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CONTENTS

CHAPTER

PARTICULARS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
CERTIFICATE FROM THE GUIDE
DECLARATION BY THE STUDENTS

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
OBJECTIVES
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
LIMITATION

CHAPTER II

THEOROTICAL FRAMEWORK

DATA ANALYSE
RESULTS & DISCUSSION

APPENDIX
CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY
QUESTIONNAIRE

CHAPTER III

CHAPTER IV

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This Project entitled STUDY ON REGION WISE ANALYSIS OF INDIAN
FOOD Prepared by me has been possible owing to the relevant data and
information collected from different sources like website, Newspaper and
through personal investigation.
For this project work, I would like to thank my teacher MR. A.
K. Roy in particular for his valuable and complete guidance in preparing the
project report.

Finally, I express my gratitude towards my loving parents, from


whom I have received encouragement and support from time to time in
completing this project report in time.

CHAITANYA MOHTA

CERTIFICATE FROM THE GUIDE


This is to certify that the project work entitled STUDY ON REGION WISE
ANALYSIS OF INDIAN FOOD Submitted in partial fulfillment for the
award of the degree of B.Sc in Hospitality and Hotel Administration by
NCHMCT, Noida in collaboration with IGNOU, New Delhi has been carried
out by me under complete guidance of Mr.A.K.ROY.

SIGNATURE OF THE GUIDE


Name of the Examiner

Signature of the Examiner

1. ______________________

1.______________________

2. ______________________

2. ______________________

3. ______________________

3. ______________________

DECLARATION FROM THE STUDENT


I am Mr. CHAITANYA MOHTA do hereby declare that the
project work entitled STUDY ON REGION WISE ANALYSIS OF
INDIAN FOOD

done by me and submitted to IHM Gwalior is

an authentic work carried out in the partial fulfillment of the


requirements for the award of the degree in B.Sc in
Hospitality and Hotel Administration by NCHMCT, Noida in
collaboration with IGNOU, New Delhi under the valuable
guidance of MR A.K.ROY.

Signature of the student

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
OBJECTIVES
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
RESEARCH METHODLOGY
LIMITATION

INTRODUCTION
India is a very diverse country with variety of distinct regional cuisine. There is no single
standard and homogenous Indian cuisine. Each region has their own regional cuisines based
on the available seasonal produce, livestock, culture influence, and religious aspect. There are
many shared meals but even those shared food are usually prepared subtly different and have
slightly different flavors.

SOME OF THE REGIONAL AND ETHNIC COOKING ARE GIVEN


BELOW.
Bengali Food
Goan Food
Gujarati Food
Kashmiri Food
Marathi Food (Maharashtrian Food)
Parsi Food
Punjabi Food
Rajasthani Food
South Indian Food,

OBJECTIVE
To discuss about the poplar food serve in various states of five region of India.
To study the characteristics difference among the food of different region of India.
To study the composition of various masala use in different region of India.
To analysis about effect of local culture on their food habits.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Review of literature in a research work is essential to evolve an edifice of knowledge to
ensure that the present study would be an addition to the topic and gives way to mend away
the lacunae left in the process of exploration of the research study. Therefore this chapter is
devoted for an analysis of various literatures available on different aspects of agricultural
growth in India. M. Ghose (2007) 1 in his paper Agricultural Development, Agrarian
Structure and Rural Poverty has investigated the effect of agricultural development, agrarian
structure and some other variables on rural poverty by using the OLS Method. He found that
the incidence of rural poverty is inversely proportional to the agricultural development in
terms of agricultural production per head of rural population, which exerts the existence of
trickle-down process in rural India. Likely it was also observed that this process has been
very limited and weakening over time suggesting that reliance solely on growth in
agricultural production for achieving a desired reduction in the incidence of rural poverty
would take an inordinately long time.
The result suggests that rural poverty can be reduced significantly by increasing productive
employment in rural areas and by maintaining rural wage rate at a reasonable level. It follows
that any expansion of employment in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors would reduce
rural poverty. Mathur, Das & Sircar (2006)2 in their article Status of Agriculture in India:
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Trends & Prospects has analysed the growth trend in agriculture production across the nation
and region-wise. They have also analysed the different factors for the growth in agriculture.

LIMITATION
Lack of time: As the researcher is full time university student. So, he fined difficulty to
get sufficient time for his research project.

Lack of awareness amongst people: The researcher find difficulty to get desired
respond from various people because of the complexity of project.

Lack of financial source: Researcher also fined difficulty in project due to limited
financial resource availability.

Lack of data available in books and magazine: Researcher also find difficulty
to get proper & required data for its research because of lack of data available in books &
magazine.

CHAPTER II
RESEARCH METHODOLGY

10

RESEARCH DESIGN
Marketing research (also called "consumer research") comprises a form of applied
sociological study which concentrates on understanding the behaviors and preferences,
mainly current and future, of consumers in a market

1. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION1.1. DOCUMENTS : a piece of written, printed or electronic matter that provides
information or evidence.
1.2. SURVEYS : look closely at or examine
1.3. OBSERVATION : the action or process of closely observing or monitoring
something

2. SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION2.1. INTERNET : a global computer network providing a variety of information and
communication facilities.
2.2. MAGAZINES : a periodical publication containing articles and illustrations, often on
a particular subject.
2.3. BOOKS : make an official note of the personal details.
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3. DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUE3.1. INTERVIEWS : a meeting of people face to face for consultation.
3.2. QUESTIONNAIRES : a set of printed or written questions with a choice of answer.
3.3. EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENT : in the design of experiment , treatments are
applied to experimental units in the treatment group.

4. SAMPLING PLAN
4.1. SIMPLE RANDOM : it is a sample selected in such a way that every possible sample
of the same size is likely to be choosen.
4.2. STARTIFIED : it is obtained by seprating the population into mutually exclusive
sets, or strata, and then drawing simple samples from each stratum.
4.3. CLUSTER : it is a simple random sample of groups or clusters of elements( vs. a
simple random sample of individual objects)
.
5. TIME OF STUDY : Saturday & Sunday

6. PERIOD OF STUDY : August to December

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CHAPTER III
THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

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INDIAN CUISINE
Indian cuisine is an diverse as its culture because of the use of various spices in their cuisine.
The effect of each spices on the recipe is very complex since each spice has its very own
distinctive nature, flavour, & aroma. Since each spice has its own peculiar taste & flavour,
great care has to be taken while blending the spice. Spices are extensively used for cooking in
all parts of India starting from north to south & east to west.

SPICES
English Name

Bengali Name

Allspice

Kebab chini

Asafoetida

Hing

Bay Leaf

Tej Pata

Black Cardamom

Bauro Elaich

Black Cumin

Kalo Zeera

Black Pepper

Gol Morich

Black Salt

Kalo Noone

Brown Mustard Seed

Choto sarse/ Rai

Caraway Seeds

Shahi Zeera

Carom/Thyme

Joane/ Ajwain

Celery

Radhuni

Chili

Lanka

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Cloves

Labango

Coriander

Dhane

Cumin

Jeera/ Zeera

Dates

Khejur

Fennel

Mouri

Fenugreek

Methi

Fenugreek Leaf

Kasuri Methi

Garlic

Rasun

Ginger

Aada

Green Cardamom

Choto Elaich

Holy Basil

Tulsi

Mace

Joitree

Mustard

Sarse

Nutmeg

Jaiphal

Pickle

Achar

Poppy Seeds

Posto

Saffron

Zafran

Salt

Laban/ Noone

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Sour Mango Powder

Aamchur

Spice Mixture

Garam Masala

Star Anise

Chakro Phool

Star Anise

Guamouri

Tamarind

Tetul

Turmeric

Halud

HERBS, SPICES AND OTHER INGREDIENTS IN BENGALI


Onion , (piyaj, peyaj)*
Garlic (rsun)
Ginger (ada)
Cumin , (jira, jire)

Coriander , (dhniya, dhn)


Cinnamon , (darcini, darucini)
Chilli (kaca mric, lnka)
Cardamom (elac)
Turmeric (hlud)
Peas (mtr)

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Each region has its own blend of masala (may be contain single spice or blend of various
spices) that are influenced by the climatic condition, regional spices of that region. In Indian
cuisine masala is used in varied forms, depending upon the role it will play in a particular
dish to get the required flavour & aroma. Generally, we categorised masala in two form
according kept various thing in mind like Cooking time require by masala etc.

1. Dry Masala
2. Wet Masala
I.

Dry Masala: Dry masalas are those which are in their dry form & no additional
liquid components is added to them. These masalas may be whole or broiled &
powdered. They might also include those ingredients which are specifically dried. The
cooking time required by dry masala is very short than wet masala in hot oil or
tempered otherwise it give an unpleasant taste to dish. There are some example of dry
masala used in Indian cuisine.

1. Panch phoran is a regional spice from (Bengal) eastern region of india &
is used in tempering of vegetables, lentils, & fish. As the name suggests, this is a
blend of five spices Anise, Mustard, Cumin, Fenugreek, Nigella, Radhuni
(Radhuni is optional). It is always tempered in hot oil.Traditionally Panch phoran
consists each spices in equal parts.
Preparation time: 2 Minutes
Servings: 1/2 Cup

Ingredients
1 Tbsp. Cumin seeds/ Jeera
1 Tbsp. Fennel seeds/ Saunf
1 Tbsp. Black Mustard seeds/ Sarso
1 Tbsp. Fenugreek seeds/ Methi Dana
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1 Tbsp. Nigella seeds/ Kalonji


Method

Heat a thick bottom pan add all spices and roast them till they all pop-up.
Turn off the flame and blend the whole roasted spice to powder stage.

ii. Potli ka Masala: is mostly used in Hyderabadi Cuisine (south region). It is a mixture
of various spices, herbs, & Roots. It is used for bringing the special aromatic fragrance
biryanis & various meat based recipes.

Preparation time: 2 Minutes


Servings: 1/2 Cup
Ingredients
4 no. of Bay leaf/ Tej Patta
50gm of Coriander seeds Whole/ dhania
25gm Of Vetiver roots- dried/ Khas ki kadi
25gm of Sandalwood powder/ Chandan
25gm of petals of dry rose/ Sukhe gulab ke phool
25gm of Black cardamom/ Kali ilaichi
25gm of Cassia Buds/ Kabab Chini
25gm of Whole cinnamon/ Dal chini
25gm of Litchen/ Pathar ka Phool
25gm of Galingale/ Pan ki Jadi
25gm of Star anise
25gm of Kasuri Methi

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Method

Put all ingridents in muslin cloth and droped in the water & bring it to a boil. Keep the
container close with leds. The spices release the flavour in the water

iii. Kolhapuri Masala: This is one of the regional masalas used in Maharashtra cuisine.
It is reddish coloured masala & very hot due to large amount of the red chillies in it.
Preparation time: 30 Minutes
Servings: 1 Cup
Ingredients

Dry Ingredients
1 cup coriander seeds
1tbsp cumin seeds
cup dessicated dry coconut
1tbps sesame seeds
tbsp black peppercorns
inch piece cinnamon stick
tbsp. poppy seeds

tsp fenugreek seeds


1tsp fennel seeds
Wet Ingredients
1 large onion, roughly chopped
10 cloves garlic
A small bunch of coriander leaves
1tbsp oil
cup red chili powder

Method
Heat a thick bottom pan, roast all the dry ingredient until you can get aromatic smell
coming from the spices. Once roasted, transfer to another bowl & keep it aside.
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In the same pan, add 2tbsp of oil. Once the oil is heated up, add the garlic & the
Onion & saute until it is lightly browned. Once done, keep draining excess oil on a

paper napkin.
Once all the ingredients cooled down, blend all of them together including the
coriander leaves & red chilli powder to make a fine powder.

i.

Wet Masala: wet masalas are those masalas which are actually made by
soaking the spices in liquid & grinding into paste. They might also use fresh
ingredients which tend to yield wet masalas. The cooking time required by wet
masala is very longer than dry masala.

1. Tandoori Masala: This is a regional masala from Punjab, but this is used around
India to Marinate the tandoori Kebabs or tikkas. The meats or vegetables are
marinated with this masala for at least 6-8 hours & then skewered on to the seekh &
cooked in tandoor.
Preparation time: 3 Minutes

Servings: 1/2 cup


Ingredients

1tsp garlic paste


1tsp ginger paste
1tsp ground cloves
11/2tsp ground cumin
2tbsp ground coriander
1tsp ground fenugreek
11/2tsp red chili powder
80 gm hung yoghurt

1tsp vinegar
1/2tsp garam masala
Few drop of red food colour

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Method
Mix ginger & garlic paste in hung yoghurt.
Now mix all the powder spices in yoghurt & add salt according to taste.

2. Soola Masala: This is the regional masala from Rajasthan & is used in kebabs
called Soola. The name soola to Kebabs made on thick iron skewers on a sigri.

Preparation time: 30 Minutes


Servings: 1 Cup
Ingredients

3tbsp mustard oil


1tbsp ghee
4no. garlic cloves
10no. cloves, sliced
1tsp black pepper-corns
1tbsp cumin seeds
5no green cardamom pods
2tbsp coriander seeds
3tbsp fennel seeds
4tbsp coriander stems, chopped
4tbsp fried onion

Method
Heat the mustard oil in a heavy based frying pan to smoking point, then add the ghee
to reduce the temperature, then add the sliced garlic & cook until it turns a golden
colour.
Then add the colves & let them pop. Add peppercorns, cumin seeds & cardamom in
that order, then add the coriander seeds, fennel seeds, chopped coriander stem, stir
quickly.
Remove from the heat & leave to cool. 21

Add fried onions & transfer the mixture to a food processor or blender & blend to
obtain a fine paste.

3. Recheado Masala: This is a regional masala from Goa & is used in fish & curries
preparation to give them absolutely delectable delicacies.
Preparation time: 15 Minutes
Servings: 1 Cup
Ingredients

11/2 cup onion-roughly chopped


1tbsp garlic-chopped
4 no. Cloves
1/4 piece cinnamon-grounded
1tbsp salt
4no. dried red pepper-kashmiri mirch
1tsp tamarind powder
1tsp sugar
1 cup tomatoes-chopped
cup oil

Method

Heat oil & add onions. Let the onion turn brown.
Add tomatoes & fry till the fat separates.
Now add the remaining ingredients & fry till the fat separates again.
Remove from the heat & leave to cool. Transfer the mixture to a food processor or
blender & blend to obtain a fine paste.

India consists of 28 states and seven union territories. However, that is not what sets it apart
from the other countries of the world. India is a nation that is so vibrant and diverse and every
state exhibits a different culture, tradition, a way of life, language and cuisine.
So, whether you are spending a few days up north in Kashmir or vacationing down south to
Kerala, you will witness striking dissimilarities 22
in the kind of foods people savor. This is

what makes India one of the much-loved countries by gourmet foodies the world over. To
give you a better insight into the food scene of the nation, below is a listing of a few Indian
states and their special dishes, so that when you are in the country next, you can focus on
trying out the best local cuisines!

1. PUNJAB

MAKKE KI ROTI AND SARSON DA SAAG


This northern state is especially popular for its amazing local cuisine that is relished
throughout the country. Try the makke ki roti and sarson da saag, which is a popular
combination of a Punjabi flat-bread and gravy made of mustard leaves and spices. Also, the
popular chhola-bhatura, rajma-chawal, amritsari machhli (fish) and lassi (sweetened
buttermilk) find their roots in this region.

2. GUJARAT

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DHOKLA
Traditional Gujarati food is adored for its distinctive flavor that maintains an interesting
balance between spices and sweetness. Try the dhokla, which is a well-known snack or
breakfast item that is both healthy and delicious. Other popular delicacies include
the thepla (flat-bread made of fresh fenugreek leaves and flour), khandvi, dhansak and
Gujarati kadhi.

3. MAHARASHTRA

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VADA PAV
Maharashtrian cuisine covers a range of dishes that go from being too mild to very zesty.
Throughout the state, you can find amazing restaurants serving typical local food. The most
cherished is the vada pav, which is a potato fritter stuffed between bread buns, served with
piquant chutney and green chilies. Other prominent dishes from this region include, pavbhaji, shrikhand, thalipeeth, puran poliand modak.

4. BIHAR

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LITTI CHOKHA
People dont know enough about the typical cuisine of Bihar even though it is excessively
rich in taste and austere in the way it is prepared. The most admired delicacy of the state
is litti and chokha, which consists of roasted wheat balls stuffed with a special filling and
mashed potatoes with distinct flavors. Also worth trying are the sattu parathas, jhal
murhi, khaja and tilkut.

5. RAJASTHAN

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DAL BAATI
This state is not only illustrious because of its vast deserts, beautiful palaces, and vibrant
historyit is also famed for the scrumptious indigenous cuisine. The region presents a
variety of delicacies when it comes to food. One of the most appetizing dishes is daalbaati, which consists of hard balls made of wheat flour and additives fried in ghee, and a
special daal made of different types of pulses. It is usually served with churma, a sweet dish
prepared by crushing baatis and adding ghee and sugar. Also try thepyaaz kachori, malai
ghewar, gatte ki sabzi and kalakand.

6. WEST BENGAL

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DOI MACHH
Bengal is just the right state for those who have a sweet tooth or those who love fish. That
might be a strange combinationand yet in India, you will find famous Bengali sweets and
Bengali restaurants serving the traditional cuisine in almost every city you visit. One popular
dish is the doi machh, which is Bengali fish curry with rice. Other well-known delicacies
include the sandesh, daab jhingri (a special mustard prawn curry), rasgulla and mishti doi.

7. SIKKIM

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PHAGSHAPA
The cuisine of this state is influenced by the northeastern part of India and Nepal along with a
high Nepalese population. One of the must-try delicacies in Sikkim is the phagshapa, made of
strips of dried pork fat cooked with turnips, radishes, and chilies.
Also, momos, thukpa, gundruk and sael roti are quite popular in this region.

8. ANDHRA PRADESH

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HYDERABADI BIRYANI
This is the state that has given the world one of its most savored dishes: biryani. Andhra
Pradesh deserves a visit, especially for the authentic Hyderabadi biryani. Biryani is made of
layered rice which is cooked with any type of meat, chicken or a combination of vegetables.
Other popular food options in the state to take in are mirchi salan, ghongura
pickle and korikoora.

9. JAMMU AND KASHMIR

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KALAADI CHEESE
The northernmost state of India brings forth one of the most delicious cuisines to be found
anywhere in the country. The rogan josh, dum aloo, yakhni, haak
saag, gustaba and tabak maaz are some of the well-liked dishes served in this region. One
incredible delicacy to taste is the kalaadi cheese, which is a traditional local hill cheese
(usually made from cows milk) native to this land.

10. TAMIL NADU

BEGALI CUISINE

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There are two things come to the mind when it comes to Bengali cuisine fish and sweets.
Kolkata is famous for its Rasogolla a sweet delicacy famous for its simple yet brilliant taste
worldwide. Bengali cuisine is a treasure house of food items which are mouth watering. The
reason behind the richness and wide variety of this cuisine is probably the reason Bengalies
are foodies. Yes Bengalies love to eat just the way they love to chat. Chat reminds us of
another important aspect of this cuisine that is snacks. The Bengalies snack while they chat
and chat while they snack. Telebhaja is one snack which could give other world famous
snacks a good run for their money. Telebhaja is a simple snack but it has many variations.
Mostly made with sliced or chopped vegetables or vegetable stuffing which has been coated
with thick batter of Besan and deep fried in hot oil. Fish and Meat stuffing is also used. But if
you are not happy with the term deep frying then you can opt for a healthy cooking method
steaming which is vastly used in preparing many Bengali delicacies. Bhapa items are
extremely popular in Bengal. Mostly used to prepare fish and vegetables. Mustard is used to
prepare items like sarshe ilish, sarshe begun and many more.
A number of vegetable curries are prepared which includes all sorts of vegetables found here;
some of the vegetarian delicacies are Cholar dal, chanar dalna(prepared with cottage cheese),
mocha ghanto, polao ( a rice delicacy) the list goes on and on. But if you love gorging on non
veg items then come to Bengal for fish items like Galda chingrir malaikari, dab chingri, doi
ilish, rui macher kalia, chital macher muiththa;Lover of sweets come here to taste malpua,
variuos pithe, sandesh, mihidana and above all rasogolla. In all Bengali cuisine has so many
gems in store that as a foodie you would keep coming back for another bite.

BENGALI FOOD HISTORY AND POPULAR FOOD


Bengal (before its partition into eastern and western parts) has been ruled by Dravidians and
other ethnic groups, and later further settled by the Aryans during the Gupta, Muslim from
the early thirteenth century onwards, British for two centuries. It also saw a fair share of
immigrants from various parts of the world most prominently Jews, Chinese and Afghans
who settled down in their own distinct communities in and around Kolkata. So all kind of
traditional recipe is fallowed in Bengali food .

The traditional society of Bengal has always been heavily agrarian; hunting, except by some
32 rearing have been common, as reflected in
local clansmen, was uncommon. However, cattle

use of milk primarily for sweets and desserts. Also, as one would assume, ordinary food
served at home is different from that served during social functions and festivals, and again
very different from what might be served at a larger gathering (e.g.a marriage feast).

GOAN CUISINE

The cuisine of Goa has an interesting mix of influences from all the cultures that it came into
contact with. There are two separate traditions in cuisine influenced by the respective
religions of Hinduism and Christianity; there are some meeting points that present interesting
harmony. One of the most popular dishes, the pork Vindaloo is a result of this beautiful
harmony. The Portuguese cooking has a strong and telling influence on Goan Cuisine and that
should not be forgotten. Goan food is simple but one has to bear in mind that most, though
not all, of it is chili hot, spicy, and pungent.

COOKING STYLE
The cooking styles of Goan are also hugely responsible for making the dishes extremely
delicious. While in the urbane area, modern method of cooking has replaced the traditional
one, the villages still continue with the old method of cooking. Clay pots and firewoods are
used to cook food in the rural areas of Goa.

This method of cooking gives what is widely known as the smoky flavour to the Goan food.
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Few Exotic Preparations


Pork Vindaloo - In this, pork is seasoned with wine vinegar and garlic. Vinho stands for wine
while alho means garlic.
Originally it was a stew, however, in Goa, palm sap vinegar and local spices add a distinctive
taste to the dish. Vindaloo can be made with other chicken and meat items as well as with
prawns.
Sorpotel - This dish was originally prepared for some special occasions. It is prepared by
cooking boneless pork along with toddy vinegar. Spices like cumin seed, cinnamon, red dried
chillies, clove, garlic, ginger, green chillies and pepper are also made use of in preparing this
non vegetarian delicacy. An interesting thing to note about Sorpotel is that it tastes much
better on the third and fourth day, after it has been reheated every day.
Fish Curry - Grounded coconut is mixed with red chillies, peppercorns, cumin seeds,
coriander seeds, turmeric powdre, garlic and ginger to make a fine paste. Sliced onions,
tamarind juice and green chillies are added along with a cup of water and salt. The mixture is
cooked and dried mago and kokum are added in process. Later, fish is added and is cooked
till ready. The dish is a hot favourite with the Goans.
Bibinca - Goa is popular for its sweets and cakes and Bibinca is one of them. It is prepared
making use of coconut milk, flour, sugar, coconut juice, eggs and ghee. It is delight for your
taste buds if you like sweet itmes a lot.

FAMOUSE RECIPES IN GOA CUISINE


Goa is not just the ultimate destination of tourists but also of of the gourmets of exotic sea
food. Harmonious blend of various cultures have rendered a distinct and special flavour to the
Goan cuisine which is deemed world class by the connoisseurs.

Food of Goa is considered to be simple, but is mostly spicy and chilli. Rice, fish and coconut
form an integral constituent of Goan food. Coconut
34 milk (prepared by grating the white flesh

of a coconut and soaking in a cup of warm water) is also very much a part of most Goan
recipes just as the kokum (a sour deep purple fruit) and tamarind. Tradition of using chillies
and cashew nuts is a Portugese gift to Goan cuisine.
Vegetarian meals from Goa are not particularly famous. Most of the vegetables are steam
cooked and do not make big use of spices as in north India. Pastries are savoured by the
people of Goa on all occasions and seasons. Hindu and Christian community in the state
follow their different styles of cooking. Traditional cooking is done in earthen wire on wood
fire for that unparalleled aroma and flavour.

GOAN VINDALOO (PORK)


INGREDIENTS

1 kg: Lean pork cleaned

2 no: Medium onions, chopped fine

10 no: Cloves garlic

1 inch piece: Ginger

10 no: Dried red chillies/peppers

10 no: Peppercorns

8 no: Cloves

1 inch piece: Cinnamon

1 tsp: Cumin seeds

no: Mustard seeds

tsp: Sugar

tsp: Vinegar

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2 tbsp: Oil

peg: Coconut feni

2 cups: Water

Salt as per taste

METHOD
1. Cut the cleaned pork into inch sized pieces.
2. Apply salt and keep aside.
3. Grind all the spices and blend it with vinegar, adding the tsp sugar.
4. Apply the ground spices to the meat and marinate for 3 hours.
5. Heat the oil in the pan on medium heat and add the meat.
6. Fry the meat for few minutes, then add the chopped onion, coconut feni, rest of
7. the vinegar and the water gradually.
8. Cover the pan and lower heat. Stir cook till meat is tender and the oil rises to the top.

Note: Chicken or beef can also be used in the recipe given for Pork
Vindaloo.

GUJRATI CUISINE
36

Gujarati cuisine is unlike any other Indian cuisine. Almost strictly vegetarian, it is
traditionally served on silver platters to the accompaniment of rice and a variety of wheat
breads.
Even though the state of Gujarat has absorbed many foreign influences over the years, the
basic tastes in food have remained the same.
There are few people who do not relish Gujarati savouries - crisp spicy fried farsans, which
can be bought in wayside stalls. The famous Gujarati thali served at weddings consists of of
various gujarati food recipe like farsans, sweetmeats and a variety of sweet and sour chutneys
and pickles. This harmony is derived from the mixing of the sweet with the salty is what
makes the cooking of this state different from the rest. Geographically Gujarat can be divided
into four regions and because of the climactic differences; there are slight variations in eating
habits and modes of preparation

SOME OF FAMOUS RECIPES OF

KHANDVI
INGREDIENTS
cup: Chick-pea flour
cup: Sour yogurt
tsp: Ginger paste
tsp: Green chilli paste

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tsp: Chilli powder


1/8 tsp: Asafoetida
1/8 tsp: Turmeric
tsp: Mustard seeds
2 Sabut lal mirch
2 tsp: Oil
1 tsp: Salt or to taste
1 cup: Water
For Garnish

Coriander-chopped fine
Grated coconut

METHOD
Mix besan, ginger, green chilli, red pepper, salt, heeng and turmeric into a smooth paste with
some water till no lumps are left. Add the rest of the water and mix well.
Bring to a boil, stirring all the time (to avoid scorching).
Keep cooking and stirring till you reach a paste like consistency. Spread a tsp of the batter on
to an ungreased surface and cool, it should come off clean.
With a rubber spatula spread onto an ungreased surface, as thin as possible and leave to cool.
Heat oil and add the sarson, kadhi patta and sabut lal mirch. Stir a few times and spread over
the layer. Pick up the lal mirch and keep aside.
Cut layer into strips and roll each strip like a scroll, firmly.
38
Arrange on to a serving dish and garnish with coriander,
coconut and peppers and serve.

DESSERTS
SHRIKHAND
INGREDIENTS

1 cup: Dahi
cup: Sugar-powdered
tsp: Elaichi powder
Method
Place dahi in a strainer lined with a thin cloth and leave to drain the extra water. Takes about
1 hour, depending on the richness of the dahi.
Transfer the strained dahi into a mixing bowl and add sugar and half the elaichi. Mix well, till
smooth.
Transfer on to a serving bowl and garnish with the rest of the elaichi powder.
Leave to set in the refrigerator, chilling for at least 2 hours and serve.

KASHMIRI CUISINE
The history of modern Kashmiri cuisine can be traced back to the fifteenth century invasion
of India by Timur, and the migration of 1700 skilled woodcarvers, weavers, architects,
calligraphers and cooks from Samarkand to the valley of Kashmir. The descendants of these
cooks, the Wazas, are the master chefs of Kashmir.
The ultimate formal banquet in Kashmir is the royal Wazwan. Of its thirty-six courses,
between fifteen and thirty can be preparations of meat, cooked overnight by the master chef,
Vasta Waza, and his retinue of wazas. Guests are seated in groups of four and share the meal
out of a large metal plate called the trami.
39

The meal begins with a ritual washing of hands at a basin called the tash-t-nari, which is
taken around by attendants. Then the tramis arrive, heaped with rice, quartered by four seekh
kababs and contains four pieces of methi korma, one tabak maaz, one safed murg, one zafrani
murg, and the first few courses. Curd and chutney are served seperately in small earthen pots.
As each trami is completed, it is removed, and a new one brought in, until the dinner has run
its course. Seven dishes are a must for these occassions-- Rista, Rogan Josh, Tabak Maaz,
Daniwal Korma, Aab Gosht, Marchwangan Korma and Gushtaba. The meal ends with the
Gushtaba.

SPREAD OF KASHMIRI WAZWAN DISHES


our first wazwan experience. The boys in the family do all the carrying and serving, so one of
the cousins sets down the tash-t-nari, a quaint silver basin accompanied by a jug straight out
of Arabian nights so we can wash our hands. Then comes the plate, piled high with rice,
topped with a dash of cooked spinach curry and a dense, meaty gravy made with lamb liver,
kidney and intestines.
Then, the wazwan starts moving faster. Scalding chicken red curry served with a huge ladle is
carefully poured on the rice, along with a huge meaty piece of chicken for each of the four
people sitting around the plate.
Then come the tender sheek kebabs. Rogan josh, fiery with red Kashmiri chillies. The
delicious tabak maz, which are flat rib cuts cooked in spiced milk and then fried in pure ghee
till theyre dark and crackling. Delectably spongy paneer in a rich tomato sauce. Gushtaba,
soft mutton meatballs cooked in a gravy of fresh curd, end the meal.
Not surprisingly we loll about like pythons once were done. More kawah. More singing. The
thudding from the tent begins again. After all, theres wazwan for dinner.
USE OF HERBS & SPICES IN KASHMIRI CUISINE
40

Spices and Condiments play a very important role in the Kashmiri Culinary Art and their
Cuisine, especially in the Dishes of Kashmiri Pandits.
Kashmir, being on the ancient Silk Route, the traders in Indian Spices, from all over the
world, passed through this valley and generally stayed here as visitors, to enjoy the salubrious
summer climate and also to sell non-local spices and buy locally produced saffron, spices,
medicinal herbs and roots, dry fruits and Shawls etc.

Kashmiri Pandits inherited the knowledge of medicinal values and aromatic qualities of
different spices and condiments, from ancient Sanskrit Texts of Ayurveda.
The use of these and their availability, in almost all Kashmiri houses, was and is common.
Hardly there is any spice or condiment which is not available from a Kashmiri Grocer or a
Pansar. In fact, a class of traders called Buhuer sprang up in due course to deal especially in
spices and medicinal herbs, roots, seeds and minerals.
Learning the special use of local spices, herbs and condiments, and of those introduced by the
outsiders, hundreds of exquisite dishes were developed by Kashmiris. These include both
vegetarian and non-vegetarian preparations. Some are hot, sweet or sour, some fragrant and
spicy and others soft or crunchy and so on. Here, thus, matured the art of blending of
different spices, in right proportions, in order to prepare foods with variable flavours and
aromas. These were developcd to a sort of perfection, to suit different seasons and occasions,
and also the tastes of both Indians and Foreigners.

41

To cater to the ever growing demands,


a class of professional expert cooks and chefs grew up, who completed with one another for
producing exquisite dishes. Culinary art of Kashmir also got impetus through the patronage
of affluent people who permanently enagaged expert cooks. The 'patrons' vied with one
another, by throwing dinner parties, in which their special dishes were served and these were
talked about by guests afterwards for days together. Even now somc have become
reminiscences for some people of older generation, who give graphic description of such
feasts.
Spices and condiments are used freely, and in good quantities, by Kashmiri Pandits. Kashmiri
Muslims use these commonly called 'Masale' sparingly, but there is predominance of Onion,
Garlic and Shallot in both their Meat and Vcgetarian preparations. Shallot is called Pran in
Kashmir. It is not used in Pandit kitchens. Now, in recent years Onions and Garlic are used in
a few of their Vegetable and Meat Curries. Pandits use Asafoetida (Hing) instead of Onions,
Garlic or Shallots.
Therefore, for those who are eager to learn the Kashmiri Culinary Art, the knowledge of
different Spices, Condiments and ingredients used by Kashmiris, is primarily necessary.
Knowing proper methods of processing and presentation of these, before their use, is also
42

essential. A comprehensive note follows regarding this and also a list of all these Spices,
Condiments, and previously prepared Mixtures and 'Cakes' of Spices, for ready use is given.

KASHMIRI DISHES
Kashmiri cuisine, comprising mostly of non-vegetarian dishes, is characterised by three
different styles of cooking - the Kashmiri Pandit, the Muslims and the Rajput styles.

Traditional Kashmiri cooking is called 'Wazhawan' and is rich and aromatic with a wonderful
flavour. Rice is the staple food and lamb, goat's meat and chicken form the basis of many
famous dishes. Spices and condiments play a very important role in the Kashmiri delights.
Asafoetida, aniseed, dry garlic, cloves and cinnamon are added for extra flavoring. Kashmiri
Hindus use fenugreek, ginger and aniseed in their food, while Muslims use garlic, Kashmiri
chillies, cloves and cinnamon. One of the distinct features of Kashmiri cuisine is the generous
use of curds in the gravies, giving the dishes a creamy consistency. Some known dishes of
Kashmir are yakhni, tabaq naat, dum aloo, rogan josh and gaustaba. The dishes are cooked in
mustard oil and water, with the addition of red and green chilies.

VEGETARIAN
KASHMIRI DUM ALOO
INGREDIENTS

500 gm : Potatoes (small)

1 cup : Yogurt (Dahi)

tbsp : Gramflour (Besan)

4 no : Green cardamom (Chhoti Elaichi)

tsp : Dry ginger powder (Soonth)

tsp : Fennel seed powder (Saunf)


43

5 no : Cloves (Laung)

2 no : Cinnamon sticks chutney (Daalchini)

1 tsp : Chilli Powder

Sarson (mustard) oil for frying

METHOD
1.

Grind together - bari elaichi, laung and daalchini. Put aside until further use.

2.

Boil potatoes until half cooked. Peel while still warm. Pierce each potato 2-3 time
with thin wooden toothpick.

3.

Heat oil in a kadhai, fry potatoes on medium heat until floating on top and golden
brown in color. Drain excess oil and keep aside.

4.

To the dahi, add salt, besan and 1 cup water. Whisk well, until smooth and lump-free.

5.

Reheat 4tbsp of the same oil in another pan. Add red chillies and chhoti elaichi and
fry for a minute. Remove from flame, allow to cool slightly and then pour into the dahi,
stirred continuously. Return to flame and bring to a boil, again stirring continuously.
Add potatoes along with soonth, saunf and ground masala. Cook over medium heat for
5-10 minutes or until the curry thickens.

6.

Serve hot accompanied by boiled rice.

KASHMIRI PULAO
Ingredients

500 gm: Basmati rice

2 cups: Milk

cup: Cream

44

1 cup: Fruits (chopped, mixed)

1 tsp: Sugar

2 tsp: Ghee

3-4: Cloves

1-2: Bay leaf

1 inch long piece: Cinnamon

3-4: Cardamom

tsp: Cumin seeds

Rose water

Salt to taste

METHOD
1.

Gently wash rice and soak in water for about 10-15 minutes.

2.

Heat ghee in a pan. Add cloves, cinnamon, cumin seeds, bay leaf and cardamoms.
Now add soaked rice and fry for 2 minutes. Add the mixture of cream, milk, sugar and
salt. Add half a cup of water. Bring to a boil. Cover and simmer till cooked. When
cooked, mix in chopped mixed fruit.

3.

Sprinkle few drops of rose water before serving.

Note : Before cooking, rinse the rice several times, until the water comes out clear. This
removes any starch and residue, otherwise the rice may be sticky.

India is one of the worlds oldest civilizations. The Indian culture, often labelled as an
amalgamation of several various cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent & has been
influenced & shaped by a history that is several thousand years old. Throughout the history of
India, Indian food habits continuously influences
45by some of this following things.

1. Religions beliefs
2. Life style
3. Culture

1) Religions Beliefs: Indian culture has been heavily influenced by Dharmic religions.
This particularly concerns the spread Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Islamic, Sikhism
across the Indian subcontinent

1.1. Goa: Govan people food habit also influenced by their regional beliefs like
Christians or Catalans peoples love to eat meat items like beef, fish & pork than
Hindu or Muslim people, where eating meat item like beef in Hindu religion is
probating because Hindu people worship cow as their god.
1.2. Jammu & Kashmir: Jammu & Kashmir is mainly split between Muslimism &
Hinduism religion. In Muslim religion eating beef is common but at the same time
eating beef beef is probating in Hindu religion.

2) Life Style: The life style of Indian people dramatically changing now they are start or
influenced by the western life style culture of those people. This change in life style
culture some hows also influenced the people food habits.
1.1. In major Indian cities people give preferences to fusion cuisine or western cuisine
than regional Indian cuisine/ Traditional cuisine.
1.2. Youth generation are adopting more & more fast food over regional food or healthy
food.
1.3. With increase in health awareness among people. The has stop consuming high
chostoral food rich in fats like ghee, butter, etc to low chestoral food.
1.4. Preparation of traditional food also required lots of time which people dont have
now days due to busy life.
3) Culture: Culture of society put a major impact on the food habits of of the people
because culture is directly related to people activities performed in terms of traditional
dance, life style, & so on. For eg people in Punjab consume more clarified butter or ghee
than any other state of india because they perform more heavy or difficult activities which
need an high caleriores diet to meet required amount of energy to perform that activities

46

CHAPTER- IV
DATA ANALYSIS

47

Cluster 1
Religion Based Community population in India ?

48

Population Percentage

Christian; 2% Sikh; 1%Buddhist; 1%Jain; 1%


Muslim; 14%

Hindu; 81%

Total Indian Population is Aprox. Is 1,028,610,328people out of that majority of community


is Hindu which is 827,578,868 people & other community like Sikh, Jain, Other religious is 1
or less than 1% people in India

Cluster 2
Cooking Medium Used

49

Perfearance of used
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
Ghee

Coconut Oil Sunflower Oil

Mustard Oil

Other

Indian food are moderate to rich in fat used for cuisine. The aroma & taste of food also varies
due to use of different cooking medium used in different region as per there availability &
Taste

Cluster 3
Masala Used
Masala used

Composition

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
North Region
South Region
East Region
West Region
Central Region

Hot Spices
Sweet Spice
Flavoring Item
Regional Item
Regional Believe

Region

Indian cooking is completely based on the type of been used in their cuisine. But the selection
of masala whether used in different region cooking is largely impact by masala composition
which include Type of spices (Hot/Sweet), Flavoring Item & Availability of Regional Items
being used with their regional believe of each particular region.
50

Cluster 4
Factor for characteristic difference among Indian Cuisine

Indian Cusine
Masala Used 30%
Taste Buds 7%
Nutritional Aspect 10%

10%
13%

15%

Cooking medium 25%


Appearance 13%
Cooking Style 15%
30%

7%

25%

Indian regional cuisine is one of the most popular food cuisine all over the world because of
the diverse characteristics difference (Masala used, Cooking Style & Medium, Appearances,
Nutritional Aspect, & Taste buds of people) among Indian Cuisine.

51

CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION
WEBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX
QUESTIONNAIRE

52

CONCLUSION SOFARE
India is known for its love for food & spices. Indian cuisine varies from region to region,
reflecting the local produce, cultural diversity & varied demographics of the country.
Generally, Indian cuisine split into 5 categories- northern, southern, eastern, western, &
central. The diversity each cuisine is characterised by differing uses of many spices & herbs,
a wide assortment of recipes & cooking techniques.

Despite this diversity, through my study on Region wise analysis on Indian Food

That there are some certain dishes or food from various region which are famous
or popular among the people all over India.
Each region has it own blend of masala.
They all have different cooking medium, cooking style, cooking method.

53

WEBLIOGRAPHY
www.food.ndtv.com/indianspices
www.google.com
www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/indianregionalcuisine
www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/indianregionalculture

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Magazine & Newspaper
Good Food
Travel Trend
The Times
Books
Food Production operation by Parvinder S. Bali
Quantity Food Production by Parvinder S. Bali
Taste Of India by MADHU JAFFERY

54

APPENDIX-1
Assumption
Each Person or Group of community have their on
preference of cuisine like.
Their want to taste other cuisine will completely depend
on their Spending power, Want to taste other cuisine, &
many more thinks.
No awareness or availability of various cuisine on various
region of India

TABULATION
Option

No. of Question

Option

Option

Option

Option

No. of choice

Question 1
Question 2
Question 3
Question 4
Question 5
Question 6
Question 7
Question 8
Question 9
Question 10
Question 11
55

TOTAL
Respondent

TOTAL
I am a final year student of IHM Gwalior, Please tick appropriate answer
of following Question as per your Knowledge.
QUESTIONNAIRE
Age: ______________
Annul Income: 1)Less than 2lac
Religion follower: 1)Hindu
Occupation: 1)Students

2)2-5lac

3)5-10lac 4)More than 10lac

2)Muslim 3)Sikh

2)Employed

4)Other________________

3)Unemployed

4)Other_____________

Place of Origin: 1)North Indian 2)South Indian 3)West Indian 4)East India
5)Other___________
Q-1 Which Cuisine you generally prefer to eat?
Ans: 1)Punjabi 2)Gujarati 3)Maharashtra 4)Bengali

5)Other___________

Q2- Which Cooking Medium, Generally you used in your food preparation?
Ans: 1)Ghee 2)Coconut Oil 3)Sunflower Oil 4)Mustard Oil

5)Other___________

Q3- What do you prefer most in your cuisine?


Ans: 1)Taste 2)Appearance 3)Aroma 4)All of the Above
Q4-What type of food you love to taste?
Ans: 1)Spicy 2)Tangy 3)Mild

4)Pungent

5)All of the Above

Q5- Your favourite dish you love to have?


Ans ________________, ________________
Q6-If you want to change something in your cuisine, what it would be?
Ans: 1)Nutritional aspect 2)Spices used

3)Use of food colour

4)other__________

Q7-Among Snacks, Main Course, & Dessert of your cuisine, What it is speciality?
Ans: _____________________
Q8-Do you feel every cuisine is different?
Ans: 1)Yes

2)No

3)Cant say
56

Q9-Do you feel that local culture has any effect on people food habits?
Ans: 1)Yes

2)No

3)Cant say

Q10- What do you prefer to have?


Ans: 1)Vegetarian

2)Non-Vegetarian

3)Eggetarian

4)All the above

Respondent Signature

57