You are on page 1of 12

www.BankExamsToday.

com

English Grammar
Digest
www.BankexmsToday.com

Contents

I/me
he/him
they/them etc.
2
Its mine/yours/hers etc.
2
am/is/are
3
a/an and the
4
flower(s) bus(es) (singular and plural)
4
a car / some money (countable/uncountable)
I have / Ive got
5
I am doing (present continuous)
6
Im going to
6
I do/work/like etc. (present simple)
7
worked/got/went etc. (past simple)
8
old/nice/beautiful etc. (adjectives)
9
the oldest
the most expensive
9
under behind between etc. (prepositions)
up over under etc. (prepositions)
10
can
11
List of irregular verbs
12

10

I/me

he/him

they/them etc.

www.BankExamsToday.com

You need to match subject with object. Give a look to examples

subject
object

I
me
subject
I
we
you
he
she
they

we
us

I know Ann.
We know Ann.
You know Ann.
He knows Ann.
She knows Ann.
They know Ann.

you
you

he
him

Ann knows me.


Ann knows us.
Ann knows you.
Ann knows him.
Ann knows her.
Ann knows them.

she
her

they
them

object
me
us
you
him
her
them

Things
Its nice.
I like it.

subject
object

Theyre nice.
I like them.

it
it

they
them

Whose is this?
Mine

I
we
you
he
she
they

Ours

my
our
your
his
her
their

mine
ours
yours
his
hers
theirs

Its mine/yours/hers etc.


Yours

His

Its
Its
Its
Its
Its
Its

my money.
our money.
your money.
his money.
her money.
their money.

Hers

Its
Its
Its
Its
Its
Its

mine.
ours.
yours.
his.
hers.
theirs.

Theirs

am/is/are

www.BankExamsToday.com

Im 22.

My name is Lisa.
Im American. Im from Chicago.

My favourite colour is blue.

Im a student.n

My favourite sports are


football and swimming.

My father is a doctor and my


mother is a journalist.

negative
am (Im)

(hes)
(shes)
(its)

he
she
it
we
you
they

he
she
it

is

we
you
they

(were)
are (youre)
(theyre)

positive
am

(Im not)

is

(hes not
(shes not
(its not

are not

not

question

we
you
they

am not

he
she
it

Im interested in art.

LISA

positive

Im not married.

is

are

am

or he isnt)
or she isnt)
or it isnt)

(were not or we arent)


(youre not or you arent)
(theyre not or they arent)

Whats your name?

I?

David.

he?
is she?
it?

Are you married?


No, Im single.
How old are you?

we?
are you?
they

25.
Are you a student?

Am I late? No, youre on time.


Is your mother at home? No, shes out.
Are your parents at home? No, theyre out.
Is it cold in your room? Yes, a little.
Your shoes are nice. Are they new?

[3]

Yes, I am.

a/an and the

www.BankExamsToday.com

the

a/an
1

Can you open


the window?

Can you open


a window?
There are three windows here.
a window = window 1 or 2 or 3

There is only one window here the


window.

Ive got a car.


(there are many cars and Ive got one)

Is there a hotel near here? (there are


many hotels is there one near here?)

Im going to clean the car tomorrow.


(= my car)
Can you repeat the question, please?
(= the question that you asked)
We enjoyed our holiday. The hotel was
very nice. (= our hotel)

Paris is an interesting city. (there are


many interesting cities and Paris is one)

Paris is the capital of France.


(there is only one capital of France)

Can I ask a question?


(there are many questions can I ask one?)

flower(s)

bus(es) (singular and plural)

The plural of a noun is usually -s:


singular (= one) plural (= two or more)
a flower some flowers
a week two weeks
a nice place many nice places
this shop these shops

a flower

some flowers

Some plurals do not end in -s:


this man these men
a woman some women
a child many children

one foot two feet


a tooth all my teeth
a mouse some mice

[4]

that sheep those sheep


a fish a lot of fish

www.BankExamsToday.com
a car / some money (countable/uncountable)
A noun can be countable or uncountable.
Countable nouns
For example: (a) car (a) man (a) key (a) house (a) flower

(an) idea (an) accident

You can use one/two/three (etc.) + countable nouns (you can count them):

one car

two cars

three men

four houses

Countable nouns can be singular (= one) or plural (= two or more):


singular:
plural:

a car
cars

the car etc.


the cars
some cars

my car
two cars

many cars etc.

Uncountable nouns
For example: water

water

air

rice

salt

salt

plastic

money

money

music

tennis

music

You cannot say one/two/three (etc.) + these things: one water two musics
Uncountable nouns have only one form:
money
the money
my money

some money

much money etc.

I have / Ive got


You can say I have or Ive got, he has or hes got:
I
we
you
they

have

OR

I
we
you
they

he
she
it

has

OR

he
she
it

(Ive got)
(weve got)
have got
(youve got)
(theyve got)
has got

(hes got)
(shes got)
(its got)

[5]

Ive got a
headache.

I am doing (present continuous)

www.BankExamsToday.com

am/is/are + -ing = something is happening now:


Im working
shes wearing a hat
theyre playing football
Im not watching television
past

future

NOW

Please be quiet. Im working. (= Im working now)


Look at Sue! Shes wearing her new hat. (= she is wearing it now)
The weather is nice at the moment. Its not raining.
Where are the children? Theyre playing in the park.
(on the phone) Were having dinner now. Can you phone again later?
You can turn off the television. Im not watching it.

Im going to
Im going to (do something)
MORNING

Im going to watch
TV this evening.
THIS EVENING

She is going to watch TV this evening.


We use am/is/are going to for the future:
I
he/she/it
we/you/they
am
is
are

am
is
are

(not) going to

I
he/she/it
we/you/they

going to

do
drink
watch
buy ?
eat ?
wear ?

[6]

I do/work/like etc. (present simple)


positive

www.BankExamsToday.com

negative

I
we
you
they

work
like
do
have

I
we
you
they

he
she
it

works
likes
does
has

he
she
it

do not
(dont)

does not
(doesnt)

work
like
do
have

We use the present simple for things that are true in general, or for things that happen
sometimes or all the time:
I like big cities.
The shops open at 9 oclock and close at 5.30.
Tim works very hard. He starts at 7.30 and finishes at 8 oclock in the evening.
The Earth goes round the Sun.
I drink coffee but I dont drink tea.
Sue drinks tea but she doesnt drink coffee.
You dont work very hard.
We dont watch television very often.
The weather is usually nice. It doesnt rain very often.
Gerry and Linda dont know many people.
do/does + subject + infinitive

Where
How often
What
How much

Do
Do
Does
do
do
does
does

you
your friends
Chris
your parents
you
this word
it

work
live
play
live?
wash
mean?
cost

in the evening?
near here?
tennis?
your hair?
to fly to Rome?

Do you play
the guitar?

[7]

worked/got/went etc. (past simple)


They

watch

www.BankExamsToday.com

television every evening.


(present simple)

They watched television yesterday evening.


(past simple)
watched is the past simple:
I/we/you/they
he/she/it

watched

We use did in past simple negatives and questions:


infinitive

positive

play
start
watch
have
see
do
go

I
we
you
they
he
she
it

negative
played
started
watched
had
saw
did
went

I
we
you
they
he
she
it

question

did not
(didnt)

play
start
watch
have
see
do
go

did

I played tennis yesterday but I didnt win.


Did you do the shopping? No, I didnt have time.
We went to the cinema but we didnt enjoy the film.
Questions
did + subject
What
How
Where

Did
did
did
did

your sister
you
the accident
your parents

infinitive
you?
yesterday evening?

phone
do
happen?
go

for their holiday?

short answers
Yes,

I/we/you/they
he/she/it

did.

No,

I/we/you/they
he/she/it

didnt.

Did you see Joe yesterday? No, I didnt.


Did it rain on Sunday? Yes, it did.
Did Helen come to the party? No, she didnt.
Did your parents have a good holiday? Yes, they did.

[8]

I
we
you
they
he
she
it

play?
start?
watch?
have?
see?
do?
go?

old/nice/beautiful etc. (adjectives)

www.BankExamsToday.com

adjective + noun (nice day / blue eyes etc.)


adjective + noun
Its a nice day today.
Laura has got brown eyes.
Theres a very old bridge in this village.
Do you like Italian food?
be (am/is/was etc.) + adjective
The weather is nice today.
These flowers are very beautiful.
Are you cold? Shall I close the window?

Im hungry.

look/feel/smell/taste/sound + adjective
You sound
happy.

You look
tired.

It tastes
good.

I feel
tired.

the oldest

It smells
good.

the most expensive

Box A is bigger than Box B.

Bigger / older / more expensive etc.


are comparative forms

Box A is bigger than all the other boxes.


Box A is the biggest box.

Biggest / oldest / most expensive etc.


are superlative forms.

[9]

under

behind

www.BankExamsToday.com
between etc. (prepositions)

next to (or beside) / between / in front of / behind


A is next to B. or A is beside B.
B is between A and C.
D is in front of B.
E is behind B.
also
A is on the left.
C is on the right.
B is in the middle (of the group).

up

over

under etc. (prepositions)


Jane is going to France next week.
We walked from the hotel to the station.

to

from

A man came out of the house and got into


a car.
into (in)
on

up

over

out of
off

Dont put your feet on the table.


Please take your feet off the table.
We got on the bus in Princes Street.

We walked up the hill to the house.


Be careful! Dont fall down the stairs.

down

The plane flew over the mountains.


I jumped over the wall into the garden.
under

[10]

can

www.BankExamsToday.com

I can play
the piano.

He can play the piano.


can + infinitive (can do / can play / can come etc.):
I/we/you/they
he/she/it

do
can
play
cannot (cant) see
come etc.

I/we/you/they
can
he/she/it

I can do something = I know how to do it or it is possible for me to do it:


I can play the piano. My brother can play the piano too.
Sarah can speak Italian but she cant speak Spanish.
Can you swim? Yes, but Im not a very good swimmer.
Can you change twenty pounds? Im sorry, I cant.
Im having a party next week but Paul and Jenny cant come.

[11]

do?
play?
see?
come? etc.

List of irregular verbs

www.BankExamsToday.com

infinitive

past simple

past participle

infinitive

past simple

past participle

be
become
begin
bite
blow
break
bring
build
buy
catch
choose
come
cost
cut
do
draw
drink
drive
eat
fall
feel
fight
find
fly
forget
get
give
go
grow
hang
have
hear
hit
hold
hurt
keep
know
leave
lend

was/were
became
began
bit
blew
broke
brought
built
bought
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
did
drew
drank
drove
ate
fell
felt
fought
found
flew
forgot
got
gave
went
grew
hung
had
heard
hit
held
hurt
kept
knew
left
lent

been
become
begun
bitten
blown
broken
brought
built
bought
caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
done
drawn
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
felt
fought
found
flown
forgotten
got
given
gone
grown
hung
had
heard
hit
held
hurt
kept
known
left
lent

let
lie
lose
make
mean
meet
pay
put
read /rid/*
ride
ring
rise
run
say
see
sell
send
shine
shoot
show
shut
sing
sit
sleep
speak
spend
stand
steal
swim
take
teach
tell
think
throw
understand
wake
wear
win
write

let
lay
lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
read /red/*
rode
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sold
sent
shone
shot
showed
shut
sang
sat
slept
spoke
spent
stood
stole
swam
took
taught
told
thought
threw
understood
woke
wore
won
wrote

let
lain
lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
read /red/*
ridden
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sold
sent
shone
shot
shown
shut
sung
sat
slept
spoken
spent
stood
stolen
swum
taken
taught
told
thought
thrown
understood
woken
worn
won
written

[12]