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Let me tell you how I have managed to, with about 85-90% accuracy, been

able to predict a large number of inorganic reactions. There are some

prerequisites to do this. They are as follows:
1. The Periodic Table: You need to learn the stable oxidation states and
configurations of ions. For instance, pretty much all sulphides, upon
oxidation, become sulphates, because +6 is one of the most stable states of
sulphur. Or, Ferrous and Ferric ions are pretty much equally stable, so much
so that I like to call them toggler ions, as the switch between each other with
2. Electrochemical Series: This is extremely important. It was simply amazing
how much i could put into context after learning about this series. I could now
understand why Iron metal produces hydrogen gas upon reacting with an
acid. It will help you in countless redox reactions.
3. Solubility of compounds (in water) This will help you to predict precipitation
reactions. In lower classes, we are taught these as lousy double displacement
reactions, but they are actually pretty inaccurate. A ppt reaction will occur if
the initial reactants are soluble, and at least one of the products is insoluble.
Le-Chatelier's principle, if you will. Also, there is usually no way to predict
solubility, as it is a complex interplay of hydration and lattice enthalpies, so
you HAVE to memorize.
Now, a lot of reactions have no apparent logic, so there is no way to predict
them. You will have to memorize these. For instance, in the Rasching's
process to prepare hydrazine, Ammonia reacts with the hypochlorite ion to
produce chloramine. This cannot be predicted with the above steps. It has to
be memorized.
All I can say is, inorganic chemistry needs 55% memorization, and 45%
common sense, which includes some intrinsic feeling as to what should be
the outcome of a reaction, which will develop after a lot of practice.
Are all deliquescent salts highly soluble?
dissolution and deliquesence are different phenomenon.
For dissolution to take place, the energy produced by hydration of the salt's
constituent ions should compensate for the energy required to break the
crystal lattice.
Solubility then depends on temperature, pH and also the amount of salt
already present in the solution. (Recall: definitions of solubility products)
Hygroscopic characteristics in general can be attributed to the both
absorption and adsorption (at the surface).
Particularly, deliquescence occurs when the vapour pressure of the saturated
aqueous solution of a substance is less than the vapour pressure of water in

the ambient air.

When water vapour is collected by the pure solid compound, a mixture of the
solid and liquid or an aqueous solution of the compound forms until the
substance is dissolved and is in equilibrium with its environment; when this
happens, the vapour pressure of water over the aqueous solution will equal
the partial pressure of water in the atmosphere in contact with it.
A crystalline salt aerosol particle will deliquesce in the atmosphere when the
relative humidity surpasses a characteristic value, i.e deliquescence point.