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Rules by QUDURI (MUHAMMAD SALEEM DADA)

Al-Hamdu Lillah - we have TAUFIQ to study the esteemed FIQH-Book QUDURI


I, MUHAMMAD SALEEM DADA, read it by learned teachers & it attracted me
By Allah's blessing, I give it here as its studied usually, in English within lines
QUDURI is highly esteemed Text-Book of HF (HANAFI-FIQH); it's brief & simple
With brevity, it has comprehensiveness; it tells HF-rules but without reasoning
QUDURI was written by AHMED-IBNE-MUHAMMAD AL-BAGHDADI AL-QUDURI
He was born in 362 by HIJRAH & provided the needed rulings of practical issues
QUDURI is studied & taught extensively in the MADRASSAH for HANAFI-FIQH
IMAM Al-QUDURI was highly respected; he was counted among FAQIH of time
He lead a clean Islamic life & died in 428 by HIJRAH; let's study it with attention
Here, the abbreviations commonly used are not elucidated being readily known
Where readers find "Previous" or related terms, it refers to previous line to that
Articles (a, an, the) are omitted where needed & where meaning is not affected
If ruling refers to the Man; the sense asks to see if it applies also to the woman
Recognition of Muslims for an act as acceptable & not challenging Islam is 'URF
A.H. refers to ABU-HANIFA - A.Y. to ABU-YOUSUF - I.M. to IMAM-MUHAMMAD
SHAIKHAIN are A.H. & A.Y. together; SAHEBAIN applies to A.Y. & I.M. together
IMAM ZUFAR is by name in the text; at few places the best ruling is mentioned
I have used "seems" (& statements in italic) for my comments keeping to Islam
HF is HANAFI-FIQH; W.I.E. "with immediate effect"; C.N. "criminal negligence"
HARAAM means "strictly prohibited"; many specific words are clarified at site
QUDURI gives an idea to Psyche & History too; HF is practiced law for centuries
It still affects lives of millions who take its view in practice of Islamic Commands
Readers would find rulings to slaves omitted unless needed to see other issues
If readers keep the text of QUDURI in view in language they know, it'd be useful
But even without that, they would find this explanation here useful insha-Allah
If readers study without text, it's good as only 20 lines daily to learn its rulings
I, MSD, take start of this work from section of BUYU' (business transactions)
Detail for TAHARA, SALAT, SIYAM, ZAKAT, HAJJ is presented at the last of this
May ALLAH forgive my unintentional mistakes committed in this explanation
May Allah give Muslims TAUFIQ to bring all matters to Islam; Al-Hamdu Lillah

BISM-ALLAH ------ BAYE' (SAHIH - BAATIL - FASID - MAUQUF)


BAYE' (Transaction) is 4 ways, SAHIH (right), BAATIL (wrongful), FASID & MAUQUF

SAMAN (price) & MABI' (commodity) both must be well-specified in BAYE'-SAHIH


SAMAN is mentioned price agreed b/w the seller (BAAYE') & the buyer (MUSHTARI)
Notable is that BAYE' is business-transaction & BAAYE' is the seller not buyer here
Transaction occurs by presentation of MABI' or by presentation of SAMAN to other
Presentation may be initiated from any & is named IJAB; answer in favor is QUBUL
These must be in terms of Past or Present but not in future-terms or as command
Today, general transactions are TA'ATI; commodities obvious, their prices obvious
In TA'ATI, IJAB (presentation) & QUBUL (acceptance) is understood at retail stores
TAMLIKAAT (Possessions) are 4; one by BAYE' (Transaction); second by HIBA (Gift)
Third by IJARAH (Rent) & Fourth by AARIAT (taken for use); last 2 aren't ownership
Transaction may be cancelled by Buyer if he asks it within 3 days (KHIYAR-e-SHART)
Transaction may be cancelled by Buyer on view if not seen at deal (KHIYAR-e-RUYA)
Transaction may be cancelled by Buyer by flaw not detected at deal (KHIYAR-e-AIB)
KHIYAR-e-SHART is as defined at deal; RUYA & AIB occur at all of business dealings
Indication to SAMAN or MABI' is enough to specify them in ongoing transaction
MABI' maybe transportable or not; in former, the use before its TAMLIK is invalid
Buyer may not sell the article or give it HIBA or rent it or lent it before its TAMLIK
In SAMAN, getting benefits before TAMLIK is valid except SALAM (advance paid)
In SALAM, TASARRUF (willful use) at SAMAN is void before giving MABI's custody
If MABI' is lost, deal is FASKH (cancel); if SAMAN is lost, it's intact (has alternate)
Change of MAJLIS (sitting) or situation cancels presentation (IJAB) if not availed
If payment-period isn't specified in credit deal, it is FASID (void) yet 'URF values
Promise for TAMLIK of specified MABI' is void if not on credit; it must be on spot
If situation most probably leads to quarrel then by Ruling, deal would be FASID
SAMAN would refer to the commonly used currency at given time & given place
In pulses & kind, sale by weight & by measure of specific vessel on cash is valid
Previous about the vessel is invalid if that's specific & the deal is made at credit
If at Cash, article is cheaper than Credit, it's deal is still valid by mutual assent
Commodities are in 3 kinds that are MAZRUAAT, MAUZUNAAT & MADUDAAT
MAZRUAAT are measured by units & it includes MAKILAAT (by specific vessel)
MAUZUNAAT are weighted in deals while MADUDAAT are the counted items
If both MABI & SAMAN are most clear even by indication, transaction is valid
If seller points at wheats pile saying I sell it to you for amount in your hand
If buyer accepts the offer, transaction is fine; its valid for all types mentioned

This issue is referred-to in text by words "WALAWAZUL-MUSHARU-ELAYHA"


Notable here is that SAMAN is for ASL (actual item), not for its WASF (quality)
Difference is that if flaw occurs by dividing it in parts, its more or less is WASF
ASL is the physical item (& its quantity); WASF means quality (& its quantity)
With lack in WASF, it doesnt give valid grounds to return it by KHIYAR-e-AIB
In deals, Weight & Measure relate to ASL & Count in things relates to WASF
Notable is that all units of weighted & measured items are generally identical
So its well to sell them in bulk specifying the same price for each specific unit
But in things not identical, its invalid to specify the same price for each unit
This happens mostly in the counted things like goats or designed handicrafts
If in previous MABI is specified bulk & SAMAN too specified, the deal is valid
MABI & SAMAN must be as mentioned as to validate the deal needing count
In Arabic, BA comes to SAMAN as referred in deals; ALA for condition therein
In Arabic, MIN shows the buyer; unclear MABI' not received disallows BAYE'
Whatever is taken in URF as within purchase of article, it's included at its sale
In Previous, house purchased includes all rooms; it's named ITTESALE-QARAR
Crops or fruits on the sale of a Land or Garden isn't included in the deal by 'URF
In Previous if seller specifies that crops or fruits are in that, deal includes them
BUDU-SALAHAT means fruit is safe from waste even if its not fully formed yet
To A.H., fruits maybe sold at BUDU-SALAHAT & buyer must pluck them instantly
If the Garden is sold, fruits maybe sold to same buyer as a separate transaction
Fruits' sale to buyer by seller's condition of giving him a specific quantity is void
In Previous, taking fruits from buyer by ratio at its sale is valid as business deal
Sale of Wheat-Grains in cover is fine by HF; locks & keys to house are within sale
If technician is asked to check the MABI', pay is due on the seller before TAMLIK
If technician is asked to check SAMAN, pay is due on the buyer before TAMLIK
SAMAN is 3 things; Gold, Silver & Currency; other are only Commodities to buy
Deal is Commodity to SAMAN; Commodity to Commodity; SAMAN to SAMAN
In 1st, ownership of buyer to AIN (Commodity) is prompt as transaction closes
In 2nd, ownership of seller & buyer is prompt to their respective commodities
In 3rd, ownership to SAMAN of both is prompt; both do get it simultaneously
KHIYAR-e-SHART stops initiation in deal for 3 days without use (affects IBTIDA)
KHIYAR-e-RUYA (decision at its view) stops finality of the deal (affects TAMAM)
KHIYAR-e-AIB bars benefits if buyer asks FASKH (cancel) by AIB (affects LUZUM)

Ruling in transaction is to get custody of articles W.I.E. & pay SAMAN prompt
KHIYAR-e-SHART told by HF is due to fact that FASKH may occur in transaction
MABI is at seller's ownership if he imposes condition; buyer pays MP on loss
SAMAN is Agreed Value b/w seller & buyer; QEEMAT is Market-Price on loss
ZAMAN (charges) is BENAFSEHI (that has substitution) or BEGHAIREHI (others)
During KHIYAR-period, assent to the deal by buyer completes it & KHIYAR ends
Assent to KHIYAR without seller's knowledge is valid but its FASKH is not valid
Transaction is fine without MABI's view yet buyer has option to return it at view
KHIYAR-e-RUYA (right of view) ends seeing its good sample even if all is not seen
Seeing the yard concludes deal for house; it was valid when they were identical
Now, it seems RUYA does not end by view of yards as houses are not identical
Blind person may ask RUYA for TAMAM of deal; he studies it by sound faculties
BAYE-FUDHULI is when a man sells a commodity of other, it's fine if he agrees
Buying 2 Cloth-Rolls by ones view validates returning both at the others view
If MALUM (the known) & MAJHUL (unclear) are together, it'd be ruled MAJHUL
Where the deal is to all, selection in countable items is void; take all or leave all
KHIYAR-e-RUYA in countable commodity is valid if much of it wasn't seen at deal
Acceptance of all countable commodity asks either take all or leave all at seeing
KHIYAR-e-AIB occurs if AIB was unknown at purchase & came to knowledge later
In right to AIB even if article is used, return is valid getting all SAMAN in return
Return of article needs consent of seller; if he rejects, needs decision of QADHI
SAMAN isn't in exchange of WASF; it's void to ask return of it in part against AIB
Previous asks that either buyer returns it by all SAMAN or keeps by no discount
Due to change in reason, issue related to that reason changes too by the change
If AIB is at purchase seen late + AIB after it, return is void but by seller's consent
If the seller doesn't agree, loss amount still is to be compensated by MP by him
If buyer has used it & change cant be undone, taking MP in return is only option
Seller isn't allowed to take it back with change (increase) as that's RIBA (Interest)
Claim to MP of eaten food isn't allowed due to usage; SAHABAIN disagree to this
Adultery & Birth by Adultery is told at QUDURI as AIB in Female-Slave, not in Male
Adultery is surely an AIB to all; slavery has become obsolete now; Al-Hamdu Lillah
Birth by Adultery is not AIB to anyone; it asks sympathy to them; Al-Hamdu Lillah
If buyer sells-on an article as 2nd seller, his KHIYAR to return to seller by AIB ends
2nd seller can return it to his seller only if QADHI decides for him to take it back

Previous applies if 2nd seller rejects its return from 2nd buyer due to an AIB in it
If seller asked buyer to see it well freeing himself from AIB, KHIYAR-e-AIB is void
BAYE' (Transaction) is 4 ways, SAHIH (right), BAATIL (wrongful), FASID & MAUQUF
BAYE-SAHIH is fine by ASL (valid commodity) & fine by WASF (no invalid condition)
BAYE-BAATIL is void by ASL if MABI' is some futile thing, HARAAM or NAJAS (filthy)
BAYE-FASID is fine by ASL but not by WASF; here condition falls against occurrence
BAYE-MAUQUF (sale of other's thing) remains stopped as its hung at owner's will
In SAHIH, buyer is owner to commodity immediately at deal even without custody
In BAATIL, buyer doesn't turn owner at all even with the custody as it is wrongful
In BAYE-FASID, buyer gets ownership if seller consents to it; he has no TASARRUF
In BAYE-MAUQUF, buyer doesn't own commodity until actual owner agrees to it
Though FASID gives ownership to buyer by seller's consent; its use remains void
So FASID needs ending; it does ask for return of MABI' at MP but not at SAMAN
Cause to accept his ownership is that if he sells it, ownership is valid to 2nd buyer
MABI' is Intended article & SAMAN object to get it; sale of Rice tells it's Intended
MABI' gets respect as intended; Wine and Swine never are MABI' being HARAAM
If HARAM or NAJAS-AIN (except dung-fertilizer) poses as MABI', the deal is BAATIL
If HARAM or NAJAS-AIN is SAMAN in exchange to a commodity, it is BAYE-FASID
If seller is unable to give possession of MABI' with ease to buyer, it's BAYE-FASID
If some part of sold commodity remains in sellers ownership at deal, it's FASID
If article incurs deficiency by some of its sale as MABI', selling some of it is FASID
In previous, if deal is done by seller handing it to buyer, BAYE changes to SAHIH
Dealings as MUZABINA & MUHAQILA are BAYE-FASID too that we'd study ahead
Dealings in weighable commodities ask equality in weight & being hand to hand
If condition occurs at BAYE' it raises 3 issues; BAYE' is Right & Condition is Right
Or BAYE' is FASID & Condition is FASID; or BAYE' is Right & Condition is FASID
In first, transaction is fine & exchange is valid; buyer becomes owner to MABI'
The condition here is the detail to the WASF of MABI' & its in-fact no condition
In 2nd, condition conflicts to asking of transaction giving undue profits to a side
Example of previous is that seller asks buyer to let him use MABI' for some period
In 3rd, condition conflicts to asking of transaction; it gives no profits to any side
Example to previous is condition asking buyer not to sell it ahead; he's the owner
First mentioned is BAYE' SAHIH, 2nd is FASID & 3rd has no effect so deal is done
MABI' is all of commodity; no part is to be detached as an animal & its pregnancy

TA'AMUL (normal way) not against Islam is valid even it gives undue gain to one
SAMAN maybe postponed by specified time if both are aware of the specific time
If payment-term is unclear & SAMAN is paid or date for it is specified, deal is fine
If return of MABI' is hard at FASID by MP, it's FASKH by return of MABI' & SAMAN
TASARRUF (Use) of MABI' by FASID is void & taking gain by its sale is void to buyer
In previous, its 2nd buyer is the rightful owner to it & may use as he purchases it
Selling an article good as MABI' & other not so in one transaction, is BAYE'-BAATIL
If owned article is sold with one of others separate, former sells, other FUDHULI
BAYE' MAKRUH with flaw in it makes both sinful yet effect of it is just as of SAHIH
In BAYE' MAKRUH flaw lies out of transaction while BAYE' FASID has flaw inside it
Bargain over bargain; buying products wholesale before open market is MAKRUH
BAYE' to outside sellers rushing ahead; NAJASH (cheating at auction) is MAKRUH
BAYE' at JUM'A after ADHAN is told as MAKRUH at QUDURI but seems HARAAM
IQALA is FASKH of concluded deal mutually by unapparent cause & SAMAN taken
IQALA depends on MABI' so end of MABI' stops IQALA yet end of SAMAN doesn't
If seller discloses the gains or the price of commodity, transaction is still SAHIH
Cheating in previous doesn't ask its revision; buyer may return taking his SAMAN
Ruling is given by I.M. that asks in this issue to either keep it or return it in both
Things weighable or measurable with alternatives are MITHLIYAAT & currency too
A.H. & A.Y. disallow sale of movable things before custody & allow in immovable
I.M. invalidates it in both movable & immovable before custody & seems better
Commodity must be weighed/measured in presence (or with consent) of buyer
In SAMAN, buyer may pay more than MP or seller may provide more by free-will
Increment in MABI' is included in MABI'; increment in SAMAN included in SAMAN
If seller allows buyer specific time to pay, he must not ask it before; this is DAYN
Debt refers to the amount that is payable by MITHLIYAAT & it is termed as DAYN
DAYN is paid by its MITHL yet doesnt need specific time necessarily for payment
RIBA - SALAM SARAF
RIBA is HARAM; it's surplus occurring without return, asked in dealing by one side
If seller asks that buyer pays 3rd person an amount without its return, it isnt RIBA
Previous isn't transaction-amount & deal is SAHIH; condition is FASID by 3rd issue
Dealing in things of exchange asks equality & it must be hand-to-hand (prompt)
RIBA occurs on same Weighable/Measurable article (QADR) if not equal & prompt
Previous asks care for Weighable & Measurable item if same is MABI & SAMAN

If articles are weighable/measurable yet different, surplus is valid hand-to-hand


BAYE'-SARAF is when dealers have SAMAN at both sides; its Currency to Currency
In BAYE'-SARAF, custody by respective sides must be prompt same time & place
BAYE'-SALAM is paying due SAMAN for MABI' seller gives later at specified time
Here, SAMAN is RAA'SUL-MAAL, Seller MUSLAM-ELAIHE & Buyer RABBUS-SALAM
In SALAM, detail of MABI' is specified; if WASF can't be specified, SALAM is void
By previous, BAYE'-SALAM in animals is invalid by HF as they differ to each other
MABI' has to be present somewhere safe at SALAM & asks its custody safely too
MABI' by specific vessel (uncommon measure) is invalid but fine in prompt deals
In SALAM, TASARRUF at SAMAN too is disallowed before custody to MABI is given
In SALAM, buyer has to weigh or measure article for himself too when it's available
In BAYE'-TA'ATI, buyer doesn't need such by himself even if weighable/measurable
SALAM asks 7 clarifications; Article, Kind, Quality, Quantity, Period, SAMAN, Place
In it, either MABI' is taken on time or RAA'SUL-MAAL if cancelled as ruled by HF
SALAM is invalid in precious stones or pearls; they differ by WASF so deal is void
Where all 7 things of SALAM mentioned are settled at transaction, it's valid in that
BAYE' of animals that benefits is fine; if doesn't (dead goat is futile), BAYE' is void
BAYE' of Silk-Worm or Honey-Bee is void but with its Silk or its Hive respectively
BAYE' of ZIMMI is same as of Muslims but of Swine & Wine remains b/w them
BAYE'-SARAF is where both sides exchange SAMAN in deal; Currency to Currency
In BAYE'-SARAF, prompt custody by both sides is needed at same time & place
In BAYE'-SARAF, conditions are void even if one of that is lesser in looks & quality
In BAYE'-SARAF, difference in exchange items allows difference in quantity in deal
Rupee-Necklace got by more of its Rs. is valid here as Rs. is to Rs. & more to other
If BAYE' contains 2 aspects; by one its valid & by other invalid, the former is taken
100-Rupee-Necklace got for 120 & 100 of SARAF paid prompt, is valid; 20 is in debt
If some amount is paid with custody of silver, ownership equals his amount only
If someone claims its part in it, buyer may return all to seller or ask claimed sum
In previous, if seller gives claim-value to him, claimant gets a share in that silver
If MABI' claimed is of Gold, both share that too if buyer gets claim-value from seller
If a thing consists of silver more than other material, itd be taken as whole of silver
If previous is not the case, itd be taken as common material with a touch of silver
If exchange is of 20 Items of mixed silver by 10 of same of mixed silver, it's valid
If exchange value of item in deal ends, SAMAN in deal is paid by value at deal (A.Y.)

SAMAN if not actual currency but other, it has to be specified in quality & quantity
Paying FULUS (mixed-silver) by weight to countable silver by mutual consent is fine
Difference in nature (items) even if both are currency, allows difference in quantity
In Rs. 1000, giving 500 for $ 6 & 500 for Rs. 450 makes it void; no way to validity
But in same, payment of Rs. 550 for $ 6 & Rs. 450 for Rs. 450 is valid transaction
RAHAN - HAJR IQRAR
RAHAN is to give an owned item in custody of MURTAHIN for debt taken from him
MUTTASAL is attachment to RAHAN impossible to detach; MUSHA means shared
And MUMAYYAZ means a thing freed from RAHINs rights with nothing MUTTASAL
And MUFARRAGH means which is separated from rights of RAHIN & isn't MUSHA
MUMAYYAZ & MUFARRAGH are valid as RAHAN by RAHIN (its giver) to MURTAHIN
RAHAN contract concludes as MURTAHIN gets RAHANs custody freed & separated
DAYN is debt that ends only by payment by debtor or with the write-off by creditor
RAHAN asks ZAMAN on its loss from MURTAHIN; ZAMAN is lesser of MP & DAYN
If ZAMAN is lesser than loss, balance remaining is payable by RAHIN to MURTAHIN
If ZAMAN is more than loss, balance isnt payable by MURTAHIN as it was AMANAT
Loss in AMANAT (Trusted Amount) doesn't ask ZAMAN (exchange to other's loss)
Loss in Items at AARIAT (temporary use) dont ask ZAMAN; they too are AMANAT
Finance at MUZARIBAT (one's finance, other's service) is AMANAT to serving man
RAHAN maybe given to 3rd person for debt by MURTAHIN by mutual consent of all
If 3rd person loses RAHAN with C.N., MURTAHIN has to pay ZAMAN to it to RAHIN
If RAHAN is same as debt, at its loss same is to be exchanged in weight or measure
If currency by RAHAN is void & he spends knowing late, he'd return same if possible
MURTAHIN may keep RAHAN taken within one deal until he gets all his due amount
If AQD (contract) of RAHAN asks WAKIL, he is not deposed even at RAHINs death
WAKIL may sell RAHAN for MURTAHIN's amount at due time if RAHIN fails to pay
If RAHIN sells RAHAN with amount to go to MURTAHIN, he must release it to buyer
RAHAN if cattle, its offspring & milk is of RAHIN; HF tells it counts as RAHAN too
Loss of its offspring asks no ZAMAN on MURTAHIN as it was RAHAN too for RAHIN
But Pay becomes due at RAHIN to get RAHAN-cattle's offspring if that cattle is lost
As Offspring is for RAHIN, better seems that he has custody by MURTAHIN's trust
By custody of offspring able to live independently with RAHIN, its loss is upon him
Increase in RAHAN is fine for the same DAYN; in DAYN, it's void for same RAHAN
Deal being one, a single article may become RAHAN to 2 for debts given to RAHIN

For previous, at loss of RAHAN, ZAMAN occurs by ratio of debts they gave to him
MURTAHIN doesn't pay value's balance of lost RAHAN; RAHIN pays debt's balance
As DAYAN of one is paid, other takes custody of RAHAN until his dues are fully paid
If seller on credit asks specific item as RAHAN, its provision isn't binding to buyer
For previous, buyer may give any RAHAN or cancel the deal; seller too may cancel it
MURTAHIN can't keep RAHAN to other than near-ones; ZAMAN is payable at C.N.
HAJR or HIJR is "Prohibition"; causes to HAJR are 3; Childhood, Slavery, Lunacy
Transactions beneficial to them are valid even without consent of WALI (Guardian)
Business dealings that have adversity to them are invalid even by consent of WALI
Business dealings that are beneficial or not, depend for validity on WALI's consent
Lunacy has 2 types; lunatic (MAGHLUBUL-AQL); 2nd affected on & off (MAA'TUH)
Deals of MAGHLUBUL-AQL are invalid & of MAA'TUH are valid by WALIs consent
HAJR mostly refers to word's effects; if they cause physical harm, ZAMAN occurs
Slave is liable to effect of words he utters; their effect isn't applicable to his owner
If someone foolish loses money in general, he isn't MAA'TUH & doesnt need WALI
The child retarded even as adult, isnt liable to get his wealth (at 25, must be given)
MEHR-MITHL is MEHR given to women taken into marriage, of her paternal family
MEHR to bride by a foolish man is MEHR-MITHL; excess is inapplicable (SAHEBAIN)
WALI would give ZAKAH of person in his care to him; he'd give it to needy himself
For HAJJ, WALI must give amount to one accompanying him & not directly to him
Adulthood of the Male is INZAL (emission) or age 18; of the Female, menses or 17
Previous told by A.H., SAHEBAIN take 15 years for both if identity is needed by age
Information for adulthood is valid of girl that is near to it (MURAHIQA) for herself
Likewise, information for adulthood is valid of boy that's very near to it for himself
QADHI mustnt forfeit debtor's assets to pay creditors save cash; he may be jailed
Putting him into jail needs scrutiny & must sell his assets to pay them (SAHEBAIN)
Such debtor wouldn't deal assets by credit but by cash at MP only to pay creditors
Debtor is to pay creditors by ratio of the credit on him by amount received by him
If QADHI puts ban on his dealings, he must see to subsistence of his close family
Debtor with assets would be pressurized due to debts or MEHR asked by his wife
In ARSH (punishment) of JANAYAT (damaging anyones limb), he isn't pressurized
Poor of Debtors are given time to provide payment of debts caring for sustenance
IQRAR is information by a person about the right of another person due on him
That who informs is MUQIR; to whom due is MUQAR-LAHU; right is MUQAR-BEHI

MUQAR-BEHI maybe known or not; MUQIR needs 3 condition for word's validity
MUQIR must be free person & adult & sane; IQRAR mostly are words at death-bed
IQRAR isnt void if valueless right is told; he'd be asked again & again for due right
Giving Witnesses is upon claimant (MUDDA'I) & oath is upon defendant (MUNKIR)
If former doesn't provide witnesses, latter takes oath that if avoided, is acceptance
If MUQAR-LAHU asks for more than told by MUQIR, hed become claimant in issue
Words affects ruling, if MUQIR accepts right as highly valuable, it must equal NISAB
If MUQIR tells it as "much", it makes lesser than 'URF about "much" null & void
Other Terms of MUQIR too telling right on him ask same as by 'URF then & there
Terms of MUQIR may indicate a right on him as DAYN or AMANAT by 'URF there
IQRAR allows exception in speech if words of exception are attached to the speech
Presentation of IQRAR by MUQIR needs care to common usage of Language by 'URF
If person says INSHA-ALLAH as attachment to IQRAR then the IQRAR becomes void
If MUQIR accepts a thing with an attachment to it liable to transfer, itd be included
If he says he has to pay cloth in handkerchief, he is to pay cloth & big handkerchief
But if he says he has to pay horse in stable, his IQRAR is to horse only not to stable
If MUQIR accepts divisible thing as 5 clothes by 5, it's 5 clothes & each with 5 parts
If words of MUQIR confuse in getting prepositions, hed be asked detail for them
By assets of deceased, burial-expenses, loans & will to 3rd part (of balance) is paid
His loans that he accepted at death-bed are last in priorities in clearance of loans
As will of near-death person for heir is void, his IQRAR for any of heirs then is void
In Previous, if near-death man makes IQRAR for heir, it's valid if other heirs accept
If he indicates someone as his son, its valid if he looks as such by age & manners
Conditions to previous include that his father is unknown & he accepts his IQRAR
IQRAR of woman about a man as her son is void as it affects her husband directly
If her husband accepts her, its valid or if an old woman conforms his birth to her
IQRAR of near-death person for any as his brother or uncle is unacceptable as rule
If the only heir indicates someone as brother, he too is heir; his NASB isn't proven
IJARAH - SHUFA'
Custody occurs by 4 ways; article is received by BAI' (transaction) or by HIBA (Gift)
Or it's got by AQD (contract) of IJARAH (Rent); or it's got as AARIAT (just for use)
The former 2 provide ownership too to the custodian; the latter 2 don't provide it
MUUJIR gives a thing on rent & MUSTAJIR takes it; wages too is form of IJARAH
Like rent, it also tells MANAFE' (benefits) by wages to AJEER (employee) by AAJIR

Whatever can be SAMAN in BAYE', it is valid as UJRAH in IJARAH (Rent or Service)


Benefits by MUSTAJIR & Returns to MUUJIR must be very clear in the transaction
For animal (or vehicle) on wages (to specific place & load), wages must be specific
Indication to the animal (or vehicle) & to load is enough for ruling of specification
Renting house without detail to its usage is fine as houses are to dwell generally
Renting Shop needs care it isn't used affecting it adversely but by owner's consent
Renting agricultural land must mention crops & mustn't affect anyone adversely
Renting anything needs specification of period but MUUJIR may allow extension
Renting needs him to see that his work isn't long-term so MUUJIR gets it on time
Addition to rented land by MUSTAJIR allows MUUJIR to pay for it or ask removal
If it doesn't affect land by removal, its to MUSTAJIR to sell it or remove taking it
Rented place is AMANAT to MUSTAJIR; he's liable to loss only if due to his C.N.
IJARAH is FASID if deal has condition that MUSTAJIR would pay damages to place
C.N. includes that MUSTAJIR permits use of rented place to any if deal negates it
If permitted person inflicts damage to rented place, MUSTAJIR must pay damages
If AQD allows use of place for others, MUSTAJIR isn't liable to its damage by them
If 2 mount on an animal when disallowed afflicting it, ZAMAN is half to its value
If it dies on way with load or weight disallowed, MUSTAJIR would pay its full value
As for AJEERS, notable is that service of one is to many & other is specific to AAJIR
Example to former is that colors clothes; to latter is the one employed at a salary
Latter is not liable to ZAMAN at damage; IJARAH is free of such conditions as noted
If cloth given to former is damaged without C.N., he isn't liable too as its AMANAT
If healer draws blood from a person normally & afflicts him by that, he isn't liable
If MUUJIR allows animal/vehicle as carrier, MUSTAJIR pays its deficit (food; petrol)
MUSTAJIR must pay IJARAH at term's end for benefits got by what he had at IJARAH
If deal asks early payment for IJARAH or MUSTAJIR pays it early, he cant ask returns
If benefit is divisible by time, MUUJIR/AJEER may ask UJRAH daily if term unspecific
If UJRAH is based at tasks completion by 'URF (as tailors), UJRAH is liability at end
In BAYE' if buyer opts for selection (even agreed) in MABI' of varied rates, it's FASID
In IJARAH, raise in wages by design is valid; sewing a design may ask for higher pay
Increase in UJRAH by day is valid (SAHEBAIN); 2-days-work asks more if given now
To A.H., tailor must give it on time; given early, it needs MITHL if lesser than asked
MITHL is amount normally given for the work by 'URF; SAHEBAIN seem better here
To ZUFAR, deal with such condition is void outright & MUSTAJIR must be specific

AQD to AJEERE-KHAS has time-factor as an issue & other AQD has service as such
If both of factors, time & service, are issues simultaneously, AQD is void to ZUFAR
SAHEBAIN don't take presence of both here as tailor is free in time to provide work
To SAHEBAIN, end of the day ends IJARAH; 2nd is other day & starts other IJARAH
IJARAH asks intangible MANAFE' by time & expire by time; BAYE' asks tangibles
IJARAH occurs due to AQD (contract) as its MANAFE' don't value in financial terms
In previous, receiving amounts & payments occur because of AQD only in IJARAH
If house is rented for a month, 2nd month's rent isnt due if he lives on by force
MUSTAJIR at previous is sinful as he'd see at HASHR yet not liable to UJRAH for it
If rent to ATTAR (Perfumer) is 1 DIRHAM & to Blacksmith it's 2, deal is fine to A.H.
In previous, SAHEBAIN disagree to such AQD as no work presents or extra benefits
If rent-period isnt told, it's a month; if he is undisturbed by owner, AQD continues
Wages are void on providing direct worship-deeds to Allah except teaching of Quran
QUDURI invalidates UJRAH (wages) on IMAMAT; HF now allows it yet it seems void
UJRAH of singing as present now & crying over deceased as was in past is HARAAM
SAHEBAIN rule more UJRAH by work; more design or lesser time asks more UJRAH
UJRAH to governess employed for children is valid; she may have foods & clothing
Employer mustn't stop her to meet husband; he may dismiss her if she conceives
If AAJIR doesn't pay, it's fair for AJEER not to hand it if he has spent his cash on it
If AJEER hasn't spent any of his cash on AAJIR's article, he mustn't keep it with him
If AJEER is asked service by himself, best is he complies but valid to employ others
In difference at work's way b/w AAJIR & AJEER, former is defendant, latter claimant
If AAJIR claims a free service he is the claimant if that service is AJEER's profession
Ruling asks the claimant to provide witnesses & MUNKIR (defendant) takes an oath
Circumstantial evidence is good to remove harm (DAFE'-DHARAR), not to ask rights
If IJARAH is FASID, lesser of UJRAH (b/w known & AAJIR's asking of it) shall be paid
If person rents place & finds issue latent before, he may cancel W.I.E. without pay
If in previous, he has problem to work for which he rented, he has right to cancel
If owner of rented place turns bankrupt, QADHI may ask to pay liabilities by its sale
If AJIR or AJEER dies, IJARAH cancels W.I.E.; death of WAKIL in deal doesn't affect it
It's not right to rent books to read or keep initial pay if deal is FASKH by the payer
Keeping some of the wheat at its conversion to flour as its payment is null & void
Notable is that if work results in product for AJEER, he mustn't pay same in UJRAH
Even UJRAH of loader isn't payable from the load taken to place except before task

At sale of property, SHUFA' is the right as priority to buy it for those living nearby
That also is near-by who has main door at common closed way with the sold place
Claim to SHUFA' is for 3; KHALIT (Partner), SHARIK (the previous), JAAR (Neighbor)
If person sells place having KHALIT uninformed, he has SHUFA' first; its rare now
SHUFA' is for JAAR too but SHAFA'I differ on JAAR as he doesn't admit his SHUFA'
There are 3 things to SHUFA'; One is MUWASIBAT (Claiming at sale's information)
Second is TAQRIR (providing 2 witnesses to buyer of property to fortify the claim)
Third is AKHDH (to claim it at court of QADHI within a month of TAQRIR to buy it)
As of now, its proper for seller to present the property to all 3 having SHUFA' first
In small places, there isn't SHUFA' by SHAFA'I yet HF validates SHUFA' in them too
HF takes SHUFA' as to avoid harm by persons near-by & SHAFA'I averting division
SHUFA is to Land; sale of building (not Land) or of trees (not garden), doesn't ask it
There isn't any difference in asking the right of SHUFA' b/w Muslims and DHIMMI
SHUFAs Claim is at BAYE' (to any other than SHAFI); not if gift, MEHR or at KHULA'
At court-case of SHUFA', the boundary of the property & reason to claim is asked
With boundary located & claimant's reason valid, the case proceeds-on in court
if claimant can't prove, buyer would swear ignorance to claimant's place nearby
With its boundary specified & validity of claim secured, deal for place is verified
With place specified, claim secured & detail of AQD proper, QADHI accepts claim
At positive verdict; claimant to SHUFA must give SAMAN of place to buyer W.I.E.
QADHI doesn't pronounce verdict if any party is absentee; all must be present at it
Claimant even after deal, may cancel by KHIYAR-e-AIB or RUYA as happens in deals
Issues denoting refrain from the property cancel SHUFA's right; other issues don't
In previous, right to SHUFA' ends if rightful takes money to relax it; he'd return it
If SHAFI (rightful) dies, SHUFA's right ends; buyer's death doesn't end that right
If one buys a place through agent who is at its neighborhood, he too gets SHUFA'
If the agent works to sell it again, he loses SHUFA' as this denotes his refrain to it
If deal b/w seller & buyer is FASID asking FASKH, SHUFA's right doesnt occur here
If deal was b/w ZIMMI & wine was SAMAN, HF allows ZIMMI-SHAFI to buy it by it
HF allows Muslim SHAFI to buy in Currency if deal was such b/w ZIMMI & ZIMMI
Wine as SAMAN seems void at Islamic Place as it is HARAAM even if b/w ZIMMI
If SHAFI & buyer differ on propertys price, SHAFI is claimant & buyer MUNKIR
If seller & buyer differ to sale-amount & seller is yet to get it, seller's word is valid
If seller has received it, he has no concern; if he differs, buyer's word is acceptable

SHAFI pays same as paid by buyer to seller; SHAFI even avails discount to buyer
If excess than MP is paid at deal b/w buyer & seller, SHAFI wouldn't pay excess
If 3 have ownership ratio 1:2:3 & one sells his part, other 2 get SHUFA' equally
Here, other 2 have to buy the respective shares by equal amounts & get it equally
If SHUFA' is accepted, it needs same SAMAN as paid; if impossible, Cash is paid
If 2 places exchange, each SAMAN each MABI, each shows MP of other in SHUFA'
If SHAFI leaves SHUFA' by wrong news of value paid, he'd regain but only if lesser
SHAFI also regains SHUFA' if wrong news relate to person buying place in focus
If it's sold with significant gap b/w its walls & neighbor's, he gets no SHUFA' to it
QUDURI mentions HEEYAL (engineered stops) to bar SHUFA' that are detestable
If buyer constructs there, SHAFI as he buys it may ask him to lift it all as ruins
In previous, SHAFI also has right to pay for structure as if ruins to let it be intact
If owner to place turns-out else than seller, buyer may claim SAMAN & expense
If place has incurred damage unintentionally, SHAFI must buy it at its given price
If damage is by buyer intentionally, SHAFI may deduct its value from given price
Change to place isnt included at purchase; he may ask buyer to take it or he pays
Fruits plucked from trees is for buyer as SHAFI deducts its value from payment
Fruits at trees come to SHAFI if buyer doesn't pluck them, payment being same
If SHAFI finds AIB in property at view, he may return it to seller & get his money
If buyers are many, all share it all by ownership ratio; stating parts affects SHUFA'
If buyer returns property to seller due to RUYA at inspection, SHUFA's right ends
If deal is FASKH due to AIB b/w seller & buyer by their own, it still asks SHUFA'
If FASKH is by the court's decision, SHUFA's right for the place ends then & there
if IQALA occurs b/w buyer & seller after sale, it still asks SHUFA'; SHAFA'I differs
SHIRKAT - MUDHARABA WIKALAH
Contract in partnership b/w men taking shares in Investments & profits is SHIRKAT
It has 2 types; on the Specific Tangible Assets (dealing only to it) & other than that
Partners must be Muslims, Sane & Adults with ability for transactions b/w them
When its in the specific tangibles, they have no right to assets other than of AQD
Other of AQD (contract) has 4 ways thats MUFAWADHA, INAAN, WUJUH, SANAE'
First (MUFAWADA) is related to finances; deals being equal in that in every way
Financial Equality voids MUFAWADHA b/w free-person & slave (or adult & child)
MUFAWADHA is void b/w Muslim & non-Muslim; they differ in HALAL & HARAM
Save finances of the families, they're partners in monetary deals in MUFAWADHA

In MUFAWADAH, one is WAKIL to other & Guarantor to other in monetary deals


Purchase of something by one on debt is to both; MEHR of one isn't other's debt
Debts with no hindrance to share b/w them are debts to both even if one takes it
ARSH (penalty of cutting anyone's body-part) is not shared; DIYAT isn't shared too
If one gets heredity or gift increasing finances, MUFAWADHA is void by inequality
MUFAWADA relates (not extends) by cash to all their similar assets by deal in that
In previous, both sell half of such asset to other without specifying the half in that
Previous includes the countable items; as each gets half, they ask MUFAWADHA
QUDURI doesn't allow limited MUFAWADHA; equality is full in all monetary assets
Now, MUFAWADHA isn't practicable & except for HF, other FIQH don't accept it
INAAN asks equality in investment by partnership yet not in profits necessarily
INAAN too relates to accepted currency; each WAKIL to other & not Guarantor
INAAN is the partnership-form that's very close to partnership that occurs now
INAAN ends if one loses capital & money isn't yet combined or anything bought
If one buys something in business, other pays by his ratio even if he loses capital
It's void for one to take partial profit then distribute other b/w them; it's invalid
It's well to invest finances & turn partner at running business getting share in it
Each partner in INAAN may employ WAKIL/servant in his issues or pledge share
Custody to business amount is as AMANAT; loss isnt claimable by one to other
SANAE' means share in service-wages; service given by one has others' shares too
WUJUH occurs b/w 2 men without capitals yet relations to run business on credit
Commodities at WUJUH ask profit by share; if each gets half, profit is half & half
Profits occur by 3 reasons; by investments; by services & rent; due to guarantee
ZAMAN (charges; penalty) also is a guarantee; where it occurs, it need clearing
Tailor's work also is of ZAMAN; he asks work from boys keeping much of charges
ZAMAN at WUJUH due to loss of credit article is at ownership's ratio of both in it
SHIRKAT doesn't occur at common items as wood by jungle or its hunted animals
Taking vehicle to fetch water or wood, doesnt ask SHIRKAT; carriage is paid for it
If a partner dies or leaves Islam departing to un-Islamic place, it cancels SHIRKAT
One can't give ZAKAH for other save by his consent as is normal ruling in ZAKAT
It seems best that ZAKATs consent is sought beforehand & even at its provision
MUDHARABA is AQD (contract) b/w persons when one finances & other serves
It is to share profits in specific ratio; finances given as AMANAT by valid currency
Specification for a fixed amount as profit by the financer nullifies MUDHARABA

Financer is termed as RABBUL-MAAL, that serving to him by work is MUDHARIB


If MUDHARABA is FASID by void condition, it asks UJRAH by 'URF for MUDHARIB
Financer has right to specify time & place for business & to specify its nature too
MUDHARIB may operate business as dealers do by 'URF adhering to his guidelines
He may take someone as MUDHARIB to him if permitted by financer & guide him
MUDHARIB mustn't take-up such business that financer doesn't benefit financially
MUDHARIB receives finances as AMANAT; by C.N. only at loss, he'd pay ZAMAN
MUDHARIB even with share in trade mustn't invest in deals unfruitful to financer
If he invests at such issue without assent & gains by it, he also gets it by his ratio
MUDHARABA is at 5 levels; first, MUDHARIB is AMIN (trustee); then, he is WAKIL
With profits, he is SHARIK (Partner); if AQD turns FASID, he is an AJEER (Employee)
if he violates a valid condition at the contract, he is GHASIB (forfeiter of finances)
He may give amount as AMANAT yet may not take 2nd MUDHARIB but by assent
With financer's assent, if he takes another MUDHARIB, he'd share profits with him
If he provides all amount to his own MUDHARIB, he may specify his ratio to profits
If 3rd is for 2nd & his ratio is half to financer, In 6 DINAR he gets one & 2nd gets 2
If he directs his share to 2nd & half is to financer, in 6 DINAR financer & 2nd get 3
If he takes 2nd in ratio to own, they share accordingly & financer's share is intact
As WIKALAT ends by appointer's death so by death of financer, the contract ends
If financer leaves Islam departing to non-Muslim land, he's taken as dead so it ends
Financer may end AQD any time; articles bought before news of dismissal, are in it
MUDHARIB may sell stocks at gain even if aware of news; he may not buy anything
MUDHARIB has to ask receivables at closure even if he's partner as he is AJEER too
Even if MUDHARIB has no claim, he must ask debtors; he may make financer WAKIL
MUDHARIB has no claim if term ends by net loss even if in-between, it had profits
Now, it seems better to specify a period with renewal at its end for another period
Issue of previous profits ends as period ends without claim at new; QUDURI agrees
If MUDHARIB deals in credit sales, it must be within norms of trade & within limit
WIKALAH is to appoint someone without pay to deal & act for him & tackle issues
WIKALAH is invalid in HUDUD, QISAS & DIYAT; anyone involved here faces himself
A.H. rules that WAKIL assumes his status by assent of other side save valid reason
SAHEBAIN allow his appointment in valid cases without any consent of other side
WAKIL must be sane & adult with liberty to act on advice by appointer (MU'AKKIL)
WAKIL must be honest & know issues to deal i.e. QAVI (capable) & AMIN (honest)

WAKIL deals in 2 issues; at one he acts by his own; at other, he mentions MU'AKKIL
If WAKIL buys house, his mention isnt needed; for his marriage, must mention him
In buying something, WAKIL must tackle problems occurring in it (like AIB) himself
If it's with him, he may return it by AIB; if he hands it to MU'AKKIL, his charge ends
If WAKIL is appointed for his marriage, he goes to extent when latter deals directly
WAKIL isn't liable to assure his marriage to lady he proposes or relaxation in DIYAT
If MU'AKKIL deals to receive some receivable directly, WAKIL isn't liable to its deal
In SALAM, buyer may appoint his WAKIL; seller isnt allowed to make WAKIL to him
In SARAF, if WAKIL deals an issue in MU'AKKIL's presence, its valid if latter departs
In SALAM too, WAKIL's presence to last is needed; MU'AKIIL's leave doesn't matter
If WAKIL buys a thing for MU'AKKIL, he may ask its due payment before handing it
In previous, If the item incurs harm in WAKILs hands, hed pay him MP as ZAMAN
MU'AKKIL pays price & WAKIL incurs its ZAMAN; both pay nothing & latter suffers
If WAKIL hasn't yet asked its amount from MU'AKKIL & it's lost, latter must pay it
If he appoints 2 WAKIL at task, both must work jointly but for on-going court-case
In previous, if he asks both to return debt to creditor, its fine if only one does it
If he has appointed a WAKIL to task, he mustn't make 2nd WAKIL save by consent
If WAKIL appoints 2nd WAKIL, 2nd may assist only by his guidance in his presence
If MU'AKKAIL dismisses the WAKIL, his acts before its news to him are in WIKALAH
If MU'AKKIL dies or turns insane, it ends & also, if to partnership & appointer dies
In previous, it ends even if the WAKIL does not get the information about end of it
Term ADL-e-HUKMI is used where ruling applies without even getting information
If someone appoints WAKIL for task then takes that himself, WIKALAH ends there
WAKIL is not to buy or sell anything of MU'AKKIL to relatives if latter asks its sale
WAKIL must deal the assets of MU'AKKIL within market's norm & not at variation
Market's norm is assessed by asking rates from traders there & taking it near that
If WAKIL sells on credit, he doesn't need to guarantee but must pay it as he gets it
WAKIL wouldnt sell half of indivisible item sharing it; sharing is AIB & is void here
In the divisible item for appointer, he mustn't buy units more than advised (A.H.)
SAHEBAIN differ; if he gets more quantity of that within specific amount, it's fine
WAKIL isn't to buy MU'AKKILs specified article for himself; no issue if unspecified
WAKIL may see cases for MU'AKKIL; even at positive verdicts, he mustn't ask fees
The previous is among the few issues on which the ruling taken at HF is by ZUFAR
If WAKIL stands against MU'AKKIL at the court, he's accepted & his WIKALAH ends

If WAKIL to absentee gets his debt by the court with acceptance by debtor, it's fine
If absentee conforms later, its fine; if doesn't, debtor pays; he had accepted WAKIL
QADHI rejects claim to WIKALAH outright on absentees AMANAT with defendant
Debtor approved WIKALAH against what he got; AMANAT is highly specific liability
KIFALAH - HAWALAH SULUH
KIFALAH is to provide GUARANTEE for one to another due to his demand on one
Guarantor is termed as KAFIL; to whom KIFALAH is provided, he is MAKFUL-LAHU
For whom it is provided, he is MAKFUL-ANHU & the guaranteed is MAKFUL-BEHI
MAKFUL-LAHU must accept KIFALAH for tangible or intangible as KAFIL presents it
KAFIL must present guarantee to MAKFUL-LAHU clearly; he must accept it at spot
Documentation is secondary at transactions; claim needs witnesses necessarily
If MAKFUL-LAHU asks KAFIL to bring MAKFUL-ANHU at given time, he must do so
If KAFIL does not comply for the time at place accessible to him, he may file a case
If KAFIL had taken-up paying of debts on failure to bring him, he must pay it then
KIFALAH is void in HUDUD, QISAS & DIYAT like WIKALAH; accused faces it directly
KIFALAH is valid even if he is not much aware of MAKFUL-BEHI of MAKFUL-ANHU
KIFALAH is valid even to guarantee if anything is wrong in deal, he'd compensate
Its fine if MAKFUL-LAHU asks something in KIFALAH from KAFIL/MAKFUL-ANHU
KIFALAH is fine for future transactions but it mustn't relate to natural calamities
If MAKFUL-BEHI is lesser by KAFIL than creditors word, KAFIL needs 2 witnesses
If QADHI's verdict is in KAFIL's favor, he'd not revise it even if he accepts creditor
If KAFIL gives KIFALAH by own & needs to pay debt, he can't ask MAKFUL-ANHU
If he provides KIFALAH on advice of MAKFUL-ANHU & pays for him, he'd ask him
As term ends, MAKFUL-LAHU asks KAFIL for payment & he'd ask MAKFUL-ANHU
If MAKFUL-LAHU gets his dues by MAKFUL-ANHU or former gifts it, KAFIL is free
If he relaxes it to KAFIL, it still remains due on MAKFUL-ANHU; he has to pay it
Condition to free KAFIL is void save of discount at due time by prompt payment
KIFALAH is valid if he's able to pay MAKFUL-BEHI if needed but void at inability
KIFALAH may be given to seller for due SAMAN; it's void for due MABI' to buyer
SAMAN maybe substituted; its pay isn't relaxed by loss; MABI' lost isn't replaced
KIFALAH to bring a car on time is valid but not specific car as absence is probable
At FASID deal, buyer must return MABI'; ZAMAN at loss by seller is MP or MITHL
If deal asks KHIYAR-SHART (3 days) & buyer gets MABI'; its loss asks SAMAN to it
ZAMAN is BENAFSEHI (substitution by MP & valid) & BEGHAIREHI (thats invalid)

KIFALAH is valid in former (MP or MITHL; it maybe replaced) & void in specifics
If other's thing is taken by force, KIFALAH is valid to return as it is in BENAFSEHI
At RAHAN, RAHIN can't ask KIFALAH; ZAMAN is BEGHAIREHI (RAHAN is specific)
MAKFUL-LAHU must be present as one becomes KAFIL to accept KIFALAH at spot
In previous, its exception when father makes his son KAFIL for debts to debtors
If 2 persons buy credit article each KAFIL to other, seller may ask total by anyone
At previous, partial payment from any is own; balance above his dues is for other
Couple of persons may give KIFALAH for one; paying by any is claimable upon one
KAFILs payment is due on MAKFUL-ANHU fully; he may ask 2nd KAFIL for half of it
KIFALAH is invalid at KITABAT payable to the master by slave to gain his freedom
KIFALAH on debts of a dead man is void (A.H.); SAHEBAIN allow it & seem better
HAWALA is when one presents a man to creditor transferring one's debt to him
KIFALAH & HAWALA differ; former doesn't end liability & latter does for MUHIL
MUHIL is who presents specific person to his creditor & specific one is MUHTAAL
Creditor to whom specific person (MUHTAAL) is presented is MUHTAAL-ALAIHE
All 3 must agree to HAWALA; mainly MUHTAAL & MUHTAAL-ALAIHE must agree
MUHTAAL-ALAIHE shall only ask MUHTAAL for his debt with no claim on MUHIL
MUHTAAL-ALAIHE might demand MUHIL but only if MUHTAAL is unable to pay
If MUHTAAL dies & leaves nothing to pay, MUHIL becomes liable to it again then
If one asks to pay one's creditor & a debtor does so, it's payable for one to latter
Amounts in payable & in receivable shall remain apart unless specified & agreed
Its valid to ask debtor to pay WAKIL who poses as his creditor to get it prompt
In previous, such is due to debtor's reluctance to pay & WAKIL maybe influential
HAWALA maybe SAFATIJ i.e. giving debt to someone to get at place he departs to
SAFATIJ is to avoid trouble at the way laying it to other but it's MAKRUH-TEHRIMI
SULUH is when a man makes peace to person claiming his assets by mutual assent
SULUH is in 3 ways; by acceptance of claim, by its denial and by silence upon it
Payment against the claimed article for SULUH of any of ways is the BADLE-SULUH
BADLE-SULUH by acceptance maybe via provision of tangible goods & is like BAYE'
Other BADLE-SULUH at acceptance maybe by provision of benefits & is like IJARAH
Other 2 of it ask separate ruling each & claimant takes BADLE-SULUH as his right
Claimed-Upon gives BADLE-SULUH to claim denied or by silence, for sake of peace
If payment for SULUH is upon latter 2 types on house, it doesn't change ownership
If house is BADLE-SULUH itself, it changes ownership & SHUFA' would present here

If claim is paid yet a claimant to claimed shows-up, payer shall ask the 1st to refund
If claim is denial or by silence yet an owner to half shows-up, he'd ask half as refund
In previous, claimant shall file case against new claimant to the QADHI after refund
If person is claimant to partial house & makes SULUH by some amount, deal is valid
If another claims partial right too, claimant shall not refund relating it to other part
Previous ruling tells that claimed thing maybe bit obscure yet BADLE-SULUH is clear
SULUH is fine by tangible & intangible as giving shop for specific time due to SULUH
SULUH is valid in JANAYAT too; it's peace for amputation of part of someones body
SULUH is invalid at issues of HADD; Allah has specified their respective punishments
If man claims a woman as wife, she may ask SULUH by paying amounts for safety
If woman claims a man as husband, he can't make SULUH; either accepts or refutes
If someone claims a free man as his slave, he may make valid SULUH paying money
If claim is for amounts, SULUH maybe made with amounts of same nature prompt
If claimant takes lesser than his claim, its discount & valid too if amount deferred
If SULUH is for thing having exchange value by similar; it has to be equal & prompt
RIBA is at Weighable & Measurable things (same nature); must be equal & prompt
SULUH is valid if someone sends a WAKIL & he does accept some amounts to pay
WAKIL is liable to pay if he guarantees else SULUH relates to consent of MU'AKKIL
If SULUH by denial or silence occurs by un-appointed WAKIL, its ruling is by 4 ways
First is he mentions a sum for SULUH & guarantees payment, its final & hes liable
Second he makes SULUH to creditor by own asset finalizing it; hed deal the debtor
Third is different from 2nd as he mentions an amount & pays later finalizing matter
Fourth is on amount he neither pays nor guarantees; its final by debtors consent
If 2 are creditors due to sale of one shared item, receiving by one is taken for both
If one makes SULUH on his share from the debtor, other may ask his dues directly
In previous, he may ask dues from partner too by ratio of what he got by SULUH
Its disallowed to divide debt receivable before its custody; after custody, it's valid
If one buys something from debtor for his share, hed turn ZAMIN to other's debt
If 2 persons deal by SALAM then either RAA'SUL-MAAL is returned or MABI' given
In SALAM, one of them only is not liable to SULUH for his share of RAA'SUL-MAAL
SULUH is valid b/w heirs for separating one paying him for left assets of deceased
If the SULUH ends claim on gold by silver, it must be more or less yet in one sitting
To end share of gold & other things by gold, it must be more than his share of gold
He'd not discard receivables of deceased in his share as the debts are intransferable

He may leave his share of debts & notify debtors then take value of balance as valid
Debts upon someone are intransferable; write-off is valid as others don't get them
HIBA - WAQF - GHASB - WADI'AH AARIAT
HIBA is to give beneficial tangible or intangible thing to someone; it's gift to him
Who gives HIBA is WAHIB; to whom given MAUHUB-LAHU; HIBA is MAUHUB too
As WAHIB gives it, MAUHUB-LAHU turns owner to it & WAHIB has no claim to it
HIBA is like BAYE'; HIBA is giving of MAUHUB by one & acceptance by the other
As MAUHUB-LAHU takes possession of MAUHUB at sitting, he turns owner to it
WAHIB has to provide total (KAMIL) ownership of MAUHUB to MAUHUB-LAHU
WAHIB may not make such HIBA that has some of his right in it or other's right
If other's right is divided-out & he too doesnt have any right in it, HIBA is valid
By previous, fruits on trees & wool as the hair on sheep is void giving as HIBA
Flour that would be got by grinding seeds or oil to be extracted is void in HIBA
That wasn't available at HIBA so neither the ownership occurs nor any HIBA to it
If division makes HIBA useless, partial HIBA is void as receiver's custody is futile
If HIBA is with the receiver as AMANAT or AARIAT, renewal to custody isn't due
If father gifts to his child not yet an adult, he'd have ownership to it instantly
If receiver is a child, deal for gift finalizes as guardian takes its custody for him
Possession is 2 kinds; at one, loss asks ZAMAN; at other, it doesn't (as in HIBA)
Possession at AMANAT is at 2nd like HIBA; GHASB (custody by force) is at first
If possessions are at the same plane, they may replace each other in transaction
If possessions are diverse; 1st asks ZAMAN & 2nd doesn't, still 2nd replaces it
If diverse in the reverse; 1st doesn't ask it & 2nd does, 2nd wouldn't replace it
If AMANAT is HIBA by owner to MURTAHIN; Renewal to possession isnt needed
If a GHASB article is given as HIBA by the owner to GHASIB, renewal is not needed
If 1st doesn't ask ZAMAN & 2nd does, it's needed; example is AMANAT to RAHAN
If 2 persons make HIBA together to someone it's valid as custody has no sharing
If someone makes HIBA to 2 persons, it's void as it has indistinguishable shares
SAHEBAIN disagree to previous; it seems better as told by A.H. & IMAM-ZUFAR
HIBA mustn't be reversed; HADITH has words on reversal as dog eats-up its vomit
HADITH allows father taking HIBA back from son at will; others may consult QADHI
HF allows reversing HIBA due to weak HADITH; previous seems better & authentic
At times, reversal of HIBA is void by HF too as when the receiver gifts in its return
Second, its void if receiver refines MAUHUB as some construction on gifted land

Third is when MAHUB-LAHU dies; his assets go to heirs & ends claim to reversal
Fourth is when MAUHUB -LAHU sells MAUHUB losing its custody so claim is void
In previous by HF, if he still has some of it usable, it maybe asked back by WAHIB
Fifth is when WAHIB gives HIBA to his MEHRUM relative; Sixth is HIBA to spouse
By HF, if WAHIB gives HIBA to NA-MEHRUM lady, he may ask it if he marries her
Seventh is if receiver loses it & it's tangible, WAHIB loses any claim to ask it back
By HF, even if one of conditions presents, it needs receivers consent to return it
These 7 stop WAHIB's claim by HF; best seems "no claim after HIBA but father's"
If other owner to gift given (1st) looms-up, WAHIB still cant claim his HIBA back
Previous is valid where the receiver gifts to WAHIB ending his claim to reversal
If other owner to HIBA than WAHIB looms-up, WAHIB may repair loss to receiver
If HIBA is lost by receiver & he pays ZAMAN to claimant, WAHIB has no liability
HIBA of two to each other is like BAYE'; it asks HIBA's custody by each of them
In previous, BAYE'-rules as AIB & RUYA apply; in exchange of land, SHUFA' applies
HIBA by "AL-'UMRA" is valid; it's giving a man a place liable to return at his death
In previous, condition doesn't apply & heirs to receiver get HIBA after his death
HIBA by "AR-RUQBA" is void; it's giving house as survivor to other gets ownership
If AQD needing custody has FASID condition, it's void & AQD is valid transaction
So, HIBA of slave saving her pregnancy is valid as both are HIBA & condition void
If oath is taken to give SADAQAH, better is to give a thing having exchange-value
SADAQAH is like HIBA yet valid to give to 2 without share's detail free of claim
If by mistake SADAQAH is given more than intent, excess cant be claimed back
SADAQAH is made for Direct Returns by ALLAH; no issue if given to 2 persons
Oath to give all owned assets as HIBA allows keeping for sustenance of near ones
In previous, he may give assets' value at oath that he earns now but its optional
WAQF is to realize AIN in direct Command of Allah giving-up apparent ownership
Provision of WAQF asks WAQIF to specify benefit according to Islamic Teachings
Conditions respecting Islamic Commands are valid as taking its profits up-to life
WAQF settles as appointed caretaker/s take custody of AIN (asset; commodity)
Shared indivisible property maybe provided in WAQF if all partners do agree to it
If shared property is divided b/w partners, anyone may give his share in WAQF
WAQF lasts; if banishment of benefiters is probable, it better mention substitutes
WAQF mostly relates to fixed-asset; if Land is given at WAQF, it may include cattle
WAQF may be of transferrable virtuous thing by 'URF as WAQF of the Holy Quran

As WAQF finalizes, its void giving it in anyones ownership & purchase & sale too
Caretaker (paid by its profits) must see to its maintenance by its profits as liability
He'd repair WAQF's harms by new or its damaged items; they can never be sold
WAQF is not given as AARIAT or RAHAN; WAQIF may assign few gains for himself
WAQIF is liable to take its caretaking himself & may specify it for his heirs ahead
If WAQF is MASJID, WAQIF must make separate general doorway to it for SALAH
As SALAH starts at it with a separate general entrance, WAQIF's ownership ends
If well is at WAQF & people start getting water by that, WAQIF's ownership ends
If staying place is given WAQF & travelers start staying there, his ownership ends
If graveyard is WAQF & people start burying the dead at that, his ownership ends
GHASB is to seize article having monetary value without consent of the owner/s
GHASB ends custody of tangible valuable that has respect being Muslim's asset
GHASIB (person who seizes) must return it to rightful owner asking Allah's mercy
If GHASIB loses it, intentional or not, ZAMAN occurs to pay similar item or its MP
MP must be in accordance with date GHASIB took possession of the GHASB (A.Y.)
On GHASIB, ZAMAN occurs on harming the land willfully but not if unintentional
If he slaughters GHASB goat, owner may take ZAMAN to loss & slaughtered goat
He has option to leave the goat & take its full value (MP) from him as its ZAMAN
If GHASIB changes it (to meat-pieces), his own claim occurs; ZAMAN is only option
GHASIB gets claim to GHASB he refines; its usage is void until he pays ZAMAN fully
In previous, it's better if the owner takes ZAMAN for it; it seems much preferable
2nd option is to take as it is by paying for change GHASIB made, by mutual assent
If GHASIB claims loss of GHASB article under oath, he must pay ZAMAN to owner
In previous, if GHASB is found later, owner loses claim if he took ZAMAN as asked
If he was paid ZAMAN by GHASIB's word; he may return it & take-back his GHASB
His 2nd option is that he doesn't claim GHASB & keeps matter settled b/w them
If GHASB increases in value by growth as fruits at garden, its AMANAT to GHASIB
SHAFA'I asks ZAMAN at fruits' loss but the GHASB is his void possession certainly
GHASB by HF is ending rightful possession of owner; HF views it by owners side
GHASB-cows offspring is GHASB to SHAFA'I, not to HF; it wasnt at owner's hand
Muslim isn't liable if he inflicts loss to wine of Muslim; if it's of ZIMMI, he'd pay it
Wine & swine aren't MAAL-MUTAQAWWIM (valid goods) to Muslims as to others
SHAFA'I seems better as he asks no charge for the loss to wine or swine of anyone
WADI'AH is the term for AMANAT; MUDA' is whom that is provided by the owner

AMANAT (put in trust) doesnt ask for ZAMAN; its loss is not claimable but if C.N.
He may protect it or put at near-ones' protection & wouldn't incur ZAMAN at loss
C.N. to WADIAH occurs in few ways & causes to pay ZAMAN to owner for its loss
If MUDA' gives its protection to any other, he'd have to pay its ZAMAN at its loss
If MUDA' mixes it indistinguishably with own assets, he is liable to ZAMAN at loss
If he mixes it with that purely by-chance, he turns partner to owner in it by ratio
If MUDA' tries best to protect it by all efforts at danger to it, he'd not pay ZAMAN
If MUDA' spends some of WADI'AH losing other, he'd pay ZAMAN only to former
If he spends some of it then pays it back, he'd pay ZAMAN to all value at its loss
In previous, he mixed his amount to WADI'AH; he'd pay total ZAMAN at its loss
Its Use is C.N. yet if MUDA' stops that & its intact, he'd pay no ZAMAN at its loss
If MUDA' doesn't hand it over at demand claiming as not in custody, he's GHASIB
In previous if he accepts its custody later, he must return it to end liability in full
If MUDA' travels with WADI'AH & owner hadn't forbade it, he isnt liable to loss
If two give indivisible WADI'AH to someone, he must return it if both are present
If it's divisible, he may return one his share by ratio as specified; it isnt preferable
If owner gives an indivisible AIN to 2 men; one may have custody by others assent
In previous if divisible, both must keep it by division & both are liable to their side
If MUDA' keeps it with his wife & owner asked not to; at loss, he pays no ZAMAN
If he asked him to keep it at specific room & he didnt; at loss, he pays no ZAMAN
But if he asks to keep it at his specific house & he doesn't; at loss he'd pay ZAMAN
AARIAT is to allow benefits of something without its ownership, asking no returns
MU'IR is who provides AARIAT & MUSTA'IR is to whom it's provided for its benefits
AARIAT like WADI'AT & IJARAH doesn't ask ZAMAN at loss except when its by C.N.
If terms to AARIAT are not specific to it, the speaker must be asked for total clarity
MU'IR may ask AARIAT back at will; MUSTA'IR must never provide it ahead at gains
If AARIAT is given to someone again as AARIAT, it's valid if owner has allowed for it
If owner did forbid providing it ahead as AARIAT, its use relates only to MUSTA'IR
In previous, MUSTA'IR may allow AARIAT to the needy who uses it by utmost care
DIRHAM, DINAR, MAKILAAT & MAUZUNAAT are not AARIAT but DEBT to someone
At AARIAT, tangible thing is same at return but those in previous may change at it
Land maybe AARIAT for specific term & he'd demolish any construction at its end
MU'IR doesn't pay for his land's return at term; if asks before it, hed pay ZAMAN
MUSTA'IR would see to expenses incurred to return AARIAT to MU'IR (cartage etc.)

At GHASB, the GHASIB pays expenses to provide its custody to its rightful owner
In IJARAH, the MUUJIR pays so as to get his commodity back, not the MUSTA'JIR
Note also, owner pays expenses of return of his WADI'AH as he is liable to those
If MUSTA'IR returns animal/car to MU'IR's usual place to it, he isn't liable at loss
If MUSTA'IR returns AARIAT to MU'IR's home, he isnt liable to loss even then too
If MUDA' returns WADI'AH to place of owner, he's liable to ZAMAN at loss there
He got WADIAH for its safety as its owner didnt find it at his home so hes liable
LAQIT - LUQTA KHUNTHA
LAQIT is unclaimed child found at way probably discarded due to hunger or shame
Finder is keeper yet if someone claims him as his son under oath, itd be accepted
Acceptance leads to custody; if claimants are 2, theyd be asked for physical marks
If ZIMMI claims him & hes found at Muslims' area, it's accepted & hed be Muslim
If he's found at ZIMMI's place or their worship-place by ZIMMI then he'd be ZIMMI
In previous if found by Muslim, he'd not be ZIMMI but Muslim & treated as such
If some amount is found tied to LAQIT, it'd be his & itd be AMANAT to the finder
it's invalid for finder to give him in marriage; as guardian, hed see to well-being
Finder may teach skills to him or employ him at work keeping his wages AMANAT
LUQTA is a thing found at way & finder by witnesses on it must search for owner
Finder must announce it as much as possible; if valuable by 'URF, itd be for a year
If he couldn't find him, he'd give it SADAQAH on his behalf; it's virtue to finder too
If owner appears after SADAQAH, he has option to accept or ask finder its ZAMAN
if he sees goat or cow roaming about, he may take its custody to return to owner
Finder must make witnesses; if he informs the court too, hed receive its expenses
Now, it's better to announce it by media time & again for a year before SADAQAH
Without news for animal found, hed not receive expenses; it's his goodness only
Court may employ LUQTA to provide its expenses or sell it with balance for owner
If finder informs the court, he may keep it to him till the found owner clears dues
LUQTA has same ruling whether found at HARAM (KA'BAH & nearby) or outside it
Finder may keep it if owner emerges till he gets its signs well; his control is valid
If finder is needy, he may use it himself; he may give it to poor relative after year
KHUNTHA is child born with both private parts (male & female); identity an issue
If he urinates by male part, its male; by female, its female; initial passing clears it
If identity isn't possible, its manifestation is to be seen at adulthood, deciding then
If identity isn't possible even then, its KHUNTHA-MUSHKIL & needs much caution

For SALAH, it stands in-between men & women not inclining to any one side there
For circumcision, it'd buy slave-lady to view its private parts as gender is obscure
Islam forbids men to view female's part & women to view male's, if not spouse
In the inheritance it'd receive female's share as being lesser, it's conformed (A.H.)
SAHEBAIN differ in its calculation but also ask the lesser share; A.H. seems better
MAFQUD - IBAQ - MAWAT - MA'ZUN
MAFQUD is the person lost & unknown if alive; by extensive search, he isn't found
MAFQUD's property isn't distributed as if hes alive; in other issues, hes like dead
QADHI shall appoint a man in his property to see to needs of his very close-ones
Wait for MAFQUD's wife used to be 90 years in HF; now it's 4 (as in MALIKI-FIQH)
When MAFQUD is taken dead, his property is distributed b/w heirs alive at that
Wife of MAFQUD may marry again as her husband is taken dead, after her IDDAH
IBAQ means the escape of male-slave or female-slave from bonds of the slavery
Topic tells for reward (lesser of 40 DIRHAM or it's price) for return of escaped slave
Person bringing him doesn't pay ZAMAN if the slave escapes from his custody too
He must make witnesses to run-away slave he got in hand to return to his master
If run-away slave was RAHAN, MURTAHIN pays the reward; RAHAN asks ZAMAN
IBAQ relates to issue having no concern now; it's good it's dealt briefly at QUDURI
MAWAT means land lying useless with no apparent chance for use in cultivation
EHYA-UL-MAWAT means revival of such land by a man to provide cultivation by it
He'd become owner to such if 3 conditions are provided; First is no-one owns it
Second is it must be far-away from settlement, not of benefits to nearest dwellers
Third is its possession for him is verified by law of the land endorsed by the QADHI
With conditions, if he refines it clearing-off the water-logging & salinity, he'd own it
If QADHI allows him custody & he lets it remain idle for 3 years, it'd be asked back
Land near to village doesn't ask EHYA; it'd be used in cattle-grazing & for cut crops
if a man digs well at open, he owns nearby area too to see no other is dug nearby
Wells by which water is taken-out by hands asks 20 meters (current units) around
Other by which water is drawn by assistance of cattle asks about 30 meters around
Meters relate to Arab land yet where the land isn't as hard, it may ask more meters
If river leaves dry land drawing back & doesn't return, whoever refines it is owner
If river comes to his area from another's, river's banks are valid to access for both
MA'ZUN is slave allowed to deal in all general business transactions by his master
Such slave may deal in purchase & sale; keep or give RAHAN when needed by him

Slave allowed trading by master may go into any trade even if it's specified to him
He 's not a MA'ZUN slave if his master asks to buy something; it's a service taken
IQRAR of debts by such slave is valid or of GHASB; such words do have due weight
He must not give trade-slaves in marriage or as HIBA or ask KITABAT or free them
He may give lunch or HIBA by trade-amounts to dealers within the accepted norm
MA'ZUN is liable to trade-debts; if needed, he'd himself be sold to pay-off debts
If master reverses consent to MA'ZUN for trade, itd only apply as market knows it
If master dies or is affected by lunacy for a month, his permission to MA'ZUN ends
If MA'ZUN runs-away, permission to trade ends W.I.E.; master's word not needed
If MA'ZUN is stopped from trade, detail by him of the accounts has validity in that
Master mustn't make any trade with slave; he isnt liable to pay his debts in trade
If he frees MA'ZUN, master would pay debts equal to his MP; balance due on slave
If child is allowed trading by guardian, few of rulings to MA'ZUN apply also to him
By previous, few rulings to MA'ZUN are relevant even now; generally, it's obsolete
MUZARA'AT (i.e. MUHAQALA or MUKHABARA)
MUZARA'AT is AQD giving land for cultivation to share its produce in specific ratio
It's even allowed for land-owner to provide it on wages (on rent) for its cultivation
MUZARA'AT is AQD (contract) to share profits by ratio; it doesn't relate to its rent
A.H. invalidates MUZARA'AT outright; SAHEBAIN validate it yet by some detail
SAHEBAIN's view is accepted in MUZARA'AT with 4 basis; land, cattle, labor, seeds
In these 4, there are four manners to ask MUZARA'AT; one is void & others valid
If land & cattle is to one while labor & seeds to the other, this manner is void here
But if land & seeds belong to one & other has the labor & cattle, it is valid manner
If land belongs to one & labor, cattle & seeds is of the other, it's also valid manner
Last of valid manners is that land, cattle & seeds are one's & other provides labor
Seeds is the base to getting produce so in deals of MUZARA'AT, it decides validity
If seeds is of land-owner, it's as if he owns the produce & is paying labor its wages
If seeds is of laborer, it's as if he owns the produce & is paying rent to land-owner
Paying with produce against cattle is invalid & as such, MUZARA'AT becomes void
In MUZARA'AT, its period is required to specify; ratio of each also requires stating
Condition one takes a measure of produce first & then ratio applies, makes it void
Condition asking for produce of certain area for one in contract makes it void too
If land doesn't pay, laborer loses all of labor without any compensation to its loss
If MUZARA'AT turns FASID due to void condition, ownership to seeds decides it

If land-owner owns seeds, he'd pay Wages by MITHL to laborer according to I.M.
If laborer owns it in FASID, he'd pay the rent (by MITHL) to land-owner accordingly
If one in MUZARA'AT that owns seeds backs-out before onset, he'd not be forced
Other doesn't have option to back-out; hed be forced to go ahead if he backs-out
if term ends & crops is not yet ready, laborer gets time & land-owner rent for it
Land-owner would receive rent of land according to his ratio of produce by MP
Both incur expenses at produce in specific ratio; it's void to ask only one for them
If one of parties in MUZARA'AT dies, itd end even if the contract is silent upon it
MUSAQAAT is as MUZARAAT void to A.H. & valid to SAHEBAIN; it is taken valid
MUSAQAAT asks to share produce of the garden & relates to fruits & vegetables
In MUSAQAAT, AQD is good only if the fruits at garden need labor to develop it
If fruits are fully developed, MUSAQAAT is void as the labor doesn't claim value
Its rulings are similar to MUZARA'AT; it may ask FASKH same way as at IJARAH
Topics relating to Business Transactions (BUYU) at QUDURI end - Al-Hamdu-Lillah
NIKAH - RADHA'AT - TALAQ - RAJ'AT - EELA - KHULA'- IDDAT NAFAQAAT
NIKAH (Marriage) is contract b/w man & woman to do sexual act justly by intention
It is NEMAT (blessing) from Allah allowing them to live together sharing issues of life
NIKAH has an aspect of ADL (law being agreement) & other of EHSAAN (virtue; love)
NIKAH is SUNNAH; at intensity of passions, it's FARDH; with self-control, MUSTAHAB
NIKAH finalizes by IJAB (asking of it by man) and by QUBUL (its approval by woman)
Asking for it & approval must be very clear; former as request & latter as past tense
Asking may be from woman (by WALI's approval); acceptance from man finalizes it
NIKAH needs 2 witnesses to it that are free, adult, sane Muslims even if not 'ADUL
ADUL are such good Muslims who refrain from big sins & don't persist on petty sins
Witnesses might be one man & 2 woman as being agreement, this also is valid in it
Even if punished in QADHF, his witness has validity; at court, his testimony is void
If Muslim marries Christian lady & two witnesses are from the Christians, it's valid
It's HARAAM to marry any women specified at 3rd-RUKU of NISAA being MEHRUM
AZ JANIBE SHIR DAH HAM KHISH SHWAND-WA AZ JANIBE SHIR KHAR ZAUJANOFRO
Previous is Poetic Verse in Persian to note to whom NIKAH is void by RADHA'AT
Infant milked is as her own child to woman & husband; rulings apply accordingly
He is prohibited to marry them or their specific close relatives as told by the rule
The rule here says that HARAAM by NASB are HARAAM to him by RADHA'AT too
As for woman & her spouse, their near relatives may wed any of its near relatives

To them, the child by milk is as their son/daughter & the rulings apply accordingly
Notable is brother to child milked by the woman is allowed to marry her daughter
For 2 women that if one is taken as man, she wouldn't marry other is notable rule
Previous ruling applies on the man; he can't keep both by NIKAH together as wives
If man already having a daughter marries a woman & divorces her; it asks mention
In previous, it's valid if the divorced & the daughter is married to the same person
Stoppage to NIKAH are 5 types being NASB; SABAB; JAMA; HAQQUL-GHAIR; DEEN
NASB (parenthood & immediate relations) voids marrying female by it as HARAAM
SABAB (reason) is stoppage as RADHA'AT; it stops marrying the female in-laws too
JAMA (addition) i.e. taking 2 women by NIKAH if one taken man, other is HARAAM
HAQQUL-GHAIR (other's right) is asking someone's wife to marry him; it's HARAAM
DEEN (religious belief) is to be same; it isn't valid to marry women of other religion
Christian woman maybe an exception to marry if she cares for her religious belief
For adulterer, females HARAAM as in-laws if she were his wife, are void to marry
Person who divorces wife isn't allowed to marry his sister-in-law till IDDAT ends
It's valid to marry in EHRAAM; couple needs to end UMRA/HAJJ prior to relations
It's needed that Muslim adult sane virgin girl marries by her WALI's permission
A.H. rules that if such girl marries man equal in status to her, it has the validity
Today, it does seem best that it's void for virgin girl to marry by own (SAHEBAIN)
Now, it seems if she does, it's MAUQUF at WALI's assent; equal-status nothing
HF tells her NIKAH by own not at KAFA'AT (equal-status) is void & insult to WALI
But SAYYEBA (widow) may marry by her own; even that is better by WALI's assent
Comments onto KAFA'AT are hard; much here depends in HF on personal thought
Better seems that any attempt of a virgin girl to marry by her own is discouraged
There are 4 notable ways in which this issue of girl's marriage maybe tackled well
Young Virgin; all IMAMS agree her father is authority over her in issue of marriage
Mature Widow; all IMAMS agree she'd decide for herself without any differences
Young Widow; A.H. & MAALIK tell the WALI has authority; other 2 give it to herself
Mature Virgin - 3 of IMAMS except A.H. agree that she is in authority of her father
If virgin girl smiles, cries a bit or keeps quiet as marriage is asked, it's her consent
Widow must show her consent by speech; maturity asks her verbal consent to it
A girl may lose virginity by reasons other than marriage (wounds, violent games)
In previous, A.H. takes such in ruling as virgin but SAHEBAIN take her SAYYEBA
If she loses it by adultery, she's as virgin (A.H.); SAHEBAIN take her as SAYYEBA

If wife denies she agreed to marry her husband if he asks, her word is valid (A.H.)
SAHEBAIN ask in previous to take oath from her about it then only it has validity
Words about marriage as told by the 'URF validate it & odd words need avoidance
If SAYYEBA gifts herself to man by words HIBA/TAMLIK, his approval verifies NIKAH
Two witnesses, both male (or a male & 2 female), are necessary for its occurrence
NIKAH by WALI for child (male/female) is fine; its consent at maturity validates it
By HF, NIKAH of father/grandfather isn't reversible; of others void by denial at 15
In previous, notable point is that denial would apply only with court's decree on it
WALI is ASABAH (close male relative of woman); preference to sons & then father
If WALI is not reachable at a good proposal for woman, WALI next in-line decides
Equality refers to NASB & Wealth & DEEN (Islamic Practice); only last values truly
Except for mature widow, she mustn't decide by own yet her consent is necessary
WALI (if her father) may validate MEHR for child as he's allowed unchallenged to it
Others as WALI aren't liable to ask lesser than MEHR-MITHL as lesser makes it void
Man must provide MEHR to woman at marriage; the lowest is 10 DIRHAM (Silver)
10 DIRHAM is 2.5 TOLA & 1.5 MASHA (approx. 30 grams of Silver) & its the lowest
It must be kept much more; its liable by privacy to wife or his death without that
If unmentioned, MEHR-MITHL (as of brides' of paternal side) is payable by privacy
If MEHR is mentioned but she's divorced before privacy, he'd give half of MEHR
If MEHR is unmentioned at such, he'd give MUTATUN-NIKAH to her (i.e. 4 clothes)
MUTATUN-NIKAH is KAMEEZ, DOPATTA, CHADAR (big covering sheet) & SHALWAR
DOPATTA is head & body-covering; these 4 make the decent dress for Muslim lady
Husband would provide these by his financial status in that place as noted by 'URF
MEHR if unmentioned initially yet couple decide at marriage, it's valid by privacy
If MEHR is unmentioned initially & decided later, it doesn't apply without privacy
Previous implies that if he divorces her before privacy, he'd pay MUTATUN-NIKAH
Wife may give discount asking lesser than the mentioned MEHR from her husband
Valid hindrance to rightful privacy is accepted in ruling (HAJJ-EHRAAM or Menses)
Divorced woman are in 4 types; each of them has its own ruling that needs study
If MEHR mentioned & rightful privacy received - he must provide the total MEHR
If MEHR mentioned & rightful privacy not received - he has to provide HALF of it
If MEHR not mentioned & rightful privacy received - he has to give MEHR-MITHL
If MEHR not mentioned & rightful privacy isn't received, MUTATUN-NIKAH occurs
MATATUN-NIKAH given to others too in addition, is appreciable but not necessary

SHIGAAR means a person marries someone's sister by marrying his sister to him
No woman gets MEHR as one is MEHR to other; this type of NIKAH is HARAAM
Previous is valid only when each woman gets her due MEHR; its her specific right
If man marries on teaching the Holy Quran it isn't valid MEHR yet NIKAH is valid
NIKAH needs MEHR having financial nature; in previous, she's given MEHR-MITHL
If woman lessens MEHR by condition to marriage that she wouldn't go out of city
Marriage is valid & he may take her out by actual MEHR; best is to get her assent
If he marries her by mentioning a commodity as MEHR; it's valid to give its value
MUT'A is to ask companionship from woman for sexual reason without witness
It occurs without Announcement, Responsibility, Trust (ART) b/w both by money
It's other name to adultery; it's HARAAM & has no place at Islamic environment
NIKAH MAWAQQAT is the marriage for term specified; it takes-up all the ART in it
So ZUFAR says in MAWAQQAT, NIKAH occurs & condition of specific term is void
If WALI is 1st cousin too, he may marry the girl in his care if she's not yet 15 years
As this NIKAH is MAUQUF, she has the right to reject him as she turns to 15 years
If woman makes man WAKIL to marry her to his own-self, it's valid by 2 witnesses
In BAYE', it is disallowed to become WAKIL of both sides yet in marriage, it's valid
MEHR's Guarantee by bride's WALI is well as exception but odd; he may ask it too
NIKAH becomes FASID if there're no witnesses for it or if aren't compatible for it
If QADHI ends NIKAH-FASID by order, MEHR isn't payable even if he had privacy
In NIKAH-FASID with sexual relation conformed, woman would get MEHR-MITHL
MITHL relates to paternal cousins' MEHR; she gets lesser of MITHL & mentioned
She'd pass IDDAT & if she conceives, child would be taken as offspring by the man
NIKAH is valid to Muslim or practicing Christian girl (or Jew girl yet its detestable)
Even with slave-woman not Muslim or Christian (or Jew) he can't have sexual ties
He can't marry more than 4 woman at a time & mustn't prefer slave on a free-girl
He must wait for end of IDDAT of his 4th wife before marrying another in her place
Marriage is AQD for whole life; NIKAH-MAWAQAT occurs minus time-limit (ZUFAR)
If a man marries two women at one time within one AQD, both of them are valid
If marrying one was void (by relation of milk), it wouldn't occur but other is valid
Previous differs to BAYE'; that asked invalidity if AQD has 2 aspects & one is void
Man has no right to divorce her due to her physical adversity not averting relation
But if he has skin's adversity like whiteness or leprosy, she is liable to get divorce
If man is unable to make sex-relation to wife, she may ask divorce by a year's wait

In previous, he'd pay total MEHR to her if he did get the rightful privacy with her
If unable to make it as impotency is due to lack in organ, divorce is ruled instant
If non-Muslim girl accepts Islam then her husband accepts it too; NIKAH is intact
If he rejects, QADHI would separate both ending up the contract to their marriage
If the man converts to Islam & his wife is practicing Christian, their NIKAH is intact
If woman accepts Islam at un-Islamic place, marriage ends at end of her 3 periods
Leaving un-Islamic land turning Muslim, automatically puts divorce to wife there
If they both leave the un-Islamic land together; their marriage stands undisturbed
If woman leaves un-Islamic land becoming Muslim, she's free of her marriage then
In previous, she may marry instantly entering the Islamic land without any IDDAT
However if she is pregnant, she must give birth to child before her marriage again
If Muslim man turns MURTAD, his wife instantly gets out of NIKAH & it is FASKH
In previous, If MEHR is unpaid with privacy availed, he'd pay it full otherwise half
No woman is to marry him as she's blessing of Allah; he'd not get it insulting Islam
If one of non-Muslim couple turns Muslim, their infant is de-facto taken as Muslim
NIKAH is ruled valid if both of non-Muslim couple accept Islam; they're man & wife
In previous, if woman married is unlawful by Islam to be the wife, he'd divorce her
Man must be just in wives' rights by intention as distribution of nights b/w them
He isn't liable to equality in giving days b/w them nor in love he may have for one
One of wives might leave her turn at night in favor of other by her own free-will
In previous, she may reverse her approval for husband to omit her turn at nights
RADHA'AT is sucking milk from woman who becomes as mother to child by milk
RADHA'AT is proved to 30 months (A.H.); better is that it's to 2 years (SAHEBAIN)
RADHA'AT is proved even by one suckling only of the infant in mentioned period
After mentioned period, it's HARAAM to feed milk to infant & it's not RADHA'AT
She mustn't feed her milk to any womans child without consent of her husband
AZ JANIBE SHIR DAH HAM KHISH SHWAND-WA AZ JANIBE SHIR KHAR ZAUJANOFRO
Previous is Poetic Verse in Persian telling to whom NIKAH is void by relation of milk
Infant milked is as her own child to woman & husband; rulings apply accordingly
He is prohibited to marry them or their specific close relatives as told by the rule
The rule here says that HARAAM by NASB are HARAAM to him by RADHA'AT too
There are two exceptions to the rule mentioned in previous; those are as follows
It's valid for him to marry real mother of sister by milk fed by unrelated woman
It's valid to marry sister of his son by milk; to wed such relatives by NASB is void

Wife of son by milk is daughter-in-law; it's void to marry her after him as in NASB
Man becomes father by milk if woman is in her marriage at time of feeding child
Rulings about child's marriage to man's close relatives would apply accordingly
If she isn't in his marriage due to divorce, he doesn't turn father to child by milk
Notable is brother to child milked by her isnt disallowed to marry her daughter
If A & B are brothers by NASB (paternal lineage), both born to different mothers
In previous, A's mother married a man before his father & had daughter C by him
In previous, if B intends to marry girl C of stepmother, marriage does have validity
Those children that are sisters & brothers by milk are like actual brothers & sisters
In previous, children can't marry b/w them; the feeding woman is as their mother
Her close-relatives & of her spouse are theirs too; it's as they're offspring to them
If woman's milk is fed mixed in water lesser than water, it doesn't ask RADHA'AT
In previous, if the milk is more than the water in it, it proves RADHA'AT for infant
If it is mixed with medicine, same ruling applies that lesser of medicine proves it
Same applies if woman's milk mixes with goat's milk, more of them decides issue
If the fed milk was from 2 women, it'd prove RADHA'T for both of them to infant
If the milk of a deceased woman is fed to an infant, it'd prove RADHA'AT for him
If woman's milk is with foods, that doesnt prove RADHA'AT for him even if much
If 2 infants are fed with the milk of one she-goat, it doesn't cause any RADHA'AT
If a virgin girl gets milk at her breasts & feeds it to an infant, it'd prove RADHA'AT
A man may wed infant girl by WALI's assent without sex-relation to her till menses
If the adult wife feeds his infant wife, both would become unlawful as wives to him
If adult wife did it by intent, she'd pay half of MEHR to infant otherwise she'd not
It's void to marry if man & 2 woman testify both were fed by milk of same woman
In previous, if only 2 women testify to it, it'd not be binding & avoidance is better
TALAQ means divorce that ends NIKAH releasing bondage of the rightful marriage
TALAQ is man's right of 3 pronouncements for life; he may reverse it up-to 2 only
In HF, TALAQ has 2 kinds; by SUNNAH & by BID'AH; former also has 2 kinds to it
Former is divided into HASAN & AHSAN; HASAN in particular is TALAQ-SUNNAH
TALAQ is detestable; its HASAN means good in form; AHSAN means even better
HASAN is TALAQ in state of cleanliness when he has not made sex-relation to her
State of cleanliness is the period free of menses; in that he mustn't have made it
After getting verdict of TALAQ, woman has to spend 3 periods named as IDDAT
She'd not marry again before end of IDDAT-period; it also relates to other issues

HASAN asks few conditions; First, it is given in TUHR (Cleanliness) else it's BID'AH
Second is that he has not made the sex-relation to her in that cleanliness period
Third is that he has not made it even in the last menses-period; it's HARAAM in it
Fourth is that he gives TALAQ only one time in each of 3 clean periods of IDDAT
IN AHSAN, only fourth is changed; he pronounces TALAQ once in 1st TUHR only
TALAQ (Reversible) occurs by one pronouncement; its immoral to say 3 together
TALAQ is of 3 types that are TALAQ-RAJ'AI, TALAQ-BAAEN, TALAQ-MUGHALLAZA
RAJ'AI occurs when TALAQ is clearly pronounced once or twice by the clear terms
In RAJ'AI, he may reverse his verdict by his verbal note or by sex-relation with her
He may reverse RAJ'AI only in due period of IDDAT; at its end, it becomes BAAEN
Second way BAAYEN takes place is when words are unclear yet intention is TALAQ
Third way to BAAYEN is where terms for divorce has consolidating words for that
Fourth way to BAAYEN is TALAQ is to the wife to whom he hadn't got privacy yet
TALAQ is man's exclusive right of 3 pronouncements; reversal is possible to 2 only
At the 3rd, he loses the right to reverse his decision as it becomes MUGHALLAZA
BAAYEN ends marriage; he may marry her again but with her consent again now
He may marry her in IDDAT at BAYEN & he has lost right to one pronouncement
In previous, she may marry any man AFTER end of her IDDAT who proposes her
Marriage is relation of love more than contract; if that's gone, it is unsuccessful
If man (who divorced her) asks her to marry him again, she may accept him too
In BAAYEN, marriage ends so marriage in IDDAT of the couple or after it is needed
Difference b/w RAJ'AI & BAAYEN is former is simply presented, latter consolidated
Another difference is former is clear in words, latter may need clarifying of TALAQ
Still another difference is former doesn't end NIKAH at IDDAT; latter ends it W.I.E.
Similarity is that both are reversible in IDDAT; former by words & latter by NIKAH
Other similarity is that he may marry her again by her consent even after IDDAT
if divorce is BAAYEN & needs clarifying, intention is valid to note except if clear
In both types, TALAQ said may either be one time or 2 times, not more than two
An exception is that though TALAQ is counted to 3 yet BAAYEN does need detail
If BAAYEN is pronounced first & again he gives BAAYEN, 2nd wouldn't be counted
TALAQ-BID'AH is that 3 TALAQ are said at once in TUHR or menses; he'd be sinner
By HF in previous, MUGHALLAZA occurs; NIKAH ends without option to reversal
AHLE-HADITH differ that at one sitting, TALAQ occurs only once even if said more
If he hasn't had privacy to wife yet, he may give TALAQ even at HAIDH (menses)

If free of menses as she's not at age or at advanced age; IDDAT is 3 lunar months
If at advanced age or pregnant, she maybe given TALAQ after sex-relation to her
TALAQ occurs even jesting, even at anger, even if pregnant & she can't reject that
If he gives TALAQ at menses, he must reverse verdict & wait for 2nd till her TUHR
Women's security lies at Man's pronouncement & his respect lies at her chastity
HADITH indicates to care highly for the tongue & for private parts to get JANNAH
In BAAYEN needing clarity, intention of man is asked & his word has validity for it
But, his intention decides it for one or three; its invalid if he says he intended two
RAJ'AI means reversible & BAAYEN is reversible too; latter asks to marry her again
Man's intention in BAAYEN is valid as he tells it except if the situation rejects him
HF tells if someone is forced to pronounce TALAQ, it'd have validity if he says it
In previous, if he only writes it down without saying word TALAQ, it'd not occur
If man relates TALAQ to an act of his wife as condition, that act puts it upon her
Man's count for TALAQ, any type, is valid; for IDDAT, Woman's word has validity
By previous, AHLE-HADITH seem fine; at a sitting, TALAQ is one even if said more
All 4 IMAM agree that 3 TALAQ at a sitting in any condition puts all 3 to his wife
(Commenting on it), best seems now that ULEMA accept AHLE-HADITH collectively
In TALAQ, his word is good; it's better if his intention in BAAYEN is not challenged
In those days, TALAQ didn't put a woman to insecurity as she remarried very soon
Also, that wasn't such disgrace for her as now that enhances insecurity she incurs
Then, he bore brunt of adverse words & now, it is unjust to woman who bears it
The 'URF had a notable value & intention too had notable value at Prophet's time
Better seems ULEMA save relations rather than let them break (Comment ends)
TALAQ to wife to whom privacy isn't yet availed, is BAAYEN & it needs no IDDAT
Time affects TALAQ; man can't give it to woman not his wife at the time by ruling
If man says to wife tomorrow she is divorced; she gets it as FAJR breaks next day
If he divorces & says "at that place", it's instant save intention "if she goes there"
If man permits wife on TALAQ & she puts it on herself in same sitting, she'd get it
In previous, if she just takes-on a work or changes places, she'd lose permission
In previous, if she puts it on herself, it'd occur as RAJ'AI considered as one only
QUDURI tells if husband intended three & she puts all 3 on her, that'd take place
Previous seems odd as its BIDAH according to ruling; better to take it once only
Leaving to wife is as one RAJ'AI; its not BAAYEN as husband must say it if he wills
If man in good health gives BAYEN, she isn't heir to him even if he dies in IDDAT

If he's in an ailment of death & gives BAAYEN, it'd not bar her to be heir to him
If man gives TALAQ attaching insha-ALLAH in speech, it'd not take place on her
RAJ'AT is to accept wife in IDDAT as still in his marriage after giving TALAQ clearly
His acceptance maybe by words or by any act as allowed to husband with his wife
Wife's consent to his acceptance is of no consequence; she gave it at the marriage
It's better he makes 2 witnesses on TALAQ & on his RAJ'AT too for clarity in issues
If husband says after IDDAT that he made RAJ'AT & wife accepts, it's acceptable
In previous, if she denies his statement about it, her word is valid without oath
Word of the wife only values for disclosure of end of IDDAT as she knows it well
As the wife ends her 3 HAIDH (menses-period) fully after TALAQ, her IDDAT ends
End of her IDDAT is marked by 1st SALAH she reads after her bath at cleanliness
If she didn't take bath ending 3rd period & time of a SALAH elapses, IDDAT ends
If after her bath a section appears dry, he still has right to RAJ'AT till next SALAH
At RAJ'AI, he must ask permission of entry to room so RAJ'AT occurs only at will
After TALAQ, she has to live at husband's place till at-least the end of her IDDAT
If man pronounces 3 TALAQ to wife, he can't marry her again like in other types
But if she marries other who divorces her or dies, he may marry her after IDDAT
In previous, ruling is valid even if 2nd husband is a teenager & gets privacy to her
If these three, husband & wife & 2nd husband, agree upon TALAQ, it's HARAAM
Her word is acceptable if she tells that she had married then was divorced again
If the period elapsed allows acceptance, previous husband may marry her again
EELA is oath of man not to make sex-relations to his wife at-least for 4 months
Without such oath, EELA doesn't occur even if he avoids her for quite a time
He'd need KAFFARAH (fines to it) if he makes sex-relations to her in 4 months
KAFFARAH is that he frees a slave or clothes 10 needy ones or feeds 10 of them
If he's unable to KAFFARAH by previous then he has to keep 3 consecutive fasts
With such oath, his wife gets BAAYEN as 4 months elapse & he keeps his word
He can marry her again after 4 months; if his oath is to all future, it doesn't end
After he marries her again, he must pay KAFFARAH as he makes the sex-relation
He must refrain from such oaths ahead to keep his marriage intact & issue settles
If he's unable to sex-relation to end it (by illness; distance), verbal reversal is valid
If man speaks words needing clarity, he'd be asked for it & his word is acceptable
He may opt for EELA, ZIHAR or BAAYEN saying that his wife is HARAAM on him
KHULA' is contract ending marriage asked by the wife paying some money to him

It puts BAAYEN to the wife; she would pay the accepted amount to her husband
Marriage has aspect of EHSAAN (love) too even if asks ADL (contract) b/w couple
If both intend to separate, man must give her TALAQ without asking for money
If man does ask amount to accept her advice (KHULA'), it has to equal her MEHR
In previous, if he asks more than MEHR by her, KHULA' is valid but he's blamable
He's disallowed to ask any of HARAAM things as returns on providing her KHULA'
If wife asks KHULA on unseen amount & he accepts, she'd pay him the MEHR back
If wife asks MUGHALLAZA on 900 DIRHAM, husband might provide only one to her
In previous, she'd pay him the 3rd of 900 she had offered that equals 300 DIRHAM
Condition fulfilled in totality is as good as done but transaction allows division it in
In 3 articles of same value, one maybe taken at price; it's not necessary to take all
If he allows her a type of TALAQ, she may put that only to self; others don't apply
If man uses term MUBARAAT (separation) for the relation, it's in ruling as KHULA'
ZIHAR is to speak of wife (or of any part denoting her) as of his MEHRUM woman
MEHRUM means those women whom the man is totally disallowed to marry ever
ZIHAR occurs if he says of wife she's like his mother, sister or aunt to him in ruling
It occurs as he compares her in ruling; not by words she's his mother or looks alike
If he says that she's his mother, that's fib & if she looks like his mother, that's fine
ZIHAR asks KAFFARAH; he must free a slave before making of sex-relation to her
If unable to previous, he has to fast-on for two consecutive months as KAFFARAH
If unable to previous KAFFARAH too, he must feed 60 of needy persons 2 times
It's valid for him to feed a needy for 60 days or 10 needy for 6 days 2 times daily
ZIHAR used to make wife HARAAM forever; Islam allowed KAFFARAH giving ease
If the man at ZIHAR commits sexual act with wife before KAFFARAH, he is sinful
But there is no punishment on the previous issue; he must ask pardon to Allah
If he has 2 wives & he makes ZIHAR to both, he'd pay KAFFARAH for each one
In previous, one KAFFARAH allows relation to one of wives only as he wills by it
In previous, he may opt for one even after it; 60 fasts or feeding 60 needy ones
LI'AN is to curse someone so that he/she falls away from the blessing of Allah
It applies to man & wife as each testifies on other if man charges wife of adultery
Woman may file against him on this charge or if he rejects new-born as his own
If he doesn't have 4 witnesses to testify for charge on his wife, he'd make LI'AN
He says 4 times, by Allah he's truthful; fifth, he asks Allah's curse on him if liar
She says 4 times, by Allah he's liar; fifth she asks Allah's curse on her if truthful

The man remains in focus yet curse would fall upon woman if his charge is valid
QADHI would separate them after their oaths; LI'AN asks marriage's end W.I.E.
If husband has been punished in QADHF or as liar before, his word loses validity
QADHF is to charge someone of adultery; if he did so & lost it, LI'AN is void then
If husband charges his wife & she files a case, he has no option but to make LI'AN
If anyone of both doesn't make LI'AN, he/she would have to accept other's stance
Even by the acceptance, he/she isn't liable to HADD (QADHF or ZINA) respectively
If the wife is non-Muslim or punished before in ZINA (adultery), LI'AN is void then
In previous, LI'AN doesn't occur & it wouldn't even if the man was punished as liar
The man has to point-out the woman as he makes LI'AN; no doubt may remain
A.H. allows marrying her again if he reverses his charge or she's punished for that
Previous seems very wrong; HADITH tells clearly that they can never marry again
ZUFAR & A.Y. at HF, MALIK & SHAFA'I all agree that he can never marry her again
Low character is not capable to fulfill the high demands of Islamic Morality ever
LI'AN doesn't occur if the wife is not yet adult or is lunatic; no HADD occurs here
LI'AN also doesn't occur if man or wife is dumb & he/she wouldn't face HADD too
As charge can't occur by conditions so LI'AN doesnt occur if thats attached to it
If man charges without condition she has committed adultery, LI'AN does occur
If man charges wife of adultery at the child-birth, LI'AN would occur b/w them
Child is taken as his if his charge presents after much time of the birth by 'URF
Valid period in general not to take it as his, is when LI'AN occurs within 40 days
LI'AN may occur at any time; paternity to children isn't affected if not in period
If twins are born & he accepts paternity to 1st, LI'AN does occur & not otherwise
If he accepts it to second only, he'd get HADD; in any case, both are his offspring
Valid seems that in both cases when he accuses her of adultery, LI'AN takes place
IDDAT of TALAQ is counting 3 periods; it's 3 HAIDH or if isn't possible, 3 months
IDDAT due to husband's death is 4 lunar months & 10 days; death-day is day-one
IDDAT of divorce is three ways; to woman who gets HAIDH, its by end of 3 HAIDH
To women who doesn't get that due to small age or due to ripe age, its 3 months
To her who is pregnant, IDDAT is to the child-birth even if that occurs immediately
IDDAT occurs for that woman only to whom husband has availed rightful privacy
IDDAT at husband's death is 4 months & 10 days; if pregnant, it is to child-birth
If husband divorces as BAAYEN at his death-bed, she'd be heir if he dies in IDDAT
Her IDDAT in previous is the longer one that is b/w divorce & of husband's death

If NIKAH is FASID, IDDAT on her comes according to the ruling (end of 3 HAIDH)
If husband, not yet adult, dies & his wife is pregnant (by sin), it'd end at its birth
If someone divorces his wife at state of HAIDH, that HAIDH isnt counted at IDDAT
If man makes disallowed sex-relation in BAAYEN-IDDAT, she'd start 2nd IDDAT too
IDDAT starts immediately after TALAQ or just after husband's death without delay
If she was unaware of TALAQ & knew late, period elapsed from it is in her IDDAT
Previous is also valid for IDDAT of husband's death as period elapsed is counted
If whole period elapses after day of TALAQ or husband's death, she has passed it
IDDAT of FASID-NIKAH starts as her husband intends to avoid sex-relation to her
Alternately in previous, it commences from QADHI's verdict to rule their divorce
IDDAT asks for sadness on her part as MUTALLAQA (divorced woman) or widow
Muslim adult sane woman observes sadness (EHDAAD) & refrains from adorning
Notable is that in RAJ'AI, her adornment for husband is valid; he may make RAJ'AT
Muslim woman can't disclose herself to men with adornment except for husband
In general, adornment is disallowed to Muslim woman leaving home for necessity
Perfumes, powder, oils all are included in the adornment & attractive dresses too
Woman at her IDDAT mustn't be proposed yet man may suggest inclination to it
MUTALLAQA must stay home at IDDAT more strictly; widow may go out if needed
Even widow must return home as night falls at IDDAT, if she goes out for necessity
At IDDAT, she must spend nights at her house only; there she lost her husband
Widow must spend her IDDAT there if her share in husband's property permits it
it's disallowed that husband takes divorced wife at travel with him even if RAJ'AI
If man marries wife he gave BAAYEN in IDDAT & divorces her again before privacy
In previous, he has to provide her total MEHR & she'd have to start IDDAT again
Muslims' attempts must relate to providing NASB (relation of father) to the child
Only if no option is left after best of attempts, child is taken as of wrongful birth
Least period for pregnancy is 6 months & at-most 2 years in which NASB is valid
Previous ruling occurs If MUTALLAQA hasn't yet conformed the end of her IDDAT
If child is born within 2 years of TALAQ, ruling asks to take her pregnant at TALAQ
In previous If it was RAJ'AI, her periods are taken as lengthier; RAJ'AT is accepted
The Child-Birth marks the end to her IDDAT & her TALAAQ becomes BAAYEN now
If it's more than 2 years of TALAQ but not from IDDAT, it's valid; RAJ'AT accepted
If MUTALLAQA by BAAYEN, gives birth within 2 years of TALAQ, it's NASB is valid
In previous, if she gives birth after 2 years of TALAQ, the child's birth is unlawful

If widow gives birth to child within 2 years of husband's death, it's NASB is to him
If such woman conforms end of her IDDAT yet gives birth to child within 6 months
In previous, ruling of the 6 months count from her word; she's liar & NASB lawful
If man challenges child's NASB that his wife hasn't given birth to a child in IDDAT
In previous, woman only needs one lady-witness at child-birth to reject his claim
In previous if she was known as pregnant, child's NASB certainly relates to him
If she gives birth to child within 6 months of marriage, its NASB is unlawful then
If she gives birth to it after 6 months of marriage, its NASB is valid if man accepts
If he rejects, LI'AN occurs; if he says she hasn't given birth, a lady-witness suffices
For ZIMMI, their family-laws would be taken as practicable & applicable to them
So if ZIMMI gives TALAQ to his wife, she may not pass IDDAT if not their ruling
Marriage to the woman pregnant by adultery isn't void yet it's highly despicable
NAFAQAAT is expenditure by the man on his wife & children; bread, cloth, shelter
Provision of necessities is her right on man by status of both; average is feasible
She has right to refuse sex-relation till he pays MEHR; NAFAQAAT isn't disturbed
If she's NASHIZA (goes away leaving home unpermitted), she loses it till return
NASHIZA means uncaring & disobedient to husband; she is under the man's care
Wife doesn't get NAFAQA if at small age (not yet adult) as it's not asked of man
If the husband is not yet adult, his adult wife is liable to NAFAQA from his assets
He has to pay NAFAQA to his MUTALLAQA in IDDAT whether RAJ'AI or BAAYEN
Widow's NAFAQA doesn't occur at assets of deceased husband but she's an heir
If due to her sin, she gets TALAQ by husband, she doesn't get NAFAQA in IDDAT
Also, she would not receive any of her NAFAQA in her IDDAT if she leaves Islam
If she falls in sinful act after TALAQ in IDDAT, she'd still receive her NAFAQA in it
If she does HAJJ with NA-MEHRUM or imprisoned or abducted, she'd not get it
QUDURI mentions imprisonment for women; that doesn't seem valid as of now
If the wife becomes invalid at husband's house (& hers too), she'd get NAFAQA
In previous, she's liable to get female paid servant if the husband can afford it
She must get a separate room that she may apply her will without any intrusion
Husband reserves the right to stop entry of any of wife's relatives at their house
In previous, he isn't liable to stop MEHRUM near relatives to meet her anytime
Husband isn't liable to stop his wife to visit them yet he can limit it as he wills
If he is unable to provide her NAFAQA by efforts, he'd have to provide by loans
If husband disappears & a man has his assets, his family must get NAFAQA by it

In previous, custodian to assets may have guarantee of "no claim" at his return
In previous, guarantee is necessary as wife receives the amount of her husband
In Islamic Society, QADHI is rightful to decide for NAFAQA in absence of husband
As he isn't liable to support other needy relatives too, they'd not get NAFAQA
In Islamic Society, wife may claim NAFAQA or its increment at the QADHI's court
Even at favorable verdict, she doesn't get it whole or increment for time elapsed
In previous, QADHI may decide as exception that he pays even for time elapsed
If husband died not giving NAFAQA even after months of verdict in her favor
In previous, she wouldnt get it & is not liable to claim it at the QADHI's court
On contrary, if he gives NAFAQA in advance & dies, she's not liable to return it
NAFAQA is such liability on husband that even slaves used to give it at the time
Even female slave (of other person) taken as wife had to be given NAFAQA then
NAFAQA for children is liability of the father only, as husband provides for wife
He must provide woman to feed milk to his infant child if its mother declines it
In previous, she isn't rightful to ask UJRAH by its father to feed it (their child)
In previous even if he gives TALAQ to its mother, she's more rightful to feed it
It's disputed if she can ask UJRAH then as she's MUTALLAQA yet it isn't feasible
If ZIMMI girl turns Muslim, her husband must still pay expenses of their child
Children are taken as Muslims when one of the man & wife converts to Islam
After TALAQ father is liable to care for the male child as he becomes of 7 years
Mother has custody to child before 7; if she dies or marries, grandmother has it
If she even is not available then paternal grandmother gets its custody to care
If she even isn't available, unmarried sisters get custody to see to it to 7 years
Sisters to it are 3 ways; she's more rightful to it whose both parents are same
2nd rightful is that mother is same & father different; 3rd that has same father
Then maternal aunts (unmarried); priority to having same parents as its mother
As for female child of the divorced couple, she'd remain with mother till menses
Caretakers are same; other than mother & grandmother can see her to 9 years
If mother is Christian, she gets custody at TALAQ to its age of realizing morality
She is disallowed to take the child to place where it is inaccessible to its father
Man has to care for the sustenance of his father, mother & grandfather's family
NAFAQA doesn't occur for the non-Muslim yet the parents & wife are exception
In previous, grandfather, grandmother & his offspring are exception too if needy
If both father & son of needy person are well-off, son is liable to care for him

NAFAQA of close MEHRUM relatives falls on man if needy even if they're adult
MEHRUM are female relatives to whom his NIKAH is void; he must assist them
If he has special or crippled male relative, he has to care for him even if adult
If woman, MEHRUM to a special relative, is well-off, she must assist him then
MEHRUM relatives have share in his assets by MEERAATH (inheritance ruled)
NAFAQA for sustenance must be at-least equal to the share he has in his assets
Seems better to assist needy close relatives without any care to worldly returns
It's not due for adult off-spring (male or married female) if he/she is not Muslim
Previous ruling tells that their assistance is unnecessary even if they're crippled
Previous relates to ruling yet even with this ruling in issue, it's valid to help them
He will not give NAFAQA to any if he himself is needy except for wife & children
If man disappears, father may take his sustenance & his mother's from his assets
In previous, he can even sell some of his current assets to provide for sustenance
If the man returns, he can't ask ZAMAN from father as he has right over his assets
If someone somehow spends of his assets; on return, he may ask him a ZAMAN
If QADHI decided for NAFAQA & he didn't pay it for months; its loss is not asked
In previous, if QADHI allows taking loan on behalf of man; he'd be liable to pay it
JINAYAAT (QISAS & DIYAT) - HUDUD
CRIMES are classified into three categories; HUDUD, QISAS & DIYAT, TA'ZIRAAT
Crimes in HUDUD are 5; adultery, accusation of adultery, drinking of wine, theft
Last is the highway-robbery & that may include mutiny against the Islamic State
HUDUD once proven have the prescribed punishments as commanded by ALLAH
QISAS & DIYAT relate mainly to commitment of Murder & inflicting of Wounds
QISAS & DIYAT remain to the affected sides & are assisted by the verdict of QADHI
QISAS means life for life or wounds for wounds; QISAS is off by the DIYAT-amount
DIYAT is the amount where QISAS is not applicable as in an unintentional murder
All sins represent ZULM (all unjust) & FAHSHAA (shameful); we must avoid them
Men must see more to avoiding the ZULM & women more to avoiding FAHSHAA
Punishments in HUDUD target both of these & QISAS & DIYAT, mainly the former
TA'ZIRAAT are adversities in environment other than HUDUD and QISAS & DIYAT
It's beneficial much to read the Legal-Issue at my paper "The Islamic Guidelines"
If Muslims apply the Islamic Judicial System, there'd remain no adversity at land
All praise is for ALLAH Who set it for us; it is simple & simple is always the best
JINAYAAT is term mainly related to QISAS & DIYAT (crimes of Murder & Wounds)

In JINAYAAT, Murder is classified into 5 types; First of it is the Intentional Murder


Second of it is the Intention-Like; Third is by Accident; Fourth is the Accident-like
Last is CAUSAL as murder occurs due to the related action of unsuspicious person
Murder brings rulings 1-QISAS; 2-DIYAT; 3-KAFFARAH; 4-HIRMANIL-IRTH; 5-ITHM
These 5 are not respective punishments to the 5 types but occur in different ways
Intentional Murder is identified by weapon used to kill; use of gun now clarifies it
Anything that has sharpness to wound lethally puts charge of intentional murder
Intentional-Murder asks no KAFFARAH (compensation) but for QISAS (life for life)
QISAS is waived-off if the heirs to the murdered person forgive him taking DIYAT
DIYAT in Intentional Murder is anything of value to which they all agree mutually
Intention-Like is where the murder-weapon is controversial; it isn't lethal in itself
So previous occurs if it's committed by striking an object that's not lethal by 'URF
Intention-Like doesn't ask for QISAS yet DIYAT + KAFFARAH + ITHM occur in this
DIYAT is 100 camels of different ages yet better ruling is to pay 10000 DIRHAMS
DIYAT is ruled today by taking MP of 30630 gm of Silver; it equals specific value
KAFFARAH is to free Muslim slave (male/female) or to fast consecutive 2 months
If responsible man for Intention-Like is heir to murdered, HIRMANIL-IRTH applies
Accidental is where there is no intention to kill; it maybe due to wrong judgment
Or it may occur when the action was due onto a valid target but hit some person
It doesn't ask QISAS or ITHM to murder; DIYAT takes place here on the AAQILAH
AAQILAH are near-ones by tribal relation or profession; they'd assist financially
If he kills accidentally person hes heir to, HIRMAN (stop to inheritance) occurs
Previous seems to need scrutiny; HF at times invalidates man's word for himself
HF at times gives undue value to law than Muslims in general; trust must prevail
HF has ruling as if QISAS or KAFFARAH occurs, responsible heir faces HIRMAN too
Accident-Like is to kill without intention yet by natural action of responsible one
Previous applies as a sleeping person might fall on someone choking him to death
Ruling for Accident-Like is similar to the Accidental & so practically both are same
Causal is he becomes cause unintentionally to murder of an unsuspecting person
Previous occurs when he digs a well (not permitted) on way & a man falls in that
It asks for DIYAT & nothing else from the other of rulings related to the murder
QISAS occurs on intentional murder if heirs reject DIYAT; other types don't ask it
QISAS occurs even if man murders a ZIMMI or a slave & even if he kills a woman
QISAS occurs If man murders a child or a crippled, the rule is general "life for life"

It doesn't occur if an unauthorized man kills someone liable to death by the law
It doesn't occur if an unauthorized person kills person at asylum at Islamic land
It doesn't occur if murderer is child or lunatic & at where the heir-ship is present
it doesn't occur (& KAFFARAH too) if father kills son; DIYAT & HIRMAN do occur
Previous is exception as HF joins HIRMAN to QISAS/KAFFARAH; both are absent
If man is liable to take QISAS on father who kills his relative by wife, it isn't due
If a murder is by such lethal object that might kill by 'URF, QISAS becomes due
It's not appreciable by Islam to execute capital punishment by hanging in QISAS
If a man wounds someone by lethal weapon, he'd face murder-charge if he dies
If precision is hard, bones don't ask for QISAS; DIYAT of wounds is termed ARSH
If man breaks bone from joint, QISAS is possible by his same bone from the joint
Muscles or the soft part of nose & ear would be compensated by same in QISAS
End to sight asks to end sight by HF; feasible now is that ARSH only is asked in it
ARSH is better in the set-up as of now where QISAS to loss of any part is feasible
But, if someone is much bold to wound, Muslims must see how to deal with him
Wounds that affect face are SHAJJA & others at other parts are named JARAHAT
QISAS occurs in wounds that maybe compensated equally so bones are excluded
In cutting of parts, there are only 2 types of ruling; it's intentional or accidental
QISAS (life for life; wound for wound) is due if man kills woman; DIYAT is lesser
If a man causes loss of limb of a woman, it asks him for ARSH only & not QISAS
HF rules that parts of both vary & QISAS asks equality that's absent b/w them
Other 3 FIQH rule QISAS as valid b/w man & woman in parts too as in their lives
QISAS occurs b/w the Muslim & non-Muslim if the affected wills so, at wounds
If someone inflicts lethal wound to someone & he recovers, QISAS is invalid here
Previous is so as he is unable to inflict such a lethal wound & expect its recovery
If man with useless hand cuts other's hand, he may ask to cut the useless hand
The other option that the affected man has is that he takes ARSH specified to it
If SHAJJA is inflicted at head & QISAS puts lesser mark, he has the same options
QISAS doesn't occur on wounds put at the tongue or the penis due to inequality
If heirs to murdered person makes SULUH with murderer, right to QISAS ends
If only one of heirs makes SULUH or forgives him, DIYAT applies & not the QISAS
If group of persons murders a person intentionally, QISAS is ruled for all in group
If someone murders few persons & killed in QISAS of one, no heir is to ask DIYAT
On death of the responsible person to crime, QISAS ends from him then & there

If 2 men cut the hand of one person, QISAS doesn't occur yet ARSH falls on both
If a man cuts right hands of 2 men & they both ask for QISAS, his hand is cut too
Both of them are allowed to take DIYAT from him too & to share it accordingly
If one of affected presents case & takes QISAS, the other at arrival gets all DIYAT
If he kills a man intentionally & other is killed too accidentally by the same shot
In mentioned case, he's liable to QISAS for the first & to DIYAT for the other one
DIYAT for Intention-Like murder is female camels of different ages; in total 100
These are 25 of 1-plus years; 25 of 2-plus; 25 of 3-plus & last 25 of 4-plus years
Accidental also asks 100 camels of different ages lesser in value than previous
Now, it's better to apply DIYAT of 10000 DIRHAM in Intention-Like or Accidental
10000 DIRHAM (Silver Coins) is acceptable too by FIQH in both types of Murder
As of now, it amounts to the MP of 30630 grams of Silver; this is for both types
Whole DIYAT is applicable if such part is cut that wholly ends the facial beauty
Also, whole DIYAT occurs at the cutting of part that ends all faculty related to it
By previous, total DIYAT occurs if someone cuts soft part of nose or the tongue
Cutting the male part or making him an idiot by hitting on his head asks it fully
Shaving of beard that doesn't grow again asks for total DIYAT as it ends beauty
Likewise, the hair if they are shaved & doesn't grow again, ask for total DIYAT
Parts occurring at the body in pair, ask for total DIYAT together; one asks half
According to the previous, the eyebrows ask for total DIYAT if both are shaved
Cutting both hands or both legs or both ears or both lips all ask for total DIYAT
Damage to both testicles of man or both breasts of woman asks for it in total
For each finger (& thumb) of hand (or foot), DIYAT is tenth; no discrimination
For each of teeth, DIYAT is twentieth part of whole without any discrimination
Damage to one hand or one leg such that ceases function asks for half of DIYAT
Wounds at head are of different types affecting person; each has its own ruling
Only wound that may ask QISAS here is MUDHI'HA; DIYAT to it is the 20th part
MUDHI'HA is that serious wound in which the bone comes to view very clearly
It's the only wound that might remain equal in the QISAS while others can not
A wise capable honest man would decide for lesser wound specifying its DIYAT
Wound that breaks the bone asks for 10% of DIYAT; if displaced too, it is 15%
In JA'EFA (wound that penetrates body at chest or back), DIYAT is its One-Third
If JA'EFA is all through making hole & the wounded survives, it asks two-Third
If all fingers are damaged & they cease function, it asks for half of total DIYAT

Ruling stands with palm in it yet wrist asks more as decided by an honest man
If someone cuts sixth finger of a man, it needs the decision by an honest man
If someone affects tongue or penis of a child, it also does need such a decision
If by mistake, a man hits on someone's head & that causes MUDHI'HA to him
With MUDHI'HA it affects his mental stability adversely, DIYAT occurs in total
If all hair is damaged by the hit, it asks total DIYAT with or without MUDHI'HA
If he loses hearing or sight or speech by it, DIYAT is total + ARSH to MUDHI'HA
The rule for QISAS must always remain in view that equality in it is necessary
If someone breaks a tooth of a person but another develops there, ARSH is off
If the affected person recovers fully & there is no mark of wounds, ARSH is off
If hair ceased to grow by hit yet with time did grow, for liable to it, ARSH is off
But in issues where he recovers, the liable to wounds pays expenses to his cure
If by damage to a part another is affected, both do ask for ARSH yet QISAS is off
QISAS doesn't occur until the recovery of wound as then the issue becomes clear
If someone recovers from a deadly wound & the liable to it kills him by mistake
In previous, the liable person has to pay the DIYAT for the wound + total DIYAT
ARSH if lesser than twentieth part is to be paid by the liable person to wounds
If amount is more than twentieth part, ARSH is assisted in payment by AAQILAH
Woman is liable to ARSH lesser than half of twentieth; in more, ARSH is assisted
AAQILAH assist financially in DIYAT (ARSH) only if wrong is done unintentionally
If someone confesses to wrong that asks for DIYAT then he himself is liable to it
IQRAR to wounds or making SULUH with affected asks for immediate payment
If father murders his son intentionally, he'd pay DIYAT within 3 years by himself
DIYAT to murdered person is ruled as his left property; it'd be paid accordingly
If child or Lunatic kills a person even intentionally, it asks DIYAT from AAQILAH
If a person is liable to Causal Murder, his AAQILAH is responsible to pay DIYAT
But in previous, if valuable animal dies by cause, he'd pay ZAMAN to it himself
If ridden animal (or vehicle) kills someone being in driver's control, he is liable
In animals, rider is liable to any damage by its parts that are in front in his view
Being unintentional, such damage due to animal (or vehicle) asks only for DIYAT
If someone drives chain of camels that kills a man, DIYAT is on him & his helper
QUDURI narrates rulings for slaves involved in JINAYAAT; our study omits that
If wall (or building) is about to fall & owner is asked to demolish; he must do it
If that hurts or causes loss by fall & there are witnesses he was asked about it

With loss incurred after information & after time to break it; he'd pay for loss
If two riders (or drivers) clash by their mistake, death of both asks for DIYAT
If man hits pregnant woman & she lays down her pregnancy; he'd pay ZAMAN
In previous, he'd pay GHURRA (20th part); if woman dies, also the total DIYAT
If woman dies before laying down pregnancy; it'd only ask for whole of DIYAT
If pregnancy was alive at birth & died afterwards whole DIYAT occurs upon him
KAFFARAH is to free Muslim slave (male/female) or fast consecutive 2 months
QASAMAT is taking oath of 50 men from area where a man is found murdered
These 50 persons mustn't include women & children; WALI would choose them
Each of these would take oath that neither he's responsible nor he knows killer
Oath removes any claim of QISAS from persons at vicinity yet they'd pay DIYAT
MAALIK rules if 50 of heirs or close ones to murdered take oath, QISAS occurs
If someone denies oath, he'd be pressed so either he takes it or tells about killer
If there is no mark to take him as murdered, there occurs no QASAMAT for him
If blood flows from his nose, mouth or anus, QASAMAT is off at such indications
Previous tells that he might have been victim to some ailment that affected him
Absence of QASAMAT tells clearly postmortem isn't worthy at the Islamic Setup
If blood flows from eyes or ears then he'd be taken as murdered at that vicinity
If man was passing there on an animal (or vehicle) with a driver, QASAMAT is off
In previous, the driver is responsible to DIYAT unless he clears him by valid proof
If a person is found dead at a house, it's owner would be asked for his QASAMAT
DIYAT occurs unless he clears him by valid proof; only owner takes-up QASAMAT
A.Y. rules that all owners (previous or current) of place need taking-up QASAMAT
If a person is found murdered at ship, all present there would take-up QASAMAT
If a person is found murdered at a small Mosque, QASAMAT falls on the vicinity
If found at the main road used by all or at the capital Mosque, QASAMAT is off
DIYAT in previous is payable by the BAITUL-MAAL (the Government Treasury)
If found at jungle in control of Muslims with no building near, QASAMAT is off
In previous, DIYAT for him in such situation becomes payable by the treasury
If found b/w 2 towns, the near-one has to be asked to take-up QASAMAT at him
If found inside waters of river that flows the corpse; there occurs no QASAMAT
If found near the bank not flowing in waters, QASAMAT occurs on nearby town
If WALI of murdered accuses one of vicinity as liable to it, QASAMAT still occurs
In previous if he accuses someone other than the vicinity, QASAMAT is off to it

If anyone blames a man from amongst them, he'd take oath with his exception
If any 2 blame a man other than them, he has to take oath he isn't responsible
MA'AQIL is plural & related to DIYAT; this section deals with persons that pay it
Helpers to man are named as his AAQILAH (MA'AQIL) & stand for him financially
DIYAT falls upon a person on the four types of murder except for the intentional
Intentional may ask DIYAT too if heirs to murdered take it leaving claim to QISAS
AAQILAH mostly related to the affected person by his family or by his profession
As persons at AAQILAH are many, each pays very meager amount within 3 years
Each one of them may provide 4 DIRHAMS in total within 3 years; that would do
As noted if DIYAT is lesser than twentieth part of total DIYAT, he'd pay it himself
AAQILAH would not pay for SULUH the murderer makes with heirs of murdered
AAQILAH would pay if a person murders a slave by mistake assisting financially
HUDUD are specific punishments (of 5 crimes) given as commanded by ALLAH
These are ZINA (adultery), QADHF (accusing someone of ZINA), becoming Drunk
And last 2 are the Brutal-Robbery (includes active revolt against Islam) & Theft
In HUDUD, doubts change it to TA'ZIR; first 2 do need 4 virtuous witnesses for it
Witnesses to first 2 must fulfill necessary conditions + most virtuous character
ZINA only occurs if the sin/crime is done the normal way & seen by all witnesses
All witnesses must have seen the act most clearly without any doubt about that
These witnesses must have good eye-sight; they must have an angelic character
If he accepts ZINA 4 times on his own self, his acceptance has validity by the law
In previous, his confession must occur 4 times in separate sits in front of QADHI
Verdict to ZINA by MUHSAN is taken as RAJM (stoning) to committer if proved
MUHSAN means married person that's adult, sane, Muslim, free, validly married
He must have had the rightful privacy with his wife; she also must be MUHSANA
HADITH mentions RAJM but it needs detail; please see - "The Islamic Guidelines"
If witnesses back-out or committer to ZINA runs away at execution, it is called off
Other than MUHSAN is given 100 whips as punishment to ZINA by ordinary whip
It'd be provided by balanced hits at different places at the back covering SATAR
SATAR for man is from belly to knees; he is not hit on head, face, SATAR at front
SATAR for woman is whole physique & she'd be punished sitting, not in common
Punishment of man is to be witnessed by some men; of woman by some women
Its execution would be by a man for the male; by a woman for the female strictly
In previous, though not wrong if female is hit by male yet highly better to avoid

Person who had confessed to ZINA may reverse statement even at the execution
In previous, his reversal would be accepted & the execution would be called-off
If one of witnesses from the 4 takes his statement back, all 4 would face QADHF
If previous is at RAJM asked by QADHI, his verdict is then called-off immediately
If one of such witnesses backs-out after its execution then he only faces QADHF
He'd pay fourth of DIYAT; in verdict of whips too, one backing-out faces it only
If witnesses are lesser than 4 or turn so by backing-out at RAJM, all face QADHF
QADHI wouldn't give more punishment than specific to HADD; it is disallowed
Execution of verdict for HADD is postponed for invalid man & pregnant woman
Time-Factor has importance at charge of ZINA; it must be within a few months
ZINA occurs only if that crime is done the normal way & seen by all witnesses
Doubt asks to change it to TA'ZIR; doubts may occur due to misunderstandings
That may occur as a person does it taking it as his right but actually that isn't so
Misunderstanding may occur by error to realize situation; it leads to the wrong
It's probable too he takes erroneous ruling on an issue & does the wrongful act
In previous, HADD doesn't come on him but TA'ZIR; it still remains highly sinful
Drinking KHAMR or losing senses by another drink leading to it asks for HADD
Being drunk by taking NABIDH (dates-water becoming viscous) asks for HADD
Wines made by Grapes (KHAMR) to lose senses ask HADD even if taken just a bit
Others known as wines (SAKAR) ask HADD only if they lead to the drunken state
HADD doesn't occur just by its smell from the mouth or by seeing it in the vomit
If he confesses to Wines (KHAMR; SAKAR) & takes it back, HADD is off from him
If a man confesses to drinking but he has no smell at mouth, confession is void
HF asks for 80 lashes as its punishment; SHAFA'I asks for 40 & this seems better
HF tells that one time confession of man for drinking (KHAMR; SAKAR) is enough
Previous seems to need scrutiny; it's not in accordance to number of witnesses
QADHF means to throw; in HUDUD, it is to accuse someone of ZINA at the court
If hes unable to prove his accusation, punishment is 80 lashes but with leniency
Accused person must be adult, sane, Muslim, free, clear from blame of adultery
No-one shall be called a son from adultery as speech needs care in Islamic set-up
Affected person may file QADHF against such accuser even if his mother is dead
If deceased is accused, person affected adversely at heir-ship may claim QADHF
Even if the person affected negatively is not Muslim, he has the right to QADHF
If accusation of adultery entered at court is taken-back, such reversal isn't valid

Words that are not clearly abusive of adultery do not lead to HADD of QADHF
If he is blamed because of making sex-relation to wife whom he gave BAAYEN
In previous, the blaming person would not face the charge of HADD of QADHF
If woman is abused who had made LI'AN as husband denied child born to them
In previous, it's very wrongful yet HADD of QADHF to such abusive person is off
If someone abuses to something other than adultery, such may ask TA'ZIR here
If an act is HARAAM & taken abusive by 'URF & depends on free-will of abused
All 3 together may lead to TA'ZIR; "calling ass" is out due to absence of points
TA'ZIR may ask for lashes (up-to 39), imprisonment & monetary fines to person
HF rarely asks monetary fines; verdict for prisons seems good to 8 months only
Flogging is better in anything of shameful nature & justice needs its implement
QUDURI tells if he dies by lashes executed, it's not claimable; this asks scrutiny
SARIQA (theft) & QAT-UT-TARIQ (Highway Robbery) are 2 other issues at HADD
Former is named as SARIQA-SUGHRA (lesser theft) & latter KUBRA (higher theft)
Conditions to theft are it occurs on 10 DARAHIM (least) taken of protected place
Relatives' homes & places accessible to person are not protected places for him
QUDURI tells if a person confesses once, it'd be enough proof; this asks scrutiny
Witnesses needed are 2 in SARIQA; he must confesses 2 times at separate sits
Ten DARAHIM comes to MP of 2.75 TOLA Silver; better seems NISAB of ZAKAT
Petty things anyone may take for personal use are excluded as fish from water
Edibles like milk, fruits, meat don't ask for SARAQA; all edibles seem excluded
Things sacred don't ask for the HADD of theft as thief might get spiritual gains
Things to avoid are out giving him benefit of doubt that he took to dispose-off
Kidnapping of child isnt included in theft yet better to put it at QAT-UT-TARIQ
In previous, even if the child has gold or silver on it, it doesn't ask for SARAQA
Books & Registers having knowledge & useful information are excluded from it
QUDURI includes Accounts-Registers of businesses but that also seem excluded
SARAQA of dogs & music-instruments dont ask HADD due to benefit of doubt
Leopards are also excluded from SARAQA (perhaps they also were tamed then)
Precious wood in one's custody asks for HADD if stolen from a protected site
If ordinary thing is turned to something precious & then stolen, it asks HADD
Thugs, Deceivers, Snatchers, Ruffians aren't thieves by ruling & ask for TAZIR
Taking things from Treasury or place where his access is valid or he has a say
In previous, he's wrongful surely yet not a thief so HADD is not implemented

Protection poses in two manners; protection by placement & by care-taking


Anything kept at home is protected; the latter applies if it's at care anywhere
If place is accessible commonly, it isn't protected place & HADD doesn't apply
QUDURI tells if a thief gives stolen items to one out by a hole (window, shaft)
Both don't get HADD as thief inside didn't take it out & other did not steal it
Previous is technical & it's theft surely; such things don't have value in Justice
QUDURI tells if he steals just by inserting hand inside hole he dug (or any hole)
That one doesn't face HADD but TA'ZIR as it is not theft; this issue seems fine
If someone takes his stolen goods on an animal (or a vehicle) he'd face HADD
If there are more than one in stealing goods; all would face HADD of SARAQA
If someone stole goods from KAMEEZ (sleeves or pockets), he'd face SARAQA
If someone stole amounts (gold, silver) from chest by hole, he'd face SARAQA
HF asks to cut right hand for theft, he'd get care for its healing instantly then
HF tells If he steals the 2nd time, left leg is cut; for the 3rd, he is imprisoned
In previous at first, better seems to cut his right-hand fingers (& not thumb)
Second time, it still is HADD that asks total right hand now to be amputated
Third time, it'd be TA'ZIR; better to study "The Islamic Guidelines" for justice
Owner to stolen items must file case himself & must be present at execution
One from whose custody, items are stolen must also be present at execution
If owner gifts stolen items or sells to thieves after verdict, verdict is void then
Previous implies that neither his hand is cut nor any of punishments applied
If same thing is stolen again by same thief, it'd not ask for HADD to him now
If thief has used the stolen item, he would not be asked any ZAMAN for that
If he has the same with him, he must return the same to the owner as it is
If the thief proves what he stole is substantially his own too, HADD to it ends
QAT-UT-TARIQ is Brutal Robbery where help against it is futile or impossible
Highway-Robbery is included in it & shows their conviction to Might is Right
Mutiny against the Islamic-Administration is also included in QAT-UT-TARIQ
Kidnapping of any person at Islamic Living is included in it; law must see to it
If they are caught while they have murdered anyone committing the robbery
They'd face HADD & Murder & maybe killed in the HADD; QISAS is void here
If they loot & each one receives up-to NISAB of theft; it's the QAT-UT-TARIQ
They'd get one of 4 punishments that are mentioned in Surah-MAE'DAH-33
Killed without mercy; Crucified; Hand & Leg Cut (opposite sides); or Exiled

If crucified, they'd remain hanging 3 days so that people note consequences


If robbers had a child or a lunatic in them, HADD drops-out from all of them
If they had someone that is relative to robbed person, HADD is off from all
HADD in previous is off but if murder is charged too, QISAS & DIYAT occurs
If a robber kills someone at the robbery, all would face the charge of murder
Islamic Criminal Law is the only Law-Code that can eradicate all evil if applied
Islamic Criminal Law is practicable even now; it needs commitment to apply
Matrimonial-Issues & Criminal-Law at QUDURI end here; Al-Hamdu-Lillah
Al-ASHRIBA - SAID - UDH-HIYYA
AL-ASHRIBA is the plural of SHARAB that means every kind of the liquid taken-in
Rulings for four of AL-ASHRIBA are told at this section that are strictly prohibited
KHAMR (Grapes-Juice) that affects the tongue acutely; its boiled, viscous & frothy
ASEER (Grapes-TILA) boiled to extent that it dries remaining lesser than two-third
NAQI-UT-TAMR (SAKAR; Dates extract) is boiled to affect tongue acutely; viscous
NAQII-UZ-ZABIB (Resin's extract) is boiled & is frothy to extent that it intoxicates
Previously mentioned four all are HARAAM to take-in, the first-one is mainly so
First was prepared by keeping Grapes-Juice for a long time & sometimes buried
QUDURI tells except the first, others are HARAAM only when cause drunkenness
NABIDH (water having sweetness) by Dates or Resin is fine even if its boiled a bit
SAKAR means the intoxicating drink & TILA is intoxicating Concentrate of Grapes
Boiled KHALITAIN (mixture of NAQI - Dates & Resins) is fine if doesnt intoxicate
NABIDH prepared by honey or fig is fine to use & also by wheat & barley is fine
Grapes-TILA if boiled more than two-third, changes it so as to make it fine to use
Drinking something taken as wine by URF & losing senses by that asks for HADD
If wine is made or turns Vinegar, it's fine to use; SHAFA'I invalidates if it's made
Now, the best rule seems little of wines by Grapes, Dates, Resins are HARAAM
Better to term these 3 as KHAMR; little of it asks HADD if taken wines by URF
Others would ask for HADD only if they do intoxicate the drinker taking them in
Now as wines are specified (all strictly to be avoided); law must see to previous
If utensils for wines can be washed well & no other available, they maybe used
SAID means hunting; here QUDURI presents hunting by trained animals as dog
Leopard & Falcon (Kite) maybe trained for hunting; their attitude shows training
Animals trained do not run-away with the catch while the Bird responds to call
If it dies at attack by animal/bird left on it by name of Allah, it still is valid to eat

Slaughter of edible animal is by two ways; one is by a sharp knife by Allah's name
Other is of hunted animal needed for eating; trained animal/bird is like knife to it
if Allah's name isn't taken leaving animal/bird on hunted animal, it'd be HARAAM
The hunted animal is HARAAM if its blood does not flow-out & it is found dead
If animal eats from it; it's HARAAM to eat; if hunter-bird eats it, it maybe eaten
If the Muslim hunter forgets to say Allah's name at it, use of the prey is still valid
If the catch is found with life, it must be slaughtered first way to validate it's use
If animal chokes it to death without flowing its blood, it's invalid to eat or to use
If an animal sent without Allah's name on it, accompanies it then also it's invalid
If an untrained animal accompanies the trained dog; the hunted is invalid to eat
If arrow pierces hunted animal by Allah's name & its blood flows, its use is valid
If arrow hits it without piercing it, it must be slaughtered to validate eating of it
In previous, if it falls dead by the arrow hitting it, it is not valid to eat it or use it
If hunted ran-away with arrow & found early with no mark but of arrow, it's valid
If it was hit & fell in water, it's invalid to eat as its death maybe due to drowning
If an animal is hit & fell down then fell again from there & died, it's invalid to eat
If an arrow hit it by its width, it is invalid to eat unless slaughtered the first way
If stone hits an animal with force & it dies, it's invalid to eat even if blood flows
Previous seems well in bullets too; it's invalid unless slaughtered prior to death
If arrow kills an animal & cuts off part, that part is invalid but rest is valid to eat
QUDURI tells the allowed & disallowed if it's cut more than a part & dies by effect
In previous, if it kills it cutting-off major part, better seems now that it's left fully
If hunter doesn't believe that Allah is the only True Lord, his hunt is invalid to eat
If person (Muslim) hits an animal & it doesn't affect it & another Muslim kills it
Animal previously mentioned is fallen by second but it's valid to take as of both
If hit of the 1st person affects him so that it's easy to catch & still another kills it
In previous, it's for the first one & it'd be HARAAM on both; 2nd will pay ZAMAN
An animal not edible yet it's usable in medicine (but not swine), it's well to hunt
As of now, animals slaughtered by good Muslims only in valid way are fine to eat
If someone is in EHRAAM (travelling by the intention of HAJJ), his hunt is invalid
For slaughter of animal, sharp knife must cut b/w neck & upper part of the chest
Slaughter needs cutting of 4 of pipes; HULQUM (trachea) & MARI'UN (Esophagus)
Last 2 of these are near to previous 2 that are called as WADAJAN (blood vessels)
If any 3 of these 4 are cut, the slaughter is done & the animal is valid to eat & use

Slaughter needs that blood flows-out by sharp knife or by its worthy substitute
It's despicable way to cut whole of head but not despicable to eat such an animal
If animal is cut from back of neck cutting needed site before its death, it's valid
In previous if it dies before cutting of the needed site, it'd be HARAAM to eat
To tamed animal, slaughter is only valid the first way i.e. not by hitting an arrow
If domestic tamed animal suddenly gets wild, it maybe slaughtered by 2nd way
It's better to slaughter camel letting it stand (NAHAR) striking by a sharp knife
But it's better to slaughter other animals by laying them down by a sharp knife
If after the slaughter, it's cub/lamb is found dead, thats HARAAM to eat/use
Animals having hunting teeth & birds having hunting claws, are invalid to eat
Previous tells that hunting animals & birds feeding on meat are invalid to eat
Birds/animals eating grass are valid to eat; those that eat of dead are not valid
Eating of big lizard (that lives on less water mostly at deserts); is invalid to eat
It's better not to eat horse though reluctantly allowed by HF; Rabbit is allowed
Skin of the swine is not allowed to use due to filth; human-skin is disallowed too
Human-Skin has sanctity never to be violated; filth maybe used at utmost need
Domestic asses/mules are disallowed to eat; some of FAQIH allow the wild asses
From waters, only fish is allowed to eat but it's not edible if it flows upon it dead
Locusts are fine to eat without slaughter as are fish; these often attack the crops
UDH-HIYYA is the animal that is specified for the sacrifice at EID of ZIL-HAJJAH
It is due on Free Muslim not travelling & has NISAB of ZAKAT after the necessity
Previous implies that all liable to pay the FITHRAH are liable to make sacrifice too
He'd sacrifice a goat/sheep for his own self; he may sacrifice for his small children
It's allowed that he sacrifices a cow/bull/camel that would have 7 shares in that
Each must give his full amount of shares; any lesser makes it void for all of seven
Time for sacrifice commences from FAJR at 10th of ZIL-HAJJAH yet this asks detail
Where EID-SALAH is read, it must end before sacrifice; villagers may do it at FAJR
If it's read at many places, one giving sacrifice there must read EID-SALAH first
There're 3 days for due sacrifice starting from FAJR of 10th to MAGHRIB of 12 th
Nights are included here & if provision of lights is well for it; it's fine at nights too
Sacrificial animal must not be blind, one-eyed or lame unable to walk even a little
Totally thin & weak are invalid too; and that having ear or tail damaged or absent
These animals mentioned are invalid to sacrifice; the itchy or mad animal is fine
Even if it's lacks horns (or damaged from above) or castrated; it's fine to sacrifice

Camels, Cow/Bull, Goat/Sheep all are well to sacrifice; Camels must be of 5 years
Cow/Bull needs to be of 2 years at-least; Goat/Sheep needs to be of year at-least
If a sheep is only of 6 months or so yet it looks as if of a year, it's well to sacrifice
Man giving sacrifice may eat of it himself; he may provide it to both rich & poor
It's better to provide at least its third to poor; these are days asking for sacrifice
The animal's skin must be given into SADAQAH (charity) to the rightful institution
In previous, it's inappropriate to give the skin to slaughterer as his wages to work
It's better that he slaughters his animal by himself if he's able to manage it well
if someone slaughters other's animal by mistake; sacrifice for other is done well
AIMAAN - DAA'WA SHAHADAAT
AIMAAN are oaths taken; it has 3 kinds; GHAMOOS (it's taken on a fib knowingly)
Second of these is MUN'AQIDA (oath taken for future to do or not to do a thing)
Third of these is LAGHW (oath taken on issue as he understands it but it isn't so)
If after GHAMOOS he repents, he must ask Allah for mercy; there's no KAFFARAH
MUN'AQIDA is to be fulfilled & if he breaks it, it'd surely need KAFFARAH from him
LAGHW occurs unintentionally by error in perception; we hope ALLAH forgives it
If he breaks MUN'AQIDA by will, by mistake or due to force, all are same in ruling
By mistake includes complete forgetfulness that he had to refrain from it by oath
Allah may take oath of anything He intends; creatures must take oath by Him only
Taking oath by Him maybe by His name or any of His attributes as generally done
QUDURI tells about His attributes that are improper to mention in taking of oath
Oaths by His attributes as by His anger or by His punishing power, are improper
Oaths by taking the name of Prophet Muhammad PBUH or by KA'ABAH are void
Previous is because such oaths aren't taken by Allah's name or by His attributes
QUDURI takes oath by the Holy Quran as void; HF allows it as it's Allah's speech
Al-Hamdu Lillah; all praise & thanks are only to Allah the True Lord of all worlds
Oath is MUN'AQIDA by intention if it's by Allah's name & preposition is omitted
If one puts an act to perform by Allah's name if some work is done, it is oath too
Previous is termed as NADHR one has to fulfill; it must represent thanks to Allah
If someone takes oath saying he'd be out of Islam, oath occurs but result is void
In previous, he'd not be out of Islam if he does it but it's very wrongful to say such
If someone takes oath by asking Allah's anger if he does it or calling himself sinful
In previous, his oath wouldn't occur; he'd be very wrongful because of such words
If he breaks MUN'AQIDA, KAFFARAH to it is freeing of slave or clothe 10 of needy

Cloth in previous must be such that it's valid for the needy to wear at his SALAH
It's valid as KAFFARAH to feed 10 of needy for two times as we studied in ZIHAR
If anything of previous is impossible for him, he'd fast consecutively for 3 days
If someone intends to pay KAFFARAH before the break of his oath, it is not valid
If someone takes oath on one of sinful acts, he must break it & pay its KAFFARAH
If a non-Muslim takes an oath & becomes Muslim, he'd not pay KAFFARAH to it
If a man prohibits a thing on him as HARAAM, it's not so; his word is most sinful
He must use it as he intends & he must pay KAFFARAH avoiding the sinful speech
If he takes all as HARAAM on him, it's "foods" de-facto save when he clarifies "all"
NADHR must ask for such things only that shows worship & thanks to Allah only
Whatever it asks, that must be obligatory on Muslims at-least once in whole life
Taking on self to read SALAH or keep SIYAM on fulfillment of needed work is fine
Even to read DURUD for 1000 times at fulfillment of the needed work is fine too
DURUD is asking of Allah's blessing for last Prophet Muhammad PBUH; it's WAJIB
If he says he'd do good deed without attaching anything to it, he must do that
NADHR may represent a thing he intends or a thing that he doesn't want to occur
It's necessary to do the good deed at fulfillment of intended work as he specified
If NADHR is on a thing he needs avoidance to; he has 2 options at its occurrence
In previous, he may do as he has specified or give KAFFARAH to it as his options
He may take oath not to eat a thing putting some monetary fines if he does it
Then if he does it, it's valid for him not to pay fines to it but the KAFFARAH now
If oath is not to enter any house, it'd not break by entering KA'BAH or a mosque
If oath is not to speak for so-&-so time, it'd not break by reading of Holy Quran
If oath is not to wear dress he's wearing, it'd not break if he changes it instantly
If oath is not to ride animal/car he's inside, it doesn't break as he gets-off instant
If oath is not to enter house he's in, it'd not break unless he departs even if later
If oath is not to enter any house, it'd not break if he enters any of ruined houses
If oath is not to enter the house he indicates, it'd break if he enters that house
If that house turns to ruins, his oath would still break if he enters the ruins there
In previous if it is changed into public place, it would not break if he enters it then
If oath is not to enter specific room, it'd not break on his entry to it after it falls
If a female takes an oath not to speak to X's wife & she's divorced by X after that
Then if she speaks to her after her divorce from X, her oath doesn't break by this
Likewise, if oath indicates someone's place, that oath remains to his ownership

In previous, if oath is not to enter X's place, it doesn't break at entry if X sells it
if oath is not to talk to someone providing identity, it's indicative to his person
Previous tells that if oath is not to talk to "the young rascal" (as taken by 'URF)
Oath would hold-on even if young turns old; it'd break by talk to him even then
If someone takes oath not to eat specific lamb, oath holds-on as it turns a sheep
If oath is not to eat of unripe dates, it'd not break if he eats from the ripe dates
If oath is not to eat meat then if he eats fish (or even chicken), it'd not break by it
Previous is due to 'URF; unripe & ripe are different; fish isn't mentioned as "meat"
If oath is not to eat specific wheat-grains then if he eats bread of it, it'd not break
In previous, his oath breaks if he takes them roasted or boiled directly in its shape
If someone takes oath not to speak to someone & speaks to him as he sleeps-on
In previous there're 2 rulings; to QUDURI oath breaks; to most others, it doesn't
Former seems better as he commits the act who took an oath at the first place
If oath is not to talk to person save by his consent then talks without it, it breaks
In previous, it'd break even if he received his consent but he is yet unaware of it
If AMIR (governor) of area asks a man to inform him of any rogue entering there
The man's oath to this service relates only to his administration & not afterwards
If oath is not to enter someone's house & he comes to its roof by roof, it'd break
In previous, his oath doesn't break if he stands at the door in front but not inside
If oath is not to eat a roasted thing, it refers only to meat as that often is roasted
If oath is not to eat a part like organ-meat, it's on 'URF so if it's of a deer, it's fine
If oath is not to eat bread, others than bread at his area is fine to eat due to 'URF
If oath is not to make transaction, it'd not break if he appoints some WAKIL to it
If oath is not to marry specific lady, it'd break if he marries her even if by WAKIL
If someone says at oath "by the will of Allah" in ongoing speech, it doesn't occur
QUDURI tells 2 or 3 more ways where oath doesn't break even if words indicate it
Major point is that in oaths, intention inside & 'URF outside does matter highly
If oath is not to speak to someone for some period, it's on 'URF mostly 6 months
If oath is not to speak to him for a little time, it's on "URF; mostly it's for 3 days
It's wrong to cease talks to any for more than 3 days yet allowed if sinful person
If someone takes oath not to do a thing, it'd naturally be taken for his whole life
If someone takes oath to do a deed, he fulfills it as he does it once only after that
If he takes oath about his wife she wouldn't leave home except by his permission
In previous, she must take his permission each time she leaves or his oath breaks

If he takes oath not to eat breakfast, he mustn't eat anything till past the noon
Likewise if it's for lunch/dinner, he must refrain from eating till coming midnight
If oath is not to eat gravy, he must avoid liquids to which bread is soaked by 'URF
If oath is taken to pay debts in the near future, it means within a month de-facto
If oath is taken to impossible tasks as to convert stones to gold or to talk to dead
Previous oaths are invalid; If he meant it; he would pay KAFFARAH to such oath
DARAHIM impure in silver are DHUYUF; these were medium of exchange too then
Previous DARAHIM were not taken by BAITUL-MAAL or the big dealers in business
If a man takes oath to pay debts within a day & pays such DARAHIM as previous
By paying of DHUYUF, his oath is fulfilled as he has paid by medium of exchange
If someone takes oath he'd receive his debt only in whole or only by installments
If he takes in installments (former) or whole (latter), it breaks on the full custody
If oath is to visit a place & his death approaches, it breaks only at last moments
He has to pay KAFFARAH for it now; he's not liable to pay it before oath breaks
In study of DAA'WA at QUDURI, it's more required to realize the era it relates to
Now, we have documentation for ownership yet clauses in law that bar justice
At those times there was no documentation yet worthy QADHI managed affairs
These QADHI were readily accessible; now unworthy officials, undue procedures
Seems that with all hard-work of the day, those times were still better for justice
It'd highly benefit insha-Allah to read "The Islamic Guidelines" (to environment)
DAA'WA means to claim the possession of something towards own in dispute
Claimer to its possession is MUDDA'I & on whom claimed, is MUDDA'A-ALAIHE
The thing in dispute is termed as MUDDA'A; claimer may leave his right to claim
MUDDA'A-ALAIHE has to face if something in his possession is claimed by other
The MUDDA'A in dispute must be totally clear by quality & quantity at the court
Claim may relate to DAYN (debt) or to AIN (tangible item) at somebody's custody
Suppose the claim is to specific car (AIN), it'd be brought & detail would be given
MUDDA'A-ALAIHE has to bring that particular car to the court for QADHI to see it
If that isnt possible, QADHI would go to see it at site or send his assistant for it
If the property is in dispute, detail to location must be given but seeing is better
MUDDA'I has to claim at court if he really needs it & the defendant must come
If X claims for 10000 DIRHAM upon Y; now if Y accepts his claim, the case settles
Court would finalize time-frame of payment by Y to X & there is no further issue
If in this case Y rejects his claim, X would provide 2 good witnesses to his claim

If QADHI accepts witnesses & their word for X, he'd settle the case in favor of X
It's notable that QADHI settles the case unless Y challenges witnesses instantly
If there are no witnesses or are unacceptable to QADHI, Y has to take oath for it
X would certainly ask QADHI to demand oath from Y on the validity of Y's word
If QADHI sees witnesses aren't worthy or readily available, he'd ask oath by Y
If Y takes oath without hesitation, he'd get verdict in his favor; else he loses it
Be mindful that we all are Muslims; all concerned at court must see to it strictly
TAMLIK (possession) occurs by transaction of MABI' or by getting it as gift (HIBA)
It may occur by WIRASAT (inheritance) too; witnesses to TAMLIK gives X strength
SAHIBUL-YADD (that has custody of AIN claimed) doesn't need to give witnesses
Yet if SAHIBUL-YADD has reason to custody, his case becomes strong by his oath
QADHI sees cause of each to respective TAMLIK yet his verdict needs set process
He'd give special attention to witnesses of the claimer & oath of the defendant
If the MUDDA'A-ALAIHE doesn't take oath, QADHI would ask him for it 3 times
If MUDDA'A-ALAIHE doesn't comply, QADHI would decide in favor of claimant
If a man claims that a woman is his wife & she disclaims, he'd give 2 witnesses
If he is unable to do so, she is not asked to take oath; so he would lose the case
The previous is valid in reverse too; if a woman claims a man to be her husband
She either gives valid witnesses to it or either loses it; he's not liable to take oath
Claim of RAJ'AT, Claim of son upon someone, Claim of HUDUD (specially QADHF)
Claim of RAJ'AT in EELA, Claim of LI'AN by wife (if husband calls her adulteress)
Such previous claims ask witnesses to claimants & don't ask oath to defendants
In DAA'WA, claimants might all be SAHIBUL-YADD or one of them might be that
It's possible that none of them is SAHIBUL-YADD, all claiming for a specific thing
Seeing their DAA'WA, claim maybe for MILKE-MUTLAQ (no reason given to claim)
Or MILKE-MUQAYYAD (reason given to claim); claimant may claim by any of two
Claimants may take different reasons in MILKE-MUQAYYAD & there're levels to it
If X says he bought it; Y says he got it by inheritance; Z says it was HIBA to him
Preference here is as previous; X's word of its transaction is strong; HIBA is weak
Dispute may present claimants with the same reason as all may claim buying it
Few may give good detail to claim by time & place for custody; others may not
In MILKE-MUTLAQ, testimony of outsiders (not SAHIBUL-YADD) has more weight
Claim with better detail has preference; with dates given, better is that falls first
MILKE-MUQAYYAD has preference on MUTLAQ & strong reason has preference

If 2 persons claim specific AIN that's in custody of third; both present witnesses
In previous, if witnesses are acceptable indicating ownership without any reason
It denotes MILKE-MUTLAQ; claims of both are accepted; each gets half ownership
If one finds the verdict unacceptable, he may leave his share in favor of the other
He may sell his share by MP to other or buy other's share at MP if he agrees to it
SAHIBUL-YADD isn't consulted here as BAYYENAH (witnesses) is given for claims
If 2 men dispute on a woman known as unmarried, each claiming she's his wife
Their valid witnesses give the woman an option to accept one of the claimants
As previous case is unique, validity of witnesses asks that she must accept one
If 2 men dispute on AIN as one claims its purchase & other HIBA from the same
Witnesses are good at both sides, the former would get preference in the claim
But if one claims its purchase & other HIBA by another man; no preference here
If man claims purchase from X of AIN, & X's wife claims it as MEHR by witnesses
Both get half of ownership if respective claims do have witnesses; no preference
If two persons claim for AIN; one claims it's RAHAN to him & other claims HIBA
Both have good witnesses for custody; preference at the previous is to RAHAN
If 2 men claim AIN bought by different persons on different dates by witnesses
Neither of two in previous gets preference; other issues are seen for good verdict
If 2 men dispute on AIN & one of them is SAHEBUL-YADD, he gets the preference
SAHEBUL-YADD gets a high preference if his date for custody falls before other's
If two men dispute on production of cloth; one outsider & other SAHIBUL-YADD
Latter at such dispute is preferable if both have given valid witnesses on stance
In Issues occurring once only & witnesses are given, SAHIBUL-YADD is preferred
If 2 claimants claim AIN that's in custody of one of them; each claims ownership
If each argues that he has bought the claimed AIN from other, the case is invalid
Previous tells custody is to remain untouched as each accepts other's right to it
In DAA'WA witnesses need to be 2, its no issue if one presents more witnesses
Quality of witnesses with sound reasoning matters; claimant with 2 only may win
If one claims QISAS upon a man & has no witnesses, defendant has to take oath
HF demands his oath as necessary to invalidate case in QISAS & even in wounds
It seems that in QISAS/wounds, either claimant proves or it ends without oaths
Even HF asks to pay DIYAT only on such claims without witnesses taken to court
If claimant has witnesses but didn't appear, court must wait till they're available
Court must decide all cases at its earliest; please read "The Islamic Guidelines"

Defendant must give guarantee he'd not run-away; claimant keeps eye on him
if claimant didn't bring witnesses in 3 days at court, defendant takes oath there
If claim is on AIN in someone's custody & he's not owner, he'd not be defendant
If the claim is that AIN is stolen from him & defendant proves he got it AMANAT
Previous case would proceed-on as theft is in question & that's to be disproved
If one claims on AIN in X's hand that he bought it by Y & X tells it as Y's AMANAT
As both agree on ownership of Y, the case ends; Y maybe claimed by one on AIN
Claimant has to provide witnesses & Defendant has to provide oath in the cases
Witnesses are provided for positivity of claim; oaths are provided for its rejection
Oath must only relate to Allah's name or His attributes; oath on the Quran is fine
The Holy Quran is the speech of Allah & so it is His attribute; Al-Hamdu Lillah
QADHI mustn't ask such oath that curses defendant to an adverse result to him
If defendant is Christian, he'd take oath by Allah who gave INJIL to the Christ A.S.
If defendant is Jew, he'd take oath by Allah who provided TORAH to Moses A.S.
If defendant is PARSEE (MAJUSI), he'd take oath by Allah who has created the fire
QADHI wouldn't visit places taken sacred by Christians, Jews or PARSEE for oaths
He'd take their oaths at court; his status demands to refrain from all such places
QADHI wouldn't ask oath to Muslims at sacred places or times to strengthen it
Previous means to take oath at Mosque or at Friday waiting to it; it isn't feasible
QADHI wouldn't ask oath by words that defendant has not sold AIN to claimant
He'd ask oath by words that there is no BAYE' at this time b/w him & claimant
Reason to previous is that defendant may have sold AIN yet the deal reversed
Ruling tells that there are 2 aspects to issues; reason to that & outcome to that
At times, oath is needed at reason; at times, it's well to relate that to outcome
Where reason may end, oath is on outcome; if unchangeable, it's fine both ways
In case of NIKAH if the female claimant claims for a man that he's her husband
In previous, he'd not take oath on reason he has not married her (the claimant)
In such case, he'd take oath on outcome that she is not his wife at the moment
In case of TALAQ if female claimant says that her husband has given that to her
Though oath is to reject, he wouldnt say at this he hasn't given divorce to her
His oath at such is that by Allah's name, she's his wife at this moment of time
If one claims half of an empty house & other whole of that; both give witnesses
In such, the house is divided in 3 parts, former gets one of it & latter gets two
If in previous both are residents in the house, claimant to whole is more rightful

If dispute is on an animal; both give its birth-date by good valid witnesses to it


Birth-Date clearly near animal's shape is the rightful; if not feasible, both share it
If 2 sides dispute without witnesses; each claims the AIN because of its custody
If QADHI gives verdict for one due to reasons valid to him, other may ask oath
Loser in such may ask oath by other with favorable verdict even after it occurs
If outsider claims upon KAMEEZ someone is wearing, latter has the preference
Outsider may ask oath by wearer at court if he loses & the wearer must comply
If dispute is on AIN's price (BAAYE' says 200 & Buyer 100); both have witnesses
BAAYE' is more rightful as he is more aware of it & more value asks preference
If dispute is on AIN (BAAYE' says 1 book sold & buyer 2); buyer gets preference
if no disputer has valid witnesses (whether dispute is in price or AIN's quantity)
BAAYE' must leave the claim to additional price; buyer must leave it for quantity
If no-one agrees, both have to take oaths; each taking oath to reject the other
Witnesses are provided for the claim's positivity; oaths are taken for its rejection
After both take their oaths, QADHI would pronounce FASKH to the transaction
If dispute occurs on timing of paying debt; MUNKIR (rejecter) would take oath
If buyer claims giving 300 of debts & BAAYE rejects but 200; MUNKIR takes oath
If MABI' (AIN) is lost at buyer's hand before payment & he rejects seller on price
In previous, if seller gives witnesses he'd get the verdict; else buyer takes oath
If buyer loses one of 2 things in dispute to SAMAN, seller isn't liable to take oath
Seller may take whole price as related to one that's still with buyer; it's only AIN
If a man claims MEHR as 1000 & his wife takes it as 2000, both with witnesses
His wife would get favorable verdict as she is claiming more value in her MEHR
If without witnesses both take oath, then MEHR-MITHL settles issue for them
If equal or lesser than 1000 (man's stance), she is paid 1000; NIKAH isn't FASKH
if more than 2000 then she'd be paid 2000; it'd be MITHL if b/w 1000 & 2000
If dispute is in IJARAH & MUSTAJIR hasn't yet availed benefits; oaths are taken
As oaths are taken by both of sides, IJARA is FASKH; ruling differs by situations
If in previous MUSTAJIR has availed benefits, his word prevails without oaths
MUUJIR may claim MUSTAJIR for losses; he needs 2 witnesses as he is claimant
If man & wife dispute on ownership of household things & both lack witnesses
Best is that useful for the wife, is in her ownership only; rest all is for the man
Spouse that survives the other, gets petty house-things unchallenged de-facto
SHAHADAAT is to inform of the right that is for someone on some other person

It's plural of SHAHADAT & means to witness for someone's right on some other
If someone tells his own right upon someone, it is DAA'WA that we just studied
If he tells other's right upon him, it's termed as IQRAR & we've studied that too
If the claimant asks someone to witness for him, it's necessary that he complies
In ZINA & QADHF, it's better not to provide it if there's an hope for repentance
In previous, it'd be necessary if he is asked for it; he has no option but to give it
In SHAHADAAT of other HUDUD, better is taking choice-words caring to accused
Witnesses are at different levels as crimes need 4 male witnesses (ZINA; QADHF)
Then are crimes that need 2 of male witnesses (other of HUDUD; QISAS & DIYAT)
Then are issues when man with 2 women suffices (business-deals; matrimonial)
Where witness can only be women (child-birth) then only one female is fine for it
The witness must be adult, sane, Muslim, free-person, able to give SHAHADAT
All witnesses must be valid to witness in issues they are called-for (QAVI; AMIN)
QAVI means eligible to the asking of task & AMIN means honest & committed
QADHI must give due weight to SHAHADAAT of such eligible & honest persons
Witnesses must provide witness in clear words to become relevant SHAHADAT
QADHI must investigate the eligibility & honesty of witnesses whenever needed
Investigation (TAZKIYA) maybe obvious or silent at among those who know them
Every good Muslim is AADIL (eligible, honest); TAZKIYA isn't needed for each one
HUDUD does need TAZKIYA necessarily & there witnesses must be investigated
Witnesses give testimony at 2 ways; where obvious & where specifically asked
If right is obvious as in deals, buyers custody of MABI' gives seller right on him
If previous has disputes, AADIL persons that happen to be at spot may testify
In other way, witness may be asked to testify specifically at court by claimant
In previous, it may happen that witness is unable to give SHAHADAT at court
Such witness may appoint 2 AADIL persons as witnesses to his testimony there
These 2 honest men only are eligible to present his witness to court as needed
Previous named SHAHADAT-ALAS-SHAHADAT is example of specifically asked
In general, it's feasible to give testimony to facts as seen or heard by own-self
SHAHADAT-ALAS-SHAHADAT is feasible with no chance of presence at hearing
To inform of a QADHI's verdict as SHAHADAT to another of QADHI has validity
On forgetting an incident even by paper with signature, its invalid to testify it
Previous tells the status of documentation too; theyre only secondary in cases
All cases need AADIL witnesses by Islamic aspect of Justice being primary in it

Blind person is not eligible to testify & the punished in HUDUD too is ineligible
It's part of punishment in HUDUD that their witness becomes ineligible at court
Neither man is eligible as witness to his father/grandfather nor to his offspring
Spouses may not give witness to each other; HF validates it if it falls in against
It seems better that any testimony in such relations, for or against, isn't valid
Witnesses for or against relations as uncles/aunts don't have such restriction
Witness in favor of partner is void in business; in other issues, valid to provide
There are few witnesses invalid to take for court's testimony mentioned here
Witness of men having feminism in attitude, women crying on dead as their job
Singers by career, gamblers on birds (& its wrong to cage them for any reason)
Entertainer by fibs, Wine-Drinker, involved in such that may lead him to HADD
That who enters HAMMAM (bathing place; swimming pool) uncaring of SATAR
Witness of these mentioned is invalid at court as they're not counted in AADIL
Men's SATAR is belly to knees fully; Women are disallowed to visit HAMMAM
Notable is that Women's SATAR is all her physique except face, hands & feet
At Islamic country, HEJAB equals her SATAR; at others, it includes her face too
Others that don't value at court are those involved in deals in RIBA (interest)
And highly obsessed with any indoor game wasting time uncaring to SALAH
QUDURI mentions chess & ancient type of LUDO; obsession is bad not games
SHAFA'I doesn't take playing chess as reason to end status of AADIL for players
Ineligible are those too who urinate near to roads or abuse the virtuous people
RIBA-dealers, time-wasters, abusers of good persons; these don't value at court
But followers of ideas in issues (BID'ATI; innovators in deeds) may be accepted
Previous excludes those who consider falsehood at court as of no consequence
SHAHADAT of ZIMMI (non-Muslims living with Muslims) is valid b/w their own
Muslims may give SHAHADAT against Muslim, ZIMMI or non-Muslim refugee
ZIMMI may provide witness against another ZIMMI or the non-Muslim refugee
Non-Muslim refugee at asylum might only witness against other such refugee
ZIMMI may provide witness against another of ZIMMI even if their beliefs differ
If Muslim avoids big sins, he is AADIL; he must not persist on the petty sins too
If without circumcision or unable to sex-union or born by adultery or is Eunuch
In previous with eligibility to SHAHADAT & honesty, his testimony is acceptable
DAA'WA & SHAHADAT must match & witnesses must complement each other
Previous means that witnesses do testify by complementary words at the court

Further is that if one of witnesses testify to 10000 for claimant, other for 20000
These witnesses have validity as they denote same issue & higher enfolds lower
DAA'WA maybe for same currency even if witnesses differ in its actual amount
In previous, lower amount is acceptable amount; for higher he'd have to prove
If X has paid 10000 of 20000 payable & claimants witnesses ask for total due
Claimant is strong even at his wrong claim unless X proves his payment to him
If in case of QISAS, both of witnesses testify to murder at two different places
Previous is unacceptable as one side is fibber; difference in timing not adverse
If validity of witness is challenged by charge of HADD to him by the defendant
Such charges of defendant are unacceptable for hearing at this case at court
There are issues where witnesses even if unavailable at spot may give witness
NASB maybe vouched for someone & someone's death may also be vouched
NIKAH if known b/w a couple is well to testify & about their rightful privacy too
Such knowledge may come through reliable persons to him so he may testify
Reliable means 2 men here or a man with 2 women; that's valid at such cases
Witness in previous isn't valid at HUDUD or QISAS & DIYAT due to its strictness
SHAHADAT-ALAS-SAHADAT is void too in the cases of HUDUD or QISAS & DIYAT
SHAHADAT-ALAS-SHAHADAT is valid in TA'ZIRAAT if the actual witness is unfit
In previous "unfit" means actual witness is dead, invalid, absent, lives far-away
SHAHADAT-ALAS-SHAHADAT needs investigation for both actual & witnesses
If they are seen as fibbers, the court would announce them as such far & wide
RUJU'-ANES-SHAHADAT means to back-out of testimony that's given at court
If backing-out is before the pronouncement of verdict, they'd pay no ZAMAN
If backing-out is after the pronouncement of verdict, it would not be revised
In previous, witnesses would pay ZAMAN due to loss incurred by affected one
RUJU'-ANES-SHAHADAT needs to be at court officially in presence of QADHI
If verdict is at issue of amounts & both of them back-out, both are liable to pay
If verdict is at issue of amounts & one backs-out, he is liable singly to pay half
If witnesses are more than required & they back-out except 2, there is no RUJU'
In previous, quantity of witnesses required is valid; backing-out asks no ZAMAN
if after verdict ZAMAN occurs, it is divided to all backing-out if required falls low
If a man & 10 women testify in a case & 8 women back-out, it asks no ZAMAN
If another woman backs-out, fourth of amount would be ZAMAN to all 9 there
If last of women backs-out too, it'd be half of amount distributed b/w the 10

If the man too with all women backs-out, it'd be divided in 2 parts; half & half
One-half of amount would be paid by the man & the other half by all of women
If a man claims upon a woman that she's his wife & presents 2 witnesses upon it
If witnesses back-out after verdict, it'd not affect it if accepts man's claim to her
In previous, witnesses don't pay ZAMAN; she'd be his wife at MEHR court asked
If woman claims on a man that he's her husband & gives 2 valid witnesses to it
If she wins him on an additional MEHR & then they back-out they must pay him
Additional MEHR is more amount than her MEHR-MITHL; they'd pay this to man
But if she wins the man getting lesser than MITHL or its equal, they'd pay nothing
Similar is where claim is purchase of vehicle & it's received at equal or more value
No ZAMAN occurs on witnesses backing-out therein; they pay nothing to anyone
But if claimant receives it at lesser than its value; they'd pay deficit to its seller
If seller is the claimant, the issue is to be dealt in accordance to ruling mentioned
His witnesses backing-out would pay its buyer additional amount he gave on it
If witnesses of SHAHADAT-ALAS-SHAHADAT back-out, ZAMAN falls only to them
QUDURI tells if a man is stoned to death (RAJM) due to adultery proved on him
Four witnesses had testified to his adultery; 2 had testified his status as married
if latter two back-out, they wouldn't pay DIYAT/ZAMAN as they deny condition
Now, it's better to apply only corporal punishment to adultery, the extreme filth
Detail to the previous is well to get by The Islamic Guidelines to Islamic Living
If TAZKIYA of QADHI tells witnesses as AADIL but later-on, those asked back-out
Their positive reply for witnesses affected case so they'd pay as ordered by court
AADAABUL-QADHI means qualities necessary for QADHI; they're as SHAHADAT
QADHI must be compatible to task & honest; it's better if he is also MUJTAHID
MUJTAHID is that man who understands issues directly from KITAB & SUNNAH
KITAB (Holy Quran) & SUNNAH (Prophet's guidance) denote Islamic Teachings
It isn't good for person to ask for QADHI's status if he fears injustice by verdicts
If he's appointed QADHI without asking it, he'd get the record of previous QADHI
At onset, he'd see to persons imprisoned & issues therein; he'd give them relief
Imprisonment isn't appreciable in Islamic-Justice & release is valid by guarantee
QADHI is custodian to many funds (WAQF; AMANAT), he'd see to issues therein
He must be accessible to the common man without any protocol & paper-work
There'd be no hindrance in access to him; he'd see to issues himself as needed
He'd not take gifts from anyone except from whom he used to exchange them

He wouldn't take any sort of exceptional gifts than what he got prior to status
He must not participate in any of gatherings that's especially arranged for him
He mustn't show gestures that denote preference to any of contesting sides
He must take care not to put words into the mouth of any of contesting sides
He may attempt to relax all needy of justice by good words & careful attitude
He may imprison someone proven debtor trying to avoid payments, by proof
But such debtor wouldn't be imprisoned if he proves that he's unable to pay it
Imprisonment isn't appreciable in Islamic-Justice; release is valid by guarantee
Please refer to "The Islamic Guidelines" for further study of the Islamic Justice
QUDURI tells prison is valid in debt if he gets AIN or if puts on himself by AQD
Former in previous denotes he has AIN to return; Latter is MEHR or guarantee
QUDURI clarifies this too that the imprisonment may only be for 2 or 3 months
Where AIN is with him or he married or guaranteed, it means he is able to pay
So limited confinement is valid if he doesn't pay wife's sustenance or children's
Still as husband or father, he isn't liable to confinement but if utmost necessary
Woman may become QADHI yet not in HUDUD, QISAS & DIYAT where it's invalid
Notable is that she's unfit for SHAHADAT too at cases of HUDUD, QISAS & DIYAT
It's valid to record witness at local QADHI's court if the defendant is not there
Local Court would send it to relevant QADHI's court where defendant is present
Previous is valid with 2 witnesses in cases other than of HUDUD, QISAS & DIYAT
He'd take testimony of witnesses of claimant accusing someone at other place
He'd make 2 witnesses on record of testimony with his seal & give that to them
These 2 would take it to related QADHI who'd call the accused before taking that
He'd see the AIN too & provide the same to previous QADHI for conformation
When the former gets conformation with return of AIN to him, he'd give verdict
Verdict is given in presence of claimant & defendant (or their respective aides)
Notable is that professional advocates are disallowed in HUDUD, QISAS & DIYAT
Notable is that aide representing any of sides mustn't charge a thing in any case
Notable is that it's invalid to pronounce verdict in absence of any of sides to that
QADHI is disallowed to appoint representatives; he would deal the issues himself
QADHI is liable to hear about command of HAKIM (governor) at high controversy
He'd implement that order unless it's questionable by the KITAB & the SUNNAH
To make HAKAM (judge in private) is valid if he fulfils criterion to become QADHI
His verdict is implemented yet any side is rightful to back-out before the verdict

Appointed QADHI still may hear it; he'd implement it unless revision is required
HAKAM is disallowed to decide on HUDUD or QISAS & DIYAT; they'd go to court
HAKAM is disallowed too to decide in clear favor of one related to him closely
AMIR, QADHI or the law must appoint distributers to finance in court's custody
Distributors are also liable to distribute the finances of cases decided by court
These distributors would see to rightful persons of these finances by care to law
Distributors are the employee to BAYTUL-MAAL; they'd surely be QAVI & AMIN
Distribution may relate to land or property; it maybe by inheritance or business
It maybe by any other reason too; in inheritance, death of man is provable for it
In previous, heirs are named & proved too; in transportable, proof isn't needed
Previous is by A.H. yet SAHEBAIN say that nothing needs proofs to distribute it
As of now when documentation is so complicated & lengthy, this was beautiful
Even with hardships of those times, they knew how to manage issues by trust
Things bought in partnership needing distribution don't need any proof to that
If land is beneficial b/w partners singly & one asks share; QADHI may comply
If land is not such that may give benefits to each by his share; QADHI wouldn't
Distribution seems moot if all agree to distribution & one doesn't get benefits
If distribution is in sheep, it's valid if all are similar but invalid if different highly
If there's difference in the cattle (sheep, cow etc.), it'd be invalid unless all agree
There are 2 types in things; one isn't liable to substitute & other is liable to that
Former in previous is termed ZAWATUL-QIYAM; latter is termed as MITHLIYAAT
Distribution in latter things giving benefit even singly, is well for QADHI if asked
If a thing is in partnership, it has prior to its distribution rights of all in its all
QADHI would distribute MITHLIYAAT yet he'd not decide for ZAWATUL-QIYAM
He may decide for latter if all partners in it agree to the distribution in any way
Example to ZAWATUL-QIYAM are pearls; even horses at difference to each other
Small things that lose gains by sharing as grinding-mills & wells isn't distributed
With 2 heirs to land present & one absent, it's distributed b/w both by QADHI
That land must be in the custody of both; he'd make its 3 parts in distribution
Part of absentee is kept with a person appointed by the QADHI as its caretaker
If land asked to distribute is due to transaction, it needs all sides' presence to it
In inheritance, a present heir turns aide to absentee; heirs present must be two
If 2 persons have different houses at one city being different in value obviously
If they need distribution, it's valid for QADHI to distribute those all by authority

In previous, he needs to keep near to justice in it as always; better is they agree


If two men are partners at house & field of crops; these both would be divided
As things are different, both of these would be divided b/w both the partners
Distributor must make sketch of plot according to area; he must show all parts
If any part has a unique feature, he must show it; this feature is compensated
In equal shares it's feasible to draw-out names for each share; it's valid in this
He must care each part is marked well physically & entrance to each is separate
If condition allows common entrance & water to flow-out by a part to another
Distribution is final with such in common yet at no such condition, it'd be void
If partnership has 2-storeyed house equally, MP is assessed for both the parts
Distribution is to be according to half of total MP; one may buy other's share
if any receiving share by distribution contests it, QADHI would call distributors
If 2 distributors give witness that he has got his valid right, it'd be valid in this
If he suspects some of his right is in custody of other & he accepted it before
In previous, his claim is void unless he brings 2 of witnesses to his assumption
If he claims other took of his share afterwards, he'd have to prove nevertheless
If some land was purchased in partnership & was distributed later b/w the two
In previous, if a claimant proves specific area as his own in one part of the land
Then the partner gets from other, half of specific area lost by him due to claim
If the claim isn't to any specific area of any part, distribution is FASKH (by A.Y.)
AL-IKRAH means force applied on someone to do something he doesn't intend
Ruling of IKRAH applies to person who is totally able to do act he's threatening
Another is MUKRAH (forced-upon) is sure MUKREH (forcer) would do as he says
Still its other condition is that his own intention doesn't go with demand to him
Last of conditions is that MUKRAH would surely feel agony by committing the act
IKRAH has 2 aspects; MUL-JEE & GHAIR-MUL-JEE; latter challenges intention only
Former not only challenges MUKRAH's intention but rightful capacity to act too
Latter applies if MUKREH just forces MUKRAH to sell his house against his will
In previous, he doesn't mention the consequence but force does present clearly
Former applies when he mentions consequence as he'd kill him or cut some part
IKRAH presents when a man at authority (administrator or thief) forces someone
Notable is that IKRAH does validate verbal contracts of MUKRAH he makes then
After IKRAH as issues come to normality, MUKRAH may reverse the reversible
If he frees his slave, it'd apply & it's irreversible even as issues come to normal

If he is forced to sell his house, he might reverse this as issues come to normal
Verbal contracts apply even if the IKRAH to him is MUL-JEE or GHAIR-MUL-JEE
Reversal of transaction needs that he gives SAMAN back to buyer & gets MABI'
Things being normal, buyer may keep MABI' by MUKRAH's consent at SAMAN
Forced Receiver getting MABI' by force upon seller, has it as AMANAT of seller
If MABI' is lost by him genuinely, he faces no ZAMAN; it was AMANAT to him
If receiver was at side of MUKREH by his will, he'd return & it's not AMANAT
IKRAH if it asks wrongful acts, there's some detail that QUDURI tackles ahead
If MUKRAH is forced to drink of wine or eat swine in MUL-JEE, he must comply
If MUKRAH is forced to do as previous in GHAIR-MUL-JEE, he must not comply
If he doesn't do such where situation is MUL-JEE, he'd be sinful at consequence
If he is forced at MUL-JEE to say words falling against Islam, he may do that too
In previous, his heart must be fully at ease with Islam; better to make TAURIYA
TAURIYA is to say words with 2 aspects, one right & other wrong, meaning right
In words that fall against Islam, if he bears the consequence & doesn't comply
Previous is admirable; in acts at MUL-JEE as drinking of wine, he must comply
MUKRAH (MUL-JEE) is even allowed to damage property of someone as asked
MUKRAH isn't allowed to kill anyone to save himself even if issue is MUL-JEE
If he pronounces TALAQ to wife at MUL-JEE, it'd occur as contracts apply here
If MUKRAH (MUL-JEE) commits ZINA forced by MUKREH; HADD doesnt occur
If MUKRAH (MUL-JEE) is asked to say words against Islam, NIKAH isn't FASKH
SIYAR - USHR & KHIRAJ -JIZYAH - AL-HAZR & IBAHAT WASAAYA
SIYAR In FIQH relates to JIHAD (against challengers to Islam), attack or defense
It's FARDHUL-KIFAYA (obligatory to take-on by some Muslims representing all)
It's not due on those who are in some manner incapable; crippled, weak & old
If non-Muslims challenge Islamic living causing FITNAH, Muslims must fight-on
FITNAH is such trouble caused by satanic people that makes living hard by Islam
If needed, the Woman too would fight attackers; in defense all have to go all-out
At defense, Muslims don't have to see conditions; at attack, they must see to it
At attacking aspect, Muslims have to see that the attacked people know Islam
If they reject it after being aware to it in principle, they'd be asked to pay JIZYAH
JIZYAH is the periodic amounts given at agreement b/w Muslims & these people
Muslims may opt for pact of peace even without it getting needed guarantees
If they don't comply, Muslims have to face them on orders by power to combat

Here "Orders" mean army is sent by worthy AMIR of sizable faction of Muslims
And attacks by orders of Marshal; each good Muslim fights there only for Allah
With care to conditions in attack, it's valid to fight the FITNAH by total courage
JIZYAH gives them safety; whoever lives out of Islam lives only under authority
If enemy doesn't accept Islam & doesn't make peace, Muslims would attack it
They'd use tactic by all power of ammunitions at hand to end enemy's strength
If needed, they 'd throw quantity of water & big stones by MINJANIQ (canons)
It's even valid to burn its crops & cut its trees if necessary to make it surrender
Muslims must throw arrows as skillfully as possible towards enemy they face
HF tells if they make Muslims captive & children shield, arrows mustn't cease
This previous is moot & with today's deadly arms, this must strictly be avoided
Muslims must avoid even JIHAD by attack too; it kills many innocent ones now
Moreover, balance of strength in arms is much adverse to Muslims as of today
Intention by using any of ammunitions against enemy must be to hit them only
If army of Muslims looks strong, it's valid to take few women & the Holy Quran
She needs consent of her husband; now her participation is highly invalid surely
When JIHAD is defensive, it needs all people, whether male or female, to fight-on
JIIHAD is FARDHE-KIFAYA; it becomes FARDHE-AIN (obligatory to each) at defense
MUTHLA (to mutilate corpses), to kill woman or child or any weak man, is invalid
Muslims must not kill any of crippled or an old man or lunatic among the enemy
Muslims may kill an old man if their advisor in war & woman if she's their queen
Muslims may opt for the peace even without JIZYAH getting needed guarantees
The pact of peace would be for specific time; AMEER may not renew it if he wills
If they break it, they'd be tackled at field; if some of them do, they'd be notified
Army may use enemy's things of use as the food, oil, arms but it'd not hoard it
Notable is that usually before distribution of spoils it's invalid to use any of that
As Muslims win the war, they'd not touch property of person who accepts Islam
His children & wives are safe; his adult children either accept Islam or turn slaves
Adult men fighting for enemy are taken as slaves even women fighting for them
It's well to exchange captives taking Muslims' captives by enemy releasing theirs
It isn't well to release their captives without taking any exchange against release
As Muslims conquer enemy by strength it's on AMEER if he distributes the land
In previous, land is considered as spoils of war but he may take JIZYAH against it
He has authority to enslave fighters as spoils of war or release them in exchange

Cattle maybe slaughtered; if impossible to take them back, may even be burnt
Burning the cattle needs to slaughter them as they'd not be left in any pains too
Spoils of war are taken back to the Islamic land; it'd be distributed b/w fighters
Those that provided help to army even if not with main army, would get shares
Those that accompanied army for business-dealing, they are not liable to shares
If they do fight, they'd get shares; a Muslim may give shelter to any of enemy
In previous, shelter given is valid if sheltering one is not among business-men
Neither may ZIMMI give shelter to any fighting man of enemy nor may captive
AMEER may order execution of sheltered person in the best interest of Muslims
If non-Muslims conquer other of non-Muslims getting their transportable assets
In previous as they transfer those to their land, they're taken as owners to them
If they take transportable assets of Muslims to their land, they'd be owners to it
This ruling is needed to validate dealings if business-men buy same from them
In previous, the owner to such things may become claimant at the Islamic land
He'd only get it back by paying to it even if he knows well that it's his asset only
If Muslims conquer non-Muslims & get their own assets back that they took
Before distribution of it, one of Muslims may claim his asset back successfully
He'd not be liable to get it back if distribution takes place; he may buy it back
If non-Muslims took Muslims as slaves, they'd not be counted in their property
So in previous if someone buys a man taken as slave & brings him back, he's free
If difficult to transport Spoils back, Marshal must give them as AMANAT to some
These spoils have no ownership before bringing them back; they wouldn't be sold
Anyone who dies before bringing it back to Islamic land, wouldn't have share in it
In previous, his share is at AKHIRAT only in high measure insha-Allah due to war
Person who dies after bringing it back, he'd get his share that would go to heirs
AMEER or Marshal may announce awards to be given to the courageous persons
If awards are announced before spoils come at hand, they're given as they come
If announced afterwards, they're given by KHUMS (fifth) taken aside for needy
All men would deposit assets & property of enemy at the GHANIMAT (Spoils)
As army leaves enemy's land, this departure limits their use to enemy's assets
Everything even the balance of common things as foods & oils, is deposited now
Fifth part from GHANIMAT goes to the BAYTUL-MAAL for the poor & the needy
Four parts are distributed b/w warriors at JIHAD; that on foot get one share each
Those having a horse with them, they'd get two shares each because of the horse

But camels or mules don't count at war; if horse dies after entry to enemy's land
In previous, that horse is counted at war; if it dies before entry, it isn't counted
If few women/children accompanied army, AMEER may give something by will
KHUMS is further divided into 3 parts allocated to orphans, needy & travelers
In previous, needy of the descendants of the Holy Prophet PBUH are preferable
Those not needy of his descendants don't get anything; that's by verse in Quran
Verse mentions it for Allah & the Prophet; "for Allah" is the intention of Muslims
And "for the Prophet" is to mention his due share in it when he was in this world
If some of Muslims fought non-Muslims & took things, that doesn't ask KHUMS
In previous, AMEER didn't permit them; if warriors attack by AMEER's authority
And those have strength by which they bring back things, this asks for KHUMS
Getting Assets of non-Muslims by IKRAH is void & they must be given SADAQAH
Muslims going to them for trade aren't allowed to cheat or bring assets by force
Persons from enemy maybe given asylum by AMEER; that'd remain to year only
In previous, he'd become citizen (ZIMMI) if he lives more than that by permission
But, he'd have to pay JIZYAH annually & he'd be disallowed to leave Islamic land
If he leaves to enemy without permission, he'd lose safety to his life & property
If Muslims get their assets without war, it's FAI & is used for benefit of Muslims
USHRI land is where Muslims pay 10th of produce as USHR if watered naturally
If USHRI land is watered manually, it asks half of 10th of produce from owner
USHRI asks USHR as it gives produce; KHIRAJ is paid yearly on lands got by wars
If non-Muslim buys USHRI, he'd pay KHIRAJ; if Muslim owns it, he'd pay KHIRAJ
If owned by non-Muslim, it only is KHRAJI; Muslims may own USHRI or KHIRAJI
If Muslims win enemy's land & it's distributed b/w Muslims; it's USHRI initially
Land as previous remains USHRI ahead now & where the enemy turns Muslim
In previous, notable is that if enemy becomes Muslim, now their land is USHRI
If Muslims conquer them & AMEER let it remain to them, they'd be KHIRAJI
If land is unclaimed (MAWAT) & someone by AMEER's assent makes it useful
That land is KHIRAJI if non-Muslim has it; with Muslim, it'd be as lands nearby
Land of Iraq has both KHIRAJI (SAWAD-Land) & USHRI (BASRA) as taken by IJMA'
UMAR-RA put KHIRAJ to lands in 3 ways by the rule "much efforts asks less of it"
UMAR-RA put KHIRAJ on the SAWAD as 3200 grams of its produce on a JAREEB
JAREEB was an area of cultivated land of 60 X 60 sq-meters (nearly half an acre)
SA' used generally were 2; SA'-HASHMI equal to 32 RITL & SA'-IRAQI to 8 RITL

Last (SA'-IRAQI) is the 3200 gm as we see at the mention here & as in AHADITH
Previous was minimum of that; lands producing fruits & vegetables paid more
Now, such tax as KHIRAJ may be charged as needed if Administration is Islamic
Gardens that may not be used except for fruits ask for very high efforts in them
So, KHIRAJ was lesser in DIRHAMS among fruits-gardens; others asked for more
AMEER is allowed to lessen KHIRAJ if he sees problem to owner to pay it easily
He'd also care if its cultivation is destroyed or any natural calamity occurs to it
KHIRAJI land is KHIRAJI even if a Muslim buys it; USHR & KHIRAJ don't overlap
As for JIZYAH, it occurs as Muslims make pact with non-Muslims without war
In such case, JIZYAH is that amount which they pay to the Muslims by that pact
But when conquered & AMEER makes a pact then, there is fixed amount for it
For poor, each man (not woman, children, crippled) pays 24 DIRHAMS yearly
For better-off, it'd be total 48 DIRHAMS, maybe taken by 4 DIRHAMS monthly
JIZYAH occurs to non-Muslims of enemy yet doesn't occur on Arab non-Muslims
Arab non-Muslims either accept Islam or either would be fought till eliminated
JIZYAH isn't asked from priests living away of worldly issues not involved in war
Those who accept Islam, JIZYAH is relaxed on them & on those who can't pay it
In previous, whoever couldn't pay for the year, it was relaxed on him that year
Christians that live as ZIMMI are disallowed to make their new worship-places
They'd mend the old as they will; this statement is valid for Jews too in ZIMMI
ZIMMI would be asked to distinguish their-selves from Muslims by their living
ZIMMI mustn't take action denoting war; they'd not ride horses or keep arms
If a ZIMMI commits severe crime, even then pact is intact; he'd be convicted
If a ZIMMI runs-away to enemy, pact with him is void & he maybe killed for it
If a group of ZIMMI fights with the enemy against Muslims, the pact is invalid
If a Muslim turns MURTAD (leaves Islam), his reservation would be answered
HF tells he'd be confined & must return to Islam in 3 days else he'd be killed
Previous needs scrutiny; seems well if MURTAD passive in manner is left alone
If a man kills MURTAD before answering his reservation or before 3 days end
In previous, though he did wrong yet he'd not be convicted to murder by law
MURTAD loses assets & property; if he doesn't return to Islam, it's distributed
In previous, his heirs get that; if he returns to Islam, that are restored to him
His heirs get that even if he runs-away to enemy & QADHI declares his exile
If he earned gains after he turned MURTAD, it'd be forfeited to BAYTUL-MAAL

As he's killed (or declared exiled), his debts would be paid & assets distributed
Debts he took at period he was MURTAD, are paid by gains he made at period
If MURTAD returns to Islam & to Islamic land, he'd get things unspent by heirs
Female MURTAD is imprisoned till her return to Islam; her assets aren't taken
If Christians deny paying JIZYAH due to effect on prestige, they'd still be asked
In previous, JIZYAH is doubled by any other name even to be levied to women
JIZYAH funds are to be used by the AMEER for the general benefits of Muslims
Such funds are better to use in all ventures needed for the Muslims' defenses
QADHI, UMMAL (tax-collectors), ULEMA are paid by these funds got as JIZYAH
MUJAHIDEEN & their families are also paid by these for necessary sustenance
If faction of Muslims rebels at Islamic land, AMEER must clear their reservation
If they comply, they wouldn't be challenged; if they initiate war, they'd be killed
It's needed that strength of rebels is fully vanquished & no threat remains there
If rebels conquer an area taking USHR & KHIRAJ there & spent it at right places
That suffices to paying the liability yet if used wrongly, people have to pay back
AMEER is not liable to demand it back yet the issue is b/w Allah & people there
AL-HAZR (prohibited) & AL-IBAAHAT (permitted) deals issues for male & female
Silk isn't valid for men but well for women; A.H. validates its pillows for men too
SAHEBAIN find its pillows TEHRIMI (detestable) for men but they allow it at wars
A.H. invalidates it at wars; length of thread maybe silky for men in their dresses
Now, it seems most improper for the men to wear/use silk or any of its variety
It's invalid for men to adorn body by gold or silver; he may use silver ring or belt
Silver maybe used in grip of sword too; women may use gold/silver as they will
It's improper for men to adorn by them; wounds at JIHAD are their adornment
It needs caution to dress children; to adorn male children by them is improper
Gold/Silver Utensils are invalid to eat, drink or use for all; it denotes arrogance
Utensils made from the shining beautiful stones (prism-type) are valid for usage
It's valid to use utensils, beds, saddles having touch of unapparent silver to them
It was invalid (for Arabs of those times) to mark the Holy Quran with markings
It's well to adorn the Holy Quran & even to write by water of gold is appreciable
It's well even to adorn mosques by beautiful designs; it gives attraction to them
It's improper to keep servants that are Eunuchs as that gives them undue value
Animals maybe castrated; asses maybe mated to horses (to give birth to mules)
Gifts are valid even if a child gives it by information that his guardian has sent it

In usual dealings, information by sinful person is well to take too to live normal
Specific dealing directly related to Islamic rituals, asks only AADIL's information
It isn't right to see female on face, Allah commands both genders to lower gazes
QADHI, witnesses, physician may see her at face directly because of utmost need
Notable is that the Woman's SATAR is all her physique except face, hands & feet
At the Islamic Land, her HEJAB equals her SATAR; at others, it includes face too
Female only would treat female; men may treat them by conditions at IDHTIRAR
First condition is that no female is available to cure or manage her affliction there
Second is that lady-patient is unable to bear pains due to it or it's life threatening
Third is that males don't view or operate on the belly to knees of the lady-patient
Fourth is that the male surgeon is Muslim in belief & he doesn't disrespect Islam
Fifth is that no other part is uncovered of body except for specific affliction to her
Even in IDHTIRAR, few issues remain invalid; it needs that no condition is absent
At IDHTIRAR (utmost-necessity), SATAR for female relaxes to equal Man's SATAR
Even in IDHTIRAR, no male except her husband may view the female at that site
She must try to avoid becoming in-patient at hospitals by patience, as of today
Men & even women may view men except for the belly to knees in normal living
Women may view women except for the belly to knees in normal living together
In previous, women may view a woman from her belly to knees too at IDHTIRAR
Man may see the whole physique of his wife; she's also allowed to view him all
Men may see MEHRUM women at face, hands & even arms & feet in usual living
Ruling for EUNUCHS is same as of the Man; women must take HEJAB from them
Man mustn't practice AZAL (Coitus-Interruptus) to his wife except by her consent
To hoard things easily accessible at market that are not in necessities has validity
If things hoarded are short at market or/and theyre necessities, it's much sinful
It's valid to hoard own cultivated crops even of necessity if its available at ease
It's valid to hoard things bought at the market not accessed by the city-people
AMEER mustnt set prices to commodities; at emergency, its valid for little time
Islam does allow freedom in valid dealings by care that all Muslims are brothers
It's invalid to sell weapons at civil-war or at times it causes trouble to Muslims
HF allows selling of grapes to person known to make wines; this needs scrutiny
SADDE-ZARAE' (stoppage to wrongs) is an Islamic concept & surely invalidates it
WASAYA (the Will) is asking to give someone AIN or its benefits after his death
WASIYAT is to third part of his assets after giving debts & the funeral-expenses

WASIYAT isn't valid for any heir except when all heirs permit within third part
More than the third part is valid too if all heirs permit by lessening own shares
If MUSA-LAHU (for whom it's made) kills MUSI (one who made it), he'd lose it
Person told WASIYAT (pl. WASAYA) is the WASI; AIN or benefits is MUSA-BEHI
If Muslim makes will for ZIMMI, it's valid; also ZIMMI's will for Muslim is valid
MUSA-LAHU must show acceptance after MUSI's death to will latter has made
If WASI accepts carrying-out MUSI's will, to reject isn't valid in MUSI's absence
WASI may reject it in front of MUSI if he doesnt want liability; then it'd be valid
There's an issue where MUSA-LAHU owns willed asset even without acceptance
This happens as after death of MUSI, he dies too; willed for him is for his heirs
When MUSI makes ZIMMI or sinful person WASI for his will, QADHI may accept
In Previous, the QADHI makes another man as liable to carry-out that WASIYAT
MUSI must make such WASI that is Muslim, adult, sane, capable to carry it out
If WASI finds it hard to carry-out WASIYAT, QADHI may give companion to him
If MUSI has made 2 WASI, both must carry-out the will together & not alone
There are things that any-one of WASI may do alone; one is funeral-expenses
Also, only one may care to MUSI's small children & pay-off mentioned debts
If MUSI told for his specific asset to be given to specific person, one may do it
It's also valid that only one of them fights for rights of MUSI at court if needed
If MUSI made WASIYAT for 2 persons (one-third each), they'd share it equally
If MUSI wills for 2 men as third part to one & sixth to other; both share third
In previous, third part divides in 3 parts; two to the former, one to the latter
These cases of more than 3rd apply as heirs don't agree to any more than it
If MUSI makes it for more than third for some, WASIYAT above third is void
Such is only applied to 3rd part; if MUSA-LAHU are many, 3rd is divided in all
If 2 or 3 persons are willed for (each for lesser than 3rd) & heirs don't agree
In previous, 3rd part is to be divided b/w all of them in the ratio to be given
If a man has high debts more than his assets even, his WASIYAT is void then
If MUSI makes WASIYAT for someone to get share of his son, WASIYAT is void
But if he says that he gets the share as his son's, he'd get third of his property
If a man makes deals or gifts something from his assets in the death-ailment
It'd be implicated to third of his assets; in those, the heirs do have rights now
If he asks to give a part of his assets in will, it'd equal the most less of heirs
In previous, if it's even lesser than sixth of distribution, it'd be increased to it

If a man wills for many things, priority is to compensation to obligations in it


In previous if amount of third part is still left, other things in the will are seen
Will of child is void; WASIYAT maybe revised by MUSI but in very clear words
In previous if MUSI denies making will for someone, it's not taken as revision
If he makes will for neighbors, they're ones having attached walls to his house
If he makes will for in-laws, it's taken to mean MEHRUM relatives to his wife
If he makes will for sons-in-law, it's husbands of his MEHRUM female relatives
If he wills for the near-ones, it's for relatives not heirs; nearer is more rightful
Paternal relatives are generally taken nearer than maternal relatives by ruling
If someone wills for a man for third part of his DIRHAM & its two-third is lost
It'd be taken that heirs have lost their shares; he'd get the third part, full of it
But if willed asset is cloth (or things that differ), he'd get the third of balance
If man wills but has much amounts in receivable, he'd be paid available cash
Previous denotes that MUSA-LAHU gets the willed amount by cash if possible
Will is valid for child at mother's womb provided it's born in 6 months to that
If MUSA-LAHU dies in MUSI's life, the will for him becomes void then & there
If he wills for children of someone, male & female both get equal shares in it
If he wills for X & Y to be paid the one-third, if X dies Y would get whole of it
If he wills by words to give one-third b/w them, Y gets half of third, if X dies
If he wills for X & has no amounts but becomes rich, X would get the 3rd of it
FARAA'IDH (Knowledge of distribution of Inheritance)
FARAA'IDH is knowledge of the law relating to the distribution of inheritance
The distribution b/w inheritors has to be according to the command of Allah
This tells the specific shares for inheritors in the inheritance; it's FARAA'IDH
Before studying FARAA'IDH at QUDURI, we would study the general rules to it
There are 4 rightful expenses relating to deceased; 1st is the funeral expenses
2nd is to pay-off his debts; 3rd is to execute his will to the 3rd part of its rest
4th is that the remaining amounts is distributed b/w all of his valid inheritors
Main heirs to deceased are three; ZAWIL-FURUDH, ASABAAT, ZAWIL-ARHAAM
ZAWIL-FURUDH are the close relatives whose shares are well-defined by Islam
ASABAAT are other relatives (by NASB) from father's side to deceased person
ZAWIL-ARHAAM are the relatives that are besides ZAWIL-FURUDH & ASABAAT
MUQAR-LAHU & MUSA-LAHU have shares too in that as told by the deceased
BAITUL-MAAL gets the left amounts if there is no claimant left for inheritance

NASBI is person (male or female) related by father; there's no woman in-b/w


ASABAAT had kind as SABABI (to freer of slave) besides NASBI; it's obsolete
ZAWIL-FURUDH are the inheritors that have specified ratio in the inheritance
Mostly, the amounts would be used-up with this distribution but if remains
Others named for amounts get from the remaining of that as due to them
The ratio in amounts of the ZAWIL-FURUDH are six; first is NISF (half of that)
Second is RUBU' (fourth of that), THUMUN (eighth), THULUTHAN (two-third)
THULUTH (third of that), Sixth is SUDUS (sixth); these are the ratios applied
ZAWIL-FURUDH include in total 12 of relations; 10 by NASB & 2 by SABAB
NASB means those related by birth; by SABAB (reason) is respective spouse
In 10 of NASB, men are 3; father, brother (by mother), paternal-grandfather
Women in it are 7; daughter, grand-daughter, real-sister, sister (by father)
It also includes the sister (by mother), mother, grandmother (both of them)
With amounts left after ASABAAT or none present, they'd get that by RADD
RADD (balance provided) is by the ratio of ZAWIL-FURUDH (by NASB only)
ASABAH are close relatives that are in heirs too; we'd study its detail later
They get what remains after the distribution of amounts to ZAWIL-FURUDH
ZAWIL-ARHAAM get from amounts if other 2 are not present or it's still left
These are relatives too & liable to get it besides ZAWIL-FURUDH & ASABAAT
MUQAR-LAHU here is the man for whom deceased had confessed as his son
That man must be old enough to be his son & his NASB must be unknown
He must accept indication of the confessor on him then his NASB is proved
If he indicates him to be his brother or uncle, it doesn't prove NASB for him
MUSA-LAHU here is the man whom the deceased willed to get his amounts
That man would get the third of his amounts as will relates to that part only
If he has no heirs to him then the BAITUL-MAAL would take it in its custody
There are few situations when even the heir to deceased doesnt get any of it
If an heir to the deceased kills him, he's deprived of all his share in his assets
If heir differs in belief from the deceased, he'd not get share in his amounts
Muslim relative doesnt get share in non-Muslims amount at latter's death
Likewise, non-Muslim relative wouldn't become heir to the Muslim relative
If Muslim heir to deceased Muslim lives at a distant country, he'd still get it
Previous is applicable even if that country is not at peace with the Muslims
Let's study heirs-ratios before proceeding to detail of FARAA'IDH in QUDURI

Father is in ZAWIL-FURUDH & may become ZUL-FARDH-ASABAH or ASABAH


In amounts, he'd only remain at the 1st if deceased has other close relatives
These close relatives are the sons or grandsons of the deceased present then
Secondly, if he has daughter/grand-daughter, his father is then ASABAH too
In previous, he'd get the 6th of it first & also get balance after share to her
Thirdly, If deceased doesn't have any offspring, father becomes ASABAH only
He wouldn't get 6th part therein but after the distribution, he'd get balance
Grand-father in the presence of the father to deceased doesn't get any of it
If father is not present, he is as father; the nearer in-line deposes the distant
Ruling for AKHYAFI (by mother) brothers/sisters in the heritage is as follows
They get amounts therein in 3 ways; they get it either 6th or 3rd or deprived
If deceased has one of them & has no offspring & father/grandfather dead
He or She would get sixth part of the total of amounts the deceased has left
If more than one in the same condition, they'd get third of total b/w them
If his off-spring or father/grandfather is alive, they are deprived of any share
If brothers & sisters both get share b/w them, they get it by 2:1 respectively
The male gets double of share of the female but it doesn't apply in AKHYAFI
They'd get shares equally whether male or female; the shares would be same
The husband gets either the half or the fourth of total amounts by condition
If wife dies leaving no off-spring, the husband gets half of her amounts left
If there's any of her offspring alive, he'd get the fourth of her amounts left
The wife would get from her deceased husband fourth of his left amounts
The previous occurs when he has not left any of his offspring alive behind
if he leaves more than one wife at death, they'd share the 4th part received
If he has left any of children (male/female), his wife would get its eighth part
The daughter gets her share by 3 ways; half, two-third, ASABAH (with other)
If the deceased has a daughter only & no son, she'd get half of the amounts
If daughters are 2 or more with no son, they'd get two-third of it b/w them
If there is son/s too, they're ASABAH with them; they'd get half of his share
Daughters/Grand-Daughters may only get to two-third, not more any-time
Grand-Daughter by son has 5 ways; half, two-third, sixth, MAHJUB, ASABAH
The grand-daughter with no grandson by his son & no offspring; gets the half
If more than one with same position as previous, they'd share two-third of it
If the deceased has daughter too, grand-daughter by son gets the sixth part

They have got two-third together as daughter gets half & they get sixth of it
If he left more than one daughter behind, they get two-third; she's deprived
Previous is named as MAHJUB (stopped) by his daughters to get of amounts
If a son to deceased is alive, grand-daughter is deprived of any of amounts
If grandson by son is present & no son, he'd make grand-daughters ASABAH
Previous (grandson & grand-daughters) get balance after daughters' shares
TASHBIB means issue to learn at the beginning of the distribution of shares
Suppose he has no sons/grandsons alive but has grand-daughters by sons
These are a grand-daughter & grand grand-daughters he has by his 3 sons
First of his 3 sons has a daughter, grand-daughter & grand grand-daughter
Other grand-daughter & grand grand-daughter; 3rd grand grand-daughter
Daughter of the first get half of amounts & both grand-daughters get sixth
Grand grand-daughters of his sons get nothing of the amounts that he left
Two-third is off by half of amounts plus sixth together; no more to provide
It applies as there's no grandson but if there's one present by any of sons
This grandson of deceased makes the female at side ASABAH & both get it
In previous, he'd become stoppage to all in-line below; they'd get nothing
The male gets the double of share that the female gets in the left amounts
Sister (by both parents) has 4 of ratios; half, two-third, ASABAH, MAHJUB
She'd get half if the father/grandfather & any of his descendant isn't alive
If in the same condition if sisters are more than one, they'd get two-third
If real brother is also present with them, he'd make these sisters ASABAH
They'd get the balance remaining after distribution to his ZAWIL-FARAIDH
The male gets the double of the female; it's the general rule in inheritance
If a daughter/grand-daughter is present then too they'd become ASABAH
After daughters/granddaughters get shares, they'd get all the amounts left
If deceased has son/grandson/father/grandfather alive, they are MAHJUB
ALLATI sister is by the father (mother different) & has 6 ratios to amounts
It's half, two-third, sixth, MAHJUB by females, ASABAH, MAHJUB by males
if she's alone (father/grandfather, offspring & real-brother to him is absent)
In previous, she'd get half of amounts but if 2 or more, theyd get two-third
In same situation If he has real sister, she'd get sixth & real sister gets half
In same situation If real sisters are 2, they get its two-third & she's MAHJUB
In same if real sister is one & shes ASABAH by daughter, ALAATI is MAHJUB

In same if she has a brother (ALLATI) with her then he'd make her ASABAH
In same but with his daughters or grand-daughters, she'd become ASABAH
With father/grandfather/son/ grandson/real brother, ALLATI are MAHJUB
Mother of the deceased gets amounts in 3 of ratios from his left amounts
She gets the third part in whole or the third part in remaining or the sixth
She'd get third of whole if he neither has the offspring nor any 2 in siblings
In previous his father isn't alive too while his wife is still alive at his death
If father is alive & wife too, latter gets her share; mother third of remaining
If deceased has any of offspring or 2 of siblings alive, she'd get 6th of whole
Grandmother (both) get share only by sixth of amounts yet with conditions
Grandmother deprives the grand grandmother to get anything of amounts
At presence of source, the related one by source is deprived of any amounts
She deprives above relations in-line by presence (as son deprives grandson)
If reason to heir-ship is same, the near one deprives the distant-one for that
For instance, the mother deprives both of the grandmothers by her presence
This ends necessary detail to ZAWIL-FARUDH without tackling any odd issues
Detail ahead are the comments on calculations at QUDURI (its last chapter)
All parts to FARAA'IDH are 6 in total; half, fourth, eighth; thats 1st category
Other parts are two-third, third, sixth; thats the 2nd category in FARAA'IDH
In FARAA'IDH, if there's only one ZAWIL-FURUDH, his ratio indicates its total
Notable is that if husband & son are heirs, former gets 4th & son gets other
Husband gets his share as hes among ZAWIL-FURUDH; son gets it as ASABAH
In previous, the total shares are 4 & relates to the ratio of the husband here
In FARAA'IDH, lesser of shares of one category decides the total needed in it
In previous, total shares are 8 If ratio to the amounts is half, fourth, eighth
In FARAA'IDH, if heirs are husband, daughter, uncle by father, the total is 4
The husband gets fourth, daughter gets half & the uncle is the ASABAH here
In previous, total shares are 4; husband gets one, daughter two, uncle one
In FARAA'IDH, if half occurs & there's any one from the other of category
In previous, the total shares in the distribution might be calculated by six
In FARAA'IDH, if fourth occurs & there's any one figure of other category
In previous, the total shares in the distribution might be calculated by 12
In FARAA'IDH, if eighth occurs as ratio & there's any one of other category
In previous, the total shares in the distribution might be calculated by 24

At times, shares fall in excess than figure of the total shares; it needs AUL
AUL means to go beyond the figure of the total shares if shares excess it
Total shares required at FARAA'IDH are seven; they are 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24
AUL relates to only 3 of these thats 6, 12 & 24; former may go up-to 10
12 shares might give AUL as 13, 15, 17; AUL to 24 shares is just 27 only
For instance a woman left husband, mother & 2 of real sisters behind her
The husband gets half, the mother gets sixth & both the sisters two-third
Total shares are 6 for clean distribution yet actual shares excess the total
It needs AUL towards 8 & that would be total shares taken in distribution
In previous, the figures of shares remain same but the distribution is by 8
Shares maybe the same or one multiple of others or all may have one HCF
In 8 & 16, latter is the multiple of former; in 8 & 20, the HCF comes to 4
Mathematics for ratios is needed here; it's good that we have calculators
FARAA'IDH doesn't tolerate fractions so at times we do need rectification
Rectification isn't hard by applying math to shares as required at the issues
If heirs are 6 daughters & the mother & the father to the deceased in that
The former get two-third, the mother & the father both get the sixth each
Ratio comes to 4:1:1 with total of 6; this causes fraction to the daughters
By multiplying all of the shares by 3 we get 12:3:3; the total shares are 18
Fraction is off & each of daughters gets 2 of shares, both parents get 3 each
If heirs are husband, 6 daughters, the mother, the father; taking total as 12
First gets fourth (3) of it, daughters get two-third (8), mother gets sixth (2)
Also, the father gets sixth (2) of it; fraction occurs at shares of daughters
By AUL, total are 15 & the ratios X 3 are 9:24:6:6 & the total = 45 (15 X 3)
This ends the fraction as each has the share in the total without any fraction
So if its 45000, husband gets 9000, each daughter 4000, each parent 6000
If heirs present as 3 daughters, the mother & the father, total shares = 6 X 3
Daughters get two-third, mother & father get sixth each (hes ASABAH too)
In total shares of 6, daughters get 4 of it (its fraction) & parents get 1 each
Fraction ends at daughters' share by the multiplication of all the shares by 3
The ratio holds at 12:3:3 & now each daughter gets 4 of shares conveniently
If heirs are the husband, 3 grandmothers & 6 real-sisters; theyre 10 in total
Husband gets half of it, grandmothers get the 6th; sisters get two-third of it
By total of 6, husband gets 3 of it & 3 grandmothers 1; 6 sisters get 4 of it

AUL makes the total shares 8, figures (ratio) of shares remaining the same
Multiplying ratios by 6 here gives a smooth distribution; it's 18:6:24 = 48
Husband gets 18 shares of it, each grandmother 2 of it & each sister 6 of it
Ratios maybe divided by 2 here & that makes it smooth too as 9:3:12 = 24
If heirs are 4 wives, 9 grandmothers, 6 uncles by father; wives get 4th of it
Grandmothers get the 6th together & uncles are ASABAH here in the issue
By 12; the 4 wives get 3 & 9 grandmothers 2; uncles here get 7 (the rest)
All have fractions in them; multiplied by LCM 36 (of 4-9-6) smoothens it
Ratios come to 108:72:252 (of 3-2-7) & total shares are 432 (i.e. 36 x 12)
If heirs are 4 wives, 3 grandmothers, 5 uncles by father; they all get shares
Wives share is 4th; grandmothers get 6th together & uncles are ASABAH
By 12, four wives get 3, three grandmothers get 2 & five uncles get 7 of it
To rectify here, we may take any common multiple of 4, 3 & 5; let's take 60
Multiplying 60 to shares 3:2:7, result is 180:120:420; fractions end by 720
If heirs are a wife, 6 real-brothers, 3 real-sisters; here the wife gets fourth
Others are ASABAH, the male gets double of the female in their amounts
Total shares being 4, the wife gets 1; others would get the other 3 of total
Wife has fraction as 1 over 4; Siblings have it too in that as 3 parts over 4
As other parts represent 15 of it, that's 3 parts of 4; total is 20 (15 X 4/3)
In 20 shares, the wife gets 5 while brothers get 2 each & sisters get 1 each
If heirs are 3 daughters & 3 uncles by the father; daughters get two-third
Here, the total is by ratio-inverted or multiplication of a relevant number
Uncles are ASABAH so they get the other of amounts that's one part of 3
Multiplying by ratio-inverted of the 3 uncles, we get the total of 9 (3 X 3)
3 Daughters get two shares each; 3 uncles get one share each from total
If heirs are wife, 3 sons & 4 daughters; the wife gets the eighth in the total
Sons & Daughters get the other 7; former get the double of what latter get
Total of shares are 8 (1+7 = 8) & 7 represents 10 of shares in the total here
Multiplying numbers by 10, we get 10+70 = 80; so the total shares are 80
The wife gets 10 shares, sons 14 each, daughters 7 each from it smoothly
If heirs are wife, both parents, 2 sons, 5 daughters, 2 uncles by the father
Wife gets eighth, father & mother get sixth each, children other of shares
Uncles don't get anything; nearer ASABAH (children) have deprived them
Shares are in ratio 3:4:4:13; so total shares here come to 24 by addition

As children's shares are 13 of 24 (fraction), we multiply 9 to the equation


So we get 27:36:36:117 (total shares = 216) & the distribution is smooth
Let's start KITABUL-FARAA'IDH at QUDURI now keeping to detail studied
FARAA'IDH as mentioned studies the law to distribute all of the inheritance
The distribution b/w inheritors is to remain according to the command of Allah
This tells the specific shares for inheritors in the inheritance & it's FARAA'IDH
Before studying the FARAA'IDH at QUDURI, we would study general rules to it
There are four of rightful expenses relating to deceased; 1st is funeral expenses
Second is to pay-off his debts; third is to execute his will to 3rd part of its rest
fourth is that the remaining amounts is distributed b/w all his valid inheritors
Main heirs to deceased are three; ZAWIL-FURUDH, ASABAAT, ZAWIL-ARHAAM
Murderer of the man to whom he is one of heirs, doesn't remain heir to him
MURTAD (who leaves Islam) wouldn't get inheritance by his Muslim relatives
Difference of the heir's belief to the Muslim relative deprives him of his share
Muslim also doesn't become heir to any of non-Muslim relatives even if close
The shares in all the left amounts are half, fourth, eighth, two-third, third, sixth
Half relates to five of relatives; daughter, grand-daughter, real-sister & ALLATI
Husband also gets the half of it if there is no offspring to the deceased woman
And fourth relates to the husband if she has offspring whether male or female
Wife gets fourth if the husband has no offspring & eighth of it with offspring
Two-Third is to those who usually get share as half of it when more than one
Third is for the mother if there's no offspring & also no sibling (or one only)
Mother gets the third of the remaining in a particular case in the distribution
If deceased has both the spouse & his father alive; she gets 3rd of remaining
It's to AKHYAFI siblings too if more than one; equal shares to male & female
Sixth is for mother & father if there is any offspring alive to deceased person
It's for the mother too if the siblings to deceased (more than one) are alive
It's also for the grandmothers; it's for grandfather too in absence of father
Grandfather would get it when the deceased has any of offspring alive then
In the offspring, not only sons but even their children are included by ruling
Grand-daughters by son would get sixth too in the presence of one daughter
With 2 daughters, they get nothing unless become ASABAH due to a brother
ALLATI sisters get the sixth too if there is only one real sister to the deceased
If there is only one of the AKHYAFI sibling alive then, she'd get the sixth of it

Both Grandmothers don't get anything if the mother is alive as she's nearer
If father is alive, grandfather is not an heir; he also deprives the siblings of it
The father becomes ASABAH if hes present at the distribution but not others
AKHYAFI siblings are deprived too by 4 of relatives present at the distribution
If he has any offspring or offspring (by son) or father or grandfather alive then
The daughters take total two-third of amounts depriving the grand-daughters
Notable is that daughters in descendants may only share two-third maximum
Brother to grand-daughters by son makes all of them ASABAH getting shares
If Real-Sisters get the two-third, ALLATI ones are deprived except by brother
ASABAH have relation to him that has no woman directly in-between for it
Sons, grandsons by them, father, grandfather by him, brothers & nephews
Lastly in sequence, Uncles by father become ASABAH too to him in amounts
The male & the female in ASABAH get the shares 2:1 respectively b/w them
Where AKHYAFI get amounts as shares, both male & female share it equally
HAJB means to become stoppage to the share or to cause decrease in that
if it decreases it, it's named HAJBE-NUQSAAN; if stops it's HAJBE-HIRMAAN
Former occurs in grand-daughters that have two-third if no offspring to him
With a daughter, its the 3rd; with 2 or more, it's HIRMAAN & deprives fully
Wife of deceased gets the fourth but with the off-spring, she gets eighth of it
Mother gets the sixth if there is offspring to deceased or 2 (or more) siblings
Left from daughters (i.e. two-third), it's for the grandsons & grand-daughters
Left from real-sisters is for sisters by the father (with brother) being ASABAH
They'd get shares with the male getting two of that; sisters getting one of it
If there are 2 sons of an uncle by the father (one is brother by mother too)
One having 2 relations gets the sixth of it & then both share other five of it
If the deceased has husband, mother, brothers by mother & real-brothers
Her husband gets half, mother gets sixth, brothers by mother get third of it
The real brothers in the situation get nothing though they too are ASABAH
RADD (revision) is to pay the balance left if any, again to the ZAWIL-FURUDH
RADD occurs by the ratios if theres no ASABAH; there's no RADD to spouse
If accidental death kills heirs to each other, sequence in the death has value
Person dying afterwards is heir to other yet if sequence is totally unknown
The heirs alive are paid then by amounts of all the deceased as appropriate
If man dies & his wife is pregnant, his amounts aren't distributed till birth

Grandfather & brothers both are ASABAH in it, both are rightful heirs to it
SAHEBAIN rule that both share it; grandfather gets 3rd least if he gets lesser
ZAWIL-ARHAAM, though far-away in distribution, do become heirs at times
When there are no ZAWIL-FARAIDH & no ASABAH, they get the shares in it
These are relatives too to deceased & are 10 in total; offspring to daughter
Offspring to sister, niece (i.e. by the brother), daughter of uncle (by father)
And Uncle (by mother), Aunt (by mother) & the Grandfather (by mother)
Uncle to mother; Aunt (by father); AKHYAFI brothers' offspring; total as 10
Sequence may differ from the mentioned; nearer relates to source of heir
If daughter of uncle (by father) & son of aunt (by father) are the heirs alive
Former is more rightful as the uncle by father is much nearer in the relation
And grandfather is nearer than the nephew by sister or the niece by brother
QUDURI discusses here the Math to calculate shares that we all have studied
Muslims excelled in Medicine, Astronomy, Psychology; 2nd asks for MATH
Surely, practice of Islam is needed at all-times everywhere; Al-Hamdu Lillah
Calculation is the last chapter in QUDURI; but we still have to study it ahead
Let's now take-up ahead the study of its initial chapters left; Al-Hamdu Lillah
TAHARAT (WUDHU, BATH, TAYAMMUM, WIPING OF SOCKS)
The only aim of life is to worship Allah; all must keep this in view all the life
FIQH is the knowledge of Commands for deeds as told by KITAB & SUNNAH
KITAB is the Holy Quran & SUNNAH is words & deeds of Muhammad PBUH
WUDHU has 4 FARDH; washing face, hands to elbows, feet & wiping of head
Wiping of head needs at-least its fourth part once; others ask washing 3 times
SUNNAH for WUDHU includes that after sleep, hands are washed first 3 times
And to start it by name of Allah & use SIWAK at teeth, gargle & wash nostrils
Wiping ears, KHILAL (wiping) of beard & b/w the fingers & wash parts 3 times
These from the rise from sleep are all SUNNAH of WUDHU that are cared in it
MUSTAHAB (appreciated) in WUDHU is the intention to it & to wipe all head
Also it goes on in sequence in taking parts in WUDHU & in a continuous way
And to start it for each part by right side & wipe the back of the neck too in it
Many FAQIH take only last 2 as MUSTAHAB & all others as SUNNAH too here
WUDHU breaks by anything coming out of the site of urine or from the anus
Blood that flows a bit & pus & any combination of both breaks the WUDHU
In previous, blood, pus or combination must flow to a part needing washing

Also, to vomit out by quantity that may fill-up the mouth & it's unstoppable
And to sleep at ease on the side or the knees or anything; these all break it
If it's upon such support that he falls on its removal, this breaks WUDHU
To faint, to be affected by lunacy, to laugh by voice at the SALAH, breaks it
Laugh is 3 types; QAHQAHA, ZEHEK, TABASSUM; first is that near-one hears
ZEHEK is that he hears it himself & TABASSUM where even he doesn't hear
First breaks WUDHU & SALAH; ZEHEK (laugh) breaks SALAH not WUDHU
TABASSUM (smile) doesn't break any of them; person must avoid all these
In GHUSL (bath), FARDH is to rinse the mouth, wash nostrils & all the body
SUNNAH for bathing is washing hands to elbows, private parts, any filth first
Then washing mouth, nostrils & all body; feet need washing moving a little
If some part appears dry in part, it's valid to wash it even after few minutes
If he omits FARDH (necessary) of WUDHU/GHUSL, its void & purity needed
Woman is allowed not to untie hair if she has tied in many parts very tightly
She'd just put water as to reach the basis of hair & that'd be enough for her
But if man ties hair as such due to some fashion, he'd have to untie & wash
Women mustn't use nail-polish; it stops water to nails; WUDHU is void then
GHUSL is due at ejaculation by passion or if the man & wife make sex-relation
Ejaculation due to passion asks for it but if without it, it only asks for WUDHU
If man bathes & hasn't urinated before, he must revise if he sees semen-drops
It also becomes due as woman gets free of menses or the postpartum period
It's SUNNAH to bathe on Fridays, EID, HAJJ-EHRAAM & ARAFA (9th of ZIL-HAJJ)
Light semen (MADHI) & droplets as semen (WADEE) after urine ask for WUDHU
To get purity by the water of rains, of wells, of mounts & of seas is valid totally
These waters give purity in both HADATH (impurity), small & big, that ask for it
Big HADATH is situation which asks for bathing; small of that asks for WUDHU
HADATH doesn't end by waters of trees or if extracted by fruits or if it changes
Its change occurs at syrups, vinegar, gravy, water of beans, roses or/& carrots
Water changes it's color, smell or taste as something mixes to it or falls into it
If a pure thing mixes with it & changes only one of qualities, it's fine for usage
If it changes 2 of its qualities, it's not fine to get purity even if the thing is pure
Stagnant water in which an impure thing falls is not fine to use for the purity
As one awakes, he must wash his hands 3 times before use of bucket-water
If an impurity falls in flowing water & not seen or felt in it, it's valid for purity

If water is much high in quantity, purity by other side of impurity has validity
The idea for "much high" is 10 by 10 meters; it must have some of depth too
But such pool must not show any of impression of impurity at its other side
This pool must be so that shaking water at one side doesn't affect other side
If at previous, a living water-creature dies therein, it's valid to make WUDHU
Also if an insect without flowing blood dies therein, it doesn't affect validity
If an unseen impurity is therein & none of qualities changes, it's valid to use
Using used water to purity is invalid for purity again of HADATH of any sort
If WUDHU is valid & yet made, water for 2nd one is ruled as used water too
Skin of animal is valid to use for SALAH if it has been purified by DABAGHAT
DABAGAHT is way to dry it giving it sunshine to purify even if it's found dead
Recent ways are valid too if fulfill demands to DABAGHAT except swine's skin
The skin of swine remains impure because it's NAJAS (filth) & remains as such
Other parts of dead animal as teeth, hair, bones too are valid for decoration
But the Man has sanctity & so it's invalid to use his skin or parts in any way
Grafting of his skin to his own self or transfusion of blood is fine; its no loss
If some impurity falls into the well, taking-out all its water from it, purifies it
For ease if a few buckets are taken-out, that impurity must be taken out first
If it's mouse, sparrow or birds of that size & lizard, it'd be 20 to 30 buckets
It's 20 to 30 buckets by the bucket's size; but mouse mustn't be wounded
Wounded mouse falling there needs to take all water out of that to purify it
If hen, pigeon or cat dies therein, 40 to 50 buckets have to be taken-out of it
If dog or sheep dies therein, count of buckets is invalid; all water is taken out
If a man dies therein, it needs taking-out all the water though he has sanctity
If any creature asking for amount of buckets to take-out decomposes therein
In previous, its needed that the whole water of it is taken out as to purify it
If the well gets on water from its base, so much water is taken out that fills it
It's fine to take-out 200 to 300 buckets water if assessment of whole is hard
if dead animal comes in bucket of well, SALAH of day & night must be revised
Clothes or pots of the day & night washed by it now have to be washed again
If it comes out decomposed, it'd affect 3 last days & nights & SALAH is revised
Water left-over of man & of animal edible is valid to use; not of dog or swine
Left-over of wild hunting animals is invalid to use; of hunting birds is MAKRUH
MAKRUH means detestable; left-over of cat, hen, mouse also is MAKRUH to use

Left-over water of mules/asses has doubts; better not to use it but on necessity
Even if it's used, it's feasible to make TAYAMMUM too either before or after it
TAYAMMUM is to use clean sand for purity if water isn't available for WUDHU
It means in speech to intend for something; here the intention is to get purity
It's valid for patient if water is adverse to condition, he may do TAYAMMUM
It's valid if traveler doesn't find water & he's away of city at least a mile away
Mile here is bigger than taken as today; it is 4000 ZIRA or 6000 ft. (4000X1.5)
Mile now is of 1760 yards; mile here is of 2000 yards; mile + furlong (approx.)
As 1083.333 yards equals a Km of now, mile here equals 1.846 Km as of now
It's valid if he fears his drinking water wouldn't last to need if used for WUDHU
It's by 2 hits at dust; one for wiping the face, other for wiping hands to elbows
It's same for both HADATH & well for purity; it substitutes for WUDHU & Bath
TAYAMMUM is valid of anything that relates to earth as sand, pebble, calcium
Hard SURMA (antimony) & SANKHIA (type of pebble) is valid too; others invalid
Things burnt by the fire are invalid except for calcium that even if burns is valid
Mentioned are valid even if the dust is not seen at them; others must have dust
Intention is necessary in making TAYAMMUM; at WUDHU, it's MUSTAHAB only
Things breaking WUDHU, break it too & for GHUSL, it breaks by all that breaks it
If he gets water, TAYAMMUM ends; if substitutes bath, it must be enough for it
Traveler needs to make WUDHU as he gets water; it isn't necessary for patients
If someone doesn't find water at SALAH & hopes to get it on time, he may wait
In previous, if he reads SALAH without wait, it's valid & revision isn't necessary
Even if isn't at travel & isn't patient too, he may still make it at few occasions
In previous, at SALAH of EID or funeral, it's valid to make it if the time is short
By 2 conditions that time is short & SALAH doesn't have substitution, it's valid
So EIDAIN or JANAZA (funeral) might be said by making TAYAMMUM if needed
If he forgets the reserved water & reads SALAH, he'd not revise it if remembers
If he thinks there's water nearby, he must search-on till the last time of SALAH
If he doesn't think so, the search isn't needed; he may read it by TAYAMMUM
If his companion has enough water at the travel, he must make WUDHU by it
If he thinks it's useless as then he'd only deny, he may read it by TAYAMMUM
If SALAH-time is very short & may elapse by WUDHU, hed still make WUDHU
He may read many SALAH by one TAYAMMUM only & read the Holy Quran too
Wiping over leather-socks is valid by SUNNAH if someone wears it at WUDHU

It's valid if he makes WUDHU & just wipes socks; washing them isn't needed
It's valid yet the better thing is to wash them at every WUDHU & not to wipe
These socks must cover his ankles too; for the resident, it's valid for 24 hours
For traveler, it's valid to wipe them 3 days & nights without taking them off
If any sock is taken-off or gets-off, wiping isn't enough; feet must be washed
If he's at WUDHU & takes them off, he needs to wash feet only to validate it
If water gets into foot even with the sock on up-to half of it, it needs washing
Count of period for MASAH (wiping) is from when his WUDHU breaks after it
MASAH is only on above of socks that manifests drawing all fingers to ankle
These socks must get moist up-to 3 fingers on them even if he does it in width
If he puts some water on leather socks & draws 3 lines upon it, MASAH is valid
FARDH in MASAH is that they get moisture on them up-to 3 fingers of an hand
If a person with the socks walks in rain, it's enough for the validity of MASAH
If a sock is torn up-to quantity as 3 small fingers of the feet, MASAH is invalid
If it's torn at different places yet equals quantity of 3 small fingers, it's invalid
The torn area relates to every sock singly; if each is torn lesser, MASAH is valid
If bath becomes due, MASAH ends & for bath, it is necessary to wash the feet
Taking-off any of sock ends the MASAH & it also ends by the end of its period
At end of period if he's at WUDHU, he only needs to wash feet & wear again
If resident turns traveler, he'd count its 72 hours from its initial time at stay
If he returns from travel, MASAH ends; he'd make it again for 24 hours now
Yet it's valid if travel's MASAH still isn't 24-hours old; he may go-on with it
If JURMUQ (cover to leather-socks) is worn, it's valid to do MASAH on that
If thick socks have leather up & down not permitting water inside; it's valid
Such socks must be so thick that wearer may walk to 3 miles, only by them
Socks as of now aren't so thick; they're invalid even with leather up & down
MASAH on turbans, caps & gloves isn't valid; it's allowed only at valid socks
Things binding wounds (esp. for bones) allow MASAH; he may wipe to healing
It stays even if bandage falls from un-healed wound; if healed & it falls, its off
HAYDH (menses) means to flow as experienced by adult female each month
It's flow of vaginal blood that she must experience not lesser than for 3 days
Also, she must not experience it before age of 9 years as then it isn't HAYDH
There are 3 reasons to vaginal blood; HAYDH, NIFAS (postpartum), ISTIHADHA
ISTIHADHA (blood-flow) is by ailment & it may come by other site than womb

HAYDH has to be more than 3 & lesser than 10 days; other blood is ISTIHADHA
If blood is red, black, yellow, brownish, all is taken HAYDH; she'd leave SALAH
If the blood is white (or it is more than 10 days) then it's taken as ISTIHADHA
SALAH is relaxed in HAYDH & needs no QADHA (reading later); fasts need that
She'd not enter mosques (even KA'ABAH); it's as man may not, needing bath
Her husband is disallowed sex-relation to her; she'd not touch the Holy Quran
Man needing bath mustn't touch it too; normally, it needs WUDHU to touch it
Woman at HAYDH is allowed to recite the Holy Quran word-by-word stopping
Husband needs to stop from sex-relation until she takes bath after her HAYDH
That's valid even if time for a SALAH passes-on after it or 10 days have passed
TUHR (period of cleanliness) is minimum 15 days; if lesser it's MUTAKHALLIL
So menses occurs & 15 days-TUHR are yet to pass, it's TUHR-MUTAKHALLIL
With blood at MUTAKHALLIL, previous HAYDH + TUHR-days are ISTIHADHA
To clarify HAYDH-days from ISTIHADHA, it needs seeing her normal routine
If she used to have 3 days of it, it'd be HAYDH, other remaining ISTIHADHA
Notable is that SALAH is off to her at HAYDH; she'd read it for other of days
TUHR lasts for all the time menses doesn't occur; she must read-on SALAH
ISTIHADHA is as ruling of blood from nose needing WUDHU for each SALAH
And It doesn't hinder SALAH, SIYAM (fasts) & sexual-relation with husband
If she gets more than 10 days any month, days over HAYDH are ISTIHADHA
If she gets initial HAYDH more than 10 days, her routine is taken as 10 days
ISTIHADHA doesn't ask bath (it's better); WUDHU for each SALAH is needed
In ailments showing blood or urine drops, WUDHU is needed at each SALAH
WUDHU then stays till the time of that SALAH even in presence of the drops
But it'd break by any other reason (HADATH) though drops wouldn't affect it
NIFAS (Postpartum) blood has no minimum period; its maximum is 40 days
Any-time it stops before 40 days is in NIFAS, more than that is in ISTIHADHA
If at previous child-birth, her NIFAS was lesser than it, days over is ISTIHADHA
It means if she had NIFAS of 30 days previously, days over it is her ISTIHADHA
In previous, If calculation isn't feasible, her NIFAS-period is normal (40 days)
If twins are born, her NIFAS-period starts by second child born (I.M., ZUFAR)
It's necessary that person reading SALAH is free of NAJASAT (filth) in all ways
Free of NAJASAT means his body is clean, clothes are clean & place is clean
If anything is impure, he must clean it by clean water (or vinegar/rose-water)

If dry filth affects socks, it's enough for its purity to rub it at the earth (dust)
If semen is dry, it's well to rub it off the cloth; if at mirror or sword, it's wiped
In previous, it's better now to wash the cloth affected by semen well & good
If there's filth at earth & it dries by sun-shine leaving no effect; SALAH is well
But in previous, that place at earth mustn't be used for making TAYAMMUM
NAJASAT has 2 types; MUGHALLAZA (heavy filth), MUKHAFFAFA (light filth)
Notable is if former equals a coin or is lesser in volume, SALAH is valid with it
If more than it at body, clothes, place it must be cleaned to validate SALAH
MUGHALLAZA include blood, urine, stool, dung, hen's & animals' feces etc.
Urine of edible animals is MUKHAFFAFA & also the feces of birds not edible
Feces of edible birds other than hens (& kind) & ducks (& kind) isn't impure
MUKHAFFAFA is bearable to fourth of the cloth; if more it'd invalidate SALAH
As washer washes apparent filth & its effect or smell stays, it's valid in SALAH
If filth isn't apparent, washer must wash it till he feels satisfied that it's clean
To ask purity after nature's call is SUNNAH; sandy pebbles (& water) are good
If the filth extends beyond the site, water is the only good way to ask purity
Neither dung nor bone is good agent to purity; edibles must also be avoided
Left hand must be used for cleanliness; right hand may carry the water-vessel
SALAH (AUQAAT-JAMA'AH-JUMU'AH-EIDAIN-JANA'EZ)
Allah has specified the AUQAT for SALAH (SALAH-TIMING) for all 5 SALAH
The Holy Prophet MUHAMMAD PBUH has told these timings clearly to all
FAJR is the SALAH before dawn & its first time is FAJR-SADIQ (True-FAJR)
Light starts spreading then; its last time is before the start of the sunrise
Except when Sun rises, comes at mid-heaven & when sets, SALAH is valid
Those who will, read MUSTAHAB-SALAH at morning (ISHRAQ; CHAASTH)
SALAH isn't good after reading FAJR till the Sun rises & after ASR till sets
QADHA is taken valid at times noted in previous by HF yet better to avoid
ZUHR is the SALAH just after ZAWAAL just as the sun crosses mid-heaven
It stays till its shadow becomes double to it's actual size according to A.H.
To SAHEBAIN, it ends at the shadow of actual size so ASR is valid then too
ASR starts at the end of ZUHR's time according to both; it ends at sunset
MAGHRIB starts just after sunset & it ends just as the light vanishes fully
As the darkness covers the horizon at the West, time for MAGHRIB ends
Timing for ISHA commences at end of MAGHRIB; it stays till FAJR-SADIQ

It's better to read it late till midnight; it may be read at the last of night
NAFL-SALAH at its last is named TAHAJJUD & it nears the man to Allah
After ISHA then, he may read 2-RAKA'AH & WITR (3-RAKA'AH WAJIB)
This 2-RAKA'AH would do as TAHAJJUD too then he must wait for FAJR
It'd be TAHAJJUD if he wakes from sleep, reads it after his ISHA & waits
HF tells the better time to FAJR is to read it at some of light at horizon
And ZUHR is better late at hot weather & it's better early at moderate
Reading of ASR is better late but before the Sun changes to the redness
SALAH of MAGHRIB is better immediately & ISHA is better to read late
HF tells that ISHA is better up-to the 3rd of night, not any later to that
WITR is better to read late after some sleep & after reading TAHAJJUD
ADHAN is SUNNAH that's call on specific times to ask to attend SALAH
It is as we hear it generally at the sub-continent; total sentences = 15
At FAJR-ADHAN; an addition is "AS-SALATU-KHAIRUM-MINAN-NAUM"
It's said 2 times & means "SALAH is better than sleep"; total is 17 at it
IQAMAH (call at JAMA'AH) too is like that with QAD-QAAMATES-SALAH
It means SALAH has stood (means JAMA'AH is ready now) to call for it
ADHAN is said with ease & with some time in pronouncing sentences
IQAMAH is said as normal speech speaking all sentences continuously
In ADHAN, it's better to turn the face to the left & right; but not all body
Previous is done at the sentences "Come to SALAH" & "Come to FALAH"
In QADHA of few of SALAH, first of SALAH needs ADHAAN; others don't
HF validates ADHAN if given without WUDHU yet IQAMAH is MAKRUH
ADHAN for SALAH is called at time not before as then it needs revision
ADHAN by woman is invalid too & her presence to Mosque is not asked
SHURUTUS-SALAH (conditions to SALAH) are those that are needed for it
They occur before it for MUSALLI (who reads it) contrary to its ARKAAN
It's needed for him to be clean of impurity not needing WUDHU or bath
Cleanliness includes that he mustn't have any filth on body or its place
Besides these three that ask cleanliness to MUSALLI, there're 4 others
Also needed is that he hides all his SATAR (from belly to knees totally)
SATAR for the woman is all of her body except for face & hands (& feet)
If SATAR of any opens to 4th part even for some of time, SALAH is void
SATAR of the slave-woman was as of the man; mostly she cared to more

If only cloth available for SATAR is filthy to 4th, he may read SALAH in it
With no cloth available, he may still read SALAH but must read it sitting
Also needed is his intention to read it & it's continuous after intention
It is not necessary to speak-out the intention of SALAH; it's understood
If by genuine mistake, he speaks intention to SALAH other than he reads
In previous, it's valid even if he reads-on SALAH without revising words
It must be continuous with NIYYAH (intention); must be no work in-b/w
Also needed is that the time for SALAH he is reading has occurred then
Also needed is the direction towards QIBLAH (KA'BAH) to read SALAH
At fear, he may read SALAH to any direction even if aware of the QIBLAH
The genuine fear may occur by deadly enemy or wild animals if at jungle
He may read SALAH facing any direction if there's no way to get QIBLAH
At previous, he must try to find the direction by an idea then take it up
If he gets guidance to right direction at SALAH, he must face accordingly
FARA'IDH of SALAH are needed things inside SALAH that are six in total
TAKBIR-TEHRIMA is the first of the ARKAAN even though it starts SALAH
It prohibits few of normal acts like talking, walking, eating, drinking etc.
Second is QIYAAM (stand in SALAH); it's one of FARA'IDH (ARKAAN) too
Third is to recite some of the Holy Quran in the standing; it's in ARKAAN
Fourth is RUKU' (To bow towards Allah); it is done with hands to knees
Fifth is SAJDAH (to prostrate to Allah) putting head to ground in SALAH
Sixth is the last of sitting at-least to period given to recite AT-TAHIYAAT
Leaving any of FARA'IDH (ARKAAN) in it makes it void & it needs revision
In previous, it is notable that this is not even repaired by SAJDAH-SAHW
SAJDAH-SAHW means two SAJDAH at end of SALAH to mend the flaw in it
These SAJDAH repair the flaw in WAJIB but not in FARA'IDH (ARKAAN) of it
WAJIB in it are as follows; it's flaw is repaired by SAJDAH-SAHW at the end
Recitation of SURAH FATIHA, the first SURAH of the Holy Quran, is WAJIB
After it, reading SURAH or long verse or 3 short verses of the Holy Quran
To perform the ARKAAN in their sequence & the middle-sitting in SALAH
Reading of TASHAHHUD (recitation of AT-TAHIYAAT) in sittings of SALAH
To read with low voice in ZUHR & ASR & by some voice in other of SALAH
Previous is WAJIB on IMAM as MUSALLI reading alone may read low only
Standing erect after the RUKU & sitting well with total ease b/w SAJDAH

TA'DIL i.e. reading it by care giving due time to postures ending by SALAM
Reading of QUNUT in WITR; saying of the added TAKBIR in EIDAIN-SALAH
To forget any of these or to make error requires SAJDAH-SAHW to mend
Leaving these by will needs revision of SALAH; SAHW doesn't mend that
It has other issues too proved from the Prophet PBUH taken as SUNNAH
Manner to SALAH by care of FARA'IDH, WAJIB & SUNNAH is as follows
To commence SALAH, he raises both of his hands to the lower tips of ears
Women raise hands to shoulders & it's better to conceal the palm even
And he says ALLAHU-AKBAR (or AL-AKBAR or Al-KABIR instead of AKBAR)
Former in Previous is the better & the usual way at TEHRIMA & followed
Palms are towards the KAA'BAH as much as possible at start (TEHRIMA)
He keeps his left hand below the navel and keeps his right hand upon it
By his right hand, he holds his left wrist i.e. by his thumb & small finger
He recites the SANA; then A'OOZU-BI-ALLAH & BISM-ALLAH, in low tone
Then FATIHA; then some of the Holy Quran; he says AMEEN silently in it
AMEEN is said at the end of the FATIHA & HF asks to say it silently then
IMAM & MUQTADI (MUSALLI that is following him) both say it silently
Then at RUKU, he puts his hands at the knees holding with fingers open
His back must be straight as much as possible at the posture of RUKU
He says SUBHANA-RABBI-AL-AZEEM 3 times or 5 times or 7 times here
Then says SAME'-ALLAHU-LEMAN-HAMEDA or RABBANA-LAKAL-HAMD
Former is for IMAM & latter for MUQTADI; reading alone, he says both
He stands erect at the QAUMA (i.e. posture of the standing after RUKU)
Then at this posture, he says TAKBEER (ALLAHU-AKBAR) & makes SAJDAH
He prostrates his person to Allah keeping his hands & head to the ground
He keeps his head b/w hands; keeps forehead & nose both to the ground
He must keep both to the ground unless some need prevents (SAHEBAIN)
A.H. rules validity if he keeps only one down; the previous seems better
If he prostrates at cloth or extension of his cloth, it's valid as he presses
He keeps thighs away from belly & keeps hands open, exposing armpits
Notable is that the woman keeps herself concealed to utmost possibility
She gathers herself by drawing all her physique totally in all of her SALAH
He points fingers of feet towards KA'BAAH as the best posture if at ease
He keeps his feet to the ground; if both feet don't touch it in all SAJDAH

In this previous situation, SAJDAH is invalid & his SALAH needs revision
He says SUBHANA-RABBI-AL-AA'LA 3 or 5 or 7 times here at prostration
Then saying ALLAHU-AKBAR, he sits at ease & then goes to SAJDAH again
Then saying ALLAHU-AKBAR, he stands without sitting for the 2nd RAKAH
He must try not to stand on hands but to stand upon the front of his feet
He says the 2nd RUKU the same way except for SANA & A'OOZU-BI-ALLAH
Rising from the 2nd SAJDAH, he sits on his left foot in the normal manner
His right foot stands with fingers towards KA'BAAH if it's not hard for him
He keeps fingers of hands spread in normal manner & recites TASHAHHUD
In the last 2 RAKA'AH, he reads FATIHA only or stands to its period in that
If he reads a SURAH after FATIHA by mistake, it's no issue & SALAH is fine
In previous, he doesn't even need to make SAHW as that's unnecessary
SUNNAH-SALAH (& NAFL) need SURAH in the last 2 RAKA'AH of them too
In the last sitting, he reads TASHAHHUD & then recites DURUD-IBRAHIMI
After DURUD, he asks Allah for his needs by words mentioned at QURAN
He might take-up words as mentioned in AHADITH for DUA (asking Allah)
Last, he says TASLIM by intention to give SALAM to angels at left & right
IMAM recites by voice in first 2 RAKA'AH of JAHRI-SALAH (needing voice)
In other SALAH, he needs to recite silently; MUSALLI if alone, has option
WITR are 3 RAKA'AH by SALAM at last of it (third); he reads QUNUT in it
By HF, QUNUT is read at last of RAKA'AH before RUKU for all of the year
In WITR, all 3 RAKA'AH need SURAH; QUNUT is after SURAH at third of it
It's read only at WITR after the SURAH all year after saying TAKBIR at 3rd
Notable is that there is no need to read specific SURAH in any of SALAH
After FATIHA, he may read any SURAH or 3 short verses or a long verse
HF asks MUQTADI not to recite FATIHA as IMAM's recitation is enough
HF takes the recitation of SURAH too by IMAM as enough for MUQTADI
MUQTADI must intend to read SALAH & to read it in following of IMAM
JAMA'AH (SALAH-congregation) is SUNNAH-MUAKKADAH (emphasized)
Better in IMAMATE of SALAH is the one more knowledgeable in SUNNAH
If there are many such good persons then better in recitation of QURAN
If that also doesn't decide then the most pious of them is more rightful
if many there are good in knowledge, recitation, piety then age decides
It's not feasible to give IMAMATE to villager, blind, born out of wedlock

But If the previous are knowledgeable in Islam, their IMAMATE is worthy


It's not feasible to give IMAMATE to sinful men as it's not valid any time
If he does lead, SALAH of MUQTADI isn't invalid & doesn't need revision
HF detests his IMAMATE & of others mentioned too if not good Muslims
Yet if they do take it up, HF validates SALAH of MUQTADI without revision
IMAM must read SALAH to end it in moderate time or even in brief time
He must care for MUQTADI & mustn't impress his position being at head
JAMA'AH b/w women is MAKRUH-TEHRIMI so must read all SALAH alone
If MUQTADI is one, he stands at right of IMAM besides him, little behind
If two, then IMAM stands ahead of them as stands normally at JAMA'AH
It's disallowed for men to make a woman or a child IMAM for JAMA'AH
Men stand first in rows & then children & then KHUNTHA & then women
Notable is that its highly better for the female to read her SALAH at home
If the female stands besides the male at row, his SALAH is void due to it
For an old woman, it's no problem to attend any of SALAH at the mosque
It isn't valid to follow an IMAM that gets impure by urine due to affliction
Man able to recite the Holy Book Quran must not follow IMAM unable to it
Man with TAYAMMUM may take IMAMATE to men that did WUDHU for it
Man who wiped KHUFFAIN may take IMAMATE to men having washed feet
It's allowed if someone leads men sitting that stand behind due to reason
It's invalid to make IMAM such person who reads SALAH by gestures only
MUQTADI mustn't take IMAM who reads NAFL & he intends for his FARDH
But MUQTADI may read NAFL behind the IMAM who reads FARDH-SALAH
If IMAM found late he was not at state of purity & he informs MUQTADI
All MUQTADI must revise their SALAH as it becomes void in this situation
It's MAKRUH-TEHRIMA (highly detestable) to play with clothes in SALAH
Or to play with any of his body-parts in it intentionally or unintentionally
Previous implies that he mustn't click fingers; he mustn't remove pebbles
But if they hinder sitting or his SAJDAH, he may remove them or set once
Neither must he enter fingers into fingers nor must he keep hands on hips
Posture of hands on hips is disallowed all times; it's mentioned as satanic
Sport-persons must take care to this as they sometimes adopt this posture
He mustn't wear a sheet in such way that its sides hang (it's named SADAL)
Also, he mustn't read SALAH with his hair bound even if that has longevity

He mustn't see left or right but glancing not turning his face or chest is fine
He mustn't sit like a dog in SALAH (except if reason validates that for him)
Sitting like a dog is to sit on the hips binding knees with both of his hands
Answering by gestures even if for SALAM in SALAH, makes it MAKRUH too
He mustn't sit spreading himself but by reason; all are MAKRUH-TEHRIMA
He mustn't talk in SALAH; talking, eating, drinking in SALAH makes it void
If WUDHU breaks, he must go & make it then; he may continue his SALAH
Continuation ahead of his on-going SALAH as he comes back is named BINA
However, it's much better to revise the total SALAH & especially as of now
If during SALAH, MUSALLI sleeps or is affected by lunacy or faints or laughs
He has to make WUDHU & read his SALAH again; talking makes it void too
He mustn't talk in SALAH; talking, eating, drinking in SALAH makes it void
If after reciting the last TASHAHHUD, his WUDHU breaks unintentionally
His SALAH is complete; he just makes WUDHU again, sits & makes TASLIM
If he breaks WUDHU by his intention after it, SALAH ends without TASLIM
Previous needs scrutiny; it seems that his WUDHU & SALAH both are void
Whether he breaks it by intention or not after it, he needs to revise both
If MUSALLI reading it by TAYAMMUM sees enough water with access to it
His SALAH is void; he must make WUDHU with it & read his SALAH again
There are 12 issues when he revises it before TASHAHHUD or even after it
First is as mentioned that he revises it seeing enough of water with access
Second is that the period of MASAH over his leather socks ends at SALAH
Third is the taking-off of both or one of his leather socks during his SALAH
Fourth is to learn some of the Holy Book Quran while reading the SALAH
Fifth is reading it without total clothes to SATAR & finding them during it
Sixth is that MUSALLI reading with gestures finds ability to read it normal
Seventh is that he remembered he needs QADHA to the previous SALAH
Such is SAHEBE-TARTIB who reads it by time & by chance left one or two
Eighth is that IMAM due to HADATH forwards one unable to recite Quran
Previous is when SALAH is on-going & he takes such man as substitution
Ninth is when the Sun rises just as he is in the process of reading SALAH
Tenth is when the time of ASR came & the Friday-SALAH was in process
Eleventh is when the covering to his wound falls disclosing it has healed
Twelfth is when the woman afflicted by blood-flow is relieved of it then

Revision of SALAH is asked in these 12 by A.H. even if after TASHAHHUD


SAHEBAIN rule its validity & completion if these occur after TASHAHHUD
A.H. seems better; if before it, these invalidate SALAH & all 3 accept this
SAHEBE-TARTIB reads SALAH in sequence if time of current one permits
He'd remain SAHEB to 5 SALAH; QADHA of more doesn't need sequence
Reading of the QADHA of all SALAH, again provides him his designation
There are 3 plus 2 times in 24-hours when to read SALAH is disallowed
The 3 are when the Sun is rising, when it's overhead & when it's setting
The 2 of them are when he has read his FAJR-SALAH until the Sun rises
And when he has read his ASR-SALAH until MAGHRIB when it sets fully
It isn't right to read SALAH at these times, as told in many of AHADITH
HF allows to read QADHA at the 2 latter periods but avoidance is better
At FAJR, reading of 2-SUNNAH is important; its better to read at home
2-SUNNAH at ISHA have importance too & better at TAHAJJUD at home
NAWAFIL (additional things) are good deeds not asked yet appreciated
It's neither FARDH nor WAJIB (both are necessary) & relates to SUNNAH
Every SUNNAH in SALAH actually is NAFL but every NAFL is not SUNNAH
These include 2 RAKA'AH that are highly important before FAJR at its time
Before ZUHR, there are 4 NAFL-SALAH & 2 after it; 4 (or 2) are before ASR
There are 2-RAKA'AH SUNNAH (NAWAFIL) after MAGHRIB; 4 before ISHA
There're 2 of it after ISHA too; better at TAHAJJUD before WITR at home
NAFL before ASR & before ISHA arent emphasized; others are 12 in total
There is appreciation to read 12-NAWAFIL in HADITH daily that these get
If MUSALLI reads FARDH & WAJIB (WITR) leaving NAFL, he isn't blamable
But he must read the 2-SUNNAH before WITR & 2-SUNNAH before FAJR
Both better to read at home; former at TAHAJJUD & latter at FAJR-time
Its by 2-RAKA'AH; SAHEBAIN ask them by fours (day) & by twos (night)
In FARDH, recitation of the Holy Quran is FARDH in the first 2 RAKA'AH
In its last two, he might read FATIHA or keep quiet to its recitation time
In WITR & NAWAFIL including SUNNAH, he recites the Holy Quran in all
In second sitting of the four SUNNAH, it's allowed to read full up-to DUA
Then at 3rd, he has to recite the SANA & A'OOZU-BI-ALLAH & BISM-ALLAH
Notable is that the ground must be plain at feet & at the place of SAJDAH
If the place of SAJDAH is little raised, it's valid; it mustn't be highly raised

At extreme crowd, SAJDAH at the back of the MUSALLI ahead is valid too
If he has commenced NAFL & abandons by any reason, he must revise it
It is obligatory once started & he must end it even by QADHA if needed
If abandonment is after 2 RAKA'AH, for last 2 he needs to make QADAH
NAFL is by twos in general; in previous, it needs QADAH for last couple
It's allowed to read NAFL sitting even if he starts it standing & then sits
It's better to leave NAWAFIL at any physical affliction & even at travel
SAHW means slackness (in WAJIB of SALAH) & it's repaired by 2 SAJDAH
These SAJDAH are after the SALAM at right reading last recitation again
Leaving any of FARA'IDH (ARKAAN) in it makes it void & it needs revision
In previous, notable thing is that it's not even repaired by SAJDAH-SAHW
He may make the 2 after 2-SALAM as he remembers that he needs them
In previous, it's needed for its validity he does nothing contrary to SALAH
If MUSALLI leaves WAJIB in SALAH, that requires repair by SAJDAH-SAHW
SALAH needs these SAJDAH even when MUSALLI adds/leaves something
That maybe acceptable generally as part of SALAH yet its addition by him
For instance, if he reads TASHAHHUD two times, he needs these SAJDAH
But if he recites a SURAH at 3rd or 4th of FARDH, they are not necessary
If he delays any of FARA'IDH in it to notable time, that also needs these
At JAMA'AH, SAHW by IMAM affects the MUQTADI; they follow IMAM
As IMAM mends it by SAJDAH at end, MUQTADI follow & the flaw is off
If MUSALLI stands & didn't sit at middle sitting, he must sit if near to it
In previous, he doesn't even need SAJDAH-SAHW & his SALAH is valid
If near to standing & still sits, he needs the two SAJDAH-SAHW at last
If he doesn't sit & proceeds-on, SALAH is valid by SAJDAH-SAHW in last
If he stands from last sitting by mistake & remembers before SAJDAH
He must sit again, make SAJDAH-SAHW instantly & read last recitation
If he makes SAJDAH of 5th RAKA'AH, he must read six; last 2 are NAFL
In previous his FARDH-SALAH is fulfilled & it doesn't need revision for it
If he suspects in SALAH whether 3 RAKA'AH read or 4, better is revision
If he often suspects such in that, he must take 3 that he sure has read
In previous, he must read by sitting in both (3 & 4) with SAJDAH-SAHW
Patient may read it sitting; he may read by gestures for RUKU & SAJDAH
His SAJDAH is to be more of bowing of his head than his RUKU in SALAH

To pick anything to forehead for SAJDAH is disallowed; gesture is enough


Reading SALAH on chairs asks caution; SALAH this way seems very odd
If he's able to read it but lying only, he may read it by pillows at his back
In previous, feet are towards KA'ABAH; he may read it even by face to it
If he can't read it even by gestures (hands & head), he must postpone it
It's invalid for him to read by gestures of eyes or eyebrows or by heart
If more than 5 SALAH occur in this state, they are off & need no revision
If RUKU or/& SAJDAH is unable for him, he may leave standing too in it
If he faces affliction b/w SALAH, he might proceed sitting & by gestures
And if he starts SALAH sitting because of affliction & gets well reading it
In previous, he must stand & not sit then at the rest of SALAH; it's valid
Change of posture from start is well due to reason yet it has an exception
Exception is If he starts it by gestures & finds strength for normal SALAH
Notable in previous is getting strength to read it normal asks its revision
If he faints up-to 5 of SALAH, he'd make QADHA but if more, they are off
SAJDAH-TILAWAT (SAJDAH due by reading a verse of Holy Quran) are 14
These occur at AARAAF (at end), RA'AD, NAHL, BANI-ISRAEL & MARIUM
Others are at HAJJ, FURQAAN, NAML, ALIF-LAAM-MEEM (TANZIL), SAAD
And at HA-MEEM (SAJDAH), NAJM, INSHIQAAQ, ALAQ; total 14 & WAJIB
SAJDAH is WAJIB for both reader & hearer even if hears it unintentionally
HF rules that this SAJDAH needs same conditions as needed for SALAH
That needs TAKBIR (without raising hands), SAJDAH & TAKBIR same way
Woman at her period isn't liable to it even if she hears it from someone
However, the man needing bath has to make it after bath if he hears it
If IMAM reads verse of SAJDAH, MUQTADI must follow him in SAJDAH
If at SALAH, someone hears verse of SAJDAH, he has to make it after it
If he does it at SALAH, he'd still make it after it too as that isn't enough
In previous, SALAH is not void yet SAJDAH still remains due upon him
SAJDAH-TILAWAT at SALAH asks it at SALAH only; it's done by its RUKU
SAJDAH due by verse heard from out at SALAH needs making it after it
If he reads verse of SAJDAH & reads the same at his SALAH just after it
As he makes SAJDAH in his SALAH, SAJDAH due on him for both is done
An AAYAH (Verse) of SAJDAH asks it only once even if read many times
It must be read at one sitting (with no diverse act); once fulfills liability

He may make SAJDAH reading it once or after end reading again & again
If sitting is same, SAJDAH is valid for it; if he reads that before his SALAH
And he makes SAJDAH for that & reads the same in SALAH then & there
Though sitting is same, he has to make it again for same verse at SALAH
For Traveler; there's ease in reading of SALAH named QASR (shortening)
He is traveler when away at-least 48 miles as of now from his hometown
That is 1760 yards (or 78 Km approx.) & MUSALLI reads SALAH by QASR
It depends on his NIYYAH (intention) & counted by end of the town's limit
It's needed that he doesn't intend stay at destination for 15 days or more
FARDH at travel is 2 at FAJR, 2 at ZUHR, 2 at ASR, 3 at MAGHRIB, 2 at ISHA
So FAJR & MAGHRIB don't change; he must read 2 of SUNNAH at FAJR too
He must also read WAJIB & 2 of SUNNAH before it at the time of TAHAJJUD
If someone reads 4 RAKA'AH by mistake instead of two, his last 2 are NAFL
But in previous, he must have sat at its second RAKA'AH otherwise it's void
He'd be ruled as traveler unless intends to dwell 15 days or more at a place
If army-battalion intends to stay more than 15 days near to place of enemy
They'd still read SALAH as QASR & even their intention doesn't value here
If traveler reads SALAH in following of resident IMAM, he'd read that full
If traveler is IMAM of residents at four RAKA'AH, he'd read that by QASR
MUQTADI would continue reading remaining 2 standing after his TASLIM
He must inform MUQTADI before its commencement that he's a traveler
At return to homeland, he'd read it in full even if he has to leave in a day
If he leaves his town for good with no house & makes another homeland
If he travels to previous town, he'd be traveler there unless stays 15 days
If he stays at 2 places very near to each other, stay-period is taken in total
He's resident if he travels & stays at places close to each other for 15 days
If he stays at sites not very near, he's traveler even with the total 15 days
For instance, if traveler to MAKKAH goes to MINA & total stay is 15 days
He'd still remain traveler as both places aren't so very near to each other
Traveler may read two SALAH near to each other if each is in its own time
HF validates reading of 2 SALAH by practice yet not by time as mentioned
At voyage by ship, A.H. validates reading even FARDH-SALAH sitting in it
SAHEBAIN invalidate reading of it sitting except when due to valid reason
If he reads QADHA at travel that occurred being resident, he'd read it full

Likewise, if he reads QADHA of travel at hometown, he'd read it by QASR


Convenience for SALAH at the travel is valid for all of MUSALLI who travel
It includes both who travel for good reason & who travel for bad reason
Other 3 IMAM rule its invalidity for those who travel for bad intentions
JUMU'AH is mentioned as the day when ADAM-AS had entered JANNAH
It was JUMU'AH when he entered the world; QAYAMAT would come on it
SALAH for JUMU'AH occurs at the big city of MUSLIMS at JAME'-MASJID
JAME'-MASJID used to be the main mosque in the city & AMIR was IMAM
Nowadays, it's read at all big cities at all big mosques & ULEMA are IMAM
Previous is good being necessary at all big cities & it's not valid at villages
If a village is big enough that has big mosque & considerable market in it
In the village as previous, JUM'AAH is valid; there're other conditions too
Its conditions include that the time is for ZUHR (as it's read instead of it)
And IMAM's Arabic KHUTBAH before it on its time with a sitting in b/w
KHUTBAH is the Friday Speech that IMAM delivers to people attending it
He'd be with WUDHU yet if he gave it without WUDHU or gave it sitting
Previous is MAKRUH-TEHRIMI & it must be avoided yet JUMU'AH is valid
IMAM must give KHUTBAH that praises Allah & mentions His Commands
It's read in JAMA'AH (with at-least 3 persons in following besides IMAM)
IMAM may read any SURAH with voice; no SURAH is specific to JUMU'AH
It's not due on traveler, woman, afflicted with illness, child, slave & blind
They'd read ZUHR; if they attend JUMU'AH, FARDH of the time is fulfilled
If he's traveler or afflicted with illness yet becomes IMAM to it, it's valid
If someone reads ZUHR at home & not JUMU'AH without its valid reason
The Previous is MAKRUH-THERIMI yet his ZUHR-SALAH is valid even then
If he intends JUMU'AH after his ZUHR, latter is off as he joins in JUMUAH
JUMU'AH is not due on crippled persons or prisoners due to confinement
Joining it, hed end standing after JAMA'AH as is usual to read left RAKAAH
There is difference if he joins it at end; SHAIKHAIN ask to read it as previous
I.M. asks to read it as ZUHR if MUSALLI doesn't find more of 2nd RAKA'AH
As IMAM comes out to KHUTBAH, all at mosque must leave conversation
No-one there must commence any SALAH at that time & hear KHUTBAH
Just after that in Arabic, IMAM would commence the SALAH for JUMU'AH
EIDAIN are 2 days each year when Muslims express pleasure on good deeds

At EIDUL-FITR (RAMADHAN-EID), its good to eat a sweet dish before SALAH


It's good to take a bath, put scent, wear clean clothes then leave for SALAH
He may say TAKBIR going to SALAH but not by raised voice as that's better
He mustn't read NAFL before EID-SALAH; he may read it at home after that
As the Sun rises to some extent, the time for EID-SALAH occurs till ZAWAL
IMAM & MUSALLI both read 2 RAKA'AH with 6 additional TAKBIR at SALAH
SALAH commences same way but after SANA, there are 3 additional TAKBIR
Then it goes on the same way but before RUKU at 2nd, it has 3 more TAKBIR
At fourth, all make RUKU & rest of SALAH is same way; EID-SALAH is WAJIB
In additional TAKBIR at first RAKA'AH, hands are raised to ears & held at 3rd
In additional TAKBIR at 2nd RAKA'AH, hands are raised & RUKU made at 4th
After EID-SALAH, IMAM would deliver KHUTBAH & teach issues to SADAQAH
There is no QADHA to EID-SALAH; now it's read at many places & easy to get
It's feasible to read EID-SALAH the next day of EID if there's valid reason to it
But if it's not read even at the 2nd day, it isn't valid to put it to the next day
At EIDUL-ADHAA, difference from FITR is that nothing is eaten before SALAH
He'd go towards the place of EID & at this EID, he'd say TAKBIR raising voice
He'd read EID-SALAH the same way as at EIDUL-FITR; IMAM gives KHUTBAH
He'd teach about QURBANI (sacrifice of animal) & TAKBIRE-TASHRIQ at hand
TASHRIQ are the days of HAJJ; TAKBIR commence at FAJR of 9th ZIL-HAJJAH
These TAKBIR are said after each SALAH from FAJR of 9th to ASR of 13th day
If SALAH for this EID isn't read at EID; it maybe read at 2nd or even 3rd day
TAKBIRE-TASHRIQ in these days is recited by MUSALLI in following manner
ALLAHU-AKBAR, ALLAHU-AKBAR, LA-ILAHA-ILL-ALLAHU, WALLAHU-AKBAR
ALLAHU-AKBAR WA LILLAH-ELHAMD; in brief, it tells praise is for ALLAH only
At the Solar eclipse, SALAH (2-RAKA'AH) is read to ask Allah's mercy by that
There is no ADHAN or IQAAMAT, but JAMA'AH for SALAH at the Solar eclipse
IMAM doesn't give KHUTBAH at this SALAH that's SUNNAH according to HF
According to HF, SALAH at Solar eclipse is read as the ordinary SALAH is read
IMAM recites by voice in it; he makes DUA facing KA'BAH until light returns
IMAM leading at Friday-SALAH leads this SALAH too by a very long recitation
If the mentioned IMAM isn't available, the people may read that individually
At the Lunar eclipse whoever intends to read SALAH, may do so individually
SALAH for ISTISQA is to ask ALLAH for rain at times when it has ceased to fall

IMAM reads 2-RAKA'AH SALAH with recitation by voice & delivers KHUTBAH
Then he makes DUA facing KA'BAH; he'd turn sides of sheet worn at shoulder
According to HF, IMAM only turns it over; MUQTADI do not turn sheets over
This is DUA (prayer to ALLAH) that Muslims make & only they must attend it
TARAVIH is SALAH at nights of RAMADHAN (20 RAKA'AH) thats in JAMA'AH
After each 4 RAKA'AH, there's wait for the same period as 4-RAKA'AH takes
Notable is that this wait isn't necessary & isn't observed but for little while
SALATUL-KHAUF is read at utmost fear (from wild animals or deadly enemy)
It is either read with JAMA'AH with one group at guard or either individually
AT KHAUF (fear), MUSALLI may even read it upon conveyance facing KA'BAH
There are ways to read it by JAMA'AH; the best is they divide into 2 groups
One keeps the guard & other reads 1st RAKA'AH with IMAM & 2nd by itself
IMAM waits after 1st RAKA'AH sitting as this group ends SALAH & departs
Now the guards arrive & he stands & leads them; they end it by their-selves
IMAM reads his 1st RAKA'AH with the 1st group & his 2nd with the 2nd one
Both end their 2nd RAKA'AH by own, standing for it as IMAM waits or ends
QUDURI mentions another way that it departs after reading the 1st RAKA'AH
And 2nd group comes & reads its 1st RAKA'AH with IMAM & departs after it
Then the first group comes again to its SALAH & completes its 2nd RAKA'AH
And then the second group does the same; this asks gaps in SALAH for both
Better way among the two seems the first manner to read SALATUL-KHAUF
Today, it's totally feasible that these groups read by 2 JAMA'AH one by one
JANAZAH-SALAH is read to pray ALLAH for mercy for Muslims that have died
His face when near to death is turned to KA'BAH; KALIMA is recited near him
Someone binds his mouth (& his thumbs of feet too) & closes eyes as he dies
He says "by the name of ALLAH & on way of followers to the Prophet PBUH"
He's laid on the wooden bed to give him bath with cloth that's upon his SATAR
The wooden bed is smoked by some scented material burnt at pot three times
His clothes are taken-off without disclosing his SATAR; his stomach is rubbed
Then by cloth on hands (gloves), his anus is cleansed of filth by sandy pebbles
He's given WUDHU (FARAIDH only) without putting water into mouth or nose
But if he died in the need of bath, mouth & nose is rinsed by clean wet cloth
His hair is rinsed by water with the plant GUL-KHAIRU mixed that softens it
Orifices at face (mouth, nose, ears) are plugged by cotton-balls to stop water

Water taken for bath is boiled with leaves of BAIRI (green-berry) or kept pure
Turning him to left, the water is put full upon him onto right side three times
Turning him to right, the water is put full upon him onto left side three times
Then he's raised a bit & stomach is rubbed again & filth if any is washed away
Then again he's turned to left & washed by full flow of water at the right side
Previous is 3 times by water with KAFOOR (camphor- tree's scented extract)
It's 3 full washings to the dead body of the Muslim person, first two by BAIRI
Body is wiped by clean dry cloth (SATAR covered) & cotton balls are removed
Hair & Beard are rubbed by scent; even KAFOOR at hand may substitute for it
Such parts that have touched the ground at SAJDAH are rubbed by KAFOOR
These parts are the forehead, nose, fingers of the feet & of hands (even palm)
This is the manner by SUNNAH; FARDH is done if washed once by clean water
Men are shrouded in KAFAN of 3 clothes; IZAAR, KAMEEZ, LIFAAFA (covering)
IZAAR is from the head to feet covering both with width to wrap him whole
KAMEEZ is a cloth from neck to toes double in size for dressing to both sides
It's doubled & hole is cut at the middle to pass the head through, it's put-on
KAMEEZ is one cloth in full with no holes for arms; now SATAR-cloth is drawn
LIFAAFA covers whole of the dead body fastened at both above & below of it
LIFAAFA is spread at the ground & IZAAR on it, both very much equal in size
First KAMEEZ is put to him then IZAAR & then LIFAAFA (right side upon left)
All the time, high care to SATAR is maintained in all dealings to the dead body
Women's KAFAN has 5 clothes in it; additional clothes are KHIMAAR & KHIRQA
KHIMAAR is to bind her hair & KHIRQA to bind her breasts; it extends to knees
She may be given KAFAN in 3 clothes that are the IZAAR, KHIMAAR & LIFAAFA
It's KAMEEZ then KHIMAAR then KHIRQA then IZAAR, then LIFAAFA covers fully
KHIRQA maybe put on IZAAR; previous is good with additional clothes together
Hair & beard isn't combed; nails aren't cut; KAFAN is smoked by scent 3 times
Ruler has priority to lead JANAZA-SALAH, 2nd is QADHI & 3rd Mosque's IMAM
IMAM must take consent to read JANAZA-SALAH as WALI may read it himself
WALI may allow other to read JANAZA-SALAH; it's DUA to Allah for kindness
If it's read by other than AMIR without consent of WALI, he might ask revision
If WALI has already read it with few men, none has the right to ask its revision
If someone is buried without it, it maybe read near to its grave within 3 days
Three days in previous are the standard period; at cold places it maybe more

JANAZA-SALAH as mentioned is DUA for the deceased & it has 2 FARDH in it


FARDH are 4 TAKBIRAAT & QIYAAM (standing) in it; IMAM stands at its chest
After TAKBIR, he reads SANA & says 2nd TAKBIR then reads DURUD-IBRAHIMI
And says 3rd TAKBIR; then reads DUA for own & for deceased & for Muslims
Then says 4th TAKBIR & ends it; It maybe read by TAYAMMUM if time is short
Its rows are in odd figure & even if not many, they must arrange rows in odd
If someone joins (only at TAKBIR) then he must say his left TAKBIRAAT at end
He mustn't raise hands in its TAKBIRAAT except for the first one that starts it
JANAZA-SALAH is read out of the Mosque as it's not feasible to read that in it
JANAZA is taken fast to its grave; people mustn't sit before it's put at ground
The grave is dug then if not ready; JANAZA-SALAH is not read for few persons
It's not read for non-Muslim, MURTAD & for person who kills any of parents
It's not read for dacoits & rebels killed at dacoity or at rebellion respectively
If someone dies by suicide, it'd be read for him; Muslims must avoid suicide
Graves are of 2 types; one is just the big hole where the dead body is buried
Other is made by digging at the side wall near to base of the hole to bury it
The hole remains empty & the dead body is buried at that side near its base
According to place, any type is valid; it's laid inside & faced towards KA'BAH
In previous, it's turned to face KABAH; if at MAGHRIB, it's dug North-South
It's taken by persons that descend inside it facing KAA'BAH with total caution
Person who lays it unfastens the LIFAAFA's ties & says words said at his death
He says "by the name of ALLAH & on way of followers to the Prophet PBUH"
Rough unprepared bricks are put upon the grave but not the prepared bricks
Also, it's not covered by wooden planks & now all put 3 handful of sand on it
They start putting it from the side of head reading the verse of the Holy Quran
"From it We created you & to it We return you & from it We'd..." (TAHA-55)
It presents as bit raised up-to hand's length or so but not much, in oval shape
After burial, the persons must ask ALLAH for mercy for all again & then return
If child at birth cries then dies instantly, he's given name & bath & then buried
If it's still-birth, it's given name & also bath, then wrapped in a sheet & buried
In previous, JANAZA-SALAH is not read & it's buried just after its name & bath
Rulings for SHAHEED killed at war fighting or whom the Muslims kill unjustly
He's given KAFAN but not bath except that he dies after living for some period
JANAZA-SALAH is read for SHAHEED; blood of his wounds isn't washed from it

His clothes aren't taken-off but his additional clothes & socks or his weapons
If killed in QISAS, he'd be given bath & KAFAN; his JANAZA-SALAH is also read
SALAH inside KA'BAH (& JAMA'AH) is valid by any direction; it's valid at roof
In JAMA'AH inside, he mustn't have back at IMAM's face; at roof it's MAKRUH
It's valid if MUQTADI stands nearer to KAA'BAH than IMAM if he's not his side
ZAKAT - SAUM HAJJ
ZAKAT is to purify; as Islamic Command it's giving the poor by own resources
It's financial support to the poor in way of Allah to purify all finance at hand
It's due on the date assigned for it each year if he has resources up-to NISAB
NISAB is the resources to value of 87.5 grams of gold or 612.5 grams of silver
He also must have complete control & custody over his resources to NISAB
Debts payable are deducted from his resources & still it must be up-to NISAB
If at the date specified he has NISAB & at previous year too he had it on that
In previous, he's liable to pay ZAKAT even if in b/w year, he had lesser than it
ZAKAT isn't due on anything else except gold, silver, stocks-in-trade, currency
Total of these 4 with him decides NISAB for him after deduction of his debts
Things rented are not stocks-in-trade, ZAKAT comes to profits on such things
If he buys things for use at home, it isn't stocks-in-trade even if he sells them
His debts receivable also ask for ZAKAT; few animals he owns ask for it too
He may pay for receivable each year or may pay for them at their realization
But, debts have to be added to resources to assess if amounts are at NISAB
Intention is necessary for ZAKAT; it isn't necessary to disclose it to receiver
ZAKAT isn't due on child, lunatic & that who's unable to decide for resources
Also, it isn't due on the debtor whose debts lessen his amounts from NISAB
If payments in charity is un-spent with poor, intention to its ZAKAT is valid
That who gives all amounts in charity, he doesn't remain liable to pay ZAKAT
Camels, bulls, cows, sheep, goats, horses ask ZAKAT if they graze-on naturally
It is due on them even if graze for much part of year, kept as tamed animals
Other of animals don't ask for ZAKAT unless they are among stocks-in-trade
One year camel is BINTE-MAKHADH & 2 years BINTE-LABUN; 3 years HIQQA
In camels, ZAKAT starts at 5; a sheep on each 5 up-to 20; thats valid to 24
From 25 to 35, it asks a BINTE-MAKHADH & from 36 to 45, a BINTE-LABUN
From 46 to 60, it asks a HIQQA & from 61 to 75, its a JAZA'AH (of 4 years)
From 76 to 90, it asks 2 BINTE-LABUN; from 91 to 120, it asks 2 of HIQQA

Camels of any sort ask these figures as ZAKAT; QUDURI tells for even more
In bulls & cows (that graze naturally), their ZAKAT occurs as a year passes
ZAKAT on them starts at 30; each 30 of them asks one of them of one year
Each 40 of them asks one of them of 2 years; calculation remains this way
For 60, 2 of one year are due; for 70, one of a year & one of 2 years is due
For 100, 2 of one years & one of 2 years is well; so calculation is easy-way
In sheep (& goats), it starts at 40 & to 120 of them, ZAKAT is one of them
From 121 to 200, ZAKAT is 2 of sheep (or goat) & above 200 to 399, it's 3
At 400, their ZAKAT becomes 4 of them; at 500, it's 5 of them to provide
In horses too (that graze naturally); their ZAKAT occurs as one year passes
Payer must have both male & female horses as only male don't ask for it
He may pay for each a DINAR or assess their MP & pay its 2.5% as ZAKAT
Other animals don't ask for ZAKAT except if are stocks-in-trade with him
They'd be paid by 2.5% of Cost-Price even if lesser than quantity written
SAHEBAIN don't take horses too as liable to ZAKAT; that stance has value
ZAKAT is paid to the administration if that rules by the Islamic Commands
It's valid that official takes better animal in ZAKAT paying back the balance
If he takes lesser animal in ZAKAT, owner would give the balance therein
Only adult animals are counted for ZAKAT; calf, lamb, colt aren't counted
If animals asking ZAKAT are at the household chores, it isn't due on them
Officials must not ask best of animals in ZAKAT & must incline to justice
If ZAKAT still remains due after camels (or goats) die, it's payable by him
In previous if he had 45 goats & 5 die, he'd still pay one of them in ZAKAT
ZAKAT maybe paid beforehand by assessment but on specific date is best
If he has specific date, previous is charity if he doesn't own to NISAB on it
In Silver, NISAB is 200 DIRHAM (612.5 gm) that asks for 5 DIRHAM ZAKAT
Every 40 DIRHAM on 200 of its NISAB adds one DIRHAM in ZAKAT onwards
In Gold, NISAB is 20 DINAR (87.5 gm) that asks for half of DINAR as ZAKAT
Gold & Silver ask for ZAKAT in any form they present & are counted for it
In Stocks-in-Trade too, it's due; it's value is by Silver's MP & ZAKAT 2.5%
When it equals or surpasses value of NISAB of silver, it's liable to ZAKAT
It must be in accordance to NISAB at both ends of the year & will to give
USHR is the amount given from the produce of fields & fruits of gardens
Lands are 2 types; USHRI & KHIRAJI; that Muslims get by wars is USHRI

Land Muslims leave to non-Muslims taking some tax on them, is KHIRAJI


USHRI asks for USHR only; KHIRAJI remains that even if Muslims buy it
If non-Muslim buys an USHRI land, it'd convert to KHIRAJI for good then
USHRI needs to pay USHR except the wood & its types & grass produced
USHR isn't due on vegetables & isn't due if lesser than 5 WASAQ (300 SA')
HF takes SA' as nearly 3.2 Kg., others take it as nearly 2.2 Kg. (SA'-HIJAZI)
So according to HF, lesser than about 960 Kg. of it doesn't ask for USHR
If a thing isn't calculated by Kg., its value would be assessed to its 960 Kg.
USHR is tenth part of produce if watered at ease by flowing water or rain
USHR is half of tenth part if its produce needs irrigation by efforts to that
HF asks USHR at honey too if it's to 72 Kg.; lesser doesn't ask for it (I.M.)
Notable is that SHAFA'I & MAALIK rule that honey doesn't ask for USHR
Even the HF clarifies there's nothing on grains & fruits cultivated at home
Payment of ZAKAT is towards the poor & the needy as told in TAUBAH-60
Here, 8 persons liable to get it are told; First is the poor that has nothing
Second is the needy that has something but not enough for sustenance
Third is as wages to capable & honest officials appointed on its collection
Fourth is to empower weak Muslims on Islam & draw non-Muslims to it
Previous is mentioned as not applicable after times of the Prophet PBUH
Fifth is to free persons that have been confined uncaringly towards Justice
Sixth is to free debtors pressed by heavy debts that affect their sustenance
Seventh is in way of Allah; it's to warriors for the Islamic Cause & TABLIGH
Eighth is for the traveler who becomes needy away from his home by fate
Paying ZAKAT to any of these or to provide all of them by it is valid for him
ZAKAT isn't valid paying to non-Muslim or any other obligatory SADAQAH
SADAQAH (charity) not obligatory maybe given to anyone & must be seen
Notable is that ZAKAT needs TAMLIK (giving into possession to someone)
That's why it's not to be used at building mosques or at funeral-expenses
But it's valid for him it is given-to that he spends it as charity to previous
ZAKAT isnt valid to provide to someone in forefathers or in descendants
Previous applies to the mother & the grandmother too & even to the wife
The wife too is disallowed to pay that to her husband; it'd not end liability
ZAKAT isn't given to SAYYED (SHARIF) family related to the Prophet PBUH
SHARIF include descendants of ALI, JA'FAR, AQIL, ABBAS, HARITH (HASHMI)

Three of these are the first-cousins (ALI, JA'FAR, AQIL) of the Prophet PBUH
Other two (ABBAS, HARITH) are his paternal uncles; all are named HASHMI
If he pays his ZAKAT by mistake to unworthy, it's paid except if non-Muslim
That having the NISAB even if by household things, he is unworthy to receive
In previous, such things mostly unused would be counted too to see NISAB
For payer, gold, silver, stocks, cash is counted; for receiver, all above needs
If receiver hasn't enough to make him SAHEBE-NISAB, it's valid to give him
He must pay it at city he's in except if to his needy relatives at other place
FITR is the amount that's given in charity at EID at the end of RAMADHAN
In FITR, all things above needs are counted in NISAB (612.5 gm Silver-MP)
Payer 's NISAB is previous & receiver mustn't have it by total of all he has
It's due for him & his small children; he may pay for his wife too if he wills
Notable is that the woman pays it by her own (if she has gold; silver; cash)
It's due at FAJR of EID; whoever finds that needs the paying of FITR for him
FITR is the value of half of SA' (1600 gm) of wheat; any more is at his will
He may pay FITR by full SA' of Dates or Resins that values more than that
It maybe paid before EID-SALAH even in RAMADHAN; it's payable if unpaid
SAUM (Fasting) is of two kinds; FARDH (obligatory) & NAFL (commendable)
Then former has 2 types; of RAMADHAN & of specific day/s he intends for
Obligatory as in previous needs the intention from the night as that is better
But even if he intends before ZAWAL (Sun at Mid-heaven), his SAUM is valid
But in previous, he mustnt have done anything against asking of his SAUM
Second of obligatory is intending at unspecific days (QADHA of RAMADHAN)
Previous includes what he takes on him to keep at any day (NADHR-SAUM)
It also includes SAUM in KAFFARAH as ZIHAR; these are unspecific by days
This type of obligatory needs intention at night before FAJR or it'd be invalid
For NAFL, as the second kind in SAUM, the intention is valid before ZAWAL
Woman is disallowed to keep a NAFL-SAUM without her husband's consent
Breaking NAFL-SAUM doesn't ask KAFFARAH even if it's by will but QADHA
QADHA is to compensate by SAUM at some other day as it's necessary then
KAFFARAH includes paying amounts to poor (or feeding them) due at FARDH
If atmosphere isn't cloudy, it needs the word of many men to see the Moon
So after 29th of SHA'BAN, a group's testimony is needed at the clear sky for it
At cloudy/misty atmosphere, it's valid even if an AADIL man/woman gives it

AADIL here is the Muslim that strictly avoids all KABA'ER (major sins) by will
He/she cares not to persist on SAGHA'ER (minor) too & inclines to goodness
After 29th of RAMADHAN at mist, 2 AADIL men are needed to testify for that
In previous, if a man & 2 women give witness to the moon, even that's valid
Calculation isn't enough to the Moon's presence; few must view it practically
SAUM occurs from FAJR before the sun-rise to after the sun-set for all of day
Person at SAUM stops from eating or drinking anything at this space of time
He must avoid going near to wife as SAUM asks to refrain from the sexual act
Intention too is needed to it before ZAWAL; better to intend for all of month
If someone eats or drinks forgetting his SAUM, it doesn't break by any of such
If he loses semen at sleep or let his blood be drawn, these don't affect SAUM
If he kisses his wife & loses it, it breaks asking for QADHA but not KAFFARAH
If he isnt affected by kissing her by control on his passions, SAUM is fine then
By the vomit unstoppable, SAUM doesn't break if he doesn't take-in any of it
If he could have stopped it & it's near to filling his mouth, that'd break SAUM
If he takes-in a thing not edible by will as pebble or equal, QADHA only is due
If he eats things edible by will even if medicine, it needs QADHA & KAFFARAH
KAFFARAH to it is as KAFFARAH to ZIHAR; SAUM broken asks only one QADHA
If something small is at gums or teeth & he takes it in, it doesn't break SAUM
If he takes it out & then takes it in, it'd break by this intentional act he makes
Smoke taken-in without any will doesn't break SAUM yet if by will, it breaks it
Smells don't break it yet its better to avoid smelling scents intentionally in it
Medicine at orifices taking it to stomach breaks it, especially by anus & nose
Even medicine at ears breaks SAUM though moist there doesn't affect that
Wounds at the stomach or at the head that flows to inside, breaks SAUM too
But medicine or tube inside the orifice of penis doesn't break SAUM by ruling
Tasting doesn't break it if it doesn't affect the esophagus yet not appreciable
If woman chews something to feed her child, it's fine if she doesn't take it in
Chewing on a thing that doesn't leave moist doesn't break it yet despicable
Patient or traveler doesn't need to keep SAUM if he finds it difficult for him
If any of patients or travelers die in the situation, QADHA isn't due hopefully
But if patient gets well & traveler gets to destination, he must fulfill QADHA
If he gets well in b/w, those days are due & he must mention QADHA in will
If QADHA is due & other RAMADHAN comes; he has to keep SAUM for that

After that RAMADHAN, he'd compensate for previous SAUM making QADHA
He has to make QADHA necessarily; he is not liable to pay FIDYAH against it
FIDYAH is SADAQAH against SAUM when he/she is totally unable to keep it
He may keep QADHA for his SAUM either continuously or either separately
Pregnant or feeding woman is allowed to leave SAUM if she feels adversity
Adversity is that she does feel keeping that may affect her or child adversely
Old man incapable to keep SAUM, must feed for 2 times a poor for each one
Previous is FIDYAH to SAUM; it equals value of half-SA' wheat to a poor daily
NAFL-SAUM if he breaks it, asks QADHA only but doesn't ask for KAFFARAH
If child turns adult at mid-RAMADHAN; he'd keep SAUM for remaining of it
Similar is ruling for the non-Muslim who accepts Islam during RAMADHAN
If one faints in SAUM & nothing is put into mouth till sunset, it's valid then
If he remains in this condition a few days, he'd make QADHA for SAUM left
If MAA'TUH gets well in the month, he'd keep SAUM for its remaining days
He'd make QADHA for other of its SAUM lost; MAA'TUH is lunatic on & off
Woman at menses would leave SAUM with QADHA for these lost days later
At recovery at the mid-day, she'd pose as if at SAUM for the rest of the day
Same is good for the traveler that reaches his destination at the middle of it
QADHA is due on person eating after FAJR thinking there's yet time of SEHR
And on him eating before MAGHRIB (sunset) taking it as the time for IFTAR
SEHR is to take-in something before FAJR; IFTAR is after MAGHRIB at SAUM
He doesn't need to provide KAFFARAH for SAUM lost by misunderstanding
If he feels he has seen the Moon after 29th of SAUM at cloudy atmosphere
In previous, he'd not make EID by his own & would keep SAUM with others
It needs 2 men (or a man & 2 women) as witnesses for EID at this condition
When atmosphere is clear, it needs a group of people that witness its view
SAUM at ASHURA with a day before or ahead & at 9th ZIL-HAJJAH is good
Six SAUM at 10th Lunar month & 15th SHA'BAN (8th month), is good too
These are NAFL (praiseworthy) for the person who may keep them by ease
AE'TEKAAF means to stop at a mosque in the state of SAUM with intention
It has 3 kinds; WAJIB, SUNNAH & NAFL; the former occurs by one's own will
SUNNAH is the AE'TEKAAF thats taken from 21st to the last of RAMADHAN
NAFL is all other of AE'TEKAAF; if it's intended at entry to mosque, it occurs
WAJIB needs SAUM & must be continuous in days; one does it by ones will

SUNNAH is at the last of RAMADHAN so it occurs at the state of SAUM too


Its NAFL doesn't need SAUM or QADHA & it may only be for few minutes
At the disruption of its SUNNAH, it needs QADHA for all the days left in it
Disruption of WAJIB asks for it too; it must remain continuous when taken
Nearing the wife is disallowed at AE'TEKAAF as it might lead to its QADHA
Person at AE'TEKAAF might only leave mosque for JUM'A or call of nature
He may deal for edibles & necessities without bringing any of MABI' there
Total silence at this state is not needed; he must say virtuous things at this
Leaving mosque for hour even (without any needs) makes AE'TEKAAF void
HAJJ is to intend for virtues; it denotes visiting MAKKAH & adjacent area
It's done at last lunar month (ZIL-HAJJAH) & became FARDH at 9th HIJRAH
Prophet PBUH performed it at 10th year; it denotes its delay isn't feasible
If finances & strength permits plus no danger at way or laws adverse to it
It's performed by rituals in specific sequence as told by the Prophet PBUH
Let's view it whole briefly before proceeding to rulings about it at QUDURI
START of Its holy rituals is from 8th of the month to few days ahead there
HAJI makes intention for HAJJ wearing 2 sheets that's special apparel to it
This is EHRAAM thats not only sheets but commitment to HAJJ; its FARDH
HAJI puts-on EHRAAM at 8th as the first step staying at MINA till 9th-FAJR
Previous is in TAMATTU', when after UMRAH, HAJI had taken-off EHRAAM
In QIRAAN, he hadnt taken-off EHRAM joining HAJJ with the UMRAH done
It's notable that he may leave MINA even after MAGHRIB before 9th-FAJR
Secondly after MINA, he proceeds to ARAFAH reading ZUHR & ASR there
It's highly necessary to stay at ARAFAH in rituals of HAJJ; it's FARDH too
Thirdly, after MAGHRIB at start of 10th night, he moves to MUZDALIFAH
There at MUZDALIFAH, he reads MAGHRIB & ISHA together & then FAJR
Fourthly after 10th-FAJR before sunrise, he proceeds towards MINA again
There, he hits JAMRATUL-AQABAH (the wall denoting big satan) for 7 times
It's hit by pebbles he collects at MUZDALIFAH; today, only big satan is hit
There're 3 of walls denoting satan; other two are also hit at 11th & 12th
Fifth step is that he sacrifices a goat & sixth is that he shaves-off his hair
Then he changes to ordinary clothes; HAJJ is not yet over; rituals remain
He then circles KA'BAH 7 times from HAJARE-ASWAD (left-shoulder to it)
TAWAF comprises of these 7; at end he'd be at the HAJAR for eighth time

Previous is the 7th (TAWAF-ZIYARAH) & also is one of the FARDH of HAJJ
Eighth is to make SA'I (the walk b/w SAFA & MARWA) 7 times from SAFA
Each walk counts to end at MARWA; he reads 2 RAK'AH before or after it
These two maybe read anywhere at the Mosque & then drinks ZAM-ZAM
There are numerous outlets provided there for ZAM-ZAM & it's wonderful
Ninth is that he hits all 3 JAMRAAT at MINA at 11th & 12th after ZAWAAL
Finally, it's TAWAF-WIDAH (farewell circulation) of KA'BAH to become HAJI
He has to make it leaving MAKKAH; with these 10 steps HAJJ there ENDS
Al-Hamdu Lillah, it's such a spiritual healing that makes him pure from ills
QUDURI tells that HAJJ is obligatory for Muslim, adult, sane, well in health
He must have finances to fare of the way & for necessities at travel in HAJJ
He must provide the family with all necessary sustenance till he returns
There's nothing adverse too to it in Government policy & way to it is safe
Woman also needs to have MEHRUM (relative to whom she can't marry)
She may accompany her husband for it as the travel is more than 3 days
EHRAAM, staying at the ground of ARAFAH at the 9th & TAWAF-ZIYARAH
Previous 3 are FARDH in HAJJ necessary to do; its WAJIB are above twenty
Staying at ARAFAH is valid if HAJI stays even a brief period after ZAWAAL
There are places going to MAKKAH where putting-on EHRAAM is necessary
These (MEEQAAT) are in various directions; those living beyond are AAFAQI
All AAFAQI need to take EHRAAM going to MAKKAH & make UMRAH/HAJJ
UMRAH maybe performed at any time (even with HAJJ) with few of rituals
It doesn't need going to the adjacent places; it remains to the Mosque only
MEEQAT for AAFAQI from MADINAH is the place named as ZUL-HULAYFAH
For Iraq, MEEQAAT is ZAATUL-IRQ; for Syria, it's JUHFA; for Najd, it's QARN
For Yemen, it's YALAMLAM; this also is MEEQAAT to AAFAQI from Pakistan
Anyone living inside a MEEQAAT yet beyond HARAM (MAKKAH & nearby)
That person as previous is named as HILLI; he'd take his EHRAAM at home
For UMRAH, man at MAKKAH (AAFAQI or HILLI) must go beyond HARAM
He'd take EHRAAM from outside that coming back to that for his UMRAH
Even residents at HARAM need to go outside to take EHRAAM for UMRAH
For HAJJ, they don't need to go outside, they'd take the EHRAAM at-home
At EHRAM, he'd make WUDHU or take bath & wear it by intention of HAJJ
He may say 2-RAKA'AH SALAH & say TALBIYA denoting he believes ALLAH

O ALLAH! I am present here to remember You; there is no partner to You


O ALLAH! Praise is for You; Goodness is for You; Authority belongs to You
Al-Hamdu Lillah, it's such a spiritual healing that makes him pure from ills
At HAJJ, he mustn't near his wife to him, avoid wrongs strictly & quarrels
He may not hunt animals or indicate it; he may not wear KAMEEZ or IZAR
He may not wear anything on EHRAAM or socks but tearing it from above
He may not wear cap/turban & may not cover face & may not put scents
He may not shave any of hair or wear perfumed sheet but if washed well
Bathing at EHRAAM, taking shade, wearing belt with wallet has validity
He mustn't bathe or wash hair/beard by scented cleaning agent (or soap)
He must say TALBIYA at climbing or descending anywhere; it must go on
He must say TAKBIR (ALLAH is greatest) & KALIMA seeing HAJARE-ASWAD
If possible then, he may kiss it or touch; but it must not trouble anyone
At extremely high number of people, it's enough to indicate by hand to it
He must do TAWAF by IDHTIBA (taking sheet with right shoulder naked)
In the first 3 circles of TAWAF, he has to make RAML (walk fast gracefully)
This TAWAF is for QUDUM (arrival) that persons coming from out must do
TAWAF-QUDUM is not necessary for residents living already at MAKKAH
Then he'd make SA'I at SAFA-MARWA, starting at SAFA ending at MARWA
SA'I is due to search of BIBI HAJIRA-RA for water for her infant (ISMA'IL)
There was a place at this search where she couldn't see him & walked fast
Even today at the site, men have to run a bit at the indicated space at SA'I
He'd remain at MAKKAH till he finds days to HAJJ for which he came here
HAJJ starts from 8th (TARWIYA) of ZIL-HAJJ; 9th (ARAFAH) is its main day
10th of ZIL-HAJJ is the EID-day (NAHR); he performs few of rituals on that
SAUM denotes Love to ALLAH at RAMADHAN; HAJJ too is that at ZIL-HAJJ
RAMADHAN is mentioned by name at the Holy Quran; ZIL-HAJJ too is there
Other months are not mentioned by their names at the Holy Book Quran
On 8th he'd leave for MINA; on 9th he'd stay at ARAFAH up-to MAGHRIB
After ZAWAL there, its the best day & best place to ask ALLAH for mercy
Then, after MAGHRIB at start of its 10th night, he'd leave for MUZDALIFAH
He'd stay there except MUHASSIR; there ALLAH destroyed ABRAHA's army
ABRAHA had come to destroy KA'BAH; SURAH-FEEL narrates this incident
At FAJR before sunrise at 10th, he'd go to MINA & hit JAMRATUL-AQABAH

Then he'd give sacrifice of goat & shave hair; then change to ordinary dress
He'd make TAWAF-ZIYARAH (IFADHA) & make SA'I at SAFA-MARWA there
Next couple of days at 11th & 12th he'd hit all 3 JAMARAAT going to MINA
He may hit them at 13th too if he wills; his HAJJ ends by farewell TAWAF
As AAFAQI, he has to perform the farewell TAWAF as he leaves MAKKAH
At HAJJ, the woman does like the man but she wears ordinary dress at it
Also, she'd cover her head yet uncover her face but with care to HEJAB
She'd not raise her voice; she'd not make RAML or walk fast at her SA'I
She'd not shave or cut much of hair but just about laid finger from last
QIRAAN is one of 3 kinds of HAJJ; they're IFRAD, TAMATTU' & QIRAAN
In IFRAAD, HAJI does HAJJ; In TAMATTU', he does UMRAH & then HAJJ
In QIRAAN, he doesn't take-off EHRAAM after UMRAH unlike TAMATTU'
In TAMATTU', he takes EHRAAM again in HAJJ after UMRAH at MAKKAH
In QIRAAN, he observes restrictions at HAJJ after UMRAH with EHRAAM
At days of HAJJ, he completes it & as he shaves hair after it, takes it off
IFRAAD doesn't ask sacrifice; AAFAQI are expected taking-up TAMATTU'
They may take-up QIRAAN; they do as mentioned yet remain at EHRAAM
From his MEEQAT to shaving hair at HAJJ, he has EHRAAM & restrictions
TAMATTU' & QIRAAN both ask an animal's sacrifice; he can even eat of it
Leaving any WAJIB or changing sequence, ask for DAMM (one more goat)
He may take one part in cow, bull or camel for sacrifice that have 7 parts
Now, amounts are deposited at bank for sacrifice; it's done there officially
If he isn't able to do so, he'd keep SAUM for 3 days, last being at ARAFAH
Then he'd keep SAUM for 7 days after HAJJ even at-home, for total 10 days
If he couldn't manage 3 former before NAHR, he has to do it without fail
Other of SAUM would remain the same way, he'd have to keep them later
QIRAAN asks for UMRAH before HAJJ; missing it reaching late, asks DAMM
His intention to QIRAAN is off then; he has to make QADHA too of UMRAH
TAMATTU' has 2 types; that drives HADI (sacrifice), other goes without it
Today, only the latter remains as taking of HADI in TAMATTU' isn't feasible
He takes EHRAAM for UMRAH at his MEEQAAT; he'd make TAWAF & SA'I
He'd shave (or shorten) hair & his UMRAH is done & he takes-off EHRAAM
Then he takes-on EHRAAM by intention of HAJJ at the Mosque (HARAAM)
He may take it on anywhere in MAKKAH at TARWIYA caring to his sacrifice

If he has a sacrifice, he may provide ways to identify it caring about that


He mustn't wound it to afflict adversely in identification yet a bit is valid
After rituals of HAJJ as he shaves his hair, he'd change EHRAAM at NAHR
MAKKAH's residents are disallowed TAMATTU' & QIRAAN but IFRAAD only
HAJI at TAMATTU' mustn't go home before end to HAJJ as it invalidates it
If he makes 4 circles before HAJJ-days, he isnt liable to take-up TAMATTU'
HAJJ-days are 8th to 12th yet previous tells from SHAWWAL (10th month)
If woman gets menses at her HAJJ after TAWAF-ZIYARAH, her HAJJ is done
She'd hit the JAMRAAT leaving the farewell TAWAF & shed pay no DAMM
If before, she'd do rituals but TAWAF-ZIYARAH (& SA'I); she'd leave SALAH
TAWAF-ZIYARAH is FARDH; she'd wait & do it later as she gets cleanliness
If delayed after cleanliness, DAMM occurs; if it's left, her HAJJ turns void
JINAYAAT means prohibited things in HAJJ; if done, they ask KAFFARAH
If HAJI uses scents to the whole part of body, he must give DAMM (goat)
If he uses it only to some of body-part, it needs SADAQAH half SA' Wheat
If he wears stitched cloth or covers head for full day, he must pay DAMM
If lesser, he'd pay SADAQAH to it & to shaving lesser than fourth of head
Shaving of more than fourth of it asks DAMM & even if shaves for cupping
DAMM occurs if he shaves back of neck for cupping (sucking blood at site)
If he cuts all nails, he'd pay DAMM & that occurs even if of one hand only
If lesser than 5, he'd pay SADAQAH to each even if different hands or legs
If he puts-on stitched clothes/scents or shaves at need, he pays SADAQAH
He may give DAMM or keep 3 SAUM; still 3 SA' wheat to 6 needy is valid
Kissing wife or nearing her by passions asks DAMM even without semen
HAJJ gets void by the sexual relation to wife at HAJJ & he'd pay DAMM too
In previous, HAJJ isn't void if it's after ARAFAH; DAMM (camel/cow) is fine
If after HALQ (shaving) then it needs a goat as its DAMM in compensation
He'd also make QADHA for HAJJ later & his wife may accompany him in it
UMRAH also is void by sexual relation to wife; it needs QADHA & DAMM
DAMM in previous is of goat; he'd pose as still he is at UMRAH ending it
Notable is that if HAJJ gets void, he'd pose then too as at HAJJ ending it
If he does TAWAF-QUDUM without WUDHU, he'd pay normal SADAQAH
If he does it needing GHUSL (bathing) then it needs camel/cow in DAMM
But, if he revises his TAWAF-QUDUM within 3 days, it'd remove DAMM

He must pay SADAQAH asking ALLAH for mercy; this site is totally sacred
If he does farewell TAWAF without WUDHU, it asks the normal SADAQAH
If he does it needing GHUSL, it needs a goat as DAMM in compensation
Leaving SA'I or necessary TAWAF (even most of it) asks for DAMM (goat)
Notable is that if DAMM is off, HAJI does need to give normal SADAQA
If he moves away from ARAFAH before MAGHRIB; it needs DAMM for it
If he leaves MUZDALIFAH-stay or hitting of JAMRAAT, it needs DAMM
If he leaves hitting one, he'd pay SADAQAH but at 10th, it needs DAMM
DAMM refers to a sheep/goat except in TAWAF-QUDUM needing GHUSL
And except in sexual relation to wife after ARAFAH; both need cow/camel
If he delays shaving or delays TAWAF-ZIYARAT to after 3 days (10, 11, 12)
Previous asks DAMM to validate; also sequence in HAJJ-tasks is needed
Hunting of animals of land is prohibited; also to indicate it is disallowed
He'd have to pay the accepted price or its MP at the market near to hunt
Word of 2 AADIL persons is valid for its price & he may give it SADAQAH
He may buy wheat giving it to the needy as half SA' (1600 gm) to each
If price allows buying of goat, he may do so; even dates (one SA') is well
Or he may compensate by a SAUM for each of half SA' wheat as its JAZA
Previous is JAZA (compensation) even if done by mistake or done again
Or he may give the same animal in size as hunted; a deer equals a goat
Ostrich asks for camel & rabbit equals female lamb in its 1st year (I.M.)
If HAJI wounds an animal, he'd pay amount to compensate for damage
If he wounds it so badly that it loses its defense, he'd pay total of its MP
If he damages eggs of bird, he'd pay the compensation to it in amounts
There're animals/birds that don't ask for compensation if HAJI kills them
In Previous are the crow, eagle, wolf, snake, scorpion, mouse, biting dog
Also, killing mosquito, blood-sucking bug, bugs on animals don't ask it
If someone kills lice or locust (TIDDI), he may provide any SADAQAH here
SADAQAH in previous is the amount HAJI wills to pay for compensation
If HAJI kills a wild animal, he'd pay its JAZA that is within MP of a goat
In previous, if he kills it in his defense from its attack, he'd pay nothing
He'd pay JAZA even if he kills because of his hunger though he did well
If he slaughters any tamed animal/bird to eat, it's fine as goats/camels
Chicken/Ducks are in previous too; slaughtering tamed deer asks JAZA

Also, the slaughter of tamed pigeon that has hair at legs asks for JAZA
For hunted animal, he may not even slaughter it; it'd turn invalid to all
If he eats of hunted & slaughtered animal by another, its valid for him
HAJI must not indicate or ask to hunt it, then it has the validity for him
In HARAM, hunting of animal even by him thats not HAJI, asks for JAZA
If he cuts tree or grass growing by itself or not in particular ownership
Previous asks JAZA (MP); if grown or has ownership, it doesn't ask JAZA
If HAJI is at QIRAAN, he'd pay DAMM as double wherever it does occur
In previous, passing MEEQAAT without EHRAAM asks one DAMM only
If 2 at EHRAAM hunt an animal, both are liable to pay JAZA separately
If 2 hunt without EHRAAM at HARAM; they'd share its JAZA together
Transaction for hunted animal is BAATIL at EHRAAM for both of them
EHSAAR is stoppage at EHRAAM due to the enemy or severe affliction
He'd have to provide sacrifice of goat at HARAM by aid of a man there
If QAARIN, he'd have to provide two goats to be sacrificed in its 3 days
It needs to sacrifice the animal at HARAM at the 3 specific days for that
The stopped one has to make QADHA of his UMRAH & HAJJ later in life
QIRAAN needs to perform 2 UMRAH with HAJJ later due to intention
Stoppage to UMRAH needs to make QADHA of it only that he missed
He must go ahead with HAJJ if stoppage removes before its days start
If stoppage is at MAKKAH yet he may get ARAFAH, he has to go there
If HAJI couldn't reach ARAFAH before FAJR of 10th, his HAJJ gets void
He would make UMRAH (TAWAF, SA'I, Shaving hair) & end EHRAAM
He'd make QADHA to his HAJJ; DAMM isn't due nor sacrifice this year
UMRAH doesn't need QADHA except in the 5 days; from 9th to 13th
UMRAH is SUNNAH & it needs EHRAAM-TAWAF-SA'I-HALQ (shaving)
HADI is the animal for the sacrifice at HAJJ; goat (sheep), cow & camel
It's valid to sacrifice the goat of year, cow of 2 years, camel of 5 years
Sheep of 6 months that looks as if its of a year is well too to give in it
Animal must be free of AIB (Fault); lacking ear or most of it is invalid
Lacking tail or any of legs; also very weak or blind or lame is void too
Goat/sheep is sacrificed except for 2 issues stated at JINAYAAT (last)
TAWAF-QUDUM needing GHUSL; sexual relation to wife after ARAFAH
Both of previous need to give cow or camel as DAMM to validate HAJJ

Camel/cow normally suffices for 7 persons having intention to sacrifice


He may eat of HADI even if sacrifice is NAFL, in TAMATTU' or QIRAAN
Sacrifice of the previous 3 must be in the days of sacrifice (10, 11, 12)
It 's not appropriate for HAJI to eat of HADI that's provided in DAMM
Sacrifice of the HADI is done at the area of HARAM (at MINA inside it)
Better to give meat as SADAQAH to HARAM's needy yet not necessary
Better to slaughter goat/cow laying down & camel while it's standing
Standing sacrifice is named NAHR that's done by piercing camel's neck
Better to sacrifice the animal by his own hands if he can manage it well
He mustn't pay meat of sacrifice to slaughterer in wages nor anything
He must give in SADAQAH its rope & cloth kept on it & even its milk
He may avoid riding it yet at necessity, it's fine without any problem
If NAFL-HADI dies, it doesn't ask compensation; no need for another
But if necessary HADI dies or afflicted bad, it does need compensation
He may slaughter afflicted animal or give it in SADAQAH to the needy
He may slaughter NAFL-HADI nearing death then put its blood over it
Its adornment is put in blood to identify it as the poor only eats of it
Virtues in open to spread the goodness is appreciable due to intention
Al-Hamdu Lillah, today (April 06, 2016), we have ended our study of QUDURI
I, Muhammad Saleem Dada, do thank Allah for TAUFIQ of this, Al-Hamdu Lillah
Read "The Islamic Guidelines" too for the Islamic Environment; Al-Hamdu Lillah
Visit www.saleemdada.weebly.com for the reading of Previous; Al-Hamdu Lillah