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Comparison of Steel Tube Concrete Column with Steel Tube

Concrete Composite Column


ID Number: 1130598

Column occupies an important position for the structural engineers, as a kind of important
component in architectural structures. For high-rise buildings, although structure systems are
divers, columns are still essential vertical bearing components and lateral resistance components.
And, the form has being changed, from the normal reinforced concrete column, a steel reinforced
concrete column, steel tube concrete column, to the composite column, mega columns. This report
only introduces the related contents concerning concrete filled steel tube (CFST) column and
concrete filled steel tube composite column (hereinafter referred to as the composite column).

1.1 Concrete filled steel tube column: filling the high strength concrete into the steel pipe, is an
economic efficient way to overcome the high strength concrete brittleness, by combining steel
tube concrete technology with high strength concrete technology. This is because: 1) steel tubes
hoop constraint effect to core high strength concrete can effectively overcome the high strength
concrete brittleness; 2) steel tube can be used as a template, and has both longitudinal
reinforcement and the transverse stirrup function, and facilitates to place high strength concrete,
especially can use advanced pump concrete pouring process, because inside steel reinforced
skeleton is not needed; 3) without concrete cover outside, makes full use of the capacity of high
strength concrete.
1.2 Composite column: consists of the core CFST and the concrete outside, can be as square section,
rectangular section or circular cross section. Composite column inside and outside parts can be
constructed in different period, or in the same period. Construction in different period means first
casting inside concrete to form CFST, bearing part of the vertical load during the period of construction,
then the outside concrete. Construction in the same period means casting the inside and outside
concrete at the same time.

The comparison shows that both consist of high strength concrete and steel tube, and the
hoop sets effect gives full play to the role of high strength materials. The main difference is that,
no concrete cover outside the CFST but composite column RC outside the pipe, also the inside
and outside concrete can be casted in different periods. In short, CFST composite column is the
development of concrete filled steel tube column.


The second and third class high-rise building maximum height using composite column
structure, for frame structure and 9 degree seismic fortification, is the same with A level height

high-rise buildings largest height according to the current industry standard concrete structures of
tall building technical regulation JGJ3-2010 ; in the non-seismic design and seismic fortification
intensity6,7,8 area, except the frame structure, the maximum height for other structure is the same
with B level height high-rise buildings largest height according to the current industry standard
concrete structures of tall building technical regulation JGJ3-2010 .
Table 1 comparison of building maximum height of CFST with composite column structures

Structure system

design (CFST/

seismic fortification intensity(CFST/ composite

intensity 6

intensity 7

intensity 8

intensity 9







Frame-shear wall






shear wall





No allowed

frame core-tube






Tube in tube






The table data shows that, both the maximum height in tube structure are equal, it is
important to note that the maximum height in the frame- core tube structure for composite column
is smaller.

Confinement effect greatly improves CFSTs bearing capacity (30% ~ 50%), and the
materials stress under service conditions improved with the same amplitude corresponding. Test
and theoretical analysis shows that, when the confinement index is within 3 and procedures set by
safety level, CFST still in elastic stage under test load, which satisfy with the basic requirements
of the limit state design principle.
Take the CFST as the research object, and contrast the similarities and differences between
the two on axial bearing capacity calculation.
It can be seen from the form above

1. The formulas about CFST axial compression capacity are basically agreed.
2. Processes are different when considers the different confinement effect. Generally the high strength
concrete in the composite column is within C55 ~ C80 range or even larger, thus the CFST
compression bearing capacity design value

N u 0.9 l e Ac f c (1 ) 0.9 l e Ac f c (1 1.56 1.56) 0.9 l e Ac f c (1 1.8 )

can be smaller than that of CFST composite column.
3. Composite column does not consider eccentricity axis pressure to the influence of bearing capacity,

only consider the effect of slenderness ratios. Although the CFST is set in the composite column
section center, mainly carrying axial compression, but when the steel pipe diameter to the column
section side length ration is large, the CFST should bear the a small amount of bending moment. To
make sure there are certain reserves, fully axial compression bearing capacity cant be used, therefore,
limit the axial pressure. The reduction coefficient can be taken as 1.0 because of the RC outside

4. Equivalent calculation length. Composite columns equivalent length is calculated in

accordance with the relevant provisions of the CECS28-90. Both of the two consider the
constraint condition and column bending moment distribution gradient effect.
Table 2 comparison of axial compression capacity of CFST with the CFST in composite column

CFST column

CFST in composite column

Axis pressure
design value

N Nu

N cc 0.9 N u


N u 0.9 l e Ac f c (1 f ( ))

N u 1 f cc Acc (1 1.8 )

l 1 0.115 Le / D 4

1 1 0.115(l e / d a 4)1 / 2

( Le / D 4)

(l e / d a 4 )



l 1Le / D 4

1 1.0l e / d a 4

e0 / rc 1.55
1 1.85e0 / rc
without consideration

0 .3
e0 / rc 1.55
e0 / rc 0.4


Le kL

l e H


Note: L-the actual length of the column; H- length of the cantilever column.

Table 3 comparison of axial compression capacity of CFST with composite column

n capacity

CFST column

composite column

N u 0.9 l e Ac f c (1 f ( )) N u 0.9 ( f co Aco f y Ass ) f cc A cc (1 1.8 )

Le kL

Bottom columns1.0Hothers1.25H

Note: H for the bottom column can be taken the height from foundation top face to the first layer, H for
the others each layer can be taken the height between the two top of the floor layer.

Both the concrete inside and outside contribute the composite column axial compression
capacity, and the interior CFST reduction coefficient is taken as 1.0. So the bearing capacity of
composite column of is higher than that of CFST column.

The steel tube in CFST column, is a kind of special form of reinforcement, and the three
dimensional continuous reinforcement field, acting as both longitudinal reinforcement and lateral
stirrup. Usually, CFST mainly bears compression-bending effect, and the shear reinforcement
field correspond is determined after the determination of the steel pipe specifications and hoop
index according to the compression-bending member, so shear reinforcement design is not needed
the other reinforced concrete member does. Previous test observation shows that failures are
bending type when shear span to column diameter ratio a/D is larger than 2, and in the general
construction project ,the value is greater than 3. In some cases, such as large-span overloaded
beam joints area, small shear span problem, which will influence the design of CFST, should be
considered. In order to solve the problem, China construction science research institute carried out
the special shearing test research, which is applicable to transverse shear act on the pipe outer wall
in pressure.
Table 4 comparison of shear capacity of CFST with composite column


composite column


V (V0 0.1N )(1 0.45 a / D )

V 0.25[ c f co Aco f cc Acc (1 1.8 )]

V0 0.2 Ac f c (1 3 )


a/D<2 and transverse shear act on the

pipe outer wall in pressure


Consider the tube constraints enhancing


effect on the compressive strength

In addition, there are related regulations about local compression and tension and moment
capacity for the CFST, but nothing for composite columns.

In the composite column constructed in different period, the core CFST has been under part
vertical load, before the RC outside casted. CFSTs vertical load value to the composite columns axial
compression value ratio called composite ratio.

The strength of empty steel pipe should be checked according to the construction stage load
for the laminated column constructed in different period, and the maximum compressive stress
value is unsuitable more than 0.6fa(fa is steel pipe steel the compressive strength of the design
value). Composite than can be through the test are determined, usually desirable 0.3-0.6.
composite ratio m N i / N

Mcomposite ratio of composite column constructed in different period.

NComposite column axis pressure design value.
Niaxis compression design value act on the CFST before the outer RC casted
If Composite ratio is too large, the requirements of the composite bearing capacity cannot be
satisfied; If too small, the characteristics of composite column cannot be given full play.


Table 5 beam-column joints types of CFST and composite column


Steel beam-column connection

CFST column
1 outer strengthen rings (smaller
column diameter)
2. inner strengthen rings (larger
column diameter)
Transfer shear: 1 ring bracket

2. Bearing pin

RC beam-column connection

bending moment:

1. Well type double beam

2. ring beam 3. wear muscle
4. various width beam

composite column
1. only one steel beam, see
figure 5
2. all the steel beams, see
figure 6
1. Steel pipe breakthrough type
2. Steel plate fin transformation
3. Steel pipe reinforced
transformation (Construction in the
same period)

Note: the shear transfer and moment transfer forms are introduced respectively in the CFST
structure, and Suitable forms combination is need in practice.
7.1 CFST structure
7.1.1 Steel beam-column connection

Figure 1 outer strengthen rings

inner strengthen rings

7.1.2 Steel beam-column connection transfer shear

Figure 2 ring bracket

Bearing pin

7.1.3 Steel beam-column connection transfer bending moment

Figure 3 Well Type Double Beam

Ring Beam

Well type double beam1CFST column2longitudinal reinforcements of double beam

3Additional inclined bars
Ring beam1CFST column2the ring bars of ring beam3longitudinal reinforcements of
frame beam4stirrups of ring beam

Figure 4 wear muscle single-girder

various width beam

7.2 composite column

7.2.1 Steel beam-column connection

Figure 5 only one steel beam

Figure 6 all the steel beams

7.2.2 RC beam-column connection

Figure 7 Steel pipe breakthrough type

Figure 8 Steel plate fin transformation

Figure 9 Steel pipe reinforced transformation