Project Work (Bus 498) Spring 2010

Research Report On “Factors Affecting Males To Choose Cosmetics & Beautification Products”

Prepared For Dr. Md. Humayun Kabir Chowdhury Professor & Chairperson Dept. Of Business Administration East West University

Prepared By Farah Tahsin Id: 2006-1-10-173 Dept. Of Business Administration East West University

Date Of Submission: 18-04-10

“Factors Affecting Males To Choose Cosmetics & Beautification Products”

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Letter Of Transmittal
18 April, 2010 Dr. Md. Humayun Kabir Chowdhury Professor & Chairperson Dept. of Business Administration East West University. Dhaka-1212

Subject: Submission of the Project Work

Dear Sir, I am very pleased to submit my Project Work on “Factors Affecting Males To Choose Cosmetics & Beautification Products”. After finishing the research, I think that I had gather some knowledge about the male point of view regarding Cosmetics and Beautification Products. This research report helped me to extent my knowledge and may help me in future.

Thank you very much for giving me such kind of opportunity to enrich my knowledge. I would like to thank you for your valuable guidance in every problem I found and the precious time that you gave me. I hope my work will come up to the level of your expectations. I will be available for any further clarification if required.

Best Regards Sincerely yours,

____________ Farah Tahsin ID: 2006-1-10-173 Department of Business Administration 3

Acknowledgement
Writing this report has been fun, Instructive and sometimes hard. Many hours have been spent during this semester working on this research and therefore it is of great release to now see the sunlight. This report is the fruit of many experiences, challenges and relationships involving great many people to whom I am more indebted than I can possibly acknowledge. Some, however, deserve special thanks. I must begin by thanking those who have supported me through my journeys. I wish to thank all who have, directly and indirectly contributed to my research, making it such an enlightening, enjoyable and momentous intellectual experience. I would like to specifically thank my supervisor, Dr. Md. Humayun Kabir Chowdhury for his readiness to give of his time and knowledge through his constructive advice and guidance throughout the process of this research that kept me on a sound research path while his knowledge and humbleness made working with him such a pleasure. Also, I would like to thank the Farzana Apu (T.A) for her insightful comments and suggessions on how to approach and improve the quality of the research, which has been of great value and import to my project. I also express my gratitude to all of them who participated in my survey. Their candid responses solidified my purpose for embarking upon this learning journey. I owe special thanks to all my friends from Department of Business Administration for the content and support delivered throughout the period of study and specially who, in different ways have supported my studies and contributed, tangibly and intangibly, to my knowledge enrichment, which gave me inspiration to put it in writing. Last but not least, I would like to extend my profound gratitude and appreciation to my parents for their encouragement and immeasurable moral support throughout the tough times; they have been loving and constantly restorative counterbalance to my life. Without their patience and love, I would have never been able to make it through this intellectual endeavor.

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Abstract
This Project Work has been prepared as partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration. So, I have done a research where the focus was on the relationship that males have with self-appearance and cosmetics & beautification products. The cosmetics industry is dominated by the female products but there is a rapid growth in the cosmetic industry of males. I looked into the effect of factors, i.e. kind of product, price, packaging, budget, purchasing advisor, self-confidence/self-image, and masculinity on males to choose cosmetics & beautification products. Results showed that only one factor "kind of product" has positive and significant influence on males. That is, the types of product males purchase for their use only influence them to purchase cosmetics & beautification products. Other factors have shown no such influence on males. Finally, I have given my opinion about the findings, limitations and proposed a future research.

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Table of Content
1.INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………… 2.PROBLEM DEFINITION……………………………………………………………….. 3.APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM………………………………………………………... 3.1.RELATED CONSTRUCT OF THIS STUDY……………………………………… 3.1.1.KIND OF PRODUCT………………………………………………... 3.1.2.PRICE…………………………………………………………….. 3.1.3.PACKAGING………………………………………………………. 3.1.4.BUDGET…………………………………………………………... 3.1.5.PURCHASING ADVISOR…………………………………………… 3.1.6.SELF-CONFIDENCE/SELF-IMAGE………………………………….. 3.1.7.MASCULINITY……………………………………………………. 3.2.RESEARCH QUESTIONS……………………………………………………... 3.3.HYPOTHESES……………………………………………………………….. 4.RESEARCH DESIGN…………………………………………………………………... 4.1.QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN…………………………………………………… 4.2.DATA COLLECTION METHOD……………………………………………….. 4.3.SAMPLE SELECTION………………………………………………………… 4.4.RELIABILITY………………………………………………………………... 4.5.MEASUREMENT OF THE VARIABLES………………………………………… 5.DATA ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………………... 5.1.ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES…………………………………………………….. 6.RESULT & FINDINGS…………………………………………………………………. 6.1. USAGE STATUS, DEMOGRAPHIC & SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ANALYSIS 6.2. HYPOTHESIS TESTING…………………………………………………... 6.3. REGRESSION ANALYSIS………………………………………………… 6.4. DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………….. 6.5. LIMITATION AND FUTURE RESEARCH…………………………………… 7.CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………… 8.REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………… 9.APPENDIX…………………………………………………………………………… 07 08 09 09 10 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 22 22 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 42 45 46 47 48 49 50

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1.

INTRODUCTION

Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. It implies psychologically that you are compensating for something you do not have. Beautification products are those that clean and perfume the body, change appearance, correct body odor, protect skin, and keep it in good condition (Chidambaram & Devi, 2000). The women market is running since a large number of years whereas the business of selling cosmetic for men is booming since a couple of year. In any superstore, many shelves at the cosmetics section are now dedicated to men. Men have gone to owning enough beautification products from secretly filching fairness creams of their mothers, sisters or wives! Male celebrities have always worn makeup for movie and television appearances and men of the world have joined in. It is hardly surprising that men from Bangladesh are also paying attention to their appearance. Every day they are taking more pride and putting more time in their appearance. Not only are they looking more fashionable, taking better care of their skin, they are also applying makeup to even out skin tone and cover skin imperfections! The popularity of men's products has brought forth a new generation of cosmetics for men. Beyond classy moisturizers and shaving creams, new and old companies alike now offer surprising assortment of cosmetics and beautification products that tailor to the new male vanity. How and why this happened is still mysterious! This all happened too quickly, and there's no telling how much it's going to grow. The behavior of the men is not easy to understand and is actually the core of this work. As we know that the Cosmetics and Beautification products are more important to women in general so the women consider a lot of factors before choosing the product. But the market of male cosmetics is comparatively new, and there are also some taboos in societies regarding the use of cosmetics and beautification products by men. So, the factors influencing men are quite different from the factors considered by females. This study will find out the influence of some important factors that affect males to choose cosmetics & beautification products.

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2.

PROBLEM DEFINITION

The marketing research problem is to determine why males choose cosmetics & beautification products. This research will provide specific information regarding the relevant factors and how they influence the customers to use cosmetics & beautification products.

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3.
3.1.

APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM
RELATED CONSTRUCT OF THIS STUDY

The conceptual framework and its key constructs were established initially from Bangladeshi males who use cosmetics & beautification products. Based on their inputs, and judging from the literature on the topic from other countries, a number of factors were identified. Seven important factors emerged as latent variables from the data structure and have been discussed in the conceptual framework. As I have previously discussed, the factors that affects males to go for cosmetics & beautification products are different from the factors affecting females. That is why I considered Purchasing Advisor, Self-Confidence/Self-Image of a man and his Masculinity as important factors. Finally, a set of related latent factors related to the choice of cosmetics & beautification products among males in terms of Kind of Product, Price, Packaging, Budget, Purchasing Advisor, Self-Confidence/Self-Image, and Masculinity were selected for use in the present study.

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3.1.1. KIND OF PRODUCT

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The product itself has an influence on the male before purchasing cosmetics and beautification products. The line of male cosmetics in Bangladesh can be divided into 3 categories: • The basic: Those are basic products which meet the traditional customer needs such as shaving, after shaving. • The trendy: They are exclusively built for men and follow the rule according to which men are men and the products must be totally different than those for women. This is the case for Axe, a male deodorant. • The elegant: Most of them are rather elegant or smart. They are different from the basic category because the quality and the brand image is said to be higher. Those products are also more expensive. Some people use only the basic products like shaving foam, deodorant, after shave. Some people go beyond this. As the cosmetic industry is dominated by female cosmetics, males consider the kind of the product as an important factor. Some males share the moisturizer with their female counterpart; some uses the female family member’s fairness cream. Some males strictly avoid female cosmetics and purchase cosmetics and beautification products for men only. Some males love to take care of themselves and they use elegant products for themselves. In this paper, I will not study all the different kinds of products. The focus will be on the cosmetics that have had a late development. In this paper, I am focusing on Shower Gel, Moisturizer, Shaving Foam, Deodorant, After Shave, Cleanser, Gel, Fairness Cream, Scrubs, Facial Masks, Face Powder, Makeup and Lip Balm. Therefore, I conclude that kind of product can influence the male to choose cosmetics & beautification products.

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3.1.2. PRICE

The price is the amount a customer pays for the product. Consumers want to get highest utility from a product they purchase by sacrificing money and benefit from other brands. Price perception is the process by which consumers translate price into meaningful cognitions, and it has interested researchers for several years (Lichtenstein, Block, & Black, 1988). The classical economic models suggest that consumers maximizes utility by allocating a limited budget over alternative goods and services (Lilien & Kotler, 1983). More precisely, the price which the firm chooses to impose depends on the cost of the product, on the positioning choice, on the evaluation of the competition or of the vision of quality and the value perceived by the price. The price gives an element of differentiation to the customer; moreover it influences its choice and the image which he guesses of the product. Indeed “the price-setting must be set in relation with the value offered to the customer and perceived by him” (Kotler, Marketing Management). Besides the relationship exiting between the price and the customer, the price takes part in the decision of the volume of the sales, of the rate of the profit and its global volume. So effects of price are more associated with quality perception of a product or brand. In Bangladesh, in the market of the cosmetic for the men, there are various price ranges. It often depends on the channel of distribution. The Local cosmetics for men are moderately low priced where the imported men’s cosmetics are highly priced. Therefore, I conclude that price of a cosmetic or beautification product can influence the male to choose cosmetics & beautification products.

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3.1.3. PACKAGING

Packaging causes a psychological function on the purchaser. If the pack of a cosmetic is clear, small, pink, soft, it will be considered to be rather female and if it is dark, large, blue, hard, it will be considered to be rather male, though the packaging has above all a simple material function; “to contain, to protect, facilitated transport, storage, etc.” Male cosmetic Packaging trends are challenged daily. The packaging should make forget the female side of the cosmetics and make the product more masculine, thanks to the design, the texture, the colors, the smell; all the senses are used to attract the male. The packaging of the cosmetic products for men should also make it possible for the customers to forget the shame they feel when they go to buy cosmetics. Manufacturing of tube products years ago ranged from pigmented extruded colored tubes to process printing and hot stamped caps. The choices now include multilayered extruded barriers to accommodate more aggressive products, soft touch feeling tubes, pearl and even holographic extruded tubes, custom die-cut tubes and half tone printing to create a faded look. Clear packaging, once difficult to deliver in many manufacturing processes, is prevalent in every packaging form today. Metals of all colors and textures deliver an upscale look to even the most simplistic product or highlight a natural looking packaging positioning. Even sampling packaging which once was confined to foil packs and thin plastic or glass tubes are now produced in sachets, caplets and uni-paks of any material and custom cut in any size and shape. These choices are best utilized when applying them to the marketing position for the brand. The packaging is also a way to show the public image, this is why it is important to emphasize the objectivity as well as the subjectivity of the image of the offered product. The objective side deals with offering an easy conditioning, reliable, ergonomic, recoverable or reusable, easily transportable, with a good conservation and effective

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protection. The subjective side granted to the conditioning of the product, relates to the psychological effect on the customer. The consumer judges the product with his first perception in the rays. The identification of the product must jump in the eyes of the customer thanks to a color or to a particular form or to an indication which enables to locate him the remote product. The bond between the product and the mark is also done though the packaging, it helps to emphasize the public image as well as the image of the product. Besides, certain specificities of the product conditioning will attract more or less certain types of consumer. In general, the typically male packaging is discrete, ergonomic and of dark colors to avoid the guilty feeling some purchaser can have. The tone red/pink intended for the women are transformed into blue for the male line of goods nowadays.

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3.1.4. BUDGET

The purchase of cosmetics also depends on Budget. Lots of male think that the cosmetics and beautification products are too high for their budget. They wish the companies would lower prices somewhat. When the education level and the life standard of a man increase, it implies higher incomes for him. That is why executives spend higher amount on purchase of cosmetics than the students do. Though the young people are an attractive target for the marketer of cosmetics, the marketers should not pass beside the middle aged men. The needs to stay in good health, to conserve an lively way of life and to improve physical appearance to stay young, become the principal concerns of them. People above thirty five belong to a segment of population with an important purchasing power. So they can allocate a good budget for cosmetics.

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3.1.5. PURCHASING ADVISOR

Our behavior is affected by those we closely associate with. A large number of people conform to the norms and expectations provided by others. The purchasing advisor can influence customer’s behavior because he/she has a strong influence on him. Even before few years, woman had a great influence on the way men purchased cosmetics. This trend is surely true nowadays but men are more self-governing that they used to be. A purchasing advisor can be the salesman who gives him a product rather than another; it can be female friends, male friends, colleagues, wife, parents or even a doctor. Therefore, I conclude that a purchasing advisor can influence the male to choose cosmetics & beautification products.

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3.1.6. SELF-CONFIDENCE/SELF-IMAGE

Cosmetics have an effect on a person not only physically but also mentally. Cosmetics encourage and promote a strong, positive self-image. Since self image can be define as the mental picture someone has about himself, it is easy to understand that the use of cosmetic aim to improve this image. Basically, the image will improve both on a physical and a mental point of view. Physical because by using cosmetic, the individual will have a better looking skin and mental since the cosmetic user will feel more self confident due to his appearance. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, self-esteem, self-confidence, respect of others, respects by others are part of the esteem needs. People who are happy with their self-image are more likely to be self-confident, effective in work and social situations, and comfortable in their relationships. For instance, by using a cosmetics, a person can normally get rid of his pimples. Those pimples which are frightening and have a bad influence on the self image, especially for young people if he is surrounded by people having no skin problems! Cosmetics can be a great assistance in this case. Creams, masks, cleaning products, all these products have the aim to improve appearance. Many people are more pleased with themselves when wearing cosmetics than when they are natural. When they are wearing cosmetics, they get higher feelings of self image, self worth and self confidence. People using cosmetics tend to think that if they are more physically attractive, they will be seen and treated more positively. As looking better physically, self-image is improved. Indeed, most of the advertisings of male cosmetics are selling the idea to attract women, thanks to a beautiful skin or a nice smell! Cosmetics contribute to the personal balance and to self-confidence, what is the most important to success in social incorporation. Therefore, I conclude that Self-Confidence/Self-Image of a person can influence him to choose cosmetics & beautification products.

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3.1.7. MASCULINITY

The gap between masculinity and femininity is going down. Young men are being targeted by the advertisement of cosmetics, and are becoming more conscious than before of how they look: Advertising industry sold to young men images that break with traditional icons of masculinity. They are encouraged to look at themselves and other men as objects of consumer desire. Thus, today’s men are less ashamed to say that they do take care of their skin and appearance. This change is significant, and needs a reconsideration of the meaning of “masculinity”. Today’s man is full of contradiction: he wants to take care of his look, but at the same time, he does not want to use products with a female association to save his virility. The labels on certain products call into question the masculinity of the man. The definition of the man is that to be a man means not to be female, not flexible, dependent, not to be subjected; not to be effeminate in his physical appearance and his manners. This definition of the masculinity is called into question with the use of beauty products by the men. A real taboo was established in many countries. Certain men do not dare to buy beautification products by fear of the society’s judgment which would call his virility in question. But the companies understand well that it was essential to have a discrete distribution to make men fell less guilty. They do not use certain terms and vocabulary like “make-up” because it belongs to the female world. In spite of these changes, some taboos still linger. Nevertheless, men are more and more conscious of the significance of appearance in the social life. This consciousness will possibly enable them to break the taboos which surround the world of the cosmetics industry.

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3.2.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1) Does the product's kind affect males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products? 2) Does Price affect males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products? 3) Does Packaging affect males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products? 4) Does Budget affect males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products? 5) Does Purchasing Advisor affect males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products? 6) Does Self-Confidence/Self-Image affect males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products? 7) Does Masculinity affect males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products?

3.3.

HYPOTHESES

Based on the Research Question, the following hypotheses have been developed:

H1: Product's kind affects males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products? H2: Price affects males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products? H3: Packaging affects males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products? H4: Budget affects males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products? H5: Purchasing Advisor affects males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products

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H6: Self-Confidence/Self-Image affects males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products H7: Masculinity affects males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products

Kind of Product H1 Price H2 Packaging H3 H4 Budget H5 Purchasing Advisor Self Confidence /Self Image Masculinity H6 H7
Choice of cosmetics & beautification products

Fig: 1 Factors influencing males choice of cosmetics & beautification products

Here, choice of cosmetics & beautification products will be considered as a Dependent variable and the other factors as Independent variable. The relationship is presented below,

Choice of cosmetics & beautification products = Kind of Product + Price + Packaging + Budget + Purchasing Advisor + Self-Confidence/Self-Image + Masculinity

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Regression Model: Y= o+ 1* X1+ 2* X2+ 3* X3+ 4* X4+ 5* X5+ 6* X6+ 7* X7

Here, Constant= o Independent Variables: Kind of Product (X1) Price(X2) Packaging(X3) Budget(X4) Purchasing Advisor(X5) Self-Confidence/Self-Image (X6) Masculinity(X7) Dependent Variable: Choice of cosmetics & beautification products, Y

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4.
4.1.

RESEARCH DESIGN
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN

A questionnaire was developed which contained 27 questions. Among them 23 questions were related to the research problem and the rest 4 were about the kind of cosmetics and beautification product the respondents use in their day to day life and demographic profile of the respondents for any farther research in the future. The model included questions covering Kind of Product, Price, Packaging, Budget, Purchasing Advisor, SelfConfidence/Self-Image, and Masculinity which affects male’s choice of cosmetics & beautification products. A Likert scale was used to question the respondents on the five point scale. The respondents were asked to rate on the scale between Strongly Agree and Strongly Disagree.

4.2.

DATA COLLECTION METHOD

A questionnaire was used to collect the data. The initial questionnaire was revised to ensure proper wording, length and sequencing of the questions. The data were collected from executives, businessmen, students and recent graduates of the East West University. Data was also collected through email as well as the printed copy of questionnaire.

4.3.

SAMPLE SELECTION

To select the sample I have used non-probabilistic sampling method and which is convenient sample. A sample size of 40 respondents was used to conduct the research. The respondents of the sample were executives from different sectors, businessmen, the students and recent graduates of East West University. It was easy for me to collect data from the campus as well as from my contacts through email. I tried to cover respondents from different age group, different profession and from different income level so that the data reflects the real picture.

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4.4.

RELIABILITY

I focused only on reliability testing of the items of dependent and independent variables rather than validity testing, since this research had limitations in terms of time and scope.

4.5.

MEASUREMENT OF THE VARIABLES

Amongst the 23 items constructed to get the data, one item with seven sub-items was for dependent variable and the other twenty two items were for the independent variable. Reliability and internal consistency of the multi item scales for each of the constructs were measured using Cronbach Coefficient Alpha. The minimally acceptable reliability for primary research should be in the range of point five to point six (Nunnally, 1967). Based on the assessment, I excluded 1 item under price, 1 item under Budget and 1 item under Masculinity factor. Coefficient alpha values were computed for each construct separately which ranged from 0.506 to 0.834.

Dimensions Kind of Product Price Packaging Budget Purchasing Advisor Self-Confidence/Self-Image Masculinity

Items 2 3 3 2 3 3 2

Alpha Value .697 .544 .506 .691 .586 .834 .680

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5.
5.1.

DATA ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Through this research and statistics analysis I had tried to find out the demographic factors of the target market, the cosmetics and beautification products they usually use, and their decision regarding purchasing cosmetics and beautification products. At first, I found out the reliability analysis of the data. Once the reliability analysis was done, I excluded 1 item under price which improved the alpha value from .497 to .544, 1 item under Budget which improved the alpha value from .479 to .691 and 1 item under Masculinity that ultimately improved the alpha value from .374 to .680. Then, I calculated the mean value of dependent variables and independent variables. Finally, I completed the analysis part through regression analysis.

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6.
6.1.

RESULT & FINDINGS
USAGE STATUS, DEMOGRAPHIC & SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ANALYSIS

Shower Gel

Usage Status of Shower Gel Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 13 27 40 Percent 32.5 67.5 100.0 Valid Percent 32.5 67.5 100.0 Percent 32.5 100.0

This figure shows that 27 (67.50%) out of 40 respondents use shower gel. Though Shower gel is a relatively new product, it has got acceptance from males of Bangladesh.

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Moisturizer

Usage Status of Moisturizer Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 13 27 40 Percent 32.5 67.5 100.0 Valid Percent 32.5 67.5 100.0 Percent 32.5 100.0

This figure shows that 27 (67.50%) out of 40 respondents use moisturizer to leave their skin smooth and soft. The result is not surprising as moisturizer usage was always somewhat common in men.

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Shaving Foam

Usage Status of Shaving Foam Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 2 38 40 Percent 5.0 95.0 100.0 Valid Percent 5.0 95.0 100.0 Percent 5.0 100.0

This figure shows that 38 (95%) out of 40 respondents use Shaving Foam. As shaving foam is itself a product for men, it was pretty obvious that most men want lavish foam and the creamy lather to soften their beard. The rest 5% who do not use shaving foam might not use it from religious perspective or some other factor.

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Deodorant

Usage Status of Deodorant Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 2 38 40 Percent 5.0 95.0 100.0 Valid Percent 5.0 95.0 100.0 Percent 5.0 100.0

The sweltering heat and the extreme humidity common to our climate do not forgive us while roaming outdoors. This figure shows that 38 (95%) out of 40 respondents use Deodorant. It shows that males are concern about their personal hygiene.

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After Shave Usage Status of After Shave Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 5 35 40 Percent 12.5 87.5 100.0 Valid Percent 12.5 87.5 100.0 Percent 12.5 100.0

This figure shows that 35 (87.5%) out of 40 respondents use After Shave. It shows that most of the respondents give their skin the relief from the burning sensations of shaving nicks.

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Cleanser

Usage Status of Cleanser Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 16 24 40 Percent 40.0 60.0 100.0 Valid Percent 40.0 60.0 100.0 Percent 40.0 100.0

This figure shows that 24 (60%) out of 40 respondents use cleanser. It shows that males are gradually using cleanser to take care of their skin instead of using soap.

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Gel

Usage Status of Gel Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 16 24 40 Percent 40.0 60.0 100.0 Valid Percent 40.0 60.0 100.0 Percent 40.0 100.0

This figure shows that 24 (60%) out of 40 respondents use Hair Gel to stiffen their hair into particular hairstyles.

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Fairness Cream

Usage Status of Fairness Cream Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 27 13 40 Percent 67.5 32.5 100.0 Valid Percent 67.5 32.5 100.0 Percent 67.5 100.0

This figure shows that 13 (32.5%) out of 40 respondents use Fairness Cream. Men also feel the need to look good and fair, and the fairness cream for men is a latest launch in the market. So, the number is expected to rise gradually.

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Scrubs

Usage Status of Scrubs Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 24 16 40 Percent 60.0 40.0 100.0 Valid Percent 60.0 40.0 100.0 Percent 60.0 100.0

This figure shows that 16 (40%) out of 40 respondents use Scrubs. Men also feel the need to give their face a soft, healthy glow.

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Facial Masks

Usage Status of Facial Masks Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 31 9 40 Percent 77.5 22.5 100.0 Valid Percent 77.5 22.5 100.0 Percent 77.5 100.0

This figure shows that only 9 (22.5%) out of 40 respondents use Facial Masks. It reveals that facial masks are still a female dominated cosmetics.

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Face Powder

Usage Status of Face Powder Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 34 6 40 Percent 85.0 15.0 100.0 Valid Percent 85.0 15.0 100.0 Percent 85.0 100.0

This figure shows that only 6 (15%) out of 40 respondents use Face Powder. It reveals that very few men feel the need to tone their face to have an even appearance. Indeed, Face Powder is still a female dominated cosmetics.

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Makeup

Usage Status of Makeup Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 35 5 40 Percent 87.5 12.5 100.0 Valid Percent 87.5 12.5 100.0 Percent 87.5 100.0

This figure shows that only 5 (12.5%) out of 40 respondents use Makeup. Though celebrities take makeup before appearing on Television, make up is still not accepted among most men.

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Lip Balm

Usage Status of Lip Balm Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 22 18 40 Percent 55.0 45.0 100.0 Valid Percent 55.0 45.0 100.0 Percent 55.0 100.0

This figure shows that 18 (45%) out of 40 respondents use Lip Balm. It can be said that they use it mostly in winter to protect their lips.

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Other Cosmetics

Usage Status of Other Cosmetics Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 12 28 40 Percent 30.0 70.0 100.0 Valid Percent 30.0 70.0 100.0 Percent 30.0 100.0

This figure shows that 28 (70%) out of 40 respondents use other cosmetics. As I covered the most common cosmetics and beautification products, some products were absent.

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Age

What Is Your Age? Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid 21-25 22 26-30 13 31-35 4 35+ Total 1 40 55.0 32.5 10.0 2.5 100.0 Valid Percent Percent 55.0 32.5 10.0 2.5 100.0 55.0 87.5 97.5 100.0

This figure reveals that 65% of the respondents (22 out of 40) were between 21-25 years old. 32.50% of the respondents (13 out of 40) were between 26-30 years old. 10% of the population (4 out of 40) belongs to the age group of 31-35 years old. I also got 1 respondent who was above 35 years old. The majority of was the young crowd.

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Occupation

What Is Your Occupation? Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Student Executive Businessman Others Total 19 13 3 5 40 47.5 32.5 7.5 12.5 100.0 Valid Percent Percent 47.5 32.5 7.5 12.5 100.0 47.5 80.0 87.5 100.0

The figure shows that 47.5% of the respondents (19 out of 40) were students, 32.5% were executives (13 out of 40), 7.5% were businessmen (3 out of 40) and last but not the least, 12.5% of the respondents (5 out of 40) belongs to the other category like Teacher, Actor etc.

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Income

What Is Your Average Monthly Income In BDT (TK)? Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Below 20000 18 45.0 17.5 7.5 30.0 100.0 Valid Percent Percent 45.0 17.5 7.5 30.0 100.0 45.0 62.5 70.0 100.0

20001 To 30000 7 30001 To 40000 3 Above 40000 Total 12 40

45% of the respondents (18 out of 40) average monthly income is below 20000. So we can say that most of the population belongs to the middle class families. 30% of the respondents (12 out of 40) have a monthly income above 40000 BDT. 17.5% respondents(7 out of 40) had a family income between 20001 To 30000 BDT and the rest 7.5% earn 30001- 40000 BDT per month.

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6.2.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

In this section hypothesis based on the seven factors that influence choice of international outlets of fast food. For this research purpose, the level of significance, ∝ = 0.05. H1: Product's kind affects males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products.

Independent Variables Product's kind

Standardized Coefficient (b) .345

t-value

p-value (sig.)

2.099

.044

The observed table shows that Product's kind has a positive influence on the customer choice and it is statistically significant as we can say that p-value (.044) is smaller than alpha value (.05). So H1 is accepted

H2: Price affects males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products?

Independent Variables Price

Standardized Coefficient (b) .013

t-value

p-value (sig.)

.075

.941

The observed table shows that price has a positive influence on the customer choice but it is not statistically significant as we can see that p-value (.941) is larger than alpha value (.05), so H2 is rejected.

H3: Packaging affects males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products
Independent Variables Packaging Standardized Coefficient (b) -.195 -1.037 .307 t-value p-value (sig.)

42

The observed table shows that Packaging has a negative influence on the customer choice but it is not statistically significant as we can see that p-value (.307) is larger than alpha value (.05), so H3 is rejected.

H4: Budget affects males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products.

Independent Variables Budget

Standardized Coefficient (b) .149

t-value

p-value (sig.)

.884

.383

The observed table shows that Budget has a positive influence on the customer choice but it is not statistically significant as we can see that p-value (.383) is larger than alpha value (.05), so H4 is rejected.

H5: Purchasing Advisor affects males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products.

Independent Variables Purchasing Advisor

Standardized Coefficient (b) -.258

t-value

p-value (sig.)

-1.497

.144

The observed table shows that Purchasing Advisor has a negative influence on the customer choice but it is not statistically significant as we can see that p-value (.144) is larger than alpha value (.05), so H5 is rejected.

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H6: Self-Confidence/Self-Image affects males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products.

Independent Variables Self-Confidence/SelfImage

Standardized Coefficient (b) -.060

t-value

p-value (sig.)

-.332

.742

The observed table shows that Self-Confidence/Self-Image has a negative influence on the customer but it is not statistically significant as we can see that p-value (.742) is larger than alpha value (.05), so H6 is rejected.

H7: Masculinity affects males to the purchase decision of cosmetics & beautification products.

Independent Variables Masculinity

Standardized Coefficient (b) -.060

t-value

p-value (sig.)

-.352

.727

The observed table shows that environment of the outlet has a negative influence on the customer and it is not statistically significant as we can see that p-value (.727) is larger than alpha value (.05), so H7 is rejected.

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6.3.

REGRESSION ANALYSIS

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate R Square Change

Change Statistics

DurbinWatson

F Change

df1

df2

Sig. F Change

1

.546(a)

.298

.145

.73654

.298

1.942

7

32

.095

1.654

From the regression analysis, we have found that the Value of R Square is .298. That means, Independent variable (Kind of Product, Price, Packaging, Budget, Purchasing Advisor, Self-Confidence/Self-Image, Masculinity) has around 29.8% impact over the dependent variable (choice of cosmetics & beautification products).

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6.4.

DISCUSSION

This study was conducted to examine the factors that affect males to choose cosmetics & beautification products in Bangladesh. In general, this study tested the direct influence of Kind of Product, Price, Packaging, Budget, Purchasing Advisor, Self-Confidence/SelfImage, and Masculinity on the males while going for cosmetics & beautification products. The results proposed a model where only one variable (Kind of Product) has shown direct positive and significant influence on males while choosing cosmetics & beautification products. Most importantly, Kind of Product has found to be the most significant of the factors affecting males while going for cosmetics & beautification products. This means that the males of Bangladesh are only concerned about the products they are purchasing. No other factors like Price, Packaging, Budget, Purchasing Advisor, Self-Confidence/Self-Image or Masculinity do not have any significant influence on them. The underlying reasons influencing such an outcome requires further research. Moreover Bangladesh is a developing country and the growth of cosmetics use in Bangladeshi males is still in the commencement stage. Respondents showed little concern about the other factors. They purchase cosmetics if they need the product or like the product itself. I have tested it by conducting a Regression analysis. So I can say that Kind of Product is one of the most important factors and rests of them according to the study do not have significant influence statistically. I hypothesized that Kind of Product influences males while choosing cosmetics and beautification products. Results supported this hypothesis.

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6.5.

LIMITATION AND FUTURE RESEARCH

The research only used convenience sampling method. Though a diverse sample was taken into account, the sample may not portray the actual composition of the males from Bangladesh. Therefore, as a recommendation for future research in this field, the sampling method might have to be changed.

The sample size for this research contained only 40 respondents, which may not have been adequate to elicit the actual outcome from this research.

Due to time constraint, validity test was not carried out which may have affected the outcome. The R2 value (.298) was comparatively low which indicates that there may be other factors outside this model which may have significant influence over the dependent variable. To make further research on this topic more fruitful, more factors should be considered.

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7.

CONCLUSION

The purpose of this research was to understand the consumer behavior in the men’s cosmetics market and to explain in why it has such evolution. This research tried to identify the relationship existing between those men and the cosmetic’s world. A large majority of the respondents think that the cosmetic industry is still more a women than a men area. It is interesting here to underline one thing: women were the pioneer in this market. Men do not more want women products, they assume to use men cares, adapted to them. This would have been different some years ago. Indeed, most of the beauty products such as scrubs, facial mask, face powder and so on are under used as compared to shaving foam for instance. The emergence of the men’s cosmetics is a fact but it should be precise that the kind of product they use for a great majority is still product with a strong men image. According to the respondents, their cosmetics are seen as health and hygiene products and not as beauty tools. It can be said that if obviously men use cosmetics, they do not use all kinds. They mostly use health and hygiene products. However, the men’s cosmetics market is still too young to find some deep surveys on it. As a consequence, it has been quite difficult to this survey and I believe, further qualitative and quantitative researches with other types of samples and sampling methods should be undertaken in order to verify the generalizability and application of the result of this research.

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8.

REFERENCES

1. Principles of Marketing-Philip Kotler 2. Consumer Evaluations Of Beautification Products: Effects Of Extrinsic CuesNargis Parvin and Md. Humayun Kabir Chowdhury. 3. http://www.pgbeautyscience.com/en_UK/sustainability/cosmeticdefinition_en .html 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Maslow 6. www.google.com 7. www.studio5ive.com 8. www.askmen.com/fashion/keywords/mens-cosmetics.html 9. www.askmen.com/daily/austin_60/95_fashion_style.html 10. www.askmen.com/daily/blogs/fashion/do-real-men-use-cosmetics.html 11. http://hh.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:238020/FULLTEXT01. 12. http://make-upproducts.suite101.com/article.cfm/why_men_should_wear_makeup 13. http://forum.letssingit.com/topic/329522/should-men-use-cosmetics-forladies/1 14. http://www.studio5ive.com/ 15. http://eprints.usm.my/5065/1/AMP_342___PERLAKUAN_PENGGUNA_APRIL_08.pdf

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9.

APPENDIX

QUESTIONNAIRE
FOR THE COMPLETION OF MY PROJECT , I NEED YOUR CO OPERATION IN THIS SURVEY. THIS IS FOR EDUCATION PURPOSE ONLY AND YOUR PRIVACY WILL BE ENSURED
Do You Use Cosmetics & Beautification Products( hygiene, health and beauty products, from shower gel and shaving foam to mask and make-up)? Answer: A. Yes B. No (If Your Answer Is No, Then Please Return The Questionnaire) Q: 1 – What kind of products do you use (please give a Shower Gel Moisturizer Shaving Foam Deodorant After Shave Cleanser Gel Fairness Cream Scrubs Facial Masks Face Powder Makeup Lip Balm Others(Please Specify) mark)?

50

Q: 2 – Indicate Your Level Of Agreement To Each Of The Following Factors In Influencing Your Decision To Choose Cosmetics & Beautification Products Factor Strongly Disagree 1 Disagree 2 Neutral 3 Agree 4 Strongly agree 5

Kind of Product Price Packaging Budget Purchasing Advisor (Other People’s Opinion) Self-Confidence/Self-Image Masculinity (Your Manliness) Q: 3 – You Feel That Make-Up, Moisturizers And Fairness Cream And So On Are Still Women Property Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Q: 4 – You Purchase Your Own Cosmetics Strongly Disagree Disagree 1 2

Neutral 3

Agree 4

Strongly Agree 5

Q: 5 – The Kind Of Product You Are Purchasing Is The Most Important Reason For You While Purchasing Cosmetics & Beautification Products Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Q: 6- Price The Most Important Consideration To You While Purchasing Cosmetics & Beautification Products Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Q: 7 – The Price Charged By The Cosmetics & Beautification Products Is Reasonable. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Q: 8 – A Change In The Cosmetics & Beautification Products Will Change Your Decision To Purchase It Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Q: 9- The Price Compared To The Quality Is Always Acceptable In Cosmetics & Beautification Products Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Q: 10 – You Think The Total Image Of Cosmetics And Beautification Products Can Be Portrayed In The Packaging Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5

51

Q: 11 – You Have Ever Bought Cosmetics And Beautification Products Just Because You Liked The Packaging Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Q: 12 – You Always Read The Information Written On The Pack Of The Cosmetics And Beautification Product Before Making The Final Choice? Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5

Q: 13 – You Are Ready To Spend An Important Budget In Cosmetics & Beautification Products. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Q: 14 – You Don’t Purchase The Cosmetic You Like Because Of Your Budget Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree 1 2 3 4

Strongly Agree 5

Q: 15 – Budget Is An Important Factor Before Deciding To Purchase A Cosmetics & Beautification Product Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Q: 16 – Your Friends/ Partner Influence You To Purchase Cosmetics Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree 1 2 3 4 Q: 17 – Your Doctor Suggests You To Purchase Cosmetics/ Skin Care Products Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree 1 2 3 4

Strongly Agree 5

Strongly Agree 5

Q: 18 – You Think The Suggesssion From Another Person Is The Most Important Reason For You While Purchasing Cosmetics & Beautification Products Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Q: 19 – You Feel More Self Confident After Using Cosmetics Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral 1 2 3 Q: 20 – You Think Cosmetics Improve Your Self-Image Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral 1 2 3 Q: 21 – You Think It’s Important For A Man To Look Pleasant Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral 1 2 3

Agree 4

Strongly Agree 5

Agree 4

Strongly Agree 5

Agree 4

Strongly Agree 5

Q: 22 – We Often Hear That Men Consider It Insulting To Use Cosmetics: Do You Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5

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Q: 23 – You Believe Cosmetics Can Help You To Look More Manly Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree 1 2 3 4

Strongly Agree 5

Q: 24 – You Think A Man’s Masculinity Is Disgraded By The Use Of Cosmetics Products Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Q: 25 – What Is Your Age? a. b. c. d. 18 – 25 25 - 32 32 – 35 35 And Above

Q: 26 – What Is Your Occupation? a) b) c) d) Student Executive Businessman Others

Q: 27 – What Is Your Average Monthly Income In BDT (TK)? a. b. c. d. below 20000 20001 To 30000 30001 To 40000 Above 40000

_____________________________Thank You____________________________

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RELIABILITY TEST
Kind of Product

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .697 2

Item Statistics Mean You Feel That Make-Up, Moisturizers And Fairness 3.90 .909 50 Std. Deviation N

Cream And So On Are Still Women Property The Kind Of Product You Are Purchasing Is The Most

Important Reason For You 4.14 While Purchasing Cosmetics & Beautification Products

.990

50

Price

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .497 4

Item Statistics Mean Price The Most Important Consideration To You While Purchasing Cosmetics & 2.80 1.107 50 Std. Deviation N

Beautification Products

54

The Price Charged By The Cosmetics & Beautification 3.02 Products Is Reasonable. A Change In The Cosmetics & Beautification Products 3.20 .990 50 .845 50

Will Change Your Decision To Purchase It The Price Compared To The Quality Is Always Acceptable In Cosmetics & Beautification Products

3.24

1.153

50

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .544 3

Item Statistics Mean The Price Charged By The Cosmetics & Beautification 3.02 Products Is Reasonable. A Change In The Cosmetics & Beautification Products 3.20 .990 50 .845 50 Std. Deviation N

Will Change Your Decision To Purchase It The Price Compared To The Quality Is Always Acceptable In Cosmetics & Beautification Products

3.24

1.153

50

55

PACKAGING:

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .506 3

Item Statistics Mean You Think The Total Image Of Cosmetics And 1.165 50 Std. Deviation N

Beautification Products Can 3.10 Be Portrayed In The

Packaging You Have Ever Bought 2.54 1.164 50

Cosmetics And Beautification Products Just Because You Liked The Packaging You Always Read The

Information Written On The Pack Of The Cosmetics And 3.58 Beautification Product Before Making The Final Choice? 1.263 50

BUDGET

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .479 3

56

Item Statistics Mean You Are Ready To Spend An Important Budget In 2.94 1.185 50 Std. Deviation N

Cosmetics & Beautification Products. You Don’t Purchase The

Cosmetic You Like Because 2.82 Of Your Budget Budget Is An Important 3.32

1.082

50

Factor Before Deciding To Purchase A Cosmetics & Beautification Product

1.203

50

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .691 2

Item Statistics Mean You Don’t Purchase The 1.082 50 Std. Deviation N

Cosmetic You Like Because 2.82 Of Your Budget Budget Is An Important 3.32

Factor Before Deciding To Purchase A Cosmetics & Beautification Product

1.203

50

PURCHASING ADVISOR

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .586 3

57

Item Statistics Mean Your Friends/ Partner 1.168 50 Std. Deviation N

Influence You To Purchase 2.68 Cosmetics Your Doctor Suggests You To Purchase Cosmetics/ Skin 2.36

1.191

50

Care Products You Think The Suggesssion From Another Person Is The Most Important Reason For You While Purchasing 2.72 1.144 50

Cosmetics & Beautification Products

SELF-CONFIDENCE/SELF-IMAGE

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .834 3

Item Statistics Mean You Feel More Self Confident After Using Cosmetics You Think Cosmetics 3.28 Std. Deviation 1.089 N 50

Improve Your Self-Image You Think It’s Important For A Man To Look Pleasant

3.24

1.222

50

4.04

1.029

50

58

MASCULINITY

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .374 3

Item Statistics Mean We Often Hear That Men Consider It Insulting To Use 3.60 Cosmetics: Do You Agree You Believe Cosmetics Can Help You To Look More 3.08 Manly You Think A Man’s 3.72 1.086 40 1.228 40 1.194 40 Std. Deviation N

Masculinity Is Disgraded By The Use Of Cosmetics

Products

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .680 2

Item Statistics Mean We Often Hear That Men Consider It Insulting To Use 3.46 Cosmetics: Do You Agree You Think A Man’s 3.60 1.143 50 1.249 50 Std. Deviation N

Masculinity Is Disgraded By The Use Of Cosmetics

Products

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REGRESSION ANALYSIS

Coefficients(a) Unstandardized Model Coefficients B 1 (Constant) product Pricenew pack budgetnew advisor confidence masc 3.431 .400 .015 -.191 .119 -.254 -.049 -.051 Std. Error 1.386 .191 .203 .184 .134 .169 .146 .146 .345 .013 -.195 .149 -.258 -.060 -.060 Standardized Coefficients Beta 2.476 2.099 .075 -1.037 .884 -1.497 -.332 -.352 .019 .044 .941 .307 .383 .144 .742 .727 t Sig.

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