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Full Paper

Proc. of Int. Conf. on Recent Trends in Transportation, Environmental and Civil Engineering 2011

Wind Analysis Of Tall Stack Like Structure
Jigar K. Sevalia1 , Dr. Atul K. Desai2
1

Ph. D. Scholar, Applied Mechanics Department, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India. email:jigar_sevalia@yahoo.co.in
2
Head and Associate Professor, Applied Mechanics Department, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat,
India. e-mail : akd@amd.svnit.ac.in
Case –1 The Chimney having conical portion up to 24 m from
bottom and then cylindrical portion for remaining 6
m.

Abstract - It has been undergone a considerable development
of industrial chimney in past few years in terms of structural
system as well as method of analysis. Also the height of
chimney has been increased for the better control of
environment pollution in populated areas. With the increase
in height, the wind forces have become predominant forces
while analyzing and designing such structures. Here in this
paper, an attempt has been made to analyse the industrial
steel chimney for the prevailing wind forces considering
chimney with and without guy ropes.
Index Terms: Chimney, Wind Force, Moment, Shell Stresses,
Dead Load

I. INTRODUCTION

Case – 2 The same chimney as mentioned in Case – 1 but
supported by 3 Numbers 25 mm Ø Guy Cables.

The chimney is a structure for venting hot flue gases or
smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside
atmosphere. Chimneys are typically vertical, or as near as
possible to vertical, to ensure that the gases flow smoothly,
drawing air into the combustion in what is known as the
stack, or chimney, effect. Scientific discoveries have lead to
the establishment of various types of industries. These
industries supply smoke and harmful gases in to the
atmosphere. Due to heavy industrialization and installation
of high capacity power plants together with the growing
consciousness about pollution has led to the construction
of tall chimneys. However, with the increment in height, the
wind actions on it become important as these produce very
high stresses. Although chimneys do not present as a great
hazard to life and limb as buildings with high human capacity,
damage to chimneys may result in shut down of plants and
industries. The chimney may be self supporting or guyed
chimney. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyse
the industrial steel chimney with and without guy ropes for
prevailing wind conditions and forces.

Case – 3 The same chimney as mentioned in Case – 1 but
supported by 6 Numbers 25 mm Ø Guy Cables at
equal angles.

II. ANALYSIS METHOD AND GEOMETRIC
CONFIGURATION
The wind force analysis of steel chimney is carried out
using SAP 2000 v 14.0.0. Five different models have been
developed for the steel chimney using shell elements to study
effects of seismic forces acting on it. The height of the chimney
is assumed to be 30 m. The diameter at the base is considered
1.3 m and at top is 0.36 m. The five different models of chimney
are as under;

© 2011 ACEE
DOI: 02.TECE.2011.01. 506

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Topography Factor k3 = 1. Environmental and Civil Engineering 2011 IV.0 and results aretabulated as under where S11 and S22 are thedirect stresses acting along axis 1 and 2 respectively and M11 and M22 are the direct moments acting about axis 2 and 1 respectively.506 59 .0. Figure 1 Sign Convention for Shell Stresses (S11) & (S22) Considering above mentioned cases of chimney and seismic forces. Terrain Category = 2 Class of the Structure = B © 2011 ACEE DOI: 02. the structural analysis of chimney was carried out using softwareSAP2000 v 14.5 kN/m3 Wind Load Basic Wind Speed = 44 m/sec Figure 2 Sign Convention for Shell Forces (M11) & (M22) Risk Coefficient k1 = 1. LOADS CONSIDERED Dead Load : Self Weight of Chimney considering density of steel material – 78.0 III.0.TECE. of Int. on Recent Trends in Transportation.0 Considering abovementioned cases of chimney and wind forces.2011.07 V.01. SIGN CONVENTION Case – 4 The Chimney having Conical Bottom up to bottom 10 m height and then cylindrical portion for remaining 20 height.Full Paper Proc. Conf. the dynamic analysis of chimney was carried out using software SAP 2000 v 14. Case – 5 The Chimney having Conical Bottom up to bottom 10 m height and cylindrical portion for remaining 20 height with stiffener plates at junction of conical bottom & cylindrical top.

2 From above mentioned table 2. Case – 2.TECE. Graph 3 and Graph 4. 506 60 . From above mentioned table 1 and Graph 2. Case -4 & Case – 5 is developing minimum shell stresses S22. it can be seen that out of the five cases of chimney. Case – 2 & Case – 3 is developing minimum shell moments i. of Int. it can be seen that out of the five cases of chimney.2011.Full Paper Proc. Chimney Case – 3 is developing maximum stresses due to more number of guy ropes as wind forces acting on guy ropes are adding wind forces on chimney. it can be seen that out of the five cases of chimney.2 Graph 4 Direct Moment (M22) along Axis . Conf.1 Graph 2 Direct Stress (S11) along Axis .1 From above mentioned table 1 and graph 1.e. M11 & M22 under action of Dead Load combined with wind load. Case – 2.01. Case -4 & Case – 5 is developing minimum shell stresses S11. © 2011 ACEE DOI: 02. Graph 3 Direct Moment (M11) along Axis . Environmental and Civil Engineering 2011 TABLE 1 SHELL ELEMENT STRESSES TABLE 2 SHELL ELEMENT MOMENTS Graph 1 Direct Stress (S11) along Axis . on Recent Trends in Transportation.

3. 2.506 61 .TECE. Punmia. Bureau of Indian standards.e. Bureau of Indian standards. “Design of Steel Structures”. Also it is found that Case – 4 & Case – 5 are more vulnerable to lateral deflection due to wind load and exceeding the permissible limits prescribed by IS 6533 (Part-2): 1989. IS: 6533(Part-1) -1987. In chimney case – 4 and chimney case – 5. IS: 875(Part-5) -1987.. it can be seen from the table 3 and Graph 5 that Chimney Case – 2 & Chimney Case – 3 deflect less under the Chimney combined action of dead load and wind load. A. 4.2011. 9. Ashok Kumar Jain and Arun Kumar Jain. on Recent Trends in Transportation. Due to increase flexibility in Case 4 & Case 5 of Chimney. Though Chimney with 3 guy cables shows more deflection than the chimney with 6 guy cables. Ltd. “Code of Practice for design loads for buildings & structures – Live Load”. Wheeler & Co. “Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Steel Chimney –Structural Aspect”. Although. IS: 875(Part-3) -1987. 150 mm. H. 5. Subramanian N. the stresses in the walls of chimney are found very less compared to the chimney with 6 guy cables as the more number of guy cables are producing more wind forces on the structure of chimney and hence more stresses.. “Design of Steel Structures”. Conf. the deflection at the top of the chimney is beyond permissible limit i. “Code of Practice for design loads for buildings & structures – Dead Load”. 2008. 10. Bureau of Indian standards. “Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Steel Chimney –Mechanical Aspect”. Adage Printers (P) Ltd. New Delhi. © 2011 ACEE DOI: 02. Bureau of Indian standards. 6. IS: 6533(Part-2) -1987. (h/200) = 150 mm. B. New Delhi..Full Paper Proc. Environmental and Civil Engineering 2011 The Chimney with 6 Guy Cables as compared to Chimney without Guy Cables reduces the deflection at the Top considerably about by 78 %. Graph 5 Deflections at Top of Chimney Considering the deflection at the top of the chimney. IS: 875(Part-2) -1987. Bureau of Indian standards. IS: 875(Part-1) -1987. 8. Dayaratnam P. Bureau of Indian standards. New Delhi. of Int.01. the deflection at the top of the Chimney in first three cases is within permissible limit i. “Code of Practice for design loads for buildings & structures – Special Loads & Load Combinations”. New Delhi.. CONCLUSION From the above mentioned results one can conclude that chimney with three guy ropes is performing well during the action of wind compared to chimney with six numbers of guy ropes as well as self supporting chimney. C. New Delhi. “Design of Steel Structures”. New Delhi. 199. TABLE 3 DEFLECTION AT TOP OF CHIMNEY (MM) REFERENCES 1. Bureau of Indian standards. IS: IS: 800-2007 “Code for practice for general construction in steel” Second revision. New Delhi.e. The Chimney with 3 Guy Cables as compared to Chimney without Guy Cables reduces the deflection at the Top considerably about by 71 %. 7. “Code of Practice for design loads for buildings & structures – Wind Load”.. the cross sectional shape of the chimney in Case -4 & Case 5 is deforming largely at the top. Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd. 2008.