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General Layout

Eng. Maha Moddather


mahamoddather@eng.cu.edu.eg

Introduction
Concrete Beam subjected to
Bending Moment around Major Axis

Mx

Compression

d
Concrete
tensile
strength is
neglected

AS
Tension

If Mx increases  increase d or As

Introduction
Concrete Beam subjected to
Bending Moment around Major Axis
AS

Compression

Mx
Compression

d
Concrete
tensile
strength is
neglected

AS
Tension

If d is limited & As = Asmax  Use Compression reinforcement

Introduction
Concrete Beam subjected to
Bending Moment around Major Axis
AS
Concrete
strength is
neglected d

AS

I-Beam Section  usually used for beams and columns in


steel structures

Introduction
Types of Buildings with respect
to Construction Materials

Timber Building

Concrete Building

Introduction
Types of Buildings with respect
to Construction Materials

Combined Steel-Concrete Building

Steel Building

Introduction
Typical Steel Structures

Industrial Buildings

Introduction
Typical Steel Structures

Multi-storey Bldgs.

Sea Platform

Introduction
Typical Steel Structures
The Chicago Skyscraper

Time Warner Center 2003

Skyscrapers

Introduction

We will study Industrial


Buildings this year

Steel Frame

Steel Truss

Introduction


Advantages of Steel:


Economy

Durability

Design Flexibility

 All

Weather Construction

Easy Repair

100% Recyclable

Course Outline
 Components

of Structures and General Layout

Bracing Systems

 Dead

& Live Loads

 Crane

& Wind Loads

 Tension

Members

 Compression

Members
Dr. Maha Moddather

Course Outline
 Bracing

Members

 Axially

Loaded Columns

 Beams:
 Purlins

& Side Girts


 CTG & Monorail
 Floor Beams
 Beams

- Columns

Dr. Maha Moddather

Introduction
Preliminary Grading
100%

Term Work
30%

Midterm Exam
15%

Sheets
5%

Final Exam
70%

Quizes
10%

Introduction


Steel Sections

IPE Sections

BFI Sections

T Sections

UPN Sections

PIPE Sections

L Sections

BOX Sections

Introduction


Steel Sections

General Layout
1. Types of Main Systems
2. Arrangement of Main Systems
3. Roof Slope
4. Roof Covering Materials
5. Side Cover
6. End Gables
7. Bracing System
Dr. Maha Moddather

1. Types of Main Systems


Columns are
allowed on the
Boundary of the
Area

60 m

No columns are
allowed at the
interior space

Clear Height
= 7m

20 m
20 m
Dr. Maha Moddather

1. Types of Main Systems

Systems
Simple
Beam

Rigid
Frame

Simple
Truss

Column Truss
Frame

Dr. Maha Moddather

1. Types of Main Systems


Systems
Simple
Beam

Rigid
Frame

Simple
Truss

Column Truss
Frame

Span  7 - 10m

Dr. Maha Moddather

1. Types of Main Systems


Systems
Simple
Beam

Rigid
Frame

Simple
Truss

Column Truss
Frame

Span  12 25 m

Dr. Maha Moddather

1. Types of Main Systems


Systems
Simple
Beam

Rigid
Frame

Simple
Truss

Column Truss
Frame

Span  15 - 25m
Dr. Maha Moddather

1. Types of Main Systems


Systems
Simple
Beam

Rigid
Frame

Simple
Truss

Column Truss
Frame

Span  25 - 40m

Dr. Maha Moddather

1. Types of Main Systems


Systems
Simple
Beam
Span  7 - 10m

Rigid
Frame
Span  12 25 m

Simple
Truss
Span  15 - 25m

Column Truss
Frame
Span  25 - 40m

Dr. Maha Moddather

2. Arrangement of Main System


 Main System parallel to the Short Direction
 Spacing (S) = 4  7 m

60 m

Main System
Rigid Frame

Short Direction
Clear Height
= 7m

20 m
20 m
Dr. Maha Moddather

2. Arrangement of Main System

S=47m

2. Arrangement of Main System

Main System

2. Arrangement of Main System


Rafter / Girder

 Main System parallel to the Short Direction


 Spacing (S) = 4  7 m

S=6m

60 m

Columns

20 m

Clear Height
= 7m

20 m
Dr. Maha Moddather

3. Roof Slope
 To accommodate rain water drainage.
 Slope 1: 5  1: 15
Slope 1:10

Slope 1:10
10
Clear Height
= 7m

20 m

1
Clear Height
= 7m

20 m

Dr. Maha Moddather

3. Roof Slope
 Slope can reach values equal to: (1:1) in case of bulk material
storage.

Slope 1:1

Slope 1:1

Dr. Maha Moddather

4. Roof Covering Materials


Covering Material

Flexible Cover
Corrugated
Sheets

Sandwich
Panels

Rigid Cover

R.C. slab

Precast
Units

Dr. Maha Moddather

4. Roof Covering Materials


Covering Material

Flexible Cover
Corrugated
Sheets

Sandwich
Panels

Rigid Cover

R.C. slab

Precast
Units

Dr. Maha Moddather

4. Roof Covering Materials


Covering Material

Flexible Cover
Corrugated
Sheets

Sandwich
Panels

Rigid Cover

R.C. slab

Precast
Units

Dr. Maha Moddather

4. Roof Covering Materials


Covering Material

Flexible Cover
Corrugated
Sheets

Sandwich
Panels

Rigid Cover

R.C. slab

Precast
Units

Dr. Maha Moddather

4. Roof Covering Materials


 Spacing bt. secondary beams  a
 For Flexible Roof: a 2m
 For Rigid Roof :

a 3m

S=6m

60 m

10

1
Clear Height
= 7m
20 m

20 m

Very large area for


 Use Secondary Beams
the covering material

Dr. Maha Moddather

4. Roof Covering Materials


a=2m

Used Sections for Purlins:


Channel Section
Z Section

S=6m

60 m

10
Secondary
Beams
/
Purlins

1
Clear Height
= 7m

20 m

20 m
Dr. Maha Moddather

4. Roof Covering Materials


a=2m

Corrugated
Sheets

S=6m

60 m

10
Secondary
Beams
/
Purlins

1
Clear Height
= 7m

20 m

20 m
Dr. Maha Moddather

4. Roof Covering Materials


Purlin

Roof Cover
Rafter

a=2m
Refers to the horizontal
distance

Column

20 m

Dr. Maha Moddather

4. Roof Covering Materials


Purlin

Roof Cover
Rafter

a=2m
Refers to the horizontal
distance

Column

Purlin

Top Chord

Diagonals

Verticals

Roof Cover

20 m
h
Purlins should be at Truss
Joints

Bottom
Chord

Column

B
Dr. Maha Moddather

4. Roof Covering Materials


Purlin

Roof Cover
Rafter

a=2m
Refers to the horizontal
distance

Column

Roof Cover

Purlin
20 m
H

h
a

Purlins should be at Truss


Joints

H=

Column

B
12 - 16

h 1m
B
Dr. Maha Moddather

4. Roof Covering Materials

Purlins

Dr. Maha Moddather

5. Side Cover

Brick Walls
Corrugated
Sheets

Dr. Maha Moddather

5. Side Cover
Roof Cover
Purlin

Rafter

Side Cover

Side Girt
Column

a 2
m

Brick
Wall
1.5 3.0 m

20 m

Dr. Maha Moddather

5. Side Cover
Side Girts

Dr. Maha Moddather

6. End Gables
 Add End Gable Columns with spacing 4 6 m
Roof Cover
Purlin

Rafter

Side Cover

Side Girt
Column

Brick
Wall

1.5 3.0 m

20 m
Dr. Maha Moddather

6. End Gables
 Add End Gable Columns with spacing 4 6 m
Roof Cover
Purlin

Rafter

Side Girt

Side Cover

Column

Brick
Wall
End Gable
Column

5m

1.5 3.0 m

5m

5m

5m

20 m
Dr. Maha Moddather

6. End Gables

5m

End Gable Column

S=6m

60 m

20 m

Dr. Maha Moddather

6. End Gables
 Use Side Girts at distance 2.0 m
Roof Cover
Purlin

Side Girt
Column

Rafter

Side
Girt

Side Cover

a 2 m

End Gable
Column

Brick
Wall

1.5 3.0 m

5m

5m

5m

5m

20 m
Dr. Maha Moddather

6. End Gables
 For trusses: End Gable Columns at truss Joints
Roof Cover
Purlin

Rafter

Side Girt

Side Cover

Column

Brick
Wall
End Gable
Column

5m

1.5 3.0 m

5m

5m

5m

20 m
Dr. Maha Moddather

6. End Gables
 Access Doors
Roof Cover
Purlin

Side Girt
Column

Rafter

Side
Girt

Side Cover

a 2 m

End Gable
Column

Brick
Wall

Access
Opening

1.5 3.0 m

5m

5m

5m

5m

20 m
Dr. Maha Moddather

6. End Gables
 Access Doors
Roof Cover
Purlin

Side Girt

Rafter

Side
Girt

Side Cover

a 2 m

Brick
Wall

Column

Access
Opening

1.5 3.0 m

5m

6m

5m

20 m
Dr. Maha Moddather

6. End Gables
 Types of Doors

Sliding Door (One side)

Roller Shutter Door

Sliding Door (Two side)

Dr. Maha Moddather

7. Bracing System
 Bracing system is provided to frames to provide stability under
the lateral loads.

Frame can support loads in


the lateral direction

Short Direction
Dr. Maha Moddather

7. Bracing System
 Bracing system is provided to frames to provide stability under
the lateral loads.

Long Direction

Dr. Maha Moddather

7. Bracing System
 Bracing System includes:
 Horizontal Bracing:
Bracing in a horizontal plane provides a load path to transfer
the horizontal forces (wind pressure on the cladding) to the
planes of vertical bracing.
Horizontal
Bracing

 Vertical Bracing
Bracing in vertical planes
(between lines of columns)
provides load paths to transfer
horizontal forces to ground
level.

Vertical Bracing
Dr. Maha Moddather

7. Bracing System
Horizontal Bracing

Vertical Bracing

7. Bracing System
 Use Bracing at the First and last bays.
 Use bracing at intermediate bays, if length > 40 m.

Intermediate
Bay

First Bay

Last Bay

7. Bracing System

5m

7m

Vl. Bracing

Side View

Hz. Bracing

60 m

Plan

7. Bracing System

5m

Vl. Bracing

Upper Hz. Bracing


(U.W.B.)

Side View

Hz. Bracing

60 m

Lower Hz. Bracing


(L.W.B.)

Plan at U.W.B. Level

Assignment
 Prepare a General Layout Drawing (Using Ao sheet):
 Roof Plan:
 Arrangement of Main System.
 Arrangement of Purlins.
 Horizontal Bracing.
 End Gable Columns

 Main System Elevation.


 End Gable Elevation.
 Side view for Vertical Bracing/ Side Girts.