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KRL 3033

KAEDAH PENYELIDIKAN DALAM PENDIDIKAN SEKOLAH RENDAH
TITLE

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

PREPARED BY :
NAMA

NO.ID

KUMPULAN

AZMI BIN
AMERUDDIN

D20112055419

UPSI44(A142PJJ
)

LECTURER : DR FARAH NATCHIAR BINTI MOHD KHAJA HAMEED

SUBMITTING DATE : 05 April 2015

The importance of vocabulary explained in the quotation below. people will face problems in daily routines like communicating. development. It requires continuous practice. As being mentioned in the quotation above. Reading had been used by humans for centuries. Reading needs a lot of practice in order to master it. This concept is not true as reading can take place in any medium. In the context of reading. but facing difficulties in expressing their comprehension of the main ideas. “Vocabulary is essential for communicating. and language community which is culturally and socially situated. reading would be empty and meaningless. Introduction Reading is one of four basic skill required in learning a language. even in this new era where technologies has become the main thing and widely used. to get information and share ideas or thoughts. Without good vocabulary. experiences. Reading will increase the level of vocabulary. Above all. In order to understand the reading text. during reading there must be some new words observed that we don’t know. the aspect of vocabulary can’t be separated. Without reading skill people won’t be able to know on how to use the technology as well.” (Luckner & Cooke. attitude. reading. reading is a complex interaction between the text and the reader which is shaped by the reader’s prior knowledge. Here comes the importance of using a dictionary. thinking.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 1. So. 2010) Here. the dictionary here is the medium to increase the level of vocabulary and help to improve the understanding of reading. the main purpose of reading is to comprehend the ideas in the materials read. Without comprehension. It is because. In my practicum. when a person wants to say something but does not know what words to be . but the skill of reading still take place and plays important role. Let’s take a look at a situation here. I have witnessed cases where students are capable of reading the words. the vocabulary plays same role and as important as reading.0. and learning. and refinement. People already have a set up a mindset that reading must be connected with books. reader must understand the meaning of words first. Reading is an essential and important skill as it can be used to communicate. Reading is actually not an easy thing.

As mentioned above. Also. Bottom-up means. the students’ will achieve proficiency level standards of good ESL learners. This way of teaching reading is said to follow a bottom-up model. This model of reading is always being claimed as insufficient and defective as it relies on the formal features of the language.used. to sentences. Relevant Theories and Concepts. dictionary is an essential and importance tool of learning. This bottom-up approach is influenced by behaviorist psychology. 1980)” Due to it. and then to the meaning of the whole text. our schools’ textbooks was designed according to this perspective include exercises that focus on literal comprehension.2. The traditional bottom-up view The bottom-up theory had been used widely in our Malaysian’s classroom. So. “The bottom-up model describes information flow as a series of stages that transforms the input and passes it to the next stage without any feedback or possibility of later stages of the process influencing earlier stages (Stanovich. new phrases. this reading follows a linear process from the recognition of letters. The way one teaches reading always reflects the way one understands reading and the reading process. and new structures as well as a lot of reading aloud practice. to words. Also. it claimed learning was based upon. The Cognitive or Top-Down view . to phrases. Here. the young learners need to know the importance of using dictionary starting from young age. the questions that being given do not stressed on the importance to the reader’s knowledge. This is followed by some questions and answers and reading aloud practice.1. This way of teaching reading reflects the belief that reading comprehension is based on the understanding and mastery of all the new words. In which. the students know nothing and learn or get the knowledge throughout the reading.0. to paragraphs. 2. As the learner of English language. mainly words and structure. 2. Some teachers teach reading by introducing new vocabulary and new structures first and then going over the text sentence by sentence. one way to improve the level of vocabulary is through the usage of dictionary. 2.

In this sense. According to Smith. the teacher should teach the background knowledge first so that student that being equipped with such knowledge will be able to guess meaning from the printed page. In short. 1994: 2). reading is not just extracting meaning from a text but a process of connecting information in the text with the knowledge the reader brings to the act of reading. and so forth. a process in which readers sample the text. It is not merely a matter of decoding print to sound but also a matter of making sense of written language (Smith. make hypotheses. From that quotation. 3. it is believed that in teaching reading. the students’ prior knowledge plays a more important role than learning new words and new structures in reading comprehension. 1994. Therefore. the similarities of those previous research was found in the aspect of vocabulary and reading. what can be said is. Reading is not a passive mechanical activity but purposeful and rational. Vocabulary is an important item in reading. Limited vocabulary will create problem especially in comprehension where the students need to understand what they read. confirm or reject them. reading is a psycholinguistic guessing game.Goodman (1970) once said that reading was "a psycholinguistic guessing game". reading is a dialogue between the reader and the text which involves an active cognitive process in which the reader’s background knowledge plays a key role in the creation of meaning (Tierney and Pearson. 1994). dependent on the prior knowledge and expectations of the reader. In this view. these new cognitive and top-down processing approaches revolutionized the conception of the way students learn to read. the reading will be faster as the students can guess the reading text and have the basic idea already.0. make new hypotheses. . Then. After many research done. Review of Previous Researchers The task given requires me to do the research where I need to review the previous research done by other that same or similar to my topic.

the researcher also stated the positive outcomes for it “Vocabulary is essential for communicating. 2010) From that. I took the idea and altered it so it would be suitable with students or my participants. Using dictionary brings a lot of benefits for students. the teaching and learning session is not teacher centred anymore. First. sometimes irreversibly Based on the quotation also. Apart from that. it will train the students to be independent in class. Here. most of the researchers agreed that the fastest way to increase the students’ vocabulary is through the usage of dictionary. the other advantage of using . mostly. acquiring meanings for this many words is a formidable task. Laufer. Coady (1997) states that the threshold for independent English reading is 5. reading. the advantages will come in many forms and cover up the important aspects. Jacobs. Clearly. In the previous research. the students did not wait for my explanations about words that they did not understand. 1985. Based on the quotation here. In the aspect of vocabulary.Research with hearing individuals indicates that a reader must know 90-95% of the words in a passage to fully comprehend it (Carver. it says that in order to completely understand the reading text. Hart and Risley (2003) have referred to a lack of vocabulary as “the early catastrophe” and have provided evidence that lack of vocabulary and English language skills adversely affect a child’s English reading ability and overall academic success. it shows that. They just take their dictionary and find the meanings. 2000). vocabulary is a wide topic where there are too many to cover. 1994. taken from the previous research. Na & Nation. the researcher also citated.( Luckner & Cooke.000 word families. thinking. he or she must know the meaning of words.1989. Based on above quotation. Before this. Chall. and learning”. After trying this method few times. Nagy & Scott. teachers and also to school. 2000. 1990. Based on the review done on previous research. Hu & Nation. & Baldwin. the researcher stressed that limited vocabulary will cause problem in understanding reading text. the technique or approach claimed as too teacher centred and not suitable to be used to the new level students.

If teachers always ask students to read passages then answer multiple choice questions. Conclusion In general. and create a new perspective of English language in school. make sure the text are linear and no too hard. explain and guide the students on how to improve in the next activity and do not repeat the same errors again. Besides that. opinions. First of all. it will help the teacher to facilitate the teaching process and to solve the problem and difficulties in teaching and learning session. Also.dictionary is.0. 4. The text must also error free and follow the principles of teaching reading skills. the tasks should be designed to encourage selective and intelligent reading for the main meaning rather than test the students' understanding of trivial details. Also. Next. what can be conclude after reviewing the past research is. this research can also benefit the school too if the students can increase their proficiency in English which can lead to the achievement of English result. Some of it will bring positive impacts and works well and some . After each activity. Researches. and suggestions regarding the teaching of the reading exists and being used widely in research. Also. when creating reading text. Besides that. the research can be a guideline for the teachers to be more creative thinkers. teacher can also have data and analysis on the students’ performance and make use of it to overcome and do constructive actions to ensure the improvements of the students. Besides that. it can help the teacher understand students’ learning progress and facilitate assessment for learning. Apart from that. most of the researcher agrees and highlighted that the teacher should choose the reading text carefully. The result of the research hopefully can motivate the school administrators and the teachers to develop the English learning and teaching progress in school and allow the teachers to use any method creatively as long as they can improve the students’ weaknesses in learning the language. they are actually testing them not developing their reading skills. it can be used to highlight and to motivate the students in order to encourage them to use the language and open up rooms for improvements. the tasks should help develop students' reading skills rather than test their reading comprehension. the selected texts and attached tasks should motivate students.

Regarding about the approaches mentioned earlier. this usage of dictionary to improve students’ vocabulary and understanding in reading is a good place to begin with students who cannot understand simple words to add on their vocabulary list and help them to understand simple reading text. the usage of dictionary is not limited to improve on the aspect of vocabulary only.will not research will work along with theories or approaches. Therefore. what is important to bear in mind is that relying too much on either top-down or bottom-up processing may cause problems for the students. REFERENCES . Select one theories or approaches that suit to the research and stick to it. the top-down and bottom-up. Students will also be able to learn about grammar like tenses and also helps in improving and integrating other skills. teachers can take advantage of using the most useful methodologies associated with the different approaches. as the metacognitive approach suggests. However. However. to develop reading abilities. both approaches should be considered. Regarding about the research.

com/10-strategies-improve-vocabulary/ Journal: 1.com/some-simple-ways-to-improveyour-vocabulary. 2012.press. .toptenreviews. http://www. “The efficacy of dictionary use while reading for learning new words” by Harley Hamilton from Georgia Institute of Technology.Internet: 1.engvid.html 2. https://www. “Teaching Reading – Action Research Model” by Kirsty Cochrane. http://dictionary-software-review. 2.pdf Past Research: 1.com/dictionary-vocabulary/ 3.umich.edu/pdf/9780472032860-ch1. 2009. https://litemind.