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ARTICLE IN PRESS

International Dairy Journal 14 (2004) 255262

Effects of overrun on structural and physical characteristics


of ice cream
Rosalina P. Sofjana, Richard W. Hartelb,*
b

a
Kellogg Co., 2 Hamblin Avenue East, Battle Creek, MI 49017, USA
Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA

Received 27 January 2003; accepted 12 August 2003

Abstract
Air is an important component in ice cream, affecting both physical properties and storage stability. The objective of this study
was to measure the effects of air incorporation in ice cream, at overrun levels of 80%, 100% and 120%, on the growth of air cells
and ice crystals, as well as on the hardness and melt-down rate of the product. Ice creams with different overruns were stored either
in bulk containers (at 10 C with normal refrigeration cycling) or on microscope slides (at 6 C, 10 C or 20 C) for analysis. In
bulk storage, mean air cell size initially increased during hardening, decreased during the early stages of storage and ultimately
increased to larger sizes at longer (up to 3 months) storage times. Initial air cell size was smaller in ice creams with higher overrun,
potentially due to the higher shear stresses during manufacture. Ice creams with lower overruns (80%) were harder than those made
with 120% overrun but melted more rapidly. For samples stored on the microscope slide, lower storage temperature (20 C)
limited the mobility and solubility of air cells within the serum phase so that disproportionation was inhibited and primarily
coalescence occurred for air cells in close proximity. At high storage temperature (6 C or 10 C), disproportionation and
coalescence were enhanced due to the higher mobility of the serum phase. Higher overrun led to slightly more stable air cells during
storage.
r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Ice cream; Overrun; Air cells; Ice crystals; Hardness; Melting rate

1. Introduction
Air in ice cream provides a light texture and inuences
the physical properties of melt down and hardness.
However, it is not just the amount of air incorporated,
or overrun, but also the distribution of sizes of the air
cells that inuences these parameters. The manufacture
of high quality ice cream requires careful control of both
overrun and air cell size distribution. However, very
little attention has been paid to the air cell size
distribution during manufacture and storage of ice
cream.
There are numerous factors that inuence development of air cells in ice cream (Marshall & Arbuckle,
1996). Upon freezing, shearing forces during mixing
break larger bubbles into smaller ones. To break air cells
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-608-263-1965.
E-mail addresses: rosalina.sofjan@kellogg.com (R.P. Sofjan),
hartel@calshp.cals.wisc.edu (R.W. Hartel).
0958-6946/$ - see front matter r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2003.08.005

down into small sizes, a high local shear stress is


required. This shear stress is governed by the mixing
impeller and the viscosity of the ice cream slurry as it is
forming and is related to the amount of ice formed and
the viscosity of the continuous (freeze concentrated)
phase.
As new air cell surface is formed during freezing of ice
cream, it must be stabilized in some way to prevent
coalescence. In electron microscope images, the air
serum interface contains numerous fat globules (both
singly and in clusters) with a smooth surface between the
fat globules. The partially coalesced fat is thought to
form a network within the serum that separates air cells
and keeps them from recombining (Walstra, 1989;
Chang & Hartel, 2002a, b). The presence of ice crystals
and a viscous serum phase also help to stabilize the
air cells.
According to Wilson (1989), coalescence is also
enhanced when air cells move close together by
Brownian motion. In principle, coalescence involves

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R.P. Sofjan, R.W. Hartel / International Dairy Journal 14 (2004) 255262

two or more bubbles and results in coarsening of the


foam structure. Thus, when coalescence occurs, the air
cell size distribution is shifted to larger sizes (Ronteltap
& Prins, 1989). Moreover, it is usually air cells larger
than about 20 mm that are involved in coalescence since
larger air cells have greater interfacial area. The
probability of coalescence is reduced as temperature
decreases due to the increased viscosity of the serum
phase. Chang and Hartel (2002b) showed that partial
coalescence was observed at low temperatures and
during the latter stages of storage, leading to formation
of irregularly shaped air cells that led to a network of
interconnected air pockets.
Generally, drainage involves the rise of air cells and
subsequent downward ow of serum phase due to
gravity. The larger the air cell, the faster it rises.
Drainage by itself does not change the air cell
distribution (Lees, 1991), rather it changes the lm
thickness between the air cells (Ronteltap & Prins, 1989)
and promotes coalescence. Increasing the viscosity of
the serum phase, which may be achieved by addition of
stabilizer (Aguilera & Stanley, 1999) or by decreasing
storage temperature (Chang & Hartel, 2002b), are ways
to retard drainage (Walstra, 1989).
Disproportionation, which occurs due to differences
in Laplace pressure between air cells, may also be
controlled by increasing viscosity of the serum phase
and forming a thick lm on the surface of the air cells.
However, Chang and Hartel (2002b) observed that an
increase in viscosity of the serum phase and an increase
in fat destabilization were not sufcient to prevent
disproportionation from occurring. Rather, the rate of
disproportionation was decreased as temperature decreased from 6 C to 28 C. In general, the existence
of a difference in pressure between air cells promotes the
diffusion of air from the smaller to the larger cells. Thus,
disproportionation results in a bimodal distribution
with both smaller and larger air cells being present in the
ice cream (Ronteltap & Prins, 1989). In the early stages
of disproportionation, a net decrease in mean size may
be observed. As more air cells disappear, however, a
gradual increase in the mean size may be observed with
time (Lees, 1991).
The amount of air incorporated during freezing
affects the size of the ice crystals, with larger ice crystals
observed at lower overrun (Arbuckle, 1977). Flores and
Goff (1999a) suggested that the amount of air cells at
70% overrun is just enough to prevent collisions among
ice crystals and to disperse the serum phase around each
crystal. Lower overruns (and subsequently larger ice
crystals) in ice cream lead to decreased hardness,
(Prindiville, Marshall, & Heymann, 1999; Abd ElRahman, Madkor, Ibrahim, & Kilara, 1997). In
contrast, Wilbey, Cooke, and Dimos (1997) found that
the presence of air (high % overrun) decreased the
hardness of ice cream. Thus, contradictory results

relating air content and hardness in ice cream have


been observed, most likely due to differences in
secondary effects (ice crystals, etc.). According to Pelan,
Watts, Campbell, and Lips (1997), it is the stability of
air cells that slows down the meltdown rate of ice cream,
as determined by adding saturated monoglycerides to
the mix. Campbell and Pelan (1998) found that meltdown resistance increased as draw temperature from the
freezer decreased due to increased overrun and fat
destabilization, although ice crystals may also have
inuenced the melt-down rate.
Although much is known about the effects of air on
the properties of ice cream, contradictory results may be
due to secondary effects (e.g., ice crystals). Furthermore,
the effects of overrun on the air cell size distribution and
the subsequent effects on the physical properties of the
ice cream have not been studied. Here, the effects of
overrun and the air cell size distribution on the
structural and physical properties of ice cream are
studied in more detail.

2. Materials and methods


2.1. Materials and formulation
Ice cream formulations contained 10% fat, 10.8%
milk solids nonfat (MSNF)low heat, 16% sweetener
(12% sucrose, 4% 42 DE corn syrup solids), 0.2
stabilizers and emulsiers, and 37% total solids. Ice
creams with three different overrun (80%, 100%, and
120%) were produced. The cream, milk, condensed skim
milk, nonfat dried milk, sucrose, and dry corn syrup
were obtained from the Babcock Hall Dairy Plant at the
University of Wisconsin-Madison. The stabilizer/emulsier blend, supplied by the Babcock Hall Dairy Plant
contained mono- and diglycerides as emulsiers and
guar gum, xanthan gum and carrageenan as stabilizers.
2.2. Production and storage of ice cream
All ice creams were manufactured in the Babcock Hall
Dairy Plant at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
The dry ingredients were mixed with liquid ingredients
in the mix vat, heated to 38 C, pasteurized (APV
Crepaco, Tonawanda, NY) for 19 s at 82 C, homogenized in a 2-stage homogenizer (6.89  103 and
2.43  104 kPa, respectively), and cooled and aged at
12 C for 24 h. After aging, vanilla avor was added
and the mix was frozen to 5.5 C to 6 C in a
continuous, scraped-surface freezer (Waukesha Cherry
Burrell, Model WS106GS, Louisville, KY). During
freezing, air was injected under pressure to the desired
overrun, and the ice creams were drawn from the freezer
into 0.0019 m3 (half-gallon) cylindrical containers. Ice
creams with 80% overrun were rst produced, followed

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R.P. Sofjan, R.W. Hartel / International Dairy Journal 14 (2004) 255262

by those with 100% and 120% overruns, respectively.


Ice cream samples were hardened in an air-blast freezer
at 27 C for 24 h. After hardening, ice creams were
transferred to a storage freezer at 30 C for 8 days
before two containers of each ice cream were placed in a
storage freezer held at 10 C with normal temperature
variations due to cycling of the mechanical refrigeration
system. The ice cream samples were stacked tightly in
two rows in the storage freezer at 10 C. Ice creams
were held for up to 3 months for analyses. In addition to
bulk storage, ice cream samples immediately from the
draw of the freezer also were stored on microscope slides
at 6 C, 10 C and 20 C to follow changes to
individual air cells. A small amount of ice cream was
placed on a depression in a microscope slide, carefully
spread into a thin layer, covered with a glass cover slip
and sealed to prevent moisture loss. Samples on the
microscope slide were made in duplicate for each
overrun level and storage condition.
2.3. Analyses
Measurements of ice crystal and air cell size distributions were performed in a custom-built refrigerated
glove box (Donhowe, Hartel, & Bradley, 1991) with a
light microscope (Model FS-35DX, Nikon, Inc., Garden
City, NY) located within. All utensils, including microscope slides and cover slips, needed to prepare samples
were held in the glove box prior to use to prevent
melting.
For storage of bulk containers, core samples of ice
cream (in duplicate) were taken 6 cm from the surface
and 4 cm from the sides of the cups after drawing, after
hardening, once every 5 days during the 1st month, once
a week during the 2nd month and once every 2 weeks
during the 3rd month of storage. Ice cream samples
upon drawing from the continuous freezer were taken
10 min after the 1st cup was drawn from the freezer.
According to Chang (2000), at least 250 or more air cells
must be observed to ensure statistical analysis. Thus, 2
4 microscope slides of each sample were prepared to get
at least 300 individual air cells and ice crystals for
analysis. For calibration of size determination at a later
time, a micrometer ruler (Nikon) was also imaged at the
same time.
For air cell analysis, a small amount of ice cream was
placed in a depression between 2 cover slips arranged on
a slide. A cover slip was placed over the top of the
sample and pressed gently with tweezers. Duplicate
samples were prepared for air cell analysis. The
temperature of the glove box was set to 6 C to
slightly melt the ice cream and allow observation of the
air bubbles arising from the sample (Chang, 2000). The
magnication used for observations of air cells was
40  . Chang and Hartel (2002c) have shown that this
method gives air cell sizes consistent with those

257

measured using the more laborious cryo-stage electron


microscopy method.
For ice crystal analysis, 35 drops of butanol were
added to a small amount of ice cream placed on a
similar microscope slide in order to disperse the crystals
without melting or dissolving (Donhowe, 1993). A cover
slip was pressed on top of the ice cream and gently
pressed back and forth with tweezers to disperse the
sample into a thin layer. By doing this, the air cells were
destroyed, but the ice crystals were spread without
overlapping. The temperature of the glove box was set
to 10 C for observation of ice crystals. The magnication used for observation of ice crystals in fresh-drawn
and hardened and cycled ice creams were 80  and
40  , respectively.
In order to observe the change in size of air cells and
ice crystals, the diameter of each was determined from
the projected area in the micrographs. The perimeter of
each air cell and ice crystal was traced manually on a
digitizing board (Summasketch Professional, Summagraphics Corp., Faireld, CT) connected to image
analysis software (Sigma-Scan, Jandel Scientic, Sausalito, CA) on a personal computer (IBM TX, Los
Angeles, CA). Each projected area was converted to
an equivalent circular diameter (the diameter of a circle
with the same area). Mean size and distribution statistics
for both air cells and ice crystals were calculated with a
custom-written macro in Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA).
Melt-down rates of duplicate ice cream samples were
measured in a controlled temperature (30 C) chamber.
Ice cream samples were tempered in a freezer at 14 C
for 24 h prior to analysis. For melt-down rate, 160 g of
ice cream were placed on a 2-mm stainless-steel screen
with a funnel and graduated cylinder beneath to collect
the melt. Timing of the melt-down rate began when the
rst drop of melt (after 3060 s) touched the bottom of
the cylinder. Volumes were recorded once every 10 min
for 60 min.
Hardness of ice creams after 8 days at 30 C (before
cycling) was measured by using a Precision Penetrometer (Precision Scientic Co., Chicago, IL) with a 60
Cone probe. Before the measurements were taken, the
ice creams were held at 14 C for 24 h. Ice cream
containers (in duplicate) were cut 6 cm from the bottom
to allow the bottom sections to be used for hardness
measurement. Penetration of the probe was conducted
4 cm from the side of each cup and was repeated six
times (three times for each of two containers). Hardness
was measured as the depth (in mm) of penetration of the
cone into the ice cream after the cone was released for 2 s
at room temperature. Three measurements were made
on each of the two duplicates and the results averaged.
Statistical analyses (standard t-tests) were conducted
for the results (mean values) by using the SAS Program
(SA Institute Incorporation, Cary, NC). Statistical

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258

signicance is given in terms of p-values, with differences


at the 95% condence interval (po0:05) being considered statistically signicant.

3. Results and discussion


3.1. Storage in bulk containers
During manufacture and through the early stages of
storage in bulk containers, the mean air cell size, in
general, decreased (po0:05) with increased overrun, as
shown in Fig. 1. An increase in overrun promoted
break-up of larger air cells into smaller ones during
freezing so that a higher percentage of smaller air cells
was observed in ice cream made with 120% overrun
than in ice cream made with 80% overrun. This effect
may have been related to an increase in apparent
viscosity of the ice cream slurry during freezing as more
air was incorporated. Chang and Hartel (2002a) showed
that higher apparent viscosity led to more efcient break
down of air cells and to smaller air cell sizes.
Upon hardening, the mean air cell size in each ice
cream had increased although the increase was dependent on the overrun. Ice cream made with 80% overrun
had the largest increase in mean size, with the ice cream
made with 120% overrun exhibiting the smallest
increase. Upon storage at 10 C, mean air cell size
decreased in all ice creams and continued to decrease for

Mean Air Cells Diameter (m)

30

80%

100%

up to 4 weeks in the ice cream made with 80% overrun.


An increase in temperature at constant pressure should
result in an increase in volume (size) based on the ideal
gas law. Thus, this decrease during warm temperature
storage must be due to changes in the overall distribution of air cell sizes (see below). After this initial period
of reduction in size, the air cells began to grow once
again. Over longer terms of storage at 10 C, the air
cells increased in size until, after nine weeks of storage,
mean air cell sizes were about the same regardless of the
overrun content. Overruns of 100% and 120% generally
showed the same trends, although not as distinctly.
The overrun level is thought to inuence ice crystal
formation through secondary effects (Arbuckle, 1977).
In this study, the mean ice crystal size generally
decreased with increasing overrun (Fig. 2), although
the effect was relatively small. Upon drawing from the
freezer, ice creams made with 80% and 100% overrun
had about the same mean ice crystal size (p 0:869),
with the mean size being signicantly smaller in the ice
cream made with 120% overrun (p 0:033 for comparison with 80% and p 0:0423 for comparison with
100% overrun). However, after storage at 30 C for 8
days (labeled hardened in Fig. 2) and storage (at
10 C), the ice cream made with 80% overrun generally
had the highest mean ice crystal size. That is, the ice
cream with lowest overrun showed the highest recrystallization, although the effects were relatively small.
These results corroborate those reported in Arbuckle

120%

25

20

15

10

0
Draw

Hardened

3 days
cycled

9 days
cycled

2 weeks
cycled

4 weeks
cycled

8 weeks
cycled

9 weeks
cycled

Storage Time
Fig. 1. Comparison of mean air cell sizes in ice creams with 80%, 100%, and 120% overrun upon drawing (draw), after storage at 30 C for 8 days
(hardened), after hardening and storage at 10 C for 3 days (3 days cycled), 9 days (9 days cycled), 2 weeks (2 weeks cycled), 4 weeks (4 weeks
cycled), 8 weeks (8 weeks cycled), and 9 weeks (9 weeks cycled).

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259

100

80%
100%
120%

Mean Ice Crystal Diameter (m)

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Draw

Hardened

3 days
cycled

2 weeks
cycled

4 weeks
cycled

7 weeks
cycled

9 weeks
cycled

Storage Time

Fig. 2. Comparison of mean ice crystal sizes in ice creams with 80%, 100%, 120% overrun. See Fig. 1 for description of storage conditions.

Volume of melted ice creams (mL)

200
180

80% overrun
100% overrun
120% overrun

160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Time (minutes)

Fig. 3. Meltdown of ice creams with 80%, 100%, and 120% overrun after storage at 30 C for 8 days and 1 day at 14 C.

(1977) and found by Flores and Goff (1999b) who


showed that increased overrun caused a slight decrease
in mean ice crystal size. These effects may be related to
the change in heat transfer rates from the ice cream
upon increased aeration.
Hardness of ice creams was measured after 8 days at
30 C. Ice creams made with 80% and 100% overrun
had the same (p 0:9735) hardness (7.570.7 mm) and
these were signicantly harder than the ice cream made
with 120% overrun (9.870.9 mm) (p 0:0003). These
results conrmed those of Wilbey et al. (1997), where
increased overrun caused a decrease in hardness of ice
cream. However, Prindiville et al. (1999) and Abd ElRahman et al. (1997) found the opposite effect. Perhaps
other factors (air cell and ice crystal size distributions)

had more effect on hardness than total overrun in these


studies.
Melt down rates of ice creams were also measured
after 8 days of storage at 30 C. Ice cream made with
80% overrun melted more rapidly than those made with
100% and 120% overrun (Fig. 3). No signicant
differences (p > 0:05) were observed between the volume
of melted ice cream with 100% and 120% overrun.
These results may be explained by the differences in fat
destabilization or air cell and ice crystal sizes. Although
the extent of fat destabilization was not measured in this
study, it is possible that higher shear stress occurred
with higher overrun (higher air content leading to higher
apparent viscosity), leading to greater fat destabilization
and thus slower melt down. Furthermore, the ice cream

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made with 80% overrun had larger air cells and ice
crystals after hardening (Figs. 1 and 2) than the ice
creams made with 100% and 120% overrun, and
perhaps these factors inuenced melt down rates.
Another potential cause of the slower melt down with
higher overrun may be the difference in heat transfer
rate due to the greater presence of air. Air is a good
insulator and undoubtedly slowed the rate of heat
transfer into the ice cream with higher overrun.

3.2. Storage on microscope slides


To study the effects of storage temperature and
overrun on the changes in air cell size distribution, ice
cream directly from the exit of the scraped-surface
freezer at 6 C was held on a microscope slide for up to
3 days at temperatures of either 6 C, 10 C or
20 C. Air cell size distributions after 3 h are compared
in Fig. 4 for ice cream with an overrun of 80%. At all
temperatures, there was a signicant increase in mean
size after 3 h (Fig. 5). At draw, the mean air cell size for
the ice with 80% overrun was 22.970.6 mm. Mean air
cell size had increased to 28.772.0 (p 0:0203),
27.671.8 (p 0:0039), and 34.472.5 (po0:001) mm
after 3 h at 6 C, 10 C and 20 C, respectively. No
difference (p 0:4556) between mean air cell size for 3 h
at 6 C or 10 C was observed. However, the nature
of the changes in the air cell size distribution was
dependent on the storage temperature. At 6 C and
10 C, there was a signicant shift of air cells to smaller
sizes for the smaller air cells (less than about 30 mm) in
addition to the shift to larger sizes for larger air cells
(larger than about 30 mm), indicative of more than one
mechanism for change in air cells. At 20 C, only an
increase in air cell size, over the entire size range, was
observed. The shift to smaller sizes indicates that
disproportionation occurred when temperatures were
below or at approximately 10 C and the shift to larger
sizes indicates that coalescence occurred at the same

time. However, only coalescence occurred for storage at


20 C. The net result was an increase in mean size for
all conditions.
The effects of overrun on the change in mean size
after 3 h at 6 C on a microscope slide is shown in
Fig. 6. Signicant (po0:05) increases in mean size were
seen for ice creams with 80% and 120% overrun, but
not for the ice cream made with 100% overrun. The
changes in air cell size distribution for these conditions
are shown in Fig. 7. At 80% overrun, both disproportionation and coalescence occurred since the number of
small air cells decreased at the same time the number of
large air cells increased. At 100% overrun, no signicant
changes in air cell size distribution were observed and at
120% overrun, air cell size increased for the entire size
range (no disproprortionation).
Extended storage time on the microscope slide led to
further changes in air cell size distribution. As noted
previously for storage of ice cream with 80% overrun at
10 C for 3 h, some disproportionation occurred as
50

Mean Air Cells Diameter (m)

260

40
34.4
28.7

30

27.6

22.9

20

10

0
fresh-drawn

-6C

-10C

-20C

Storage Temperature (C)

Fig. 5. Comparison of the mean air cell sizes of ice cream with 80%
overrun upon drawing from the continuous freezer at 6 C (fresh
drawn), after storage on thin slides at different temperatures (6 C,
10 C, and 20 C) for 3 h.

Percent Less Than

100
80
60
fresh-drawn
3 hours at-6C
3 hours at - 10C
3 hours at - 20C

40
20
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Diameter (m)

Fig. 4. Comparison of the air cell size distributions of ice cream with 80% overrun stored on thin slides at different temperatures (6 C, 10 C, and
20 C) for 3 h.

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50

80%
100%
120%

Mean Air Cell Diameter (m)

45
40
35
28.7

30
25

22.9

21.8

21.5

22.8

18.9

20
15
10
5
0
Draw

3 hours
Storage Time

Fig. 6. Comparison of the mean air cell sizes of ice creams with 80%,
100%, and 120% overrun upon drawing from the continuous freezer
at 6 C (draw) and after storage on thin slides at 6 C for 3 h.

Percent Less Than

100
80
60

261

there was a shift in the air cell size distribution to smaller


(less than 30 mm) sizes. However, the main mechanism of
change for longer times (up to 3 days) was coalescence,
with an increase in numbers of air cells at all sizes
observed. Interestingly, at 3 days of storage at 10 C,
the air cell size began to decrease, in a manner similar to
that observed in the bulk storage samples described in
the previous section. The slight decrease in mean size
from 24 h to 3 days of storage was observed as an
increase in air cell numbers for small and intermediate
sizes (up to abut 50 mm) along with a slight decrease in
number of air cells greater than about 50 mm.
At 20 C, changes in mean air cell size were observed
for all levels of overrun (Fig. 8). At 80% overrun, mean
air cell size was initially the largest and increased the
most dramatically during storage. For the ice cream
with 100% overrun, the mean air cell size increased
slowly over time. At 120%, the ice cream had the
smallest mean air cell size at the draw and remained
small throughout the storage period. Air cell size
distributions (not shown) showed that coalescence was
the main mechanism of change in air cells with very little
evidence of disproportionation at any level of overrun.
This is not surprising since the mobility of gas molecules
in the ice cream matrix at 20 C is greatly inhibited.

80%_draw
80%_3h
100%_draw

40

4. Conclusions

100%_3h
120%_draw

20

120%_3h

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Diameter (m)

Fig. 7. Comparison of air cell size distributions of ice creams with


80%, 100%, and 120% overrun upon drawing from the continuous
freezer at 6 C (draw) and after storage on thin slides at 6 C for 3 h
(3 h).

Mean Air Cell Diameter (m)

50

40

80%
100%
120%

Increasing the overrun in ice cream (from 80% to


100% or 120%) led to formation of slightly smaller air
cells and ice crystals, probably due to the higher shear
stresses exerted in the freezer barrel due to the higher air
content. Two different mechanisms led to changes in air
cells, disproportionation and coalescence. Both mechanisms were observed during storage in both bulk

37.7

37.7
34.4

30
22.9

20

25.4 24.5

27.0

25.4
22.8

21.5

23.5

18.9

10

0
Draw

3 hours
24 hours
Storage Time

3 days

Fig. 8. Comparison of the mean air cell sizes of ice creams with 80%, 100%, and 120% overruns upon drawing from the continuous freezer at 6 C
(draw), after storage on the thin slides at 20 C for 3 h, 24 h, and 3 days.

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R.P. Sofjan, R.W. Hartel / International Dairy Journal 14 (2004) 255262

containers and in sample sections on microscope slides.


These structural changes as overrun increased resulted
in ice creams that were slightly softer (higher penetration
depth) and slightly more resistant to melt down (slower
melting rate).

Acknowledgements
The assistance of the UW Babcock Hall Dairy Plant
staff with production of ice cream is gratefully acknowledged. This project was funded in part by a Hatch grant.

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