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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

(CE 407)
1

LECTURE #3

Flexural Analysis of Prestressed Beams-II


By

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

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Contents
2

Objectives of the present lecture


Cracking load and cracking moment
Flexural strength analysis
Failure of Prestressed beams
Flexural strength estimation by strain compatibility
Unbonded tendons

Approximate equations for unbonded tendons


Code provisions for bonded tendons
Further reading

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Objectives of the Present lecture


3

To calculate cracking moment at a given section of

a prestressed concrete beam.


To estimate flexural strength of prestressed
concrete beams.

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2016
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Cracking Load
4
The relation between applied load and steel stress in a typical wellbonded pretensioned beam is shown in a qualitative way.
Performance of a grouted post-tensioned beam is similar.

When the jacking force is first applied


and the strand is stretched between
abutment, the steel stress is fpj. Upon
transfer of force to the concrete
member, there is an immediate
reduction of stress to the initial stress
level fpi, due to elastic shortening of
the concrete. At the same time, the
self weight of the member is caused to
act as the beam cambers upward. It
will be assumed here that all timedependent losses occur prior to
superimposed loading, so that the
stress is further reduced to the
effective prestress level fpe.
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Cracking moment
5

The moment causing cracking may easily be found for a typical beam by
writing the equation for the concrete stress at the bottom face, based on the
homogeneous section, and setting it equal to the modulus of rupture:

ct

cb

Concrete
centroid

1
2

fr

f2

Pe ec2 M cr
fr
1 2
Ac
r Sb

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Pe
Pe M cr

Pe ec2
1 2
Ac
r

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Contd.
6

P ec M
f b e 1 2b cr f r
Ac
r Zb

M cr
P ec
f r e 1 2b
S2
Ac
r
P Z ec
M cr f r Z b e r b 1 2b
Ac
r

M cr total moment at cracking (including moment due


to self - weight and superimposed dead and partial live loads)
f r mod ulus of rupture.

Since Z b I c / cb Ac r / cb
2

Factor of safety against cracking

It is defined as a live load factor which may be

r2

M cr f r Z b Pe e
cb

less than, equal to, or larger than unity. Then

Zb

M cr f r Z b Aps f pe e
Ac

Fcr

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

M D M d Fcr M l M cr
M cr M D M d
Ml
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Problem-1

30
10

Calculate the cracking moment and find the


factor of safety against cracking for the
5
simply supported I-beam shown in cross
section and elevation. The beam has to carry
15
a uniformly distributed service
Concrete centroid
superimposed load totaling 8 kN/m over the
13.2
15
12 m span, in addition to its own weight.
Steel centroid
Normal concrete having density of 24
5
kN/m3 will be used. The beam will be
pretensioned using multiple seven-wire
10
strands; eccentricity is constant and equal
Dimensions in cm
to 13.2 cm. The prestressing force
wd wl 8 kN/m
immediately after transfer (after elastic
shortening loss) is 750 kN. Time
e 13.2 dependent lasses due to shrinkage, creep,
and relaxation total 15% of the initial
P prestressing force. Find the concrete flexural
stresses at mid span and support sections
under initial and final conditions.
The modulus of rupture of the concrete is
12 m
2.4 MPa.
10

P
P

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Solution
8

For pretensioned beams using stranded cables, the difference between


section properties based on the gross and transformed section is usually
small. Accordingly, all calculations will be based on properties of the
gross concrete section. Average flange thickness will be used.
30
10

Area Propeties :
10

12.5

5
17.5

15

60
17.5

13.2

15

Ac 2 (30 12.5) 35 10 1100 cm 2 110 103 mm 2


1

I c 2 30 12.53 30 12.5 (17.5 12.5 / 2) 2


12

Concrete centroid 1

3
5
4
9
4
10 35 I c 4.69 10 cm 4.69 10 mm
12

Steel centroid

5
12.5

10
Dimensions in cm

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

I c 4.69 109
Zb Zt
15.6 106 mm3
ct
30 10
r2

I c 4.69 109

42.6 103 mm 2
3
Ac 110 10

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Contd.
Pe 0.85 Pi 0.85 750 637.5 kN

3
r2

6
3 42.6 10
M cr f r Z b Pe e 2.4 15.6 10 637.5 10
132
300

cb

M cr 37.44 106 174.68 106 212.1106 N.mm 212.1 kN.m

w0 self weight Ac 24 kN/m 3 110 103 10-6 24 2.64 kN/m


w0l 2 2.64 12 2
MD

47.52 kN.m
8
8
wl 8 kN/m (assumed that the entire supeimposed load is due to live load)
wl l 2 8 12 2
Ml

144 kN.m
8
8

The safety factor against cracking, expressed with respect to an increase in the live load is
Fcr

M cr M D M d M cr M D 0 212.1 47.52 0

1.14
Ml
Ml
144

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Flexural Strength Analysis..

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Stress-strain curve for Prestressing steel


11

Prestressing steels do not show a definite


yield plateau. Yielding develops gradually
and , in the inelastic range, the stress-strain
curve continues to rise smoothly until the
tensile strength is reached.

In the absence of a well-defined yield stress


for prestressing steels of wire and strand
type, the yield stress is defined as the stress
at which a total extension of 1% is attained.
For alloy bars, the yield stress is taken as
equal to the stress producing an extension
of 0.7%.
CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

fpe, pe = stress and strain in the steel due to effective


prestress force Pe after all losses.
fpy, , py = yield stress and yield strain
fpu, pu=ultimate tensile strength and ultimate strain
of the steel
fps, ps = stress and strain in the steel when the beam
fails.

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Failure of Prestressed Beams


12

For under-reinforced beams, failure is initiated by yielding


of the tensile steel.
The associated large tensile strains permit widening of flexural
cracks and upward migration of the neutral axis.
The increased concrete stresses acting on the reduced
compressive area result in a secondary compression failure of
the concrete, even though the failure is initiated by yielding.
The stress in steel at failure will be between points A and B.
The large steel strains produce visible cracking and considerable
deflection of the member before the failure load is reached. This
is an important safety consideration.
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Failure of Prestressed Beams (contd.)


13

Over-reinforced beams fail when the compressive strain


limit of the concrete is reached (0.003 according to ACI and
SBC), at a load when the steel is still below its yield stress,
between points O and A.
This type of failure is accompanied by a downward movement
of the neutral axis, because the concrete is stressed into its
nonlinear range although the steel response is still linear. This
type of failure occurs suddenly with little warning.
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computation of nominal moment resistance, Mn


14

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Minimum reinforcement for flexural members


15

Minimum reinforcement for flexural members

For statically determinate members with a flange of width b in tension, ACI specifies that
bw in the equation giving As,min shall be replaced by b or 2bw whichever is smaller. When
the flange is in compression, bw is sued.
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Flexural Strength Estimation


By Strain-Compatibility
16

ASSUMPTIONS

The variation of strain on the cross-section is linear i.e.

strains in the concrete and the bonded steel are


calculated on the assumption that plane sections
remain plane.
Concrete carries no tensile stress, i.e. the tensile
strength of the concrete is ignored.
The stress in the compressive concrete and in the steel
reinforcement are obtained from actual or idealized
stress-strain relationships for the respective materials.
CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

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Notations
17

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Notations
18

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Notations
19

ACI Code Provisions for Tension-Controlled, Transition, and Compression-Controlled


Sections at Increasing Levels of Reinforcement
Sections are tension-controlled when the net tensile strain in the extreme tension
steel is equal to or greater than 0.005 just as the concrete in compression reaches
its assumed strain limit of 0.003
Sections are compression-controlled when the net tensile strain in the extreme
tensile steel is equal to or less than the 0.002 at the time the concrete in
compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.003

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Idealized Stress Diagram


20

cu

A'
a

dp

0.85 f c'

'
c

1c

a/2
C

Neutral
Axis

ps
Section

Strain

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

f ps
Actual stresses

f ps

Idealized stresses
(ACI 318 )

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cu

A'
a

dp

0.85 f c'

'
c

1c

a/2

Neutral
Axis

f ps

ps

f ps

Idealized stresses
(ACI 318 )
In the above figure, an under-reinforced section at the ultimate moment is
shown. The section has a single layer of bonded prestressing steel. At the
ultimate moment, the extreme fiber compressive strain cu is taken in ACI
318 to be cu 0.003 The depth of the ACI318' s rectangular stress block is c
Section

Strain

Actual stresses

and the uniform stress intensity is 0.85 f . The parameter 1 depends on the
'
c

concrete strength and may be taken as

1 0.85 for f c' 28 MPa....1 0.65 for f c' 56 MPa


1 0.85 - 0.008 ( f c' 28) 0.65 for 56MPa f c' 28 MPa
0.65 1 0.85
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cu

A'
a

dp

0.85 f c'

'
c

a/2

1c

Neutral
Axis

Ap

f ps

ps

Section

Strain

f ps

Actual stresses

Idealized stresses

Resultant compressive force C Volume of the rectangular stress block


C stress hatched area 0.85 f c' b( 1c)
C 0.85 f c'b1c

T f ps Ap

C will act at the centroid of


the hatched area A.

where f ps stress in the bonded tendons.

The nominal flexural strength : M n Tl Ap f ps d p


2

And the design moment : M M n ; Capacity reduction factor


In ACI 318, 0.9 for member is tension controlled . ps
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22

0.005
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cu

A'
a

dp

0.85 f c'

'
c

a/2

1c

Neutral
Axis

Ap

Section

f ps

ps
Strain

Actual stresses

f ps

Idealized stresses

The nominal flexural strength : M n Tl Ap f ps d p


2

Assuming sectional and material properties are given, above equation contain
three unknowns, a, f ps and Mn

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Strains and stresses as beam load is


increased to failure
24

Strain distribution (1) results from


application of effective prestress force
Pe, acting alone, after all losses.
At intermediate load stage (2)
decompression of the concrete takes
place. Due to bond the increase in steel
strain is the same as the decrease in
concrete strain at that level in the
beam.
When the member is overloaded to the
failure stage (3), the neutral axis is at a
distance c below the top of the beam.

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Strain in the prestressing tendon at the ultimate load


condition
25

The strain in the prestressing tendon at the ultimate load condition may be
obtained from
ps

where
ps Tensile strain in the prestressing steel at ultimate

1 Strain in the prestressing steel pe

f pe
Ep

Pe / Ap
Ep

2 The strain in the concrete at the prestressing steel level when externally applied
moment is zero (the increase in steel strain as the concrete at its level is decompressed)
Pe Pe e 2

Ic
Ac
3 The concrete strain at the prestressing steel level at ultimate load condition
1

Ec

dp c

cu
c
CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Strain in the prestressing tendon at the ultimate load


condition (Contd.)
26

ps 1 2 3
Note - 1 : In general, the magnitude of 2 in above equation is very much less than either 1 or 3 ,
and may usually be ignored without introducing serious errors.

ps 1 3
Note - 2 : ps can be determined in terms of the position of the neutral axis at failure c and the
extreme compressive strain cu . If ps is known, the stress in the prestressing
steel at ultimate f ps can be determined from the stres - strain diagram for the prestressing
steel. With the area of prestressing steel known, the tensile force at ultimate can be calculated.

Note - 3 : In general, however, the steel stress is not known at failure and it is
necessary to equate the tensile force in the steel tendon (plus the tensile force in any
non - prestressed tensile steel) with the concrete compressive force (plus the compressive
force in any non - prestressed compressive steel) in order to locate the neutral axis depth,
and hence find ps .
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Determination of Mn for a singly reinforced section


with bonded tendons
27
1.

Select an appropriate trial value of c and determine ps (= 1 + 2 + 3). By


equating the tensile force in the steel to the compressive force in the concrete,
the stress in the tendon may be determined:

0.85 f c'b1c
T Ap f ps C 0.85 f b1c f ps
Ap
Plot the point ps and fps on the graph containing the stress-strain curve for the
prestressing steel. If the point falls on the curve, the value of c selected in step 1
is the correct one. If the point is not on the curve, then the stress-strain
relationship for the prestressing steel is not satisfied and the value of c is not
correct.
If the point ps and fps obtained in step 2 is not sufficiently close to the stressstrain curve for the steel, repeat steps 1 and 2 with a new estimate of . A larger
value of c is required if the point plotted in step 2 is below the stress-strain curve
and a smaller value is required if the point is above the curve.
'
c

2.

3.

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Contd..
28
4.
5.

Interpolate between the plots from steps 2 and 3 to obtain a close estimate
for ps and fps and the corresponding value for c.
With the correct values of fps and c, determined in step 4, calculate the
ultimate nominal moment Mn and find the design strength.

M n Ap f ps d p
2

where a 1c

t=ps

Design strength M n

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0.85 f c'b1c
f ps
Ap
If f ps is more than actual c is also more than actual.

Trial c
(mm)

ps

fps
(MPa)

Point
plotted

230

0.0120

1918

210

0.0128

1751

220

0.0124

1835

Reduce c in the next trial.

Point 3 lies sufficiently close


to the stress-strain curve
for the tendon and therefore
the correct value for c is
close to 220 mm.

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Problem-2
30
Calculate the ultimate flexural strength Mn of the rectangular section shown below. The steel tendon
consists of ten 12.7 mm diameter strands (Ap = 1000 mm2) with an effective prestress Pe = 1200 kN. The
stress-strain relationship for prestressing steel is also given below and the elastic modulus is Ep = 195
103 MPa. The concrete properties are fc = 35 MPa and Ec= 29800 MPa.

650
750

(a) Section
CE 575: Dr. N. A. Siddiqui

Stress (MPa)

350

Ap

fpu=1910 MPa

200
fpy=1780 MPa
0
1500
100
0

500
0

0.005

0.01 0.015
Strain

0.02
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Solution
31

Given: Ap = 1000 mm2 ;Effective prestress Pe = 1200 kN;


modulus
Ep =on
195
103 MPa;
fc = 35
MPa
Ec= 29800
TheElastic
parameter
1 depends
theconcrete
strength
and
mayand
be taken
as
1 MPa.
0.85 - 0.008 ( f c' 28) 0.65 for f c' 28 MPa

1 0.80

0.85 f c'

cu 0.003

350

1c

a/2
C

650
750

Ap
(a) Section

(b) Strain
due to Pe

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

3
(c) Strain at
ultimate

f ps

(d) Concrete stress


block at ultimate
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Solution (contd.)
Tensile strain in the prestressing steel at ultimate : ps 1 2 3
The initail strain in the tendons due to the effective prestressis given by
Pe
1200 103
1

0.00615
E p Ap 195 103 1000

2 The strain in the concrete at the prestressing steel level when externally
applied moment is zero (the increase in steel strain as the concrete at its
level is decompressed)

3
3
2
1 Pe Pe e
1 1200 10 1200 10 275

0.00040

Ec Ac
I c 29800 750 350 1

3
350 750

12

3 The concrete strain at the prestressing steel level at ultimate load condition
2

d c
650 c
0.003
cu p

c
c

Tensile strain in the prestressing steel at ultimate :

650 c

ps 1 2 3 0.00655 0.003
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32

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Solution (contd.)
33

650 c
ps 0.00655 0.003

The magnitude of resultant compressive force C :


C 0.85 f c'b1c 0.85 35 350 0.801 c 8340c
The resultant tensile force T is given by
T f ps Ap 1000 f ps
Horizontal equilibriu m requires that C T and hence
f ps 8.34c

Trial values of c can now be selected and the corresponding values of ps


and f ps are plotted on the stress - strain curve for the steel as shown.
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2000

fpy=1780 MPa

fpu=1910 MPa

1 3
2

Stress (MPa)

1500
1000

500
0

0.005

0.01 0.015

0.02

Strain
Trial c
(mm)

ps

f ps

Point
plotted

230

0.0120

1918

210

0.0128

1751

220

0.0124

1835

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

34

Point 3 lies
sufficiently close to
the stress-strain
curve for the tendon
and therefore the
correct value for c is
close to 220 mm
(0.34 c)

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dp c
650 220
cu
t
0.003 0.00586 0.005
220
c
The member is tension controlled and 0.9
1c

The ultimate moment : M n f ps Ap d p

0.801 220

6
M n 1835 1000 650
10 1035 kN.m
2

The design moment : M n 0.9 1035 931.5 kN.m

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Sections containing non-prestressed reinforcement and bonded


tendons
36

cu

b
d

'

Asc

dp

0.85 f c'

'
c

fy

sc

Cs

1c

Cc

Neutral
Axis

ds
Ap

lc l s

f ps

ps

Ast
Section

st

Strain

fy
Actual stresses

From T p Ts Cc C s we have : Cc T p Ts C s
0.85 f c'b1c f ps Ap f y ( Ast Asc ) c
f ps

0.85 f c'b1c f y ( Ast Asc )

f ps

Tp

Ts
Idealized stresses
(ACI318)

Ap f ps Ast f y Asc f y
0.85 f c'b1

M n Cs ls Cc lc Tp d s d p

Ap

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Unbonded Tendons
37

When the prestressing steel is not bonded to the concrete, the stress in the

tendon at ultimate, fps, is significantly less than that predicted for bonded
tendons.
Accurate determination of the ultimate flexural strength is more difficult than
for a section containing bonded tendons. This is because final strain in the
tendon is more difficult to determine accurately.
The ultimate strength of a section containing unbonded tendons may be as low
as 75% of the strength of an equivalent section containing bonded tendons.
Hence, from a strength point of view, bonded construction is to be preferred.

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38

Flexural Strength Analysis Approximate Methods

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Approximate code-oriented procedures


bonded tendons
39

Method 1
1) p

Aps f ps
bd p f c'

0 .3

Aps f p Ast Asc


Rectangle, I or T section with x in fling
c

M n Aps f ps d p 1

A
f
d

hf
ps
ps
p

bdf c'
2
Apsf 0.85 f c' b bw
Aps

f
ps
hf

M n Apsw f ps d p 0.85 f c' b bw h f d I or T section with x out the fling


2
2

hf

Apsf 0.85 f c' b bw


Aps
Apsw Aps Apsf
f ps
Aps f p Ast Asc

f ps f pu 1 0.5
'
bdf
c

2) p

Aps f ps
bd p f c'

0.3

M n 0.25 f c'bd p2

Rectangle, I or T section with x in fling

M n 0.25 f c'bw d p2 0.85 f c' (b bw )h f (d 0.5h f )

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I or T section with x out the fling

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Approximate code-oriented procedures


bonded tendons
40

Method 2 (AASHTO LRFD 2003)


f ps

k k
f pu 1 1 2
1

k2

Aps f pu Ast Asc

k1 0.4
k1 0.28

0.85

f py
f pu

f py
f pu

0 .9

0.9

b d p f c'

Aps f pu Ast Asc


Rectangle, I or T section with x in fling
c
Aps f ps d p
M n Aps f ps d p 1
hf
'
bdf c
2
Apsf 0.85 f c' b bw
Aps

f
ps
hf

M n Apsw f ps d p 0.85 f c' b bw h f d I or T section with x out the fling


2
2

hf

Apsf 0.85 f c' b bw


Aps
Apsw Aps Apsf
f ps

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Approximate code-oriented procedures


bonded tendons
Method 3 (2002 ACI Code)

41

= 0.28 for 0.9 [low relaxation]


= 0.40 for 0.85 [stress relieved]
= 0.55 for 0.80 [bar]
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Approximate code-oriented procedures


bonded tendons
Method 3 (2002 ACI Code)

42

Aps f p Ast Asc


Rectangle, I or T section with x in fling
c

M n Aps f ps d p 1

A
f
d

hf
ps
ps
p
'

'
bdf
2

0
.
85
f
b

b
Aps

psf
c
w
c

f
ps
h

f
M n Apsw f ps d p 0.85 f c' b bw h f d I or T section with x out the fling
2
2

hf

Apsf 0.85 f c' b bw


Aps
Apsw Aps Apsf
f ps

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Approximate code-oriented procedures


unbonded tendons
Method 1 (2002 ACI Code)
1) p

Aps f ps
bd p f c'

43

0 .3

Aps f pu Ast Asc


Rectangle, I or T section with x in fling
c
Aps f ps d p
M n Aps f ps d p 1
hf
'
bdf c
2
Apsf 0.85 f c' b bw
Aps

f
ps
hf

M n Apsw f ps d p 0.85 f c' b bw h f d I or T section with x out the fling


2
2

hf

Apsf 0.85 f c' b bw


Aps
Apsw Aps Apsf
f ps
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Approximate code-oriented procedures


unbonded tendons
Method 1 (2002 ACI Code)
2) p

Aps f ps
bd p f c'

44

0.3

M n 0.25 f c'bd p2

Rectangle, I or T section with x in fling

M n 0.25 f c'bw d p2 0.85 f c' (b bw )h f (d 0.5h f )

I or T section with x out the fling

Method 2 (AASHTO LRFD 2003)

f ps f pe 105
Aps f pu Ast Asc
Rectangle, I or T section with x in fling
c
Aps f ps d p
M n Aps f ps d p 1
hf
'
bdf c
2
Apsf 0.85 f c' b bw
Aps

f
ps
hf

M n Apsw f ps d p 0.85 f c' b bw h f d I or T section with x out the fling


2
2

hf

Apsf 0.85 f c' b bw


Aps
Apsw Aps Apsf
f ps
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Problem-3
45
Calculate the ultimate flexural strength Mn of the rectangular section shown below. The beam is a simply
supported post-tensioned beam which spans 12 m and contains single unbonded cable. The steel tendon
consists of ten 12.7 mm diameter strands (Ap = 1000 mm2) with an effective prestress Pe = 1200 kN. The
stress-strain relationship for prestressing steel is also given below and the elastic modulus is Ep = 195
103 MPa. The concrete properties are fc = 35 MPa and Ec= 29800 MPa.

350

650
750

Ap

Section
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Solution
46

Given: Ap = 1000 mm2 ;Effective prestress Pe = 1200 kN;


Elastic modulus Ep = 195 103 MPa; fc = 35 MPa and Ec= 29800
MPa.

1 0.85 - 0.008 ( f c' 28) 0.65 for f c' 28 MPa


The stress in the tendon caused by the effective prestressing force Pe :
f pe

Pe
1200 MPa
Ap

With the span - to - depth ratio equal to 16, the stress in the unbonded tendon at ultimate
f ps f pe 69

f c' bd p
6.9 KAp

f ps 1200 69

35 350 650
1280 MPa
6.9 100 1000

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Alghrafy 2016

Contd.
47

Ap f ps Ast f y Asc f y
0.85 f c'b1

1000 1280 0 0
154 mm
0.85 35 350 0.801

The ultimate moment : M n Tl f ps Ap d p 1


2

0.801153

6
M n 1280 1000 650
10 754 kN.m
2

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Alghrafy 2016

Further Reading
48

Read more about the ultimate flexural strength of prestressed concrete


beams from:
Design of Prestressed Concrete by A. H. Nilson, John Wiley and
Sons, Second Edition, Singapore.
Design of Prestressed Concrete by R. I. Gilbert and N. C.
Mickleborough, First Edition, 2004, Routledge.

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Alghrafy 2016

Thank You
49

CE 407-Prestressed Concerte Structures

Alghrafy 2016