246 views

Uploaded by Yasser Alghrafy

Prestressed Concrete

- 268798
- Pre Stressed Concrete Solved Problems
- Prestressed Concrete Example Problem
- Solution Manual Prestressed Concrete Nawy
- Jl 07 November December 11
- Simple Curve Route Surveying
- Simple Curve Samples
- LRFD_3_5_2
- Beams
- EC2 Paragraph 6.2.2
- Abutment Design to BD 30 and en 1997
- PT Incremental Launching Method
- types of pile
- Prestress Losses
- Structural Concrete 2015 01
- 6_Construction Stage Analysis for ILM
- 20. Analysis and Design of Continuous Prestressed Concrete Bridge Based on Construction Sequence
- Specification for Industrialised Building System
- BCA - Concrete Carpark Refurbishment
- tc19

You are on page 1of 49

(CE 407)

1

LECTURE #3

By

Alghrafy 2016

Contents

2

Cracking load and cracking moment

Flexural strength analysis

Failure of Prestressed beams

Flexural strength estimation by strain compatibility

Unbonded tendons

Code provisions for bonded tendons

Further reading

Alghrafy 2016

3

To estimate flexural strength of prestressed

concrete beams.

2016

Alghrafy 2016

Cracking Load

4

The relation between applied load and steel stress in a typical wellbonded pretensioned beam is shown in a qualitative way.

Performance of a grouted post-tensioned beam is similar.

and the strand is stretched between

abutment, the steel stress is fpj. Upon

transfer of force to the concrete

member, there is an immediate

reduction of stress to the initial stress

level fpi, due to elastic shortening of

the concrete. At the same time, the

self weight of the member is caused to

act as the beam cambers upward. It

will be assumed here that all timedependent losses occur prior to

superimposed loading, so that the

stress is further reduced to the

effective prestress level fpe.

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

2016

Alghrafy 2016

Cracking moment

5

The moment causing cracking may easily be found for a typical beam by

writing the equation for the concrete stress at the bottom face, based on the

homogeneous section, and setting it equal to the modulus of rupture:

ct

cb

Concrete

centroid

1

2

fr

f2

Pe ec2 M cr

fr

1 2

Ac

r Sb

Pe

Pe M cr

Pe ec2

1 2

Ac

r

Alghrafy 2016

Contd.

6

P ec M

f b e 1 2b cr f r

Ac

r Zb

M cr

P ec

f r e 1 2b

S2

Ac

r

P Z ec

M cr f r Z b e r b 1 2b

Ac

r

to self - weight and superimposed dead and partial live loads)

f r mod ulus of rupture.

Since Z b I c / cb Ac r / cb

2

r2

M cr f r Z b Pe e

cb

Zb

M cr f r Z b Aps f pe e

Ac

Fcr

M D M d Fcr M l M cr

M cr M D M d

Ml

Alghrafy 2016

Problem-1

30

10

factor of safety against cracking for the

5

simply supported I-beam shown in cross

section and elevation. The beam has to carry

15

a uniformly distributed service

Concrete centroid

superimposed load totaling 8 kN/m over the

13.2

15

12 m span, in addition to its own weight.

Steel centroid

Normal concrete having density of 24

5

kN/m3 will be used. The beam will be

pretensioned using multiple seven-wire

10

strands; eccentricity is constant and equal

Dimensions in cm

to 13.2 cm. The prestressing force

wd wl 8 kN/m

immediately after transfer (after elastic

shortening loss) is 750 kN. Time

e 13.2 dependent lasses due to shrinkage, creep,

and relaxation total 15% of the initial

P prestressing force. Find the concrete flexural

stresses at mid span and support sections

under initial and final conditions.

The modulus of rupture of the concrete is

12 m

2.4 MPa.

10

P

P

Alghrafy 2016

Solution

8

section properties based on the gross and transformed section is usually

small. Accordingly, all calculations will be based on properties of the

gross concrete section. Average flange thickness will be used.

30

10

Area Propeties :

10

12.5

5

17.5

15

60

17.5

13.2

15

1

12

Concrete centroid 1

3

5

4

9

4

10 35 I c 4.69 10 cm 4.69 10 mm

12

Steel centroid

5

12.5

10

Dimensions in cm

I c 4.69 109

Zb Zt

15.6 106 mm3

ct

30 10

r2

I c 4.69 109

42.6 103 mm 2

3

Ac 110 10

Alghrafy 2016

Contd.

Pe 0.85 Pi 0.85 750 637.5 kN

3

r2

6

3 42.6 10

M cr f r Z b Pe e 2.4 15.6 10 637.5 10

132

300

cb

w0l 2 2.64 12 2

MD

47.52 kN.m

8

8

wl 8 kN/m (assumed that the entire supeimposed load is due to live load)

wl l 2 8 12 2

Ml

144 kN.m

8

8

The safety factor against cracking, expressed with respect to an increase in the live load is

Fcr

M cr M D M d M cr M D 0 212.1 47.52 0

1.14

Ml

Ml

144

Alghrafy 2016

10

Alghrafy 2016

11

yield plateau. Yielding develops gradually

and , in the inelastic range, the stress-strain

curve continues to rise smoothly until the

tensile strength is reached.

for prestressing steels of wire and strand

type, the yield stress is defined as the stress

at which a total extension of 1% is attained.

For alloy bars, the yield stress is taken as

equal to the stress producing an extension

of 0.7%.

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

prestress force Pe after all losses.

fpy, , py = yield stress and yield strain

fpu, pu=ultimate tensile strength and ultimate strain

of the steel

fps, ps = stress and strain in the steel when the beam

fails.

Alghrafy 2016

12

of the tensile steel.

The associated large tensile strains permit widening of flexural

cracks and upward migration of the neutral axis.

The increased concrete stresses acting on the reduced

compressive area result in a secondary compression failure of

the concrete, even though the failure is initiated by yielding.

The stress in steel at failure will be between points A and B.

The large steel strains produce visible cracking and considerable

deflection of the member before the failure load is reached. This

is an important safety consideration.

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Alghrafy 2016

13

limit of the concrete is reached (0.003 according to ACI and

SBC), at a load when the steel is still below its yield stress,

between points O and A.

This type of failure is accompanied by a downward movement

of the neutral axis, because the concrete is stressed into its

nonlinear range although the steel response is still linear. This

type of failure occurs suddenly with little warning.

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Alghrafy 2016

14

Alghrafy 2016

15

For statically determinate members with a flange of width b in tension, ACI specifies that

bw in the equation giving As,min shall be replaced by b or 2bw whichever is smaller. When

the flange is in compression, bw is sued.

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Alghrafy 2016

By Strain-Compatibility

16

ASSUMPTIONS

calculated on the assumption that plane sections

remain plane.

Concrete carries no tensile stress, i.e. the tensile

strength of the concrete is ignored.

The stress in the compressive concrete and in the steel

reinforcement are obtained from actual or idealized

stress-strain relationships for the respective materials.

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Alghrafy 2016

Notations

17

Alghrafy 2016

Notations

18

Alghrafy 2016

Notations

19

Sections at Increasing Levels of Reinforcement

Sections are tension-controlled when the net tensile strain in the extreme tension

steel is equal to or greater than 0.005 just as the concrete in compression reaches

its assumed strain limit of 0.003

Sections are compression-controlled when the net tensile strain in the extreme

tensile steel is equal to or less than the 0.002 at the time the concrete in

compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.003

Alghrafy 2016

20

cu

A'

a

dp

0.85 f c'

'

c

1c

a/2

C

Neutral

Axis

ps

Section

Strain

f ps

Actual stresses

f ps

Idealized stresses

(ACI 318 )

Alghrafy 2016

cu

A'

a

dp

0.85 f c'

'

c

1c

a/2

Neutral

Axis

f ps

ps

f ps

Idealized stresses

(ACI 318 )

In the above figure, an under-reinforced section at the ultimate moment is

shown. The section has a single layer of bonded prestressing steel. At the

ultimate moment, the extreme fiber compressive strain cu is taken in ACI

318 to be cu 0.003 The depth of the ACI318' s rectangular stress block is c

Section

Strain

Actual stresses

and the uniform stress intensity is 0.85 f . The parameter 1 depends on the

'

c

1 0.85 - 0.008 ( f c' 28) 0.65 for 56MPa f c' 28 MPa

0.65 1 0.85

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

21

Alghrafy 2016

cu

A'

a

dp

0.85 f c'

'

c

a/2

1c

Neutral

Axis

Ap

f ps

ps

Section

Strain

f ps

Actual stresses

Idealized stresses

C stress hatched area 0.85 f c' b( 1c)

C 0.85 f c'b1c

T f ps Ap

the hatched area A.

2

In ACI 318, 0.9 for member is tension controlled . ps

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

22

0.005

Alghrafy 2016

cu

A'

a

dp

0.85 f c'

'

c

a/2

1c

Neutral

Axis

Ap

Section

f ps

ps

Strain

Actual stresses

f ps

Idealized stresses

2

Assuming sectional and material properties are given, above equation contain

three unknowns, a, f ps and Mn

23

Alghrafy 2016

increased to failure

24

application of effective prestress force

Pe, acting alone, after all losses.

At intermediate load stage (2)

decompression of the concrete takes

place. Due to bond the increase in steel

strain is the same as the decrease in

concrete strain at that level in the

beam.

When the member is overloaded to the

failure stage (3), the neutral axis is at a

distance c below the top of the beam.

Alghrafy 2016

condition

25

The strain in the prestressing tendon at the ultimate load condition may be

obtained from

ps

where

ps Tensile strain in the prestressing steel at ultimate

f pe

Ep

Pe / Ap

Ep

2 The strain in the concrete at the prestressing steel level when externally applied

moment is zero (the increase in steel strain as the concrete at its level is decompressed)

Pe Pe e 2

Ic

Ac

3 The concrete strain at the prestressing steel level at ultimate load condition

1

Ec

dp c

cu

c

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

condition (Contd.)

26

ps 1 2 3

Note - 1 : In general, the magnitude of 2 in above equation is very much less than either 1 or 3 ,

and may usually be ignored without introducing serious errors.

ps 1 3

Note - 2 : ps can be determined in terms of the position of the neutral axis at failure c and the

extreme compressive strain cu . If ps is known, the stress in the prestressing

steel at ultimate f ps can be determined from the stres - strain diagram for the prestressing

steel. With the area of prestressing steel known, the tensile force at ultimate can be calculated.

Note - 3 : In general, however, the steel stress is not known at failure and it is

necessary to equate the tensile force in the steel tendon (plus the tensile force in any

non - prestressed tensile steel) with the concrete compressive force (plus the compressive

force in any non - prestressed compressive steel) in order to locate the neutral axis depth,

and hence find ps .

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Alghrafy 2016

Alghrafy 2016

with bonded tendons

27

1.

equating the tensile force in the steel to the compressive force in the concrete,

the stress in the tendon may be determined:

0.85 f c'b1c

T Ap f ps C 0.85 f b1c f ps

Ap

Plot the point ps and fps on the graph containing the stress-strain curve for the

prestressing steel. If the point falls on the curve, the value of c selected in step 1

is the correct one. If the point is not on the curve, then the stress-strain

relationship for the prestressing steel is not satisfied and the value of c is not

correct.

If the point ps and fps obtained in step 2 is not sufficiently close to the stressstrain curve for the steel, repeat steps 1 and 2 with a new estimate of . A larger

value of c is required if the point plotted in step 2 is below the stress-strain curve

and a smaller value is required if the point is above the curve.

'

c

2.

3.

Alghrafy 2016

Contd..

28

4.

5.

Interpolate between the plots from steps 2 and 3 to obtain a close estimate

for ps and fps and the corresponding value for c.

With the correct values of fps and c, determined in step 4, calculate the

ultimate nominal moment Mn and find the design strength.

M n Ap f ps d p

2

where a 1c

t=ps

Design strength M n

Alghrafy 2016

0.85 f c'b1c

f ps

Ap

If f ps is more than actual c is also more than actual.

Trial c

(mm)

ps

fps

(MPa)

Point

plotted

230

0.0120

1918

210

0.0128

1751

220

0.0124

1835

to the stress-strain curve

for the tendon and therefore

the correct value for c is

close to 220 mm.

29

Alghrafy 2016

Problem-2

30

Calculate the ultimate flexural strength Mn of the rectangular section shown below. The steel tendon

consists of ten 12.7 mm diameter strands (Ap = 1000 mm2) with an effective prestress Pe = 1200 kN. The

stress-strain relationship for prestressing steel is also given below and the elastic modulus is Ep = 195

103 MPa. The concrete properties are fc = 35 MPa and Ec= 29800 MPa.

650

750

(a) Section

CE 575: Dr. N. A. Siddiqui

Stress (MPa)

350

Ap

fpu=1910 MPa

200

fpy=1780 MPa

0

1500

100

0

500

0

0.005

0.01 0.015

Strain

0.02

Alghrafy 2016

Solution

31

modulus

Ep =on

195

103 MPa;

fc = 35

MPa

Ec= 29800

TheElastic

parameter

1 depends

theconcrete

strength

and

mayand

be taken

as

1 MPa.

0.85 - 0.008 ( f c' 28) 0.65 for f c' 28 MPa

1 0.80

0.85 f c'

cu 0.003

350

1c

a/2

C

650

750

Ap

(a) Section

(b) Strain

due to Pe

3

(c) Strain at

ultimate

f ps

block at ultimate

Alghrafy 2016

Solution (contd.)

Tensile strain in the prestressing steel at ultimate : ps 1 2 3

The initail strain in the tendons due to the effective prestressis given by

Pe

1200 103

1

0.00615

E p Ap 195 103 1000

2 The strain in the concrete at the prestressing steel level when externally

applied moment is zero (the increase in steel strain as the concrete at its

level is decompressed)

3

3

2

1 Pe Pe e

1 1200 10 1200 10 275

0.00040

Ec Ac

I c 29800 750 350 1

3

350 750

12

3 The concrete strain at the prestressing steel level at ultimate load condition

2

d c

650 c

0.003

cu p

c

c

650 c

ps 1 2 3 0.00655 0.003

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

32

Alghrafy 2016

Solution (contd.)

33

650 c

ps 0.00655 0.003

C 0.85 f c'b1c 0.85 35 350 0.801 c 8340c

The resultant tensile force T is given by

T f ps Ap 1000 f ps

Horizontal equilibriu m requires that C T and hence

f ps 8.34c

and f ps are plotted on the stress - strain curve for the steel as shown.

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Alghrafy 2016

2000

fpy=1780 MPa

fpu=1910 MPa

1 3

2

Stress (MPa)

1500

1000

500

0

0.005

0.01 0.015

0.02

Strain

Trial c

(mm)

ps

f ps

Point

plotted

230

0.0120

1918

210

0.0128

1751

220

0.0124

1835

34

Point 3 lies

sufficiently close to

the stress-strain

curve for the tendon

and therefore the

correct value for c is

close to 220 mm

(0.34 c)

Alghrafy 2016

dp c

650 220

cu

t

0.003 0.00586 0.005

220

c

The member is tension controlled and 0.9

1c

0.801 220

6

M n 1835 1000 650

10 1035 kN.m

2

35

Alghrafy 2016

tendons

36

cu

b

d

'

Asc

dp

0.85 f c'

'

c

fy

sc

Cs

1c

Cc

Neutral

Axis

ds

Ap

lc l s

f ps

ps

Ast

Section

st

Strain

fy

Actual stresses

From T p Ts Cc C s we have : Cc T p Ts C s

0.85 f c'b1c f ps Ap f y ( Ast Asc ) c

f ps

f ps

Tp

Ts

Idealized stresses

(ACI318)

Ap f ps Ast f y Asc f y

0.85 f c'b1

M n Cs ls Cc lc Tp d s d p

Ap

Alghrafy 2016

Unbonded Tendons

37

When the prestressing steel is not bonded to the concrete, the stress in the

tendon at ultimate, fps, is significantly less than that predicted for bonded

tendons.

Accurate determination of the ultimate flexural strength is more difficult than

for a section containing bonded tendons. This is because final strain in the

tendon is more difficult to determine accurately.

The ultimate strength of a section containing unbonded tendons may be as low

as 75% of the strength of an equivalent section containing bonded tendons.

Hence, from a strength point of view, bonded construction is to be preferred.

Alghrafy 2016

38

Alghrafy 2016

bonded tendons

39

Method 1

1) p

Aps f ps

bd p f c'

0 .3

Rectangle, I or T section with x in fling

c

M n Aps f ps d p 1

A

f

d

hf

ps

ps

p

bdf c'

2

Apsf 0.85 f c' b bw

Aps

f

ps

hf

2

2

hf

Aps

Apsw Aps Apsf

f ps

Aps f p Ast Asc

f ps f pu 1 0.5

'

bdf

c

2) p

Aps f ps

bd p f c'

0.3

M n 0.25 f c'bd p2

Alghrafy 2016

bonded tendons

40

f ps

k k

f pu 1 1 2

1

k2

k1 0.4

k1 0.28

0.85

f py

f pu

f py

f pu

0 .9

0.9

b d p f c'

Rectangle, I or T section with x in fling

c

Aps f ps d p

M n Aps f ps d p 1

hf

'

bdf c

2

Apsf 0.85 f c' b bw

Aps

f

ps

hf

2

2

hf

Aps

Apsw Aps Apsf

f ps

Alghrafy 2016

bonded tendons

Method 3 (2002 ACI Code)

41

= 0.40 for 0.85 [stress relieved]

= 0.55 for 0.80 [bar]

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Alghrafy 2016

bonded tendons

Method 3 (2002 ACI Code)

42

Rectangle, I or T section with x in fling

c

M n Aps f ps d p 1

A

f

d

hf

ps

ps

p

'

'

bdf

2

0

.

85

f

b

b

Aps

psf

c

w

c

f

ps

h

f

M n Apsw f ps d p 0.85 f c' b bw h f d I or T section with x out the fling

2

2

hf

Aps

Apsw Aps Apsf

f ps

Alghrafy 2016

unbonded tendons

Method 1 (2002 ACI Code)

1) p

Aps f ps

bd p f c'

43

0 .3

Rectangle, I or T section with x in fling

c

Aps f ps d p

M n Aps f ps d p 1

hf

'

bdf c

2

Apsf 0.85 f c' b bw

Aps

f

ps

hf

2

2

hf

Aps

Apsw Aps Apsf

f ps

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Alghrafy 2016

unbonded tendons

Method 1 (2002 ACI Code)

2) p

Aps f ps

bd p f c'

44

0.3

M n 0.25 f c'bd p2

f ps f pe 105

Aps f pu Ast Asc

Rectangle, I or T section with x in fling

c

Aps f ps d p

M n Aps f ps d p 1

hf

'

bdf c

2

Apsf 0.85 f c' b bw

Aps

f

ps

hf

2

2

hf

Aps

Apsw Aps Apsf

f ps

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Alghrafy 2016

Problem-3

45

Calculate the ultimate flexural strength Mn of the rectangular section shown below. The beam is a simply

supported post-tensioned beam which spans 12 m and contains single unbonded cable. The steel tendon

consists of ten 12.7 mm diameter strands (Ap = 1000 mm2) with an effective prestress Pe = 1200 kN. The

stress-strain relationship for prestressing steel is also given below and the elastic modulus is Ep = 195

103 MPa. The concrete properties are fc = 35 MPa and Ec= 29800 MPa.

350

650

750

Ap

Section

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Alghrafy 2016

Solution

46

Elastic modulus Ep = 195 103 MPa; fc = 35 MPa and Ec= 29800

MPa.

The stress in the tendon caused by the effective prestressing force Pe :

f pe

Pe

1200 MPa

Ap

With the span - to - depth ratio equal to 16, the stress in the unbonded tendon at ultimate

f ps f pe 69

f c' bd p

6.9 KAp

f ps 1200 69

35 350 650

1280 MPa

6.9 100 1000

Alghrafy 2016

Contd.

47

Ap f ps Ast f y Asc f y

0.85 f c'b1

1000 1280 0 0

154 mm

0.85 35 350 0.801

2

0.801153

6

M n 1280 1000 650

10 754 kN.m

2

Alghrafy 2016

Further Reading

48

beams from:

Design of Prestressed Concrete by A. H. Nilson, John Wiley and

Sons, Second Edition, Singapore.

Design of Prestressed Concrete by R. I. Gilbert and N. C.

Mickleborough, First Edition, 2004, Routledge.

Alghrafy 2016

Thank You

49

Alghrafy 2016

- 268798Uploaded byBesian Sinani
- Pre Stressed Concrete Solved ProblemsUploaded byJefferson T. Ignacio
- Prestressed Concrete Example ProblemUploaded byXiaoman Tu
- Solution Manual Prestressed Concrete NawyUploaded byadeolaodukoya
- Jl 07 November December 11Uploaded byprecastengineering
- Simple Curve Route SurveyingUploaded byDarrell Carl Rizo Jose
- Simple Curve SamplesUploaded byNicko Mendoza
- LRFD_3_5_2Uploaded byConcepción de Puentes
- BeamsUploaded bywarden1921
- EC2 Paragraph 6.2.2Uploaded bylollazzo
- Abutment Design to BD 30 and en 1997Uploaded byPremanand Shenoy
- PT Incremental Launching MethodUploaded byja_opet
- types of pileUploaded byLokesh Dungrakoti
- Prestress LossesUploaded byshinji_navi
- Structural Concrete 2015 01Uploaded byAnonymous rDTgqnqE
- 6_Construction Stage Analysis for ILMUploaded bykom1984
- 20. Analysis and Design of Continuous Prestressed Concrete Bridge Based on Construction SequenceUploaded byThaiAnhBo
- Specification for Industrialised Building SystemUploaded byNorazmiMohdNor
- BCA - Concrete Carpark RefurbishmentUploaded byhemendraeng
- tc19Uploaded byefackopa
- Design of Bridge Component by Vikas DhawanUploaded bydriverx47
- Structural Strenghtening ContractorsUploaded bysiberianman
- Fire Hazard in Bridge_Review, Assessment and Repair StrategiesUploaded byHersil Sh
- Secciones CompuestasUploaded byJuanxo Benavides Martinez
- BS5400 Pt7-1978Uploaded bysuranga
- Azizi Assigment 2Uploaded byEng-Ṁǿôdǿô Al-Buhaisi
- In Situ Stair DesignUploaded bysaman2580
- Lecture 16Uploaded byAlwin Victor Williams
- Structural TermsUploaded byElena Javier
- Microsoft-Word-NIST-White-Paper-on-Concrete_DRAFT_25-03-14-Copy.pdfUploaded bySun Rui

- d Ormond 2009Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Article 420Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Wrat Ney 2010Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Park 2016Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Porter 1990Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- kurek2012Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Song 2012Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- A novel whispered speaker identification system based on extreme learning machineUploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- pushpalatha2017Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Nakamura 2012Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- fahmy2015Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Crawford 2017Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Misery 2007Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- tyrer2015Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- ergn2007Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Bhatti 2014Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Berger 1991Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Eid 2014Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- bral2016Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- g Alimova 2014Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Wang 2016Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Okazaki 2017Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Inaba 2016Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Meyer 2009Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Xia 2012Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Han Well 2010Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- vahidirad2017Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Rob Riquet 2006Uploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Nanoclay for Binder Modification of Asphalt MixturesUploaded byYasser Alghrafy

- MySQL Replication - Enhancing Scalability and Availability with MySQL 5.5Uploaded byAlexey Ivanov
- 1-s2.0-S0966979512003755-main.pdfUploaded byBuluc Gheorghe
- 172068468-Database-Uk.xlsUploaded byEvgeny Yuzishin
- Darcy's lawUploaded byDiego Gómez Páez
- Guide for PCB Milling on the LPKF S62Uploaded byCarter Fang
- PHYS2014_exam1_02122009Uploaded byjjwillie
- Seismic Response of Single-column Bent on Pile Evidence of Beneficial Role of Pile and Soil InelasticityUploaded bySofía Córdoba Sáenz
- MoCAUploaded byGreici Macuglia
- SIL-TRODE (ERCuSi-A).pdfUploaded byborovniski
- Fires Cr 096 11 Aupe2 Roof 50 PirUploaded byZoltan Szoke
- Martin1999_Fm Guanaco SonsoUploaded byalosoriogo
- Warranty Claim Management in SAP _ SCNUploaded bynikku115
- Advanced Algebra IIUploaded byMarcus Ellis
- Hsrt NotesUploaded byगौ रव कृष्ण
- 627Uploaded byRayzuli Campos
- SIMEAS_P_Brosur_en_Uploaded byStelios Georghiou
- Geo Tour to Malekhu ReportUploaded byAyanil
- 040200102 - Vehicle DynamicsUploaded bydeval desai
- Do... While Loop NotesUploaded byFarah Izzati Fee
- Contents of the MIB and SIBs.docxUploaded byketombemu
- ITDB02_Graph16Uploaded bydavid2014ooo
- AMD Radeon™ HD 6570 4x Mini DP Edition - HD-657X-2LF4.pdfUploaded byMatheus Cauã Pjl
- Circular Water Tank (Rigid Joint)Uploaded byLachu M. Sharma
- Homework 13 Fa11Uploaded byДушан Секулић
- Final_GünsuMerinAbbasUploaded byGünsu Merin Abbas
- 1.5 Perimeter area vol.docUploaded byAzisah Jusoh
- Review of LiteratureUploaded byMohanMahi
- Python Programming (Pyscripter)Uploaded bySrdjan Prokic
- 纯液压技术 英文版讲义.pdfUploaded byWeeLun Tan
- Computer Technology 7th & 8th AllUploaded byMohammad Mizanur Rahman Nayan