogen glycogen is the
A. refractory quantity.
B. oxygen debt.
C. anaerobic concentration.
D. aerobic conversion.
E. lactate debt.
Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

16. Tawanda finishes a sprint and suffers great pain in her calf muscles. Her muscle cramps
are most likely due to a temporary deficit of
A. actin.
B. myosin.
C. ATP.
D. ADP.
E. endorphins.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

17. Athletes usually experience muscle fatigue less quickly than nonathletes because they
A. convert glucose to lactic acid.
B. tolerate high concentrations of carbon dioxide.
C. make more efficient use of ATP.
D. produce less lactic acid.
E. do not care about fatigue or pain.

Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

18. At a neuromuscular junction, the muscle fiber membrane folds, forming a


A. motor neuron.
B. neurotransmitter.
C. motor unit.
D. motor end cup.
E. motor end plate.
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

19. The toxin that causes botulism


A. prevents release of acetylcholine.
B. promotes release of acetylcholine.
C. decomposes acetylcholine.
D. prevents decomposition of acetylcholine.
E. binds to acetylcholine.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

20. Rigor mortis affects skeletal muscles a few hours after death, due to
A. increased ATP and decreased permeability to calcium.
B. decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium.
C. increased ATP.
D. nerve impulses that contract the muscles excessively.
E. none of the above.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

21. At a neuromuscular junction


A. actin and myosin filaments slide past one another.
B. troponin and tropomyosin exchange places.
C. neurotransmitters are released.
D. intercalated discs are synthesized.
E. neurotransmitters are synthesized.
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

22. The first event in muscle fiber contraction is that


A. the muscle fiber membrane is stimulated and a muscle impulse travels deep into the fiber
through transverse tubules.
B. acetylcholine diffuses across a gap at a neuromuscular junction.
C. acetylcholine is released from the end of the motor neuron.
D. calcium ions diffuse from sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm and bind to troponin
molecules.
E. morphine is released from the end of the motor neuron.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

23. Which of the following statements is correct?


A. Tropomyosin molecules move and expose specific sites on myosin filaments.
B. Actin filaments slide along myosin filaments.
C. Cross-bridges form between actin and sarcolemma filaments.
D. Filaments of troponin and tropomyosin slide past one another.
E. Myosin and actin alternate to form filaments.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

24. The functional connection between a neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber is a
A. myoma
B. fascia
C. neuroma
D. dendrite
E. synapse
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

25. __________ degrades acetylcholine, keeping it from accumulating in the synapse.


A. ATPase
B. Myosinase
C. Actinase
D. Acetylcholinesterase
E. DNase

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

26. Arrange the following steps for contraction in the correct sequence.
1. The muscle impulse reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum and calcium is released.
2. Thin filaments are pulled over the thick filaments.
3. Calcium floods the sarcoplasm and binds to troponin molecules leaving active sites.
4. The impulse arrives at the synapse and travels through the transverse tubules.
5. The muscle fiber shortens and contracts.
6. Tropomyosin molecules bind to exposed active sites, linking actin and myosin
A. 6, 3, 1, 4, 2, 5
B. 2, 5, 3, 1, 4, 6
C. 4, 1, 3, 6, 2, 5
D. 3, 5, 2, 1, 6, 4
E. 4, 2, 6, 5, 3, 1

Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

27. A shift in metabolism that breaks down pyruvic acid to lactic acid is called
A. aerobic threshold.
B. anaerobic threshold.
C. pyruvic acidosis.
D. glycogenic threshold.
E. glycolysis
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

28. Oxygen debt in muscles may develop because of


A. the inability of respiratory and circulatory systems to supply enough oxygen to skeletal
muscles when used strenuously for a minute or two.
B. the inability of myoglobin molecules to store enough oxygen when skeletal muscles are
used strenuously for a minute or two.
C. too much oxygen used in forming pyruvic acid when skeletal muscles are contracted
strenuously for a minute or two.
D. too many mitochondria utilizing oxygen to synthesize ATP when skeletal muscles are
contracted for a minute or two.
E. too high a concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

29. The relationship between ATP and creatine phosphate is that


A. ATP supplies energy to synthesize creatine phosphate from creatine and phosphate.
B. creatine phosphate supplies energy to regenerate ATP from ADP and phosphate.
C. both having three phosphate groups.
D. both are required to stimulate a muscle to contract.
E. they are the same.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

9-10

Chapter 09 - Muscular System

30. A motor unit is


A. many myofibrils in a sarcolemma.
B. many motor end plates at a neuromuscular junction.
C. a motor neuron and the muscle fibers connected to it.
D. the functional unit of a muscle fiber.
E. a type of recreational vehicle.
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

31. In muscle contraction ATP supplies energy for


A. creatine phosphate synthesis.
B. glycogen synthesis.
C. cellular respiration.
D. enzyme activity.
E. myofilament movement.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

32. Skeletal muscles help maintain body temperature in that


A. the more active they are, the more heat is used up.
B. the more active they are, the more heat is released.
C. they produce more actin and myosin in hot weather.
D. they conserve actin and myosin in cold weather.
E. excess myosin is quickly metabolized to yield heat.

Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

33. Threshold stimulus is the


A. maximum stimulus to contract a muscle.
B. amount of acetylcholine required to contract a muscle.
C. maximum stimulus required to contract a muscle.
D. minimal amount of energy required to contract a muscle fiber.
E. none of the above.
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

34. A myogram is
A. a chart that shows how many muscle cells a neuron synapses with.
B. a recording of the events of a twitch.
C. a measurement of muscle tone.
D. a depiction of the results of a stress test.
E. an instrument that detects the pattern in which neurons contact muscles.

Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze


Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

35. A plank position is part of a yoga/Pilates workout. The person supports the body on the
floor in a prone position with the arms and feet supporting the body. It is a little like the "up"
position of a push-up, held for 30 to 60 seconds. Contraction of the abdominal muscles in a
plank is most likely
A. isotonic.
B. eccentric.
C. isometric.
D. isotopic.
E. plurimetric.

Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze


Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

36. An example of a partial but sustained contraction is


A. knee jerking.
B. a titanic contraction.
C. a twitch.
D. eye blinking.
E. muscle tone.
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

37. Which of the following is not true?


A. Red fibers contract more slowly than white.
B. Red fibers contain more myoglobin than white.
C. Red fibers have fewer mitochondria than white.
D. Red fibers fatigue more slowly than white.
E. Red roosters have red fibers and white chickens have white fibers.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

38. In a recording of a muscle twitch, the delay between the time a stimulus is applied and the
time the muscle responds is called the
A. refractory period.
B. relaxation period.
C. latent period.
D. contraction period.
E. stimulus period.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

39. The very brief moment following stimulation when a muscle remains unresponsive to
additional stimulation is called the
A. refractory period.
B. relaxation period.
C. latent period.
D. contraction period.
E. refractory index.
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

40. Smooth muscle lacks


A. actin and myosin.
B. transverse tubules and striations.
C. gap junctions.
D. nuclei and mitochondria.
E. myofibrils.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.05
Topic: Muscular System

41. Smooth muscle has ___________ and not troponin.


A. calmodulin
B. acetylcholine
C. norepinephrine
D. titin
E. fibronectin

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.05
Topic: Muscular System

9-14

Chapter 09 - Muscular System

42. Compared to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle


A. contracts more slowly and relaxes more slowly.
B. contracts more slowly and relaxes more rapidly.
C. contracts more rapidly and relaxes more slowly.
D. contracts more rapidly and relaxes more rapidly.
E. contracts and relaxes at about the same rate.
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.05
Topic: Muscular System

43. The type of muscle cell that lacks transverse tubules, has a single nucleus, and is under
involuntary control is
A. skeletal muscle.
B. smooth muscle.
C. cardiac muscle.
D. striated muscle.
E. exercised muscle.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.05
Topic: Muscular System

44. Short muscle cells with centrally located nuclei are


A. smooth muscle fibers.
B. skeletal muscle fibers.
C. cardiac muscle fibers.
D. motor neurons.
E. adipocytes.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.05
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

45. Both acetylcholine and norepinephrine can affect


A. smooth muscle contraction.
B. skeletal muscle contraction.
C. synthesis of actin and myosin.
D. exercise tolerance.
E. percentage of different twitch types.
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.05
Topic: Muscular System

46. The structures that connect cardiac muscle cells are


A. herniated discs.
B. neuromuscular junctions.
C. intercalated discs.
D. desmosomes.
E. neuromuscular discs.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.06
Topic: Muscular System

47. Cardiac muscle


A. contracts as a syncytium.
B. excites itself.
C. responds in an all-or-none manner.
D. is only in the heart.
E. all of the above.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.06
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

48. Bones and muscles function as mechanical devices called


A. lifts.
B. levers.
C. syncytia.
D. ladders.
E. monkey bars.
Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Learning Outcome: 09.07
Topic: Muscular System

49. The movable end of a muscle is its


A. origin.
B. fulcrum.
C. insertion.
D. twitch.
E. source.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.07
Topic: Muscular System

50. The muscle primarily responsible for an action is the


A. biceps.
B. antagonist.
C. prime mover.
D. origin
E. activator.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.07
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

51. A muscle that assists a prime mover is a(n)


A. antagonist.
B. agonist.
C. lever.
D. synergist.
E. none of the above.
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.07
Topic: Muscular System

52. The buccinator muscle is in the


A. buttocks.
B. ankle.
C. bladder.
D. cheek.
E. chest.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.08
Topic: Muscular System

53. The muscle that adducts and flexes the arm is the
A. coracobrachialis.
B. pectoralis minor.
C. levator scapulae.
D. teres major.
E. none of the above.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.08
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

54. The linea alba is


A. a muscle extending from the ischial spine to the coccyx and sacrum.
B. a curved, broad muscle on the side of the chest.
C. a muscle beneath the skull.
D. a band of tough connective tissue to which abdominal wall muscles attach.
E. a muscle attached to the symphysis pubis.
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.08
Topic: Muscular System

55. The soleus is a muscle that forms part of the


A. calf.
B. buttocks.
C. thigh.
D. abdomen.
E. shoulder.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.08
Topic: Muscular System

56. Which of the following is not a muscle of mastication?


A. Medial and lateral pterygoid
B. Masseter
C. Temporalis
D. Mandibular
E. All of the above

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.08
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

57. Which of the following is unique in that its insertion is to fascia and not bone?
A. palmaris longus
B. extensor carpi ulnaris
C. flexor digitorum profundus
D. extensor digitorum
E. none of the above.
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.08
Topic: Muscular System

58. The triangle of auscultation, commonly used to hear sounds of respiratory organs, is
located near the border of the
A. pectoralis major and pectoralis minor.
B. trapezius and latissimus dorsi.
C. latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior.
D. pectoralis major and serratus anterior.
E. gluteus maximus and gluteus minimus.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.08
Topic: Muscular System

59. A gluteal gait, in which a person walks with a waddling limp, is usually caused by a
disorder of the
A. gluteus maximus and gluteus medius.
B. gluteus maximus and gluteus minimus.
C. gluteus medius and gluteus minimus.
D. gluteus gluteus and gluteus transverses.
E. none of the above.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.08
Topic: Muscular System

9-20

Chapter 09 - Muscular System

60. A sign of aging of the muscular system is


A. expansion of muscle fiber diameters.
B. decreased supplies of myoglobin to muscles.
C. excess ATP.
D. fewer red fibers.
E. all of the above.
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.09
Topic: Muscular System

61. Regina began an exercise program six months ago, and the muscles of her upper limbs
and lower limbs are more prominent. Exercise can lead to formation of new muscle by
A. stimulating synthesis of myoglobin.
B. stimulating skeletal muscle cells to release IL-6, which stimulates satellite cells to divide,
producing more muscle cells.
C. stimulating satellite cells to release IL-6, which stimulates fibroblasts to differentiate as
muscle cells.
D. stimulating motor neurons to divide and innervate more muscle cells.
E. stimulating connective tissue to differentiate as muscle tissue.

Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze


Learning Outcome: 09.09
Topic: Muscular System

62. Muscle atrophy that progresses with aging is caused by reduction in


A. ATP.
B. myoglobin.
C. the sizes of muscle fibers.
D. creatine phosphate.
E. all of the above.

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.09
Topic: Muscular System

9-21

Chapter 09 - Muscular System

63. People with myasthenia gravis lack


A. titin.
B. troponin.
C. about two-thirds of the normal number of acetylcholine receptors
D. sarcomeres.
E. dystrophin.
Boxed Reading: Clinical Application 9.1
Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Topic: Muscular System

64. Myasthenia gravis is


A. an autoimmune disorder.
B. a bacterial infection.
C. a form of cancer.
D. the result of injury.
E. a muscle in the lower limb.

Boxed Reading: Clinical Application 9.1


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Topic: Muscular System

65. Weightlifting, in which a muscle exerts more than 75% of its maximum tension,
stimulates
A. an increase in slow, fatigable white fibers.
B. muscle fibers developing new filaments of actin and myosin.
C. shrinking of skeletal muscle.
D. conversion of skeletal to smooth muscle.
E. conversion of smooth to skeletal muscle.

Boxed Reading: Clinical Application 9.2


Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Topic: Muscular System

9-22

Chapter 09 - Muscular System

66. Fibers of muscles whose motor neurons are severed


A. hypertrophy.
B. may be replaced by fat or fibrous connective tissue.
C. cannot ever be reinnervated.
D. die.
E. all of the above.
Boxed Reading: Clinical Application 9.2
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Topic: Muscular System

67. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome causes


A. insomnia.
B. ringing in the ears.
C. backache.
D. clicking sound from the jaw.
E. all of the above.

Boxed Reading: Clinical Application 9.3


Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Topic: Muscular System

True / False Questions


68. Endomysium separates individual muscle fibers.
TRUE

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.02
Topic: Muscular System

9-23

Chapter 09 - Muscular System

69. Layers of dense connective tissue that separate skeletal muscles from each other are called
fascia.
TRUE
Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Learning Outcome: 09.02
Topic: Muscular System

70. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers that it controls constitute a motor unit.
TRUE

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

71. During muscle contraction, calcium ions combine with tropomyosin, and this exposes
active sites for cross-bridge formation.
FALSE

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

72. ATPase is located in myosin cross-bridges.


TRUE

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

73. Anaerobic respiration occurs primarily in mitochondria.


FALSE

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

9-24

Chapter 09 - Muscular System

74. Liver cells convert lactic acid to ATP.


FALSE
Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create
Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

75. The minimal strength of stimulation needed to elicit a muscle contraction is called the
threshold stimulus.
TRUE

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

76. If a muscle contracts and its fibers shorten, the contraction is isometric.
FALSE

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

77. The latent period is the time when the muscle is relaxed.
FALSE

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

78. White muscles have an increased capacity to carry on aerobic respiration.


FALSE

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

79. Metabolic processes can use only about 25% of the energy released by cellular
respiration.
TRUE
Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

80. Motor unit recruitment refers to the fact that some motor neurons can recruit new skeletal
muscle fibers with which they connect.
FALSE

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

81. The two major types of smooth muscles are intercalated muscle and cardiac muscle.
FALSE

Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create


Learning Outcome: 09.05
Topic: Muscular System

82. Cardiac muscle is voluntary.


FALSE

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

83. Muscles and bones function as levers.


TRUE

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.07
Topic: Muscular System

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Chapter 09 - Muscular System

84. The masseter muscle functions in mastication.


TRUE
Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Learning Outcome: 09.08
Topic: Muscular System

85. Exercise can lead to new muscle filament formation, even in an older person.
TRUE

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.09
Topic: Muscular System

Fill in the Blank Questions


86. A broad, fibrous sheet of connective tissue that attaches the coverings of adjacent muscles
is called an ______.
aponeurosis

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.02
Topic: Muscular System

87. The pigment responsible for the reddish brown color of skeletal muscle is ______.
myoglobin

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

9-27

Chapter 09 - Muscular System

88. In order to stimulate skeletal muscle fibers, motor neurons release the neurotransmitter
______.
acetylcholine
Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Learning Outcome: 09.03
Topic: Muscular System

89. During anaerobic respiration, glucose molecules are converted into molecules of ______
______.
pyruvic acid

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

90. A forceful, sustained muscle contraction is called a ______ ______.


tetanic contraction

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

91. Muscle fatigue is most likely due to an accumulation of ______ ______.


lactic acid

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

92. The combining of a series of twitches to produce a sustained contraction is called ______.
summation

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.04
Topic: Muscular System

9-28

Chapter 09 - Muscular System

93. The rhythmic, wavelike motion produced by smooth muscles in tubular visceral organs is
called _______.
peristalsis
Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand
Learning Outcome: 09.05
Topic: Muscular System

94. The ______ ______ at the ends of cardiac muscle cells help to join cells.
intercalated discs

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.06
Topic: Muscular System

95. Muscles that assist a prime mover are called ______.


synergists

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.07
Topic: Muscular System

96. The muscle that covers the upper part of the cranium is the _______________.
epicranius

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand


Learning Outcome: 09.08
Topic: Muscular System

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