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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
Even in this modern era of technology, one thing that has remained
unchanged is the use of metals. Without metals, it is impossible to imagine
even the most basic of things. Metals like iron, copper, aluminium, steel, etc.
and their various alloys continue to be used in our day to day life. In many
instances, it is often required to use a combination of different metals, rather
than a single metal, to achieve certain objectives. In such cases, metal
joining methods are employed, to join one metal to the other, without any
loss of properties of the individual materials.
Talking of metal joining processes, there are a lot of options namely:

Brazing
Welding
Soldering
Mechanical bonding
Adhesive bonding

1.2 WELDING
Welding is a metal fabrication process which is used to join metals by
the phenomenon of coalescence. The work-pieces are melted using heat
derived from various energy sources such as a gas flame, an electric arc,
friction, ultrasound, electron beam, laser energy, etc., to produce a pool of
molten metal (weld pool), which on cooling solidifies to form very strong
joints. Use of filler material and application of pressure is also done in order
to achieve better and stronger joints.

1.2.1 TYPES OF WELDING METHODS


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The various types of welding methods normally employed are:


Arc welding
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW)
Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW)
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
Submerged arc welding (SAW)
Gas welding
Oxy-acetylene welding
Air acetylene welding
Resistance welding
Spot welding
Seam welding
Energy beam welding
Laser beam welding
Electron beam welding
X-ray welding
Solid-state welding
Forge welding
Ultrasonic welding,
Explosion welding

1.3 LASER WELDING


Laser beam welding (LBW) is a unique welding technique used to join
metals through the heating effect of a concentrated beam of coherent
monochromatic light known as LASER. Light amplification by stimulated
emission of radiation (LASER) is a mechanism which emits electromagnetic
radiation, through the process of simulated emission. LASER light is
generally a spatially coherent, narrow-wavelength electromagnetic spectrum

monochromatic light.

Fig 1.1: Principle of Laser Welding


Laser beam welding has high power density (of the order of 1
Megawatt/cm (MW)), having high heating and cooling rates which result in
small heat affected zones (HAZ). Industrial lasers are used for welding,
cutting, drilling and surface treatment of a wide range of engineering
materials. An inert gas, such as helium or argon, is used to protect the weld
bead from contamination, and to reduce the formation of absorbing plasma.
Depending upon the type of weld required a continuous or pulsed laser beam

may be used.
LBW is a very versatile process, which is capable of welding a variety
of materials like stainless steels, carbon steels, aluminium, copper, tool
steels, etc. The weld quality is high, although some cracking may occur in
the weld region. The speed of welding is proportional to the amount of
power supplied but also depends on the type and thickness of the workpieces. Laser welding is of particular interest in the automotive industry,
laser welding has been applied for joining sheet body panels, transmission
components and chassis members during production.

1.4 LASER WELDING EQUIPMENT


Basically two types of laser equipment are in use, solid-state lasers
and gas lasers. Solid-state lasers employ solid media, like synthetic ruby,
yttrium aluminium garnet crystals doped with neodymium (Nd:YAG),
chromium in aluminium oxide, etc. Gas lasers use carbon dioxide, nitrogen,
etc. as medium. The medium, when excited, emits photons and forms a laser
beam.

1.4.1 SOLID STATE LASER


The most popular solid state design is a rod shaped single crystal
approximately20 mm in diameter and 200 mm long with flat grounded ends.

Fig1.2: Schematic diagram of a solid-state Ruby laser


A flash tube, containing xenon or krypton surrounds this tube. When
flashed, a pulse of light lasting about two milliseconds is emitted by the
laser.
Nd:YAG lasers can operate in both pulsed and continuous mode
providing power outputs between 0.046000 W. Solid-state lasers operate at
very low wavelengths, and hence cannot be operated with the naked eye.
Operators must wear special eyewear or use special screens to prevent
damage to the retina.

1.4.2 GAS LASER


In gas lasers, the lasing medium (gas mixture) is excited by using high
voltage, low current power sources. Power outputs for gas lasers can be
much higher than solid state lasers, and these lasers can operate both in
continuous as well as pulsed mode.

Fig1.3: Axial
Flow CO2 laser
(After
Chryssolouris,
1991)

1.4.3 FIBRE LASER


In fibre lasers, the gain medium is the optical fibre itself. They are
capable of power up to 50 kW and are increasingly being used for robotic
industrial welding.

Fig1.4: A diode-pumped Fibre laser

1.4.4 Nd:YAG LASER


The Nd: YAG laser is an optically pumped solid state laser system that
is capable of providing high power laser beam. The lasing medium is a

colourless and isotropic crystal Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG:


Y2Al5O12) having a four operational levels of energy.

Fig1.5: Schematic of Nd:YAG laser (After Chryssolouris, 1991)


Fig1.6:
Energy
levels of
Nd:
YAG
laser

The yttrium aluminium garnet is doped with some amount of


neodymium. When sufficiently intense light is allowed to fall on this crystal,
population inversion occurs and atoms in the crystal structure absorb this
incident light to perform transitions from the ground state to the absorption
bands. This is often done with the help of a flash tube.

Fig 1.7: Nd: YAG laser system showing the flash tube
The transition from the absorption bands to the upper energy laser
levels is very smooth. The decays from these higher levels back to the
ground state are longer in duration than the transitions to the higher levels.
Due to this long lifetime, the atoms de-excite back to the ground states
almost spontaneously, thus producing a laser beam. Commercial Nd: YAG
lasers for welding applications are available from manysuppliers. These
lasers may be operated in three modes:
1. Continuous output

2. Pulsed pumping
3. Q-switched mode

TABLE 1.1 : Output characteristics of Nd: YAG lasers under


different excitation conditions:
Mode

Continuous
Pulsed
Q-switched

Average

Peak

Pulse

Pulse

Energy/Pulse

Power

power

Duration

Repetition

(J)

0.2-20 ms
<1 s

Rate
1-500 Hz
To 100

To 100
10-3

(kW)
0.3-4
To 4
To 4

(kW)
To 50
To 100

kHz
One of the prime advantages of the Nd: YAG laser is the ability to
deliver laser radiation through optical fibres, even over several hundred
meters with minimal loss.

1.5 MODES OF LASER WELDING


When using laser for welding purposes, energy is transferred from the
laser to the work-piece through two different ways or modes. The laser
welding mode can be either the conduction mode or the keyhole mode
depending upon the power density. The two modes of laser welding are:

1.5.1 CONDUCTION LIMITED MODE


It is a low energy density process, which basically heats the surface of
the material being welded. The beam energy is deposited on the material
surface, conducted into the material, forming a hemispherical bead. The size

of the weld on the surface is generally larger, and the depth of penetration of
the weld is generally shallower. Power densities lie below 106 W/cm2.

1.5.2 KEYHOLE MODE


In this mode of laser operation, power densities lie between 10 6Wcm-2
and 5x107Wcm-2. A narrow, deeply penetrating vapour cavity, or keyhole, is
formed due to local vaporization. The keyhole is surrounded by a thin layer
of molten material. This layer is maintained by equilibrium between vapour
pressure, surface tension and hydrostatic pressure. Material at the leading
edge is melts and flows around the keyhole, solidifying to form a deep,
narrow weld bead. Heat affected zones (HAZ) are very narrow.

1.6. CHOICE OF PARAMETERS


The parameters that play a major role in determining the weld pool
properties are peak power and frequency.
Peak power:
The weld created by each pulse is determined by the peak power density
and duration of that pulse. The peak power density controls the weld
penetration.
This is a direct parameter that can be selected on the laser. It controls the
maximum power of each pulse. The unit of peak power is watt (W).
Frequency:
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The number of pulses per second defines the seam weld.The frequency is
the number of pulses emitted per second. The unit is Hertz (Hz) .

1.7 COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS:


Thermo-mechanical properties of the materials getting into the welding
joint. All the properties used in this analysis are temperature dependent.

a.) Composition
The composition of the metals used in this simulation of welding joint is
given below:
1.) 304 Stainless Steel
The composition of 304 stainless steel is shown in table 1. Chromium along
with nickel is the principal alloying elements.

Table 1.2: Composition of 304 Stainless Steel in %


Fe
71.433

C
0.058

Si
0.35

Mn
1.32

S
0.007

P
0.032

Cr
18.52

Ni
8.28

2.) 1020 Mild Steel

In plain carbon steel, carbon is the principle alloying element.


Composition of 1020 mild steel is shown in table 2.

Table 1.3: Composition of 1020 Mild Steel in %


Fe
99.31

C
0.2

S
0.05
11

p
0.04

Mn
0.4

Mechanical Properties

b.)

The mechanical properties that have been chosen for the purpose of
analysis are density, Poissons ratio, modulus of elasticity and yield strength.
The mechanical and thermal properties of the materials used in this analysis
have been extrapolated from the graph published by Jiang and Guan [2] in
their study on residual stress in a welded joint.
1. 304 Stainless Steel

The mechanical properties of 304 stainless steel that have been used in
this analysis have been given in table 4.

Table 1.4: Mechanical Properties of 304 Stainless Steel

Yield Strength
Variation of

Density

Poissons

Modulus of

properties with

(kg/m3) * 103

ratio

Elasticity

temperature

(Pa)*108

(Pa)*1011

00C
2000C
4000C
6000C
8000C
10000C
12000C

7.9
7.78
7.67
7.55
7.43
7.32
7.2

0.295
0.3
0.31
0.315
0.32
0.327
0.335

0.4

0.6
11

14000C

7.12

0.341

0.5

0.5

12

2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.5
1.0

2.7
1.9
1.6
1.2
0.8

16000C

7.04

0.346

0.5

0.5

2. 1020 Mild Steel


The mechanical properties of 1020 mild steel that have been used in this analysis
have been given in table 5.

Table 1.5: Mechanical Properties of 1020 mild steel

Variation of
properties
with

Density
(kg/m3) * 103

Poissons
ratio

Modulus of

Yield Strength

Elasticity

(Pa)*108

(Pa)*1011

temperature
00C
2000C
4000C
6000C
8000C
10000C
12000C
14000C
16000C

7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8

2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.91
2.93

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2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
0.7
0.6
0.54
0.51
0.49

3.1
2.5
1.8
1.1
0.4
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

c.)

Thermal Properties:
The thermal properties of the materials that were necessary for this

analysis were melting point, thermal conductivity, specific heat and coefficient of thermal expansion.

1. 304 Stainless Steel


The thermal properties of 304 stainless steel that have been used in this
analysis have been given in table 7. The melting point of 304 stainless steel
is taken as 14270C.

Table 1.6: Thermal Properties of 304 Stainless Steel


Variation of

Thermal

Specific Heat

Thermal

properties with

Conductivity

(J/Kg0C)

Expansion

temperature

(W/m0C)

Coefficient

15
18
21
26
34
36
36
36.1
36.1

(0C-1) * 10-5
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.05
2.1
2.15
2.2
2.25
2.29

00C
2000C
4000C
6000C
8000C
10000C
12000C
14000C
16000C

501
530
580
620
650
680
690
700
705

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2. 1020 Mild Steel


The thermal properties of 1020mild steel that have been used in this analysis have
been given in table 8. The melting point of 1020 Mild Steel has been taken as 15150C.

Table 1.7: Thermal Properties of 1020 Mild Steel


Variation of

Thermal

Specific Heat

Thermal

properties with

Conductivity

(J/Kg0C)

Expansion

temperature

(W/m0C)

Coefficient

48
32
30
29
29
29
30
30
31

(0C-1) * 10-5
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.19
1.18

00C
2000C
4000C
6000C
8000C
10000C
12000C
14000C
16000C

480
510
550
600
640
680
690
695
702

1.2 CARBON MIGRATION


Carbon migration across the weld interface is considered a significant factor in the
"life" of a transition joint, since time dependent property changes occur in the regions
where carbon movement occurs. The carbon migration causes loss of strength in the
ferrite material adjacent to the weld interface and an increase in hardness (and probably
also in strength with a change in the modulus of elasticity possible) in the filler metal
(carbon-enriched zone). These zones are immediately adjacent to one another and provide

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a significant change in properties across a narrow region.


However, some generalizations can be stated concerning carbon migration in a welded
joint:
1. Carbon migration is directly dependent on time, temperature and carbon content of the
base metals.
2. Carbon diffuses five to ten times faster in ferrite than in austenite at the same
temperature.
3. Thermal stresses acting on the weld interface enhance carbon diffusion, thus the metals
having larger co-efficient of thermal expansion like stainless steel will experience more
rapid formation of the carbon depleted zone.
4. The carbon depleted zone exhibits low tensile and creep strength and reduced
recrystallization temperature. However, the properties are not specifically defined.
5. The carbon-depleted soft zone is restrained by the harder and stronger carbon-enriched
zone immediately adjacent during thermal cycling. The development of a complex stress
state involving shear along the interface, inhibiting uniform strain and tends to create
deformations in the soft zone.

1.8 BEHAVIOUR OF VARIOUS METALS TO LASER


WELDING
Joints between low-carbon and high-strength low-alloy steels are
required in many industrial sectors. These metals are readily laserweldable, but two main problems are martensite formation in the weld
bead or low alloy HAZ, which promotes cold cracking; and the hot
cracking observed in fully austenitic metal. High levels of sulphur and
phosphorus, in combination with a coarse solidification microstructure
and restraint, can lead to solidification cracking.
Austenitic stainless steels can be laser welded, with the exception of free
machining grades which are susceptible to solidification cracking due to
high sulphur content.
Ferritic stainless steels with relatively low carbon and chromium contents

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are also readily laser weldable.


Aluminium and copper: They are difficult to melt with lasers due to their
high reflectivity and high thermal conductivity. There is also a large
difference in melting temperatures, as well as brittle inter-metallic phases
are formed. However, by using Nd: YAG laser welding, sound weld
beads have been obtained. Good mechanical properties and thermal
conductivities are reported.
Aluminium and Steel: When attempting to weld these metals by normal
fusion processes, problems result due to formation of brittle inter metallic
compounds and large difference in thermal conductivities. Steel and
copper: Differences in their melting temperatures and thermal
conductivities, as well as compositional effects, are the main sources of
difficulties in joining steel and copper.
Steel and nickel: The heat resistance of the nickel component is often the
determining factor in its selection.
Aluminium and lead: Successful laser welding of aluminium alloys to
lead, for use in instruments, through the use of a tin interlayer has been
reported.

1.9 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF LASER


WELDING
1.9.1 ADVANTAGES
The heat influence zone is very small due to a very short pulse
duration (welding time, 5-10 ms) and a relatively slow sequence of the
individual welding pulses (up to 10 Hz). One of the main advantages of laser
welding is its versatility. Another important fact is that laser systems can be
made fully automatic in order to have high accuracy welds. Improvements in
welding speed, productivity and accuracy are achieved at the same time.

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Very high finish welds are obtained, that do not require further processing.
These qualities make lasers a good choice for welding a variety of parts like
transmission components, antilock-brake valves; pace-makers, and stainless
steel tubes. Lasers provide a high heat concentration that is obtained when
the beam is focused to a metal surface, resulting in deep, narrow welds with
a minimum of melted metal, which reduce undesirable effects such as
distortion and large heat-affected zones (HAZs). The high welding speeds
and low scrap rates achieved with the laser process make it cost-effective for
stainless steel applications.

1.9.2 DISADVANTAGES
The major disadvantages of laser welding are its associated high costs,
difficult operating expertise requiring highly skilled labour and high
maintenance costs. Apart from that, there are some other disadvantages also,
one of them being the tendency of magnesium to vaporize and create severe
voids on the surface, when subjected to laser welding. The slow welding
speeds (25 to 250 mm/min.), resulting from the pulse rate and puddle sizes at
the fusion point also prove to be major disadvantages. Also, laser welding is
efficient only up to depths of 1.5 mm. Any additional energy only tends to
create gas voids and undercuts in the work.

1.10 PROBLEM FORMULATION


Dissimilar Welding is used To Fabricate The Pressure Vessels And Piping In
Power Plant But Failures Occur Frequently Due To:
1.Thermal Stress Which Is Generated Due To Difference In Co-Efficient Of

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Thermal Expansion.
2.Difference In Mechanical Properties ,The Local Heating And Subsequent
Cooling Results In Large Residual Stresses.
This Thermal Stress Superimposed On Weld Residual Stress And Operating
Tensile Stress Promotes Brittle Fracture, Increase Susceptibility To Fatigue
And Stress Corrosion Cracking During Its Service Life. The Domain Of This
Research Covers Cause, Effect And Elimination Of Problems Caused Due
To Stresses, Carbon Migration And Stress Corrosion Cracking.

1.11 AIM OF THE PROJECT

The Aim Of This Project Is To Perform A Butt Welding Of 304 Stainless


Steel And 1020 Plain Carbon Steel Using Laser Beam Welding By
Optimisation Of Parameters Namely Peak Power ,Frequency And Pulse
Width.
Then the weld joint is to be analysed for tensile strength and hardness to
determine the quality of weld.
After the results are obtained the aim is to suggest improvement in the welding process
by siting the best figures in the tensile strength, yeild stress and % elongation obtained
under laboratory conditions.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
During recent years, industries have continuously strived to
manufacture products having a number of metal combinations at once. This
is done so as to obtain the beneficiary properties of each metal, in the
specific parts required, within the same product. The method of joining of
metals also serves to save a lot of cost in the final product. For example, in
cutting tools, the tooling part is made up of highly wear resistant and hard
metals, while the base is made up of steel in order to reduce cost. Metals can
be joined to each other by various methods, laser welding being of primary
importance in joining dissimilar metals. Joints between dissimilar metals are
used in a lot of industries mainly automotive, electronics, power generation,
etc. Among the various metals used in industry, the most basic metal, that
serves as the foundation of any industry is steel. Steel is basically an alloy of
iron with carbon content between 0.2% and 2.0% by weight. Other alloying
metals, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, etc. may also be used to
impart certain properties to steel. Two of the most important varieties of
steel are mild steel and stainless steel. Mild steel contains 0.160.29%

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carbon by weight and is the most common form of steel due to its cheap
cost. Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and
malleable. A large number of studies have been conducted in which mild
steel or low carbon steel has been laser welded to other materials.
A study by Y.S. Yang and S.H. Lee focuses on the laser spot welding
of mild steel plates in automotive applications. Laser beam welding (LBW)
and Resistance spot welding (RSW) were performed on mild steel specimen
to compare corresponding strengths of the laser welded joints. The welding
was performed in two modes, one with a welding time of 1s and rotating
speed of 60 rpm, and the other with a welding time of 0.67s and a rotation
speed of 90 rpm. The low cycle fatigue strength and residual stress
distribution in the weld components were measured and compared with that
of RSW values. The results showed that the fatigue strength of laser spot
welds was always superior to that of the resistance spot welds.
Another important literature concerned here is the study of the microstructural characteristics during the pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of low
carbon steel. Low carbon steel has lower carbon content than mild steel, but
in many cases it is similar to mild steel. F. Malek Ghaini, M.J. Hamedi, M.J.
Torkamany and J. Sabbaghzadeh examined the effect of changing laser
energy, welding speed and duration of welding on the dimensions of the
weld, its microstructure and hardness. Laser parameters were varied in
ranges of 1-1000 Hz for pulse frequency, 0.2-20 ms for pulse duration and 040 J for pulse energy. The low carbon steel employed here was 0.7 mm thick
St14 mild steel. The welding length was 5 cm, and after welding the welds
were cut and polished for micro structural studies. The microstructures
observed were of a variety of materials starting form ferrite at the grain
boundary to bainite, martensite and Widmanstatten ferrite in the interior
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parts. The study concluded that Nd: YAG pulsed laser welding can be used
to weld low carbon steels by adopting one of the following methods:
1. High peak power densities and higher travel speeds for lower
overlapping
2. Medium peak power densities and medium travel speeds for higher
overlapping.
Z.Sun investigated the feasibility of producing the so called
black/white joints or Ferritic/austenitic (F/A) joints through laser beam
welding. The materials used in the investigation process are low alloy Cr-Mo
steel 13CrMo44 and austenitic stainless steel AISI 347. A continuous wave
(CW) CO2 laser with maximum power output up to 6.0 kW was used for
welding purpose. Sun found out that both autogenous and filler-wire welding
methods are suitable for producing weld able joints having good mechanical
properties at room temperature. However he also concluded that auto genous
welding is not favourable for welding F/A joints due to formation of
unwanted martensite in the weld metal microstructure. A 2 kW Trumpf
TRUDISK 6002* Yb: YAG laser beam was utilized to join 1 mm thick
TRIP780 with 1.5 mm thick DP980 and 1 mm thick mild steel (Rajashekhar
S. Sharma, Pal Molian [12]). Results indicated that the laser welds possessed
excellent mechanical strength and hardness with minimum number of
defects which are attributed to the high beam quality and disk type of laser.
Consistent values of hardness were obtained in the fusion zone, although the
upper areas possessed higher values of hardness as compared to the lower
regions. Tensile testing of all the TRIP steel-MS combinations showed
fracturing in the mild steel area.
Optimization studies of laser welded F/A components have been done
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in order to obtain a clearer picture of the relationship between various


welding parameters, and to optimize these parameters (E.M. Anawa, A.G.
Olabi [7]). A CW 1.5kW CO2 Rofin laser with 127mm focal length high
pressure lenses and 10.6 mm wavelength was used to weld together mild
carbon steel and AISI 316 stainless steel plates in a butt joint configuration.
A statistical design of experiment (DOE) was formulated in order to
optimize selected laser beam welding parameters (power, welding velocity
and focus length). Joint strength was determined using the notched-tensile
strength (NTS) method. The response values obtained from these studies
showed a direct relationship with laser power. In other words higher is the
laser power, higher is the response value and vice versa. Higher power
results in greater power densities, which lead to deeper penetration and
hence higher response values. The tensile strength values were measured in
relation to different welding speeds. Irrespective of the focus position, the
response values decreased with increasing welding speeds. The highest
tensile strength value was observed at a speed of 500mm min-1. Much of the
work already done has been either in laser welding of steel to other
materials, or in welding of various grades of stainless steels. Very few works
exist that concentrate on laser beam welding of mild steel and stainless steel.
In this present study, we concentrate on finding the effect of change in laser
welding parameters (pulse energy and welding speed), on the various tensile
strength of the joint formed. This will help us find better methods to use both
the cheap nature of mild steel and the strength of stainless steel at once, in
form of welded joints.
F.O. Olsen made a studying 1995 in which he compared pulsed CO2
lasers and Nd: YAG lasers for the processes of laser cutting, welding and
hole drilling. For the purposes of pulsed laser welding, AISI316 stainless
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steel was welded using an Nd: YAG laser and a super-pulsed CO2 laser, and
hot crack sensitivity was checked in both cases. The findings showed less
crack sensitiveness with CO2 laser welds than with the Nd: YAG laser
welds. Laser welding of different grades of stainless steel with other steels
also have been reported in large numbers.
The influence of the laser beam position with respect to the joint, on
weld characteristics was studied by five scientists namely Jose Roberto
Berrettaa, Wagner de Rossi, Mauricio David Martins das Neves, Ivan Alves
de Almeidaand Nilson Dias Vieira Junior. A pulsed Nd: YAG laser was used
to analyse the technique of welding AISI 304 stainless steel to AISI 420
stainless steel. Specimens were first welded by positioning the laser beam
coincident with the joint, and then by moving the laser beam 0.1 and 0.2 mm
towards both the AISI 304 and AISI 420 stainless steel sides. The weld
geometry was determined under an optical microscope, and microstructure
of the weld bead as well as the heat affected zones (HAZ) was observed
under a scanning electron microscope. The mechanical properties of the
welded components were determined by Vickers micro-hardness test and
tensile tests. The tensile tests showed that fracture occurred outside the weld
regions, thus showing that the weld region had a higher tensile strength than
the base metals. It was also found out that depending on the amount of shift
in laser beam position from the AISI 420 steel towards the AISI 304 steel,
the hardness along the cross-section of the weld zone showed gradually
reducing values. As is typical in keyhole welding, the variations in laser
beam position had no effect on the weld geometry. All the specimens
showed uniform joints independent of the welding conditions. The SEM
examination showed a very fine grained micro structure, which was
basically dendritic in the weld region.
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S.A.A. Akbari Mousaviand A.R. Sufizadeh published a report in 2009


which contained the experimental studies of Nd: YAG laser welding of AISI
321 and AISI 630 stainless steels. The study was concentrated on the effect
of laser power, beam diameter and pulse duration on the depth and width of
the welds. They found out that both weld depth and width increased with
voltage, while they varied bilaterally with the pulse duration. The
microstructures were also studied, and micro-hardness tests were performed.

CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 MATERIALS
The raw materials selected for this study were mild steel and stainless
steel. A mild steel sheet of 0.8mm thickness and a stainless steel sheet of
0.8mm thickness were selected for this purpose. It was seen that there was
no rusting in the steel sheets.

3.2 SPECIMEN PREPARATION


The metal sheets were cut into small plates of length 70mm and
breadth 40mm with an orbital jigsaw machine. The edges of all the plates
were ground with a pedestal grinder to attain a smooth surface finish. It was
also taken care to ensure that the edges remained almost parallel to each
other so that when two plates were placed side by side, there was no gap
between them.

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Fig 3.1:

Pedestal grinder

3.3 LASER WELDING


3.3.1 APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENT
A pulsed Nd: YAG laser system (ALPHALASER AL200) with a
maximum average output power of 200 W is to be used. Pulse width can be
varied between 0.5 and 20 ms at a maximum pulse frequency of 25 Hz. The
maximum pulse energy is 80 J, peak power 9 KW with laser spot size
varying from 0.3 2.2 mm. The laser beam is delivered to the work piece by
mirrors and focused by 150 mm lens. The following table gives the detailed
technical specifications of the laser welding equipment used.

Fig 3.2:

26

ALPHALASER AL200 Nd: YAG laser apparatus

TABLE 3.1: Specifications of the laser equipment


TECHNICAL DATA
LASER
Wavelength
Average power
Peak pulse power
Pulse energy
Pulse duration
Pulse frequency
Welding spot diameter
Pulse shaping

AL 200 SPECIFICATIONS
1064 nm
200 W
9 KW
150 mJ 80 J
0.5 ms 20 ms
Single pulse, 15Hz 25 Hz
0.3 mm 2.2 mm
Adjustable power-shaping within a

Control

laser Pulse
User-specific operation with up to 128

Focusing lens
VIEWING OPTICS

parameter sets
150 mm
Leica binocular with eyepieces for
spectacle users

POWER SUPPLY
Dimensions (L*W*H)
Weight
LASER BEAM SOURCE
With focusing unit (length *diameter)
Weight
ELECTRICAL SUPPLY
COOLING

820*400*810 mm
Approx. 98 Kg
1100*120 mm
Approx. 20 Kg
3*400V / 3*16 A / 50-60 Hz / N, PE
Air cooled with internal cooling water
circuit, No additional external cooling.

3.3.2 SOFTWARE
The software used in the CNC equipment was WIN Laser NC
software (NC 4-axis control)

27

3.3.3 PROCESSING OF PARAMETERS:


For the welding purpose, peak power and frequency were chosen keeping
pulse width constant.
Energy (J) = Power (KW) * Pulse width (ms)

TABLE 3.2: Parameter selection


Sample
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Peak Power (kw)


1.5
1.5
1.5
2
2
2
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75

Frequency (Hz)
18
20
22
18
20
22
18
20
22
20
20
20

Pulse width (ms)


4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

Energy (J)
6
6
6
8
8
8
7
7
7
7
7
7

EXPERIMENT CONFIGURATIONS:
Offset distance : 3 mm
Travel speed

: 2 mm / s

Pulse width

: 4 mm/s

Beam diameter : 2 mm

CHAPTER 4
TESTING ON SPECIMENS
4.1 MICRO HARDNESS TEST :
Hardness is defined as the mean pressure a material will support.
Hardness testing is typically undertaken to assess resistance to plastic
deformation, a value of tremendous importance to the determination of
quality.

28

The Vickers Hardness Test was done in Omega Inspection and


Analytical Laboratory, Guindy Industrial estate, chennai, where the
equipment used was Micro Hardness Tester - Wilson (Wolpert Group German).

4.1.1 HARDNESS AT PARENT MATERIAL :


TABLE 4.1: Hardness of parent material.
Parent material
Mild Steel
Stainless steel

Hardness
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3
95
92
94
232
239
237

Average
93.67
236

4.1.2 HARDNESS AT HEAT AFFECTED ZONE :


TABLE 4.2:Hardness at the heat affected zone.
Heat affected
zone
Mild Steel
Stainless steel

Hardness
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3
148
303

150
301

154
302

Average
150.67
302

4.1.3 HARDNESS AT WELD ZONE :


The weld zone or fusion zone is where the 1020 mild steel and the 304
stainless steel melts and then solidifies together to form a weldment. It is
required to determine the hardness at this weld zone to determine the quality
of the weld and to determine its suitable application. The weld zone is
localised in the middle of the weldment of the specimen occupying an area
of 40 * 2 mm. The area of weld zone corresponds to the laser beam diameter.

29

TABLE 4.3:Hardness at the weld zone.


Sample
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Peak power

Frequency

(kw)

(Hz)

1.5
1.5
1.5
2
2
2
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75

18
20
22
18
20
22
18
20
22
20
20
20

Hardness
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3
399
448
420
453
424
449
448
450
445
468
455
443

404
453
411
460
426
453
446
458
449
472
472
445

398
457
417
456
422
445
443
454
446
470
470
447

Average
400.33
452.66
416
456.33
424
449
445.66
454
446.66
470
456.33
445

4.2 UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE:


A universal testing machine (UTM), also known as a universal tester, materials testing
machineor materials test frame, is used to test the tensile strength and compressive
strength of materials.

Before testing the specimens are cut as per standards using Wirecut
EDM for its accuracy. The specimens are cut at a speed of 5mm/min using
EL CAM software program.

30

Fig 4.1: Wirecut EDM standard dimensions


Fig 4.2:
Wirecut
EDM
cut specimen

31

Fig 4.3: Wire cut EDM machine


After welding was completed, all the specimens were subjected to
tensile testing in an Instron universal testing machine (UTM), FIE. model.
Fig
4.4:

Instron universal testing machine

TABLE 4.4 Observations from UTM.


Sample
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Peak power

Frequency

(kw)

(Hz)

1.5
1.5
1.5
2
2
2
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75

18
20
22
18
20
22
18
20
22
20
20
20

Tensile
Strength
(Mpa)
123.53
162.14
120.67
154.26
202.12
316.73
238.32
254.87
191.79
216.96
242.37
239.81
32

Yield
Stress
(Mpa)
76.3
148.12
76.49
105.62
105.19
209.39
193.39
211.84
161.12
172.92
200.48
198.31

%
Elongation
8.04
3.6
8.44
7.36
8.16
8.64
2.76
4.08
4.42
3.78
6.24
1.92

4.2.2 STRESS-STRAIN CURVES


Sample 1
Input Data

Peak power : 1.5 kw

Mode of Test

: Tension

Sample Type

: Flat

Thickness

: 0.80 mm

Width

: 40.57 mm

Area

: 32.46 mm

Gauge Length

: 50.00 mm

Final Gauge

: 54.020 mm

Frequency:18

Length

Fig.4.5 stress-strain curve for sample 1


Results
33

Fmax
UTS
% EL
Yield Stress(Ys)

: 4.01 KN
: 123.53 MPa
: 8.04 %
: 76.30 MPa

Sample 2
Input Data
Mode of Test
Sample Type

Peak power : 1.5 kw

Thickness
Width
Area
Gauge Length
Final Gauge Length

: 0.82 mm
: 41.37 mm
: 33.92 mm
: 50.00 mm
: 51.800 mm

Frequency:20

: Tension
: Flat

Fig.4.6 stress-strain curve for sample 2


Results
Fmax

: 5.50 KN

34

UTS
% EL
Yield Stress(Ys)

: 162.14 MPa
: 3.60 %
: 148.12 MPa

Sample 3
Input Data
Mode of Test
Sample Type

Peak power : 1.5 kw

Thickness
Width
Area
Gauge Length
Final Gauge Length

: 0.82 mm
: 40.54 mm
: 33.24 mm
: 50.00 mm
: 54.220 mm

Frequency:22

: Tension
: Flat

Fig.4.7 stress-strain curve for sample 3


Results
Fmax

: 4.01 KN

35

UTS
% EL
Yield Stress(Ys)

: 120.67 MPa
: 8.44 %
: 76.49 MPa

Sample 4
Input Data
Mode of Test
Sample Type

Peak power : 2 kw

Thickness
Width
Area
Gauge Length
Final Gauge Length

: 0.82 mm
: 40.37 mm
: 33.10 mm
: 50.00 mm
: 53.680 mm

Frequency:18

: Tension
: Flat

Fig.4.7 stress-strain curve for sample 4

36

Results
Fmax
UTS
% EL
Yield Stress(Ys)

: 5.11 KN
: 154.26 MPa
: 7.36%
: 105.62 MPa

Sample 5
Input Data
Mode of Test
Sample Type

Peak power : 2 kw

Thickness
Width
Area
Gauge Length
Final Gauge Length

: 0.81 mm
: 39.61 mm
: 32.08 mm
: 50.00 mm
: 54.080 mm

: Tension
: Flat

37

Frequency:20

Fig.4.8 stress-strain curve for sample 5


Results
Fmax
UTS
% EL
Yield Stress(Ys)

: 6.48 KN
: 202.12 MPa
: 8.16%
: 105.19 MPa

Sample 6
Input Data
Mode of Test
Sample Type

Peak power : 2 kw

Thickness
Width
Area
Gauge Length
Final Gauge Length

: 0.80 mm
: 39.60 mm
: 31.68 mm
: 50.00 mm
: 54.320 mm

Frequency:22

: Tension
: Flat

Fig.4.9 stress-strain curve for sample 6

38

Results
Fmax
UTS
% EL
Yield Stress(Ys)

: 10.03 KN
: 316.73 MPa
: 8.64%
: 209.39 MPa

Sample 7
Input Data
Mode of Test
Sample Type

Peak power : 1.75 kw

Thickness
Width
Area
Gauge Length
Final Gauge Length

: 0.81 mm
: 39.49 mm
: 31.99 mm
: 50.00 mm
: 51.380 mm

Frequency:18

: Tension
: Flat

Fig.4.10 stress-strain curve for sample 7

39

Results
Fmax
UTS
% EL
Yield Stress(Ys)

: 7.62 KN
: 238.32 MPa
: 2.76%
: 193.86 MPa

Sample 8
Input Data
Mode of Test
Sample Type

Peak power : 1.75 kw

Thickness
Width
Area
Gauge Length
Final Gauge Length

: 0.82 mm
: 40.30 mm
: 33.05 mm
: 50.00 mm
: 52.040 mm

: Tension
: Flat

40

Frequency:20

Fig.4.11 stress-strain curve for sample 8


Results
Fmax
UTS
% EL
Yield Stress(Ys)

: 8.42 KN
: 254.87 MPa
: 4.08%
: 211.84 MPa

Sample 9
Input Data
Mode of Test
Sample Type

Peak power : 1.75 kw

Thickness
Width
Area
Gauge Length
Final Gauge Length

: 0.81 mm
: 39.51 mm
: 32.00 mm
: 50.00 mm
: 52.210 mm

: Tension
: Flat

41

Frequency:22

Fig.4.12 stress-strain curve for sample 9


Results
Fmax
UTS
% EL
Yield Stress(Ys)

: 6.14 KN
: 191.79 MPa
: 4.42%
: 161.12 MPa

Sample 10
Input Data
Mode of Test
Sample Type

Peak power : 1.75 kw

Thickness
Width
Area
Gauge Length
Final Gauge Length

: 0.80 mm
: 39.22 mm
: 31.38 mm
: 50.00 mm
: 51.890 mm

: Tension
: Flat

42

Frequency:20

Fig.4.13 stress-strain curve for sample 10


Results
Fmax
UTS
% EL
Yield Stress(Ys)

: 6.81 KN
: 216.96 MPa
: 3.78%
: 172.92 MPa

Sample 11
Input Data
Mode of Test
Sample Type

Peak power : 1.75 kw

Thickness
Width
Area
Gauge Length
Final Gauge Length

: 0.83 mm
: 38.40 mm
: 31.87 mm
: 50.00 mm
: 53.120 mm

: Tension
: Flat

43

Frequency:20

Fig.4.14 stress-strain curve for sample 11


Results
Fmax
UTS
% EL
Yield Stress(Ys)

: 7.72 KN
: 242.37 MPa
: 6.24%
: 200.48 MPa

Sample 12
Input Data
Mode of Test
Sample Type

Peak power : 1.75 kw

Thickness
Width
Area
Gauge Length
Final Gauge Length

: 0.81 mm
: 40.22 mm
: 32.58 mm
: 50.00 mm
: 50.960 mm

Frequency:20

: Tension
: Flat

Fig.4.15 stress-strain curve for sample 12

44

Results
Fmax
UTS
% EL
Yield Stress(Ys)

: 7.81 KN
: 239.81 MPa
: 1.92%
: 198.31 MPa

4.2.2 Graph Discussions


From the graphs above we clearly see that as displacement, also known as
the elongation increases, the load on the welded joint also increases. The
load continues to increase till a point is reached at which the joint can no
longer elongate and it breaks. The load at this point is called the peak load
and is a representative quantity of the strength of the joint. Higher is the
peak load, the stronger is the joint.
we see that the peak load increases with increasing beam energy, attains a
peak value at an optimum energy and then again decreases with increasing
values of energy. At this optimum energy, the power is just sufficient to
cause full penetration of the weld bead, resulting in formation of a uniform
weld region having good strength. Any levels of energy less than this value
wont have enough power to cause full penetration of the weld bead, thus
resulting in a weaker joint. While at beam energies higher than the optimum
value, excessive power causes burn through of the weld region. The joint
gets weakened in the middle thus resulting in lower peak loads.

45

CHAPTER - 5
CONCLUSION
From the experiments above it is determined that the sample specimen no. 6
welded at peak power 2 kw and frequency 22 Hz , keeping pulse width 4 ms
the mechanical properties have tremendously been improved compared to
other parameter variables.
The sample 6 has the ultimate tensile strength of 316.73 Mpa , the yeild
stress of 209.39 Mpa and the % elongation of 8.64, which is the greatest
among all the other samples in all the properties. It has the suitable hardness
of 449 HV which makes it enough to apply in thermal structures.
Energy(J) = Power (kw) * pulse width (ms)
For sample 6, Energy = 2 * 4 = 8 J
Also it is noted that the energy liberated at this sample is greater compared
to others. Three of the samples sample 4, sample 5 and sample 6 all have the
same energy (8J) since the pulse width is kept constant. But in the instance
of changing the frequency the weld quality has been improved.
Thus it is inferred that for a high beam energy of Nd-YAG laser

the

optimised frequency 22 Hz should be used to obtain a good quality


weldment.

46

CHAPTER - 6
APPLICATION
The most common application of weldment of 304 stainless steel and 1020 mild steel is
used as a high temperature structure material in the fabrication of intermediate heat
exchangers, steam generators, secondary piping of a liquid metal reactor that operates at
around 550C, and boiler components used in ultra-supercritical thermal power plants
that operate at around 600C.
The direct material cost could be greatly reduced if the stainless steel fabricated in the
portions unwanted to use it could be replaced with mild steel while it remains rigid and
the with good strength. If the weld is made at peak power 2 kw and frequency 4 the
strength is high and the design would not fail.
The further most advantageous application is the weight distribution factor. If stainless
steel which is denser than mild steel when collaborated can reduce a huge amount of
weight imparted to the system, while still playing the same function with optimised and
economically best method.

CHAPTER - 7

47

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50