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My research question: Benefits of Foreign Language Education in Primary School

Source 1

Main Idea 1

- Instruction in a
foreign language
Increase in academic
achievement/competency reinforces English
language content of
in target language as
well as other subjects;
the general
benefits higher
order/abstract and
(Curtain &
creative thinking
Dahlberg, 2004)
Main Idea 2
Narrows achievement
gaps within minorities
and other disadvantaged

Main Idea 3
Promotes cultural
awareness and
Main Idea 4
Improves chances of
college acceptance and
later higher achievement;
also enhances later
career opportunities
(both directly and

Source 2

Source 3

Source 4

- Third graders were

taught Spanish for 30
min. 3x/week
significant gains in
language and math
test scores
(Armstrong P.W. &
J.D. Rogers, 1997)

- Third graders who

participated in ESFL Model
programs were assessed for
their level of competency
in their instructed foreign
Japanese). Most students
scored relatively high,
suggesting that they were
making sufficient progress
towards fluency.
(Boyson, B., 1997)

- People competent in
more than one language
consistently outscore
monolinguals on tests of
verbal and nonverbal
(Bruck, Lambert &
Tucker,1974; Hakuta,
1986; Weatherford,

- Language
learners show
greater cognitive
flexibility, higherorder thinking
skills, and better
problem solving
(Hakuta, 1986)

- Mastering the
vocabulary of a
second language
enhances students
comprehension and
abilities in reading,
writing, mathematics,
and other subjects
(Saville-Troike, 1984)

- Implementing a
FLES program helps
to level the playing
field for ESL and
other at-risk students
(Hart A. & J. Harris,

- Cincinnatis For. Lang.

Magnet Program is 57%
Afr-Am. with 52% of the
entire pop. receiving
free/reduced lunches.
Achievement exceeds avg.
in reading and math.
(Andrade, Kretschemer, &
Kretschemer, 1989)

- High positive correlation

between study of a foreign
language and improved
reading scores of children
of average to belowaverage intelligence
(Garfinkel & Tabor, 1991)

- Working-class
students did just as
well as middle-class
in foreign language,
despite having lesser
English skills
(Holobow, 1988)

- Students of
foreign languages
may have better
(Cerreira &
Armengol, 2001)

- U.S. government has

expressed the need for
speakers of less
common languages such
as Mandarin/Cantonese
and Arabic
(U.S. General
Accounting Office,

- Foreign language
study less dependent
on previous verbal
learning than other
core subjects
(Curtain & Dahlberg,
- Age 10 is a crucial
time in the development
of attitudes towards
nations and groups
(Curtain & Dahlberg,

- Americans fluent in other

languages improve global
communication, enhance
economic competitiveness
abroad, and maintain political
and security interests
(Center for Applied Linguistics,

- Foreign language
study provides both
cognitive and sociocultural benefits
(Genesee & Cloud,

- Foreign language
learners more tolerant of
the differences among
(Carpenter & Torney,

- Students that
participated in rigorous
programs in high
school were more
likely to earn better
grades in college and
less likely to drop out
(Horn & Kojaku,

- Studying a foreign
language helps students
understand the mechanics
and grammar of English
even better. Improves
overall communication
and problem-solving
skills, making for a morecompetitive individual
(National Research
Council, 2007)

- In a survey of 581
graduates of an American
Graduate School of
International Management in
Glendale, AZ, a majority of
respondents indicated that
they gained a competitive
advantage through their
knowledge of foreign
languages and cultures
(Grosse, 2004)

- Long-term benefits of
early language learning
include enhanced career
opportunities, more
flexibility in thinking
processes, and
exchanging professional
ideas and information
(Curtain H., & C.A.B.
Pesola, 1994)

Source 5

Source 6

Adapted from NC State University Writing and Speaking Tutorial Service, Writing A Literature Review and
Using a Synthesis Matrix. 2006. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from