CHAPTER 23

Machining Processes Used to Produce Various Shapes

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Page 23-1

Examples of Parts Produced Using the Machining Processes in the Chapter

Figure 23.1 Typical parts and shapes produced with the machining processes described in this chapter.

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Examples of Milling Cutters and Operations
Figure 23.2 Some of the basic types of milling cutters and milling operations.

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Example of Part Produced on a CNC Milling Machine
Figure 23.3 A typical part that can be produced on a milling machine equipped with computer controls. Such parts can be made efficiently and repetitively on computer numerical control (CNC) machines, without the need for refixturing or reclamping the part.

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Conventional and Climb Milling
Figure 23.4 (a) Schematic illustration of conventional milling and climb milling. (b) Slab milling operation, showing depth of cut, d, feed per tooth, f, chip depth of cut, tc, and workpiece speed, v. (c) Schematic illustration of cutter travel distance lc to reach full depth of cut.

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Summary of Milling Parameters and Formulas
TABLE 23.1 N = f = D = n = v = V = Rotational speed of the milling cutter, rpm Feed, mm/tooth or in./tooth Cutter diameter, mm or in. Number of teeth on cutter Linear speed of the workpiece or feed rate, mm/min or in./min Surface speed of cutter, m/min or ft/min =D N f = Feed per tooth, mm/tooth or in/tooth =v /N n l = Length of cut, mm or in. t = Cutting time, s or min =( l+lc ) v , where lc =extent of the cutter’s first contact with workpiece MRR = mm3/min or in.3/min =w d v , where w is the width of cut Torque = N-m or lb-ft ( Fc ) (D/2) Power = kW or hp = (Torque) (ω ), where ω = 2π N radians/min Note: The units given are those that are commonly used; however, appropriate units must be used in the formulas.
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Face Milling
Figure 23.5 Face-milling operation showing (a) action of an insert in face milling; (b) climb milling; (c) conventional milling; (d) dimensions in face milling. The width of cut, w, is not necessarily the same as the cutter radius. Source: Ingersoll Cutting Tool Company.

Figure 23.6 A face-milling cutter with indexable inserts. Source: Courtesy of Ingersoll Cutting Tool Company.
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Effects of Insert Shapes

Figure 23.7 Schematic illustration of the effect of insert shape on feed marks on a face-milled surface: (a) small corner radius, (b) corner flat on insert, and (c) wiper, consisting of a small radius followed by a large radius which leaves smoother feed marks. Source: Kennametal Inc. (d) Feed marks due to various insert shapes.
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Face-Milling Cutter

Figure 23.8 Terminology for a face-milling cutter.

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Effect of Lead Angle
Figure 23.9 The effect of lead angle on the undeformed chip thickness in face milling. Note that as the lead angle increase, the chip thickness decreases, but the length of contact (i.e., chip width) increases. The insert in (a) must be sufficiently large to accommodate the contact length increase.

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Page 23-10

Cutter and Insert Position in Face Milling
Figure 23.10 (a) Relative position of the cutter and insert as it first engages the workpiece in face milling, (b) insert positions towards the end of the cut, and (c) examples of exit angles of insert, showing desirable (positive or negative angle) and undesirable (zero angle) positions. In all figures, the cutter spindle is perpendicular to the page.

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Page 23-11

Cutters for Different Types of Milling
Figure 23.11 Cutters for (a) straddle milling, (b) form milling, (c) slotting, and (d) slitting with a milling cutter.

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Other Milling Operations and Cutters
Figure 23.12 (a) T-slot cutting with a milling cutter. (b) A shell mill.

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Arbors

Figure 23.13 Mounting a milling cutter on an arbor for use on a horizontal milling machine.

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Capacities and Maximum Workpiece Dimensions for Machine Tools
TABLE 23.2 Typical Capacities and Maximum Workpiece Dimensions for Some Machine Tools
Machine tool Milling machines (table travel) Knee-and-column Bed Numerical control Planers (table travel) Broaching machines (length) Gear cutting (gear diameter) Maximum dimension m (ft) 1.4 (4.6) 4.3 (14) 5 (16.5) 10 (33) 2 (6.5) 5 (16.5) Power (kW) 20 Maximum speed 4000 rpm

100 0.9 MN

1.7

Note: Larger capacities are available for special applications.

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TABLE 23.3 Approximate Cost of Selected Tools for Machining*
Size (in.) Cost ($) 1/4 1.00–2.00 1/2 3.00–6.00 Coated (TiN) 1/4 2.60–3.00 1/2 10–15 Tapered shank 1/4 2.50–7.00 1 15–45 2 80–85 3 250 4 950 Reamers, HSS, hand 1/4 10–15 1/2 10–15 Chucking 1/2 5–10 1 20–25 1 1/2 40–55 End mills, HSS 1/2 10–15 1 15–30 Carbide-tipped 1/2 30–35 1 45–60 Solid carbide 1/2 30–70 1 180 Burs, carbide 1/2 10–20 1 50–60 Milling cutters, HSS, staggered tooth, wide 4 35–75 8 130–260 Collets (5 core) 1 10–20 *Cost depends on the particular type of material and shape of tool, its quality, and the amount purchased.
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Tools Drills, HSS, straight shank

Approximate Cost of Selected Tools for Machining

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TABLE 23.4
General-purpose starting conditions Speed Feed m/min mm/tooth (ft/min) (in./tooth)
0.13–0.20 (0.005–0.008) 120–180 (400–600)

Workpiece material
Low-C and freemachining steels Alloy steels Soft

Cutting tool
Uncoated carbide, coated carbide, cermets Uncoated, coated, cermets Cermets, PCBN

Range of conditions Speed Feed m/min mm/tooth (ft/min) (in./tooth)
0.085–0.38 (0.003–0.015) 90–425 (300–1400)

General Recommendations for Milling Operations

Hard Cast iron, gray Soft Hard Stainless steel, austenitic High-temperature alloys, nickel base Titanium alloys Aluminum alloys Free machining High silicon Copper alloys Thermoplastics and thermosets

0.10–0.18 (0.004–0.007) 0.10–0.15 (0.004–0.006) 0.10–10.20 (0.004–0.008) 0.10–0.20 (0.004–0.008) 0.13–0.18 (0.005–0.007) 0.10–0.18 (0.004–0.007) 0.13–0.15 (0.005–0.006) 0.13–0.23 (0.005–0.009) 0.13 (0.005) 0.13–0.23 (0.005–0.009) 0.13–0.23 (0.005–0.009)

90–170 (300–550) 180–210 (600–700) 120–760 (400–2500) 120–210 (400–700) 120–370 (400–1200) 30–370 (100–1200) 50–60 (175–200) 610–900 (2000–3000) 610 (2000) 300–760 (1000–2500) 270–460 (900–1500)

0.08–0.30 (0.003–0.012) 0.08–0.25 (0.003–0.010) 0.08–0.38 (0.003–0.015) 0.08–0.38 (0.003–0.015) 0.08–0.38 (0.003–0.015) 0.08–0.38 (0.003–0.015) 0.08–0.38 (0.003–0.015) 0.08–0.46 (0.003–0.018) 0.08–0.38 (0.003–0–015) 0.08–0.46 (0.003–0.018) 0.08–0.46 (0.003–0.018)

60–370 (200–1200) 75–460 (250–1500) 90–1370 (300–4500) 90–460 (300–1500) 90–500 (300–1800) 30–550 (90–1800) 40–140 (125–450) 300–3000 (1000–10,000) 370–910 (1200–3000) 90–1070 (300–3500) 90–1370 (300–4500)

Uncoated, coated, cermets, SiN Cermets, SiN, PCBN Uncoated, coated, cermets Uncoated, coated, cermets, SiN, PCBN Uncoated, coated, cermets Uncoated, coated, PCD PCD Uncoated, coated, PCD Uncoated, coated, PCD

Source: Based on data from Kennametal Inc. Note: Depths of cut, d , usually are in the range of 1–8 mm (0.04–0.3 in.). PCBN: polycrystalline cubic boron nitride ; PCD: polycrystalline diamond. Note: See also Table 22.2 for range of cutting speeds within tool material groups.

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Page 23-17

General Troubleshooting Guide for Milling Operations
TABLE 23.5
Problem Tool breakage Tool wear excessive Rough surface finish Tolerances too broad Workpiece surface burnished Back striking Chatter marks Burr formation Breakout Probable causes Tool material lacks toughness; improper tool angles; cutting parameters too high. Cutting parameters too high; improper tool material; improper tool angles; improper cutting fluid. Feed too high; spindle speed too low; too few teeth on cutter; tool chipped or worn; built-up edge; vibration and chatter. Lack of spindle stiffness; excessive temperature rise; dull tool; chips clogging cutter. Dull tool; depth of cut too low; radial relief angle too small. Dull cutting tools; cutter spindle tilt; negative tool angles. Insufficient stiffness of system; external vibrations; feed, depth, and width of cut too large. Dull cutting edges or too much honing; incorrect angle of entry or exit; feed and depth of cut too high; incorrect insert geometry. Lead angle too low; incorrect cutting edge geometry; incorrect angle of entry or exit; feed and depth of cut too high.

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Page 23-18

Surface Features and Corner Defects

Figure 23.14 Surface features and corner defects in face milling operations; see also Fig. 23.7. For troubleshooting, see Table 23.5. Source: Kennametal Inc.
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Page 23-19

Horizontal- and Vertical-Spindle Column-andKnee Type Milling Machines
Figure 23.15 Schematic illustration of a horizontalspindle column-and-knee type milling machine. Source: G. Boothroyd.

Figure 23.16 Schematic illustration of a vertical-spindle column-and-knee type milling machine (also called a knee miller). Source: G. Boothroyd.
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Bed-Type Milling Machine
Figure 23.17 Schematic illustration of a bed-type milling machine. Note the single vertical-spindle cutter and two horizontal spindle cutters. Source: ASM International.

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Additional Milling Machines
Figure 23.18 A computer numerical control, vertical-spindle milling machine. This machine is one of the most versatile machine tools. Source: Courtesy of Bridgeport Machines Division, Textron Inc.

Figure 23.19 Schematic illustration of a five-axis profile milling machine. Note that there are three principal linear and two angular movements of machine components

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Examples of Parts Made on a Planer and by Broaching
Figure 23.20 Typical parts that can be made on a planer.

Figure 23.21 (a) Typical parts made by internal broaching. (b) Parts made by surface broaching. Heavy lines indicate broached surfaces. Source: General Broach and Engineering Company.
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Broaches

Figure 23.22 (a) Cutting action of a broach, showing various features. (b) Terminology for a broach.

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Chipbreakers and a Broaching Machine
Figure 23.23 Chipbreaker features on (a) a flat broach and (b) a round broach. (c) Vertical broaching machine. Source: Ty Miles, Inc. (a) (c)

(b)

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Internal Broach and Turn Broaching

Figure 23.24 Terminology for a pull-type internal broach used for enlarging long holes. Figure 23.25 Turn broaching of a crankshaft. The crankshaft rotates while the broaches pass tangentially across the crankshaft’s bearing surfaces. Source: Courtesy of Ingersoll Cutting Tool Company.

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Broaching Internal Splines

Figure 23.26

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Sawing Operations
Figure 23.27 Examples of various sawing operations. Source: DoALL Company.

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Types of Saw Teeth

Figure 23.28 (a) Terminology for saw teeth. (b) Types of tooth set on saw teeth, staggered to provide clearance for the saw blade to prevent binding during sawing.

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Saw Teeth and Burs
Figure 23.29 (a) High-speed-steel teeth welded on steel blade. (b) Carbide inserts brazed to blade teeth.

Figure 23.30 Types of burs. Source: The Copper Group.

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Spur Gear
Figure 23.31 Nomenclature for an involute spur gear.

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Gear Generating
Figure 23.32 (a) Producing gear teeth on a blank by from cutting. (b) Schematic illustration of gear generating with a pinionshaped gear cutter. (c) Schematic illustration of gear generating in a gear shaper using a pinionshaped cutter. Note that the cutter reciprocates vertically. (d) Gear generating with rackshaped cutter.

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Gear Cutting With a Hob
Figure 23.33 Schematic illustration of three views of gear cutting with a hob. Source: After E. P. DeGarmo and Society of Manufacturing Engineers

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Cutting Bevel Gears

Figure 23.34 (a) Cutting a straight bevel-gear blank with two cutters. (b) Cutting a spiral bevel gear with a single cutter. Source: ASM International.

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Gear Grinding
Figure 23.25 Finishing gears by grinding: (a) form grinding with shaped grinding wheels; (b) grinding by generating with two wheels.

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Economics of Gear Production
Figure 23.36 Gear manufacturing cost as a function of gear quality. The numbers along the vertical lines indicate tolerances. Source: Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

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