You are on page 1of 71

ISLAM;

OR,

RELIGION

THE

OF

TURK.

THE

BY

REV.

E.

AMERICAN
lO

M.

TRACT
KAST

D.

WHERRY,

23d

ST.,

SOCIETY,
NEW

YORK.

D.

COPYRIGHT,

1896,

SOCIETY.
TRACT
BY

AMERICAN

ISLAM;
THE

OR,

The

notice

served

the

filled

have

been

less

awful

have

been

to

ready

of

these

outrages

rowing
har-

pillaged,
outraged,

women

carried

when

Constantinople

no

Many
the

cities

in

enslaved
And

been

doubt

to

helpless girls
be

plans

these

contemplate.

to

liberation
de-

calm

has

has
ror
hor-

with

The

executed

murdered,

and

tion
destruc-

subjects

which

details
men

his

indignation.
with

potentate

world

civilized

the

and

of

myriads

our

The

the

deliberately planning
of

to

Islam.

of

mighty

nia
Arme-

bring

to

religion
of

spectacle

in

atrocities

recent

have

TURK.

THE

OF

RELIGION

the

calmly
have

captive

Moslem

rem.
ha-

Sultan
denies

at

that

been

com-

ISLAM

OR,

them
at
yet continues
frequent intervals, coolly daring

mitted, and
nations

the

our

of

vene,
Europe to interindignation is ly
thorough-

aroused.
how

who

men

be

to

the

God
of

We

be

men

the

yet

The

sword

der
won-

once

so

acter
char-

in his

ion.
religto

It may

sheathed
un-

repel

an

All

be
or

enemy

Christians

regarded as idolaters, who may


destroyed at any time without
the

whenever

interests

their removal.
said
ye
them

the

shall

ligious
re-

is consecrated

of Islam.

convert.

at

we

Turkish

its solution

to

ful
merci-

the

devilish.

so

finds

cause

themselves

perpetrators

be

of the

enigma

ourselves

cruelty:

can

and

make

of

servants

fiendish

how

the

profess

can

such

The

ask

''

of Islam
Kill the

prophet,
find

"

to
are

be
sin
quire
re-

aters,"
idol-

soever
where-

them, and

take

prisoners,and besiege them,


and
venient
lay wait for them in every conplace. But if they shall
the appointed
repent, and observe
times of prayers, and pay the legal
4

RELIGION

THE

chap. IX.,

he

to the

exercised

has

lem
Mos-

under

country

ted
permit-

been

have

is evidence

rule
that

in

live

to

fact, then, that

The

5.

Christians

any

freely." Quran,

them

alms, dismiss

TURK.

THE

OF

Moslem

marvellous

tian
ChrisIf then
the
magnanimity.
with political
subject busy himself
in any
questions,and endeavor
for himself
to secure
a
liberty
way
denied
ruler, he lays
by his Moslem
of being
himself
to the charge
open
a
as

rebel, and

an

faithful.
with
the
the

of

enemy

be

may

so

God

and

Accordingly

the

treated
of

Sultan,

authority of
order
Moslem
hierarchy, may
giving
slaughter of the men,
advice

the

accepting
rather
children

than

alternative

religionof

apostasy, his wife

may

be

massacres

hundred

In

death

enslaved

Moslem's
millions

and
his

and

property seized as the spoil of


We
have, therefore, in the
the

of

Islam.

select

Christian

the

case

the

and

the

however,

them,

in

the

war.

menian
Ar-

object-lesson
religion. Two

an

of

the

earth's
5

in-

ISLAM

habitants

adherents

are

faith, which

for

The

has

been

of Turkey

Sultan

than

more

hundred

four

recognized

of the

Defender
or

is

world.

years

this

to

to-day the onlyChristianity for supremacy

rival of
in the

OR,

Faith, the
God

of

vicegerent
millions

of

his

the

as

Caliph
earth.

on

subjects
bow
the knee
to his authority both
as
spiritual ruler.
temporal and
in
India, besides
Fifty millions
Forty

millions

own

in Central

more

Asia

and

his
acknowledge
of religion.
authority in matters
of the
These
figures suggest some
of complication which
set
beelements
North

Africa,

effort

every

Islam

be

into

taken

of

study
sick

the

the

ern
East-

East.

It
"

man

at

tells of

any

is

true

that

in
*'

the

times
Constantinople sometory
ready to die, but his-

more

recovery.
Christian
6

in

account

politicalsituation

seems

the

solve

Question. The
religion of
is still a mighty force, which

must

the

to

than
The

powers

one

lous
marvel-

jealousy
may

of

yet

RELIGION

THE

another

him

afford

rise and

to

TURK.

THE

OF

opportunity

secure

of

lease

new

life.
without

It goes
church

afford

cannot

the

to

millions
of

missionaries

the

ent
indiffer-

the

midst

in the

devoted

our

to be

religionof

of Moslems

that

saying

whom

living
by and

are

and

laboring, in hope that


find
entrance
by the gospel may
their

to

Is it not

hearts.

of

wisdom

of

piety to

well

as

with

part

instinct

understand

people

ourselves
of

to

remarkable

these

the

as

endeavor

the

and

to

quaint
ac-

the

principles
By so doing

their

religion?
we
perhaps better understand
may
their place in the history of God's
of
the
providential government
learn
world.
Possibly we
may
of the
something more
by
way
which
these
worshippers of Allah,
**

the

and

merciful
become

may

the

the

followers

Christ, the

Son

of the

It is

the

hope

this
the

with
cause

that

following

beneficent,"

the
brief

of

**

the

living God
of aiding

writer

!"
in

presents

popular

state7

ISLAM

of

ment

the

the

the

religion

of

Brahminism

of

Buddhism,

it

of

To

of

He

faith

the

Moslem's

of his

creed
and

Allah

the
or

it and

ligion
re-

tion
connec-

faith

own

To

fathers.

his

of

him
the

faith

in
the

Mohammed,

in

of

tor.
impos-

no

his

are

spires
in-

the

is

characteristics

chief

the

it

little

sees

Unlike

glamor

Mohammed

between
or

the

him

is

veneration

that

of

born

antiquity.

ordinary
Islam

or

is

the

religionof
yesterday.

nothing
which

practiceof

and

Islam.

mind

the

Christian
a

faith

religionof

In

OR,

his
belief
prophet of God, and
in his right to practise polygamy,
zeal
adding to this his fanatical
in warfare
against infidels."
"

Not
To

Islam

him
:

Adam,
and

with

so

the
to

the

Moslem

is the

only

himself.
true

ligion
re-

religionvouchsafed

Seth

Abraham,

and
to

to

Enoch,

to Noah

Moses

and

the

all the
and
patriarchs, to David
prophets, to Jesus and his apostles,
the last
and
finallyto Mohammed,
8

RELIGION

THE

THE

OF

TURK.

ligion
prophets. To him this recomprehends all dispensations.
It is the
religion of the
genii and of angels. It shall only
find its consummation
in eternity,
amid
the joys of paradise.
point,
standLooking at it from another

of

the

Islam

Submission

of

Mussulman

is

himself

God,

to

placed his
God."

of

that
is

neck

This

of the

that

of

and

and

crusade

theory
can

of

be

is
no

for the

fact

writers

Christianity
a

of

symbols

shoulder

liberal

more

their

faith,

to
to

such

idle

are

terpretation
in-

respective
go

hand

in

shoulder

dream.

in

That

against idolatry.
an

no

fore,
is, there-

Christian

certain

destined, under

hand

There
in

like

It admits

It knows

true.

as

Islam

yoke

Christian,

religion.

foundation

no

who

one

the

the

rivalry.

generous

theory

under

and

Jew

other

none

''

religion,then,

exclusive

an

medan
Moham-

as

it,

ligion
re-

ted
submit-

has

or,

define

the

God.

to

who

one

doctors
has

called

be

may

There

reconcilement.

One
9

ISLAM

triumph

must

So

other.

; war,

sword

sword
In
of

as

the

the

ary
mission-

however,

with

against carnal:
Spiritagainst the

spiritualweapons
the

fall of

concerned, it means

is

end

the

to

OR,
the

over

far, then,

problem
war

of the

of Islam.

order

to

let

Islam

understand

the

examine

us

faith

its

damental
fun-

of

four

principles.
Moslem
Irkan

or

the
of

us

of the

Pillars
the

Quran,

tell

authors

Ahadis

faith

the

traditions,

or

consent
Ijma, or unanimous
gical
the learned, and
Qiyas, or analo-

based

reasoning

the

upon

and

Ijma. Let us
these
examine
separately.
I. The
Quran.
is called
This
by the Moslem
a I
Quran al Majid, ''the glorious
Quran ;" a I Quran ash-sJiarif, the
noble
the
Quran ;" al Furqan, or
the
KalamDistinguisher ;" and
Quran, Ahadis,

"

*'

Ullah,

or

''

theWord

of God."

The

original,they say, is inscribed upon


the
Preserved
Luh-i-Mahfuz, or
the
is kept under
Table," which
"

lO

RELIGION

THE

OF

throne

of

God.*

copied

and

sent

Gabriel.

It

in

to

"

was

of* his

the

Mohammed
a

Makkah.

and

up

his

piece
mouth-

near

he

day

call
which

one

millions
weeks

some

been

cave

One

living as
the City

of

his

to

came

Khadijah in great trepidation


me
fear, saying, Wrap
up,
She wrapped him
me
up !"
fear
until
his
was
dispelled,

when

he

fear

and

told

angel

and

said,

am

not

Gabriel
'*

and

This

notion

Sacred

of Holies.

of the

by
Deut.

of

the

side

to

that
him
'*

angel
me

his

replied,

"Then,"

Moslems
the

said

come

He

squeezed

practice

Book

had

the

"

of

cause

He

reader."

me

the

the

Read."

Mohammed,

from

her

trembling.

the

of

*'

wrap

of

med,
Moham-

by

awe

For

had
in

angel

said.

is

Quran

followers.

recluse

that

was

Mohammed's

with

to

it

the

by

in all he

"

is listened

wife

down

story of

recite

this

apprehension
merely the

of God
The

TURK.

From

follows

the

followers,

THE

said

took

hold

much

as

have

may

as

arisen

Jews

of

keeping

of the

ark

in the

31:26; cf.

Kings

22:8.
II

the

Holy

ISLAM

not

reader.'

of

much

as

me

third

me

And

Read.'

said,
a

lie let

bear, and

I could

OR,

me

said,

Then

he

time

and

'

am

hold

took

squeezed
bear, and

I could

as

and

go

said,
"

"

! for

Read

beneficent
''

''

pen

thy

man.

Lord

thy

taught

is most

he

the

men

use

hath

He

which

of

name

hath

He

of the

the

created

who

Lord

in

Read

taught
not.'

knoweth

that

man
"

Hearing this story the faithful


herself
to the
Khadijah addressed
husband.
of comforting her
work
lest

he

subject of
possession, she
the

were

demoniacal
'*

No, it will

God

are

he

never

or

sad.
to

the

trust, you

people,
what

your

truth, you
bear

you

you
12

be

not

will

kind

speak

die, or

should

lest he

fears

his

To

the

so.

make
For

some

said,

swear

by

you

ancholy
mel-

verily

you

relatives, you
are

faithful

afflictions

in

of the

spend in good works


gain in trade, you are

RELIGION

THE

OF

hospitable,and

then

low-men."
fel-

your

took

him

to

cousin

was
puted
reWaraqah, who
and
holy man
acquainted
Jewish Scriptures. Said

the

with

'*

Waraqah,
what

do you

told

him

which

Oh,

son

see

?"

what

said,
God

of my
Then
he

That

''

to

sent

Such

brother,
the

saw,

is

expressing the
the subject of

was

TURK.

assist

you

She
her

THE

et
proph-

and

the

Moses

idea
divine

raqah
Wa-

Namus
by
;" therethat

he

tion.
inspira-

hammed's
beginning of MoFrom
prophetic career.
this time
forth during the space of
of years
the prophetic declarations
a
score

the

was

of
recorded

were

up

They

prophet

interest
At

the

by
and

Makkah

ured
carefullytreas-

very

words

of

faith
the
the

of

environments

They

when

of

experiences

the

faithful.

new

man

given piecemeal,

announced
the

remarkable

and

the

as

were

colored

the

this

God.
ever

the
of

usually
some
exigency of
of the
or
personal
prophet required.
spiritof this prophwere

1.3

ISLAM;

OR,

anathematized

ecy

idols

the

in the

national

pantheon, vindicating the


by reference
unity of the Godhead
and
the
to the testimony of nature
consciences

of

theQuraish,

which

of the

They
madman.

and

sacred

naturally

tribe

the

was

of Makkah

tribe

as

The

men.

resented

dian
custoor

ple,
tem-

this

preaching.
ridiculed
the
prophet
They persecuted

followers, Mohammed

his

pal
princi-

the

Kaabah,

of

himself

tions.
being protected by powerful relaThe
Quran carefullynotes
these

facts, rebukes

and

threatens

the

persecutors.

It tells

the

experiences

of former

how

"

and

persecuted, how

God

warned

miracles

yet

how

rushed
Some

blindly

earthquake,
in the

before

others

breathed

Once
upon

by

up

hot
a

an

drowned
wind

denly
sud-

slumbering

city,leaving its inhabitants


14

and

destruction.

were
a

even

wretches

to

on

he

them,

swallowed

flood.

merciful

hardened

the

were

mocked

how

them,

of

ets
proph-

unbelievers

the

wrought

them

corpses.

RELIGION

THE

Again,

plague

dealt

upon

the

destruction

when
warned

and

among

them

At

Madina

the
and

the

first the

The

Moslems

pray

toward
in

saints.

the

win

of

the

also

Quran

prophecy was
Jews were

Jerusalem.
praise of the Old

Jews

did

not

were

this

tions
revela-

changed.
tory.
conciliaflattered.
to

Much

was

Testament

Mohammed

children

the

of

commanded

were

Thus

time.

olden

entirelychanged

were

the

The

to

of

enemies

circumstances

the

character

of

said

merited

out

his

in the

prophet

At

TURK.

prophets. Again,
the Jews opposed they were
by the fate of unbelievers

Lord

the

THE

OF

hope

of Israel.

inclined

But
to

ognize
rec-

apostle. They
ridiculed his prophetic pretensions
and
as
an
rejected him
impostor.
The
spirit of Quranic prophecy
anathematized
the Jews, and
now
declared

God
and

the

them

new

to

be

accursed

of

they had persecuted


slain his prophet. The
ple
temat Jerusalem
was
rejected as
chosen
was
Qibla,and Makkah
because

15

ISLAM

OR,

towards

the

point

faithful

should

as

which

the

Christians

pray.
of

kindly. They
said to be charitable.
Jesus
be
declared
to
a
prophet of
and
His purity of character

were

spoken

now

were
was

God.

miracles

wonderful
this

By

the

time

extolled.

were

faith

new

adherents
gained many
Jews and Christians.
arose

now

Ibn

it

Arabs,

"

versary
ad-

new

lah
Abdul-

was

of

chief

the

Ubbai,

had

one

powerful factions in
who
was
Madina,
jealous of the
of the prophet with
his
influence
of Moslems.
ever-increasing band
of

the

most

Henceforth

received

the

special
inspiring genius

the

increased, and
of

Gabriel

in

the

was

of

ear

(as
sound

the

of
of

angel

Mohammed's
16

he

ever

his

of
of

tion
inspira-

the

now

of

med.
Moham-

heard

voice

ringing

times
prophet. Somelike the
said) it was
the

like the

bell,sometimes
tornado
in

party

attention

necessities

The

roar

and

Abdullah

the

; at

form

attendants

other
of

times
one

of

(Dahiyah)

OF

RELIGION

THE

command

Now

make

war

their

neighbors,

Arab

ancient

with

wife

nab, the
his

her

man

Zai-

ed
adopt-

in

the

face
did

of
vorce
di-

might become
wife of the prophet. But, however
willing the prophet and his

devoted

It

was

yea,

she

her, that

the

prophet

by devotion
willing to

protest, he

Mohammed's

the

the

Zaid, his

benefactor,

divorce

ished.
abol-

beautiful

the
of

some

was

Zaid, moved

son.

ing
fast-

and

Again,

example,

fell in love

wives,

prophet.

prayer

custom

For

to

their

instituted.

were

to

intercourse,
their

or

time

another

ing
relat-

perhaps

of

treatment

to

vans.
cara-

came

social

their

reofulate

At

order

Moslems"

the

to

Makkah

the

an

voice.

given

was

upon

Then

their

audible

in

him

addressed

TURK.

THE

the

children,

Arab
was

nation
a

to

was

scandalous

marry

the

custom

of

against them.
thing for

divorced

wife

of

Here, then, the


adopted son.
spirit of Mohammed's
prophecy

an

came

to
2

the

rescue.

revelation
17

ISLAM

vouchsafed

was

"

him

prophet
Zainab.

to marry

done, said the

was

in order

that

divorced

the

by
to

men

of

wives

ful
faith-

the

bound

forbidding

custom

prophecy,

henceforth
be

not

may

the

the

to

commanding
This

OR,

old

marry

their

ed
adopt-

sons."*
On

occasion

another

in respect to

arose

the

Sacred

warfare

these

months.

hung

brother
of

It

happened

so

of Moslem
kan
a

at

18

See

the

tent

or

of

property.
father

in the

or

ionship
companof

avenger
that

fear

blood.

small

found

band
a

Mak-

the

by
quietly encamped
cred
beginning of the saBeing off their guard

an

easy

season.

fell

the shield

life

marauders

caravan

well

they

the

was

without

met

safe

was

sword
and

murderer

the

had

during

within

to either

danger

Even
a

bow

Enemies

doors.
of

The

up

time

custom

unlawful

The

sheathed.

ing
dur-

war

From

Arab

made

were

waging

Months.

immemorial

scandal

prey

Quran, chap

to

the

xxxiii.,37.

Mos-

RELIGION

THE

their

goods

made

of Madina

themselves

expedition has

the

prophet
the

The

bond

until

such

might

be

delay

not

was

the

to

that

henceforth

season.

the

the
the

booty

the

will of
The

long. Gabriel
peared
approphet, declaring
than

worse

Months

and

unbelievers

and

fare
war-

that

would

during this
the prisoners
while

rewarded,

distributed

among

faithful.

Again,
undertaken
order

was

as

known.

spared even
Accordingly

released

were

as

of the

influence

made

was
infidelity

be

Mo-,

undertaken

been

time

in the Sacred

not

Moslems

jeopardized. Seizing
in
he placed them
placed in
spoil was

was

marauders

ward.

God

The

order.

his

by

cry
out-

inasmuch

blamed,

was

crites
hypo-

scandalized.

were

hammed

war.

great

The

this outrage.

at

of

and

unbelievers

Arab

The

of

whole

spoil

the

as

TURK.

off the

carried

lems, who

THE

OF

was

of

expedition was
against the Jews
given through the
Some
the
Quran.
an

19

to
:

be
the

um
medirude

ISLAM;
Arabs
in

showed

their

undue

approach

revelation

of

of

Ayesha,
was
Mohammed,
the
wife

for the

book.

the

word

of

the

favorite

prescribed punishment
of the

So

between

and

of

the

calumniators.

character

wife

aspersed
:

to

ter
charac-

favorite

the

exonerated

and

lating
regu-

The

scandalized

Quran

approach

God.

of

prophet

Mohammed

vouchsafed

manner

prophet

familiarity

to

was

the
the

OR,

Such

revelations

intimate
the

of the

is the
of this

is the
of

matter

and

Quran

relation

the

tions
revelalife and

the

that a
experience of Mohammed
knowledge of the latter is necessary
to any
intelligentunderstanding of
the

former.
the

At

various
found

wives.

Mohammed

portions of
in

committed

of

death

to the

They

care

were

and
palm leaves
Many of the Moslems
copies of portionsand
had

committed
20

Quran

which

box

the

the

the

had
of

were

been
of his

one

written

upon

white

stones.

too

possessed

some

of them

whole

to

mem-

to

the

ranks

of

led
of the

Quran

to

committed

had

these

Zaid-Ibn-Sabit

appointed by
Abu
Baqr to
he

work

the

Under

memory.

circumstances

This

ever,
how-

war,

rapid thinning out


the hafizcs,as those

who

called

were

of

fatalities

The

ory.

TURK.

THE

OF

RELIGION

THE

was

Caliph (Khalifah)
compile the Quran.
did, collecting all the

the

the
find from
portions he could
stone
copies and
palm leaf and
those who
from
repeated what they
knew

result

The
which
copy

underwent

the

Caliphate

vation.
preservolume

the

was

True,

possess.

now

we

it for

recorded

he

as

this
in

revision

some

of

but

Othman,

idiom
the
make
to
as
only so
everywhere to correspond to that
of the
Quraishite tribe of Makkah.
This

book

chapters.
recorded

contains

Those
in their

but, somewhat
of the

are

14

or

suras

not, however,

der,
chronological or-

after

the

ner
man-

of the

propheticalbooks

ters
Jewish Scriptures,the longer chapwere
placed first and the short21

ISLAM

last

er

by

the whole

"

being introduced

prayer.

This

reads

prayer

In

''

the

be

king" of

Thee

do

the

day of judgment.
worship, and of thee

beg assistance.
right way, in the
thou

of those

not

Direct

hast

been

of

nor

in

us

of

way

those

gracious ;

against whom

incensed,

Lord

the

we

whom

to

ciful.
mer-

merciful,

most

we

the

most

God, the

to

of all creatures,
the

follows

as

of God

name

Praise

do

OR,

thou

those

art

who

go

astray."
This

striking,if
in

passage
to

is

passage

least

why

the

influence

Quran. It reveals
two
sons
important reaQuran holds such an
the

over

hundred

minds

millions
The

race.

first

rhythm,
of

They sound
enchanting
with

of

and

the

of

the

often

two

human

is the

reason

tiful
beau-

sweet

dences
ca-

original language.

like

the

song,

of

notes

holding

rapt attention

scarcelya
22

beautiful

most

the

at

us

the

not

the most

perhaps

word

some

tudes
multiwho

they

derstand
un-

hear.

RELIGION

THE

OF

second

The

book

divine

especiallythe
and

God

There

are

of

three

Moslems

of

Quran

which

notice

here.

The

truth
man's

vast

in

the

of

the

ence
depend-

for salvation.

on

faith

the

contained

truth

unity

TURK.

is

reason

of

amount

THE

should

we

the

first is

the

points in
concerning

the

fail to

not

doctrine

the

of

eternity of the Quran.


According
this doctrine, the Quran
is unto
created.
The
which

the

the

of

the

volume

this

by

these

Moslems

eternal

as

It is not
from
The

the

letters

of God
and
is

in the

mind

tained
con-

sented
repreall

by

regarded

are

as

thodox
or-

nally
eter-

of God

its

original essence.
God, yet it is inseparable
to

God.
second

regard to the
authorityof the
of

forms

are

creatures,

the

Word

in

existent

be

to

forms

but

made,

is formed

volume

acknowledged
even

ink, etc., of

paper,

doctrine

point of faith in
Quran relates to the
In the light
Quran.
we
just mentioned
23

ISLAM

will be

understand

prepared to
placed upon

value

OR,

every

tittle of this book.


read

by
be

must

Holy

pure." The
preserved unchanged.
letters
commit

men

its

it to

teaching.

sufficient

The

memory.
is tested

single

establish

to

text

all counted.

are

Every question of doctrine


by

jot and
only be

''the

and

words

It may

the

is

text

article of

any

faith.

the

which

Quran

here

is called
It

lifetime

concerning
would

we

the

doctrine

sprang

gation.
of Abrothe

It grew
of

necessities

the

notice

during

up

Mohammed.

of

of

out

doctrine

third

The

his

phetic
pro-

pretensions. Circumstances
and
time
time
to
changed from
Wherefore

necessary.

revelation
old

the
to

each

declared

was

whenever

it

became

to

new

abrogate
contrary

was

it.

doctrine

This

worked

been

By

revelation

in the

changes

to

24

up

Moslems

modern

apply

of

the

former

abrogation
into

has

science.

it is made

to

Scriptures,so

RELIGION

THE

that

do

they

TURK.

THE

OF

hesitate

not

to

say

Jewish Scriptures were


tures,
Scripabrogated by the Christian
these
in turn
and
by the
Quran.
the

that

volume

this

With

Moslem

proud
contains

wants

for him

contains

all

hand

the
It

other.

no

only

not

the truth,

traditions, it

the

including

but,

in

far

truth, so

as

religion

the

Caliph

is concerned.

story is told

The
Omar
be

that, when

done

with

Quran they

he

contrary

are

destroyed."
the ordinary
for

the

Wherein

to

it

in

they
far

so

Quran.
while

the

are
as

The

of

Christian
differ

if

they
be

be

lem
Mos-

the

Scriptures.
from
the Quran

due

only to be
they agree

to

attests

tion
corrup-

forgery, so
recognized
with

the

is that

consequence

Quran

If

story illustrates

by interpolationor
that

*'

the

should

they

estimate

to

with

needed

This

they

it is said

replied:

agree

not

are

andrian
Alex-

celebrated

the

therein

books

should

what

asked

Library,
the

of

the

genu25

ISLAM

ineness

and

credibilityof

yet Moslems

copies

hence, because

Quran, they

the

ble
Bi-

that

hold

present
trustworthy, and

not

are

OR,

contradict

they

the

be

rejected.
II. The
next
pillarof Islam is
closely related to the Quran and
yet differs materiallyfrom it. This
tions.
pillar is called Ahadis, or Tradito

are

These
Sunnat.

They
doings,

Mohammed

or

of

the

the
ings,
say-

and

permissions of
regard to various

They

three

of

consist

in

matters.

called

also

are

collected

were

centuries

after

two

death

the

the

prophet. They represent


(i) things said by Mohammed
; (2)
in the
things done by Moham.med
of his disciples,and
(3)
presence
things done
by disciples in the
against which
prophet's presence
did
show
he
not
tion
disapprobaany
in the pres; (4) things done
ence
of Mohammed

which

The
been
tomes

known

Sittah

(the Six
26

of matter

mass

in

compiled
as

he

six

the

Correct

*'

demned.
con-

has

ponderous
as-Sihah-us-

Books).

THE

RELIGION

The

TURK.

THE

OF

principles which
decide

to

were

between

plied,
ap-

the

uine
gen-

spurious traditions, were


amined
carefully expeculiar. Collectors
and

the
for and
of

were

pious

his

reliable
Whenever
one

the

or

of

more

as

It will be
such

"

weak

evident

circumstances

interpreting
small

part of

for the

The
famous

collection

give

the

and

character
Abu

or

"

doubtful."

"The

reader

an

of

science

traditions

is

no

education

from

of Moslem

tions
tradi-

Tirmizi," will
idea

of these

Kuraib

under

all that

Moslem's

as

witnesses

priesthood.
following extract,

entitled

"

doubt

accepted,was

the

the

accepted.

the

"

to

thus

were

tradition, though

marked

ed.
accept-

was

was

headed,
clear-

was

witnesses

there

sound

of
and

tradition

the

es
witness-

Moslem

testimony

If all the

If

them.

of

discreet, sober

mind,

to

chain

in the
a

traditions, but

relating

persons

link

evidence

of

not

the

against

the

each

chain,

said

of the

form

traditions
to

us

27

that

ISLAM

ibn

Ibrahim

Yusuf

said

to

from

Abu

Ishaq, from

us,

rif that

Abi

ibn

Tulata

ibn

Musa-

heard, from

Ausajah,

heard

have

Ishaq

father, from

said, I have

he

said

ibn
his

'Abdu'r-Rahman
he

OR,

that

that

the

shall give
prophet said, Whosoever
in charity a milch cow,
or
silver,or a
it shall be
leathern
bottle of water,
equal to the freeing of a slave''
It will be
noted
that
a
complete
of

chain

the

between

traditions
of

the

source

the

so

principalsource

knowledge in respect to all questions


of practice. Not
only is this
of

true

the

stated

other

of

the

the

to

toms
cus-

daily

and

to

prayers,

Ramzan

the

and

ceremonies

relating
of

chief

doctrine,

the

are

and

tradition.

is the

the

Quran
authority in

of

ed
present-

prophet

of the

final narrator
As

is here

witnesses

the

or

Muharram,

the

fast

ances
observto

giving
alms-

pilgrimage, but to
relating to marriage

and
customs

death,

family
28

to

the

of

usages

intercourse

and

social
even

the
and
and

to

all

THE

RELIGION

matters

of

down

dress

the

to

for

the

wood

to

dye

OF

and

the

hair, and
be

used

TURK.

adornments,

of

cut

toothbrush

THE

beard,

the

the

lar
particu-

in

making
questions as

All

to

tled
setpurificationand washing are
to the traditions.
by reference
Suppose, for instance, a dog should
be drowned
in a well, the question
would
immediately arise as to how

that

well

could

be

clean.
would

be

the

emonially
cer-

Learned

consulted, who

consult

turn

rendered

men

would

books

and

in
ceed
pro-

of
enlighten the minds
their
co-religionists how
many
drawm
be
must
gallons of water
to

from

the

before

well

it

can

be

garded
re-

having been
purified.
Never
did
Jewish scribes display
more
learning in adducing the
sayings of the rabbis and doctors
to prove
ing
some
question as to washof hands
and
cleaning of pots
as

than

do

the

of

men

similar
III.

Mullahs

Islam

and

learned

when

discussing
questions to-day.
third pillarof Moslem
The
29

ISLAM

is called

faith

idea

conveyed
expression

the

fathers."

of

This

Moslem
to
''

It is

opinions

OR,

Ijma.

the

to

expresses

term

about

the

Christian

by

consensus

collection

of

the

of

the

the

Mujtahiddin or
learned
the companions of
among
the
prophet, the Ansars, or helpers,
who

there, and

the

of

ministry

disciplesand

both

it

Madi-

at

Mohammed's

during

na

converted

were

of

these

panions
com-

classes.

thought that such


in a position best
to unmen
w^ere
derstand
what
meant
was
by the
of the Quran, and
words
especially
by the sayings of their prophet
These
preserved in the traditions.
opinions of the learned, however,
Naturally

must

on

account

no

teaching of
but
these

all

and
IV.
faith

The

the

30

they

or

the

agree

the
tions,
tradiwith

ity
regarded as authorquestions of tion
interpretaare

law.

pillarof Moslem
Qiyas, By this term
analogical reasoning

fourth

is called

is meant

contradict

Quran

when

they

in

was

the

THE

RELIGION

of the

learned

Here

place for
And

first three

here

even

"learned"
have

Moslem
to

and

Ahadis

the

discover

ruled

term

has

the

of

doctors

holds

rarelyever

held

say

of

in the

minds.
ed
learn-

or

with

Romish

that

absolute

Uluma

by Pope

to

virtually
tism
Dogma-

sense

sway

but
"

Moslem
the

not

Quran

learned

almost

over

hierarchy of

of cardinals

the

court.

worst

obtained

supremacy
A

out

for

have

has

Reason

teach.

in

*'

the

that

so

what

the

the

of

reallyteach,

what

corded
re-

orthodox

scholars

learn

striven

and

time

the

successors,

centuries

upon

been

that

among

no

made

guidance

Since

the

Quran

have

the

faithful.

of

based

the

traditions, which

tle
lit-

learned

of Islam

of

son.
rea-

how

The

centuries

for

the

Mujtahiddin

teachings

been

of

deliverances,

certain

they

first time

the

exercise.

and

Imaums

teaching of
and the Ijma.

exercise

yet

is that

the

for

the

TURK.

to the

as

find

we

THE

traditions

Quran,

the

OF

or

power

college
Church.
31

ISLAM

Clothed
the

with

OR,

all the

temporal

is able

authority of
this hierarchy

power

to

mete

out

the

penalties

upon

any

and

wshould
their

dare

conclusions

When

in

bastinado

the

fail to

dungeon

the

survey

clear

damental
fun-

Islam

will

reader

its

fossilized.

were,

treme
ex-

is,as

rigidity. Everything
it

the

of the

of

the

to

macious,
contu-

and

bowstring

doctrines
make

the

correct

This

avail.

axe

question
regard to any
or
practice.
and
the filthy

doctrine

of

matter

all who

in

call

to

severest

There

is

no

for

The
lem
Mosdevelopment.
points to the past.
priest ever
of thought is denied
him.
Freedom

room

No

commentator

thinks

but, like
declares

old

in solemn

of

old, he

tones

what

some

taught

one

thousand

ago.

There

who

he

writings teach,

Pharisees

the

doctor

years

of

sacred

the

tell what

may

are

Turkish

32

Indian

and

entertain
with

ardent

some

the

the
West

hope
and

admirers
Moslems
that

tact
con-

acquaint-

They

abolished,

be

set

in

and

when

shall

kneel

trammeled

Christian
at

the

in

is,the evils

so

notorious

Islam.
with
of

of
as

the

Slavery
their

truth

have
sanctioned

are

and

contempt

the

in Moslem

which

mentioned,

brace
em-

Such

The

Moslem.

been

loving

little of

the

and

un-

and

Seat.

Mercy

religionof
countries,

be

Moslem

understand

dreamers

when

shall

conscience

and

traffic

ended,

be

flesh

human

accursed

the

will

slaves

the

be
will

polygamy

when

and

free

reason

when

when
will

womanhood

dignity of
acknowledged,

the

be

for

millennium,

of Moslem

lead

religion.

looking

be

to

seem

kind

will

their

of

reformation

TURK.

THE

its civilization

with

ance

to

OF

RELIGION

THE

just
by

polygamy,
for

the

wail

degradation
continue
will
so
long
woman,
has
the
Quran
authority over
the

and

slave

minds

of

of

continue,

conscience

governed
so
long
3

No

men

enslavement

the

the

by
as

less

and

reason

in

countries

sovereigns,
authority of the

Moslem

the

shall

33

ISLAM

Uluma

receives

Moslem

tradition
of

consent

be

healed

and

"

trade.
of

grapes

thers.
fawill

of Moslem

power

shall

broken

be

and

Turk

only

shall

Arab

permitted to fill their


the
product of the
We
not
gather
may
thorns
nor
figs of

be

with

harems
slave

"

the

the

when

universal

the

sore

hunters

longer

no

and

of

Mohammedan

the

when

slave

sanction

the

Africa's

**

OR,

thistles."

We

of

faith

religious

which

based

is

and

the

system

practice

to

Moslem

faith of Islam

points, enumerated
following creed :
I

in

believe
in

the

the

in

in

God,

Books,

thorities
au-

includes

seven

"

dation.
foun-

this

upon

According

enter

to

of that

brief survey

upon

prepared

now

are

in

the

the

gels,
An-

tles,
Apos-

Day, in the
both
God
of Almighty
in
evil, and
respects good and
in

the

Resurrection
Faith

in

Last

after

God

as

the

death."

includes

belief in his existence


34

crees
De-

as

not
a

only

person-

especiallyin

God, but

al

Unity.
plurality of

not

deities, but

plurality

One

It

It is therefore

The

doctrine
of the

and

the

of
of

God

Wisdom,

the

and

life and

'*

appear
the

cover

Lord

and

of the

of

thunder

handful,
Mr.

created

the

proclaimeth
whole

and

the

Stanley

Lane

earth

heavens
Pool,

dawn

night

to

all-Powerful

Glorious

the

is

hands

the

Great

is,"

of the

the

causeth

heavens

hath

maketh

day, the

He

Lord

death, in whose
who

but

**

the

earth, who

dominion,

To

first of all

Power.

Infinite

are

ing,
Will, Hear-

Love,

or

worlds, the Author

of

God

of

is not

quote another,"^

the

Trinity

Speaking."

God

Moslem,

God

to

to

Incarnation

Power,
and

Seeing,

to

of

attributes

seven

Life, Wisdom,

pudiates
re-

in Christ.

God

"

God.

totally opposed

Christian

Unity

only

of incarnation.

idea

every

in

his absolute

It excludes

in the

of persons

the

TURK.

THE

OF

RELIGION

THE

Throne
his
is

shall

in Selections

Quran.
35

fection,
perhis
be
from

ISLAM

folded
And

in

together
with

the

OR,

his

right hand.
conceives

he

power

knowledge that directs it to


is the wise, the
God
right ends.
ing,
just,the true, the swift in reckonthe

knoweth

who
of

weight
each
fereth

So

of the

sense

that

reward

there

to

comes

indeed

to be

seems

of the

left

room

no

and

works

regard
pieces."

without
the

Still,on

the

to

recognition of

thougfh

the

indeed

God

board,
chess-

game

sacrifice

of

hand, there

is

the

other

"

his

out

so

minds

in the

the

and

ful
faith-

Almighty

majority of Moslems
plays with humanity as on
of

suf-

is the

creature,

that

pass

that

who

of the

power

will

for the

ill

of the

perish."
overwhelming

to

it

the

not

of

done, and

hath

man

and

good

's

ant

every

mercy

it must

be

of God,
conced-

chief

thought
is guided
Moslem
The
of Islam.
by love.
by fear,rather than drawn
is undoubtedly
of Islam
The
God
ed

the

that

true
-.6

this is not

God,

the

and

yet there

are

RELIGION

THE

OF

THE

TURK.

objections to the Moslem's


Not
conception of him.
only do
we
object to his rejection of the
alted
Trinity, but also to his having exall
God's
over
Omnipotence
other
attributes, to the lowering of
serious

his

for

character

holiness

ing
noth-

"

being said of God's holiness in


the Quran which
might not be said
his limiting the
of a holy man
; to
to
no
Moslems,
goodness of God
their

what

matter

hell

to

of

God's

cation

of

of God

lie,if it

in self-defense

word,

Quran.
separate

to

have

or

for

his limitation

by the sanctifionly be spoken


ment
advance-

the

for

It must

Islam.

forgotten that
not
merely the
the Quran, but
of the

the

atonement

any

finally, to

truth

in every

lievers
unbe-

sacrifice

his

fire ; to

for

of the

of

of

justice by denying

necessity
sin ; and,

infants

the

even

egating
rel-

character,

the

of Islam

God

described

Allah
the

be

not

who

God

is
in

speaks

syllable, and

letter

We

fore
there-

what

must
we

special reference

not

conceive
to
37

God

ISLAM

in

conceive

for the

private

the

but

we

must

into

by

Mohammed

have

just

furtherance

of

med
Moham-

would

we

of

Islam

under
Let

by

no

the

this be
what

that

appear
is

all that

account

said

get

of

Allah

Quran.

it will

done, and
we

the

of the

sanction

by

mouthpiece

take

done

was

of

idea

may

used

Islam,

to

Divinity. If, then,


correct

we

politicalpurposes;

or

according
was

what
been

have

to

Mohammed

for,

OR,

teaching"from

its

his

means

unduly severe.
the subject of the Books
On
ognized
recnote
as
we
by Moslems,
faith
in
their
of special interest
of
volumes
vealed
inspiration, re104
time
from
to time
through
ing
of the prophets, closthe
medium
Of these
it is
the Quran.
with
said 100 are
:
no
longer in existence
extravagant,

these

are

or

the
and

Seth, Enoch
still

four

of
the

David,
the

Quran
38

Adam,
The

Abraham.

extant

are

Moses,

the

Gospel
of

of

books

of

Mohammed.

the

teuch
Pentaof

Psalms

Jesus,

and

These

RELIGION

THE

OF

THE

TURK.

all

recognized by the Quran as


the word
of God
given for a light
in the way
of salvation.
to guide men
Nevertheless,
as
already
Moslems
stated, modern
regard
all these, excepting the Quran, as
When
having been
corrupted.
are

therefore

Moslem

in the

Jewish
he

contained

Christian

only

means

books

books

and

were

to

he

says

in the

Scriptures,

declare

that

delivered

once

lieves
be-

to

such
the

so
corrupted
prophets,though now
as
no
dence
longer to be worthy of creexcepting in so far as they
confirmed
are
by the Quran.
In regard to the prophets, Moslems

believe
are

however

names

in
no

more

given

are

There

144,000.

than
in

28 whose

the

Quran.

their
belief
in
They also declare
315 apostlesor prophets sent with
Nine
some
were
special message.
exalted
the position of leaders
to
in the ushering in of new
sations
dispenthese
were
styled
; six of
the

Nabi

Adam,

ul

Noah,

Azim.

These

Abraham,

are

Moses,
39

ISLAM

and

Jesus
these

is

Mohammed.

Each

distinguished by

title ; thus, Adam

God,

OR,

Noah

is the

the

Abraham

the

Speaker with
Spiritof God, and
Apostle of God.

the
the

and

God,

God,

ses
Mo-

Jesus

Mohammed
A

striking

is that, while

belief

popular

sinless, yet, in

with

Quran

of

of

God,

fact in this connection

according to
prophets were

Chosen

of

the

special

Prophet

Friend

of

all
cordance
ac-

the

teaching of the
Traditions, Jesus

the

is the

only sinless prophet of Islam.


Of
other
prophets it is said in the
Quran either that they confessed
and
repented of their sins or that
God

laid

certain

same
charge. The
of the teaching of
especially true in

repent

of

who

is

his

sins

sins

thing
the
the

their

to

is true

Traditions
case

of

"

hammed,
Mo-

commanded
and

who

to

is said

professed his penitence


seventy times in a singleday. But
of Jesus, nowhere
is there
line
a
have

to

or

ever

hint

of

any

chargeable
40

kind

that

with

sin.

He
He

was

Is

RELIGION

THE

the

OF

THE

sinless

only

TURK.

prophet

of

Islam.
is

There
that

however
itself

impresses

than

of

that

more

mind

the

upon

the

doctrine

no

fully
power-

of

Moslems

Resurrection

and

Judgment Day. To them


is the great day of assizes.
The
the

will however
in

be

duration.

at least

Its

this

day

i,ooo

years
will be

approach

by many
signs : the faith
wickedness
decay among
men,
corruption will be rampant, the

marked
will
and

meanest
to

tumults

and
in the

rise

the

arise

the

horns

of

head

tail of
and

time

the
the

of
of

back

of

legs

of

of

an

Antichrist

of

neck

tiger,the
voice

appear

eye

elephant,the

an

of

the

shall

bull, the

stag, the

ram,

"

Makkah,

breast

ostrich, the
of

ears

shall

sun

earth, and
of

be

and

wars

beast

"

shall

the

holy temple

having the
of a hog, the

color

world

west,

of

out

the

advanced

seditions,

distress
in

be

dignity,there

eminent

in

shall

persons

ass.

an

lion, the

cat, the

camel,

About

shall

this

appear.
41

ISLAM

"

Infidel
will

he

written

and

shall

continue

whole

the

on

months, conquering

heaven

religion of

the

or

forehead,

devastating until
by Jesus, who
from

the

Kafir

his

on

for fourteen

earth

word

Syria riding on
followed
by 70,000

ass,

and

Jews,

OR,

in

appear

white

the

with

One-eyed,
**

stroyed
de-

shall

scend
de-

throughout

Then

world.

be

establish

and

Islam

he

the

Mahdi

shall

appear.
These
with

lous
marvel-

other

many

signs shall portend the near


Day when
approach of the Awful
the first blast of the angel trump
shall strike
and

heaven

earth.

in

the

universe.

pet
trum-

himself

from

restore

begin.

at the

tread
of his

wicked
42

the

judgment

shall every

Then

suffered

master

the

third

angel, now
the dead, will

all to life,when

form

blast

creature

every
The

in

blast of the

raised

has

second

death

will visit with

heart

to every

terror

upon

hands
the

persecutor.
be

brought

beast
of

will
that
cruel

prostrate
Then
forth

shall
with

THE

RELIGION

blackened
form
of

OF

THE

TURK.

faces, backbiters

of

in

tyrants

apes,

in
the

form

swine, hypocrites gnawing

tongues,
clad

to

proud

in

garments

These

pitch.

shall

over

pass

and

the

that

their

ous
vainglori-

daubed

with

all be

bridge
slipoff

the

obliged
narrow

so

it into the
they shall
of hell underneath.
gaping vortex
The
to
are
we
righteous,by which

understand
and

age

brought
bright
seated

faithful

the

of

shall

dispensation,
forth
and

in

white

on

with

saddles

shall

be

opened

into

which

where,
with

of

silk and

camels
them

dise,
gates of Para-

they

seated

in

garments,

winged
gold. To

the

be

clad

honor,

beautiful

every

will
on

be

sofas

ered,
ushnished
gar-

precious stones,

in the
they shall sport themselves
companionship of the black-eyed
cious
girls of Paradise, eating the lusfruits of Eden, drinking the
KautJiar
of
oi Al
out
spicy waters
vessels
of gold.
It

the

was

this vision

fierySaracen

to

which

enabled

rush

to certain
43

ISLAM

exultant

in the

death

the

recruits

of the

warfare

against

while

death

in

passport

We

of

is

There

formula

least

is

Moslem
under

five heads

ance
observ-

Kalima,

fasting,
age
pilgrim-

once

heart

presence

is meant

Kalima

the

formula

La

ilah illil-

i. e.,
riisiiliillaJi;

god but Allah, and


is the apostleof Allah."
be repeated at
must

no

Mohammed
This

merit,

brieflythe
religion.

MoJianiviediir

wa

them

Paradise.

of the

By reading
repeating the
"

cause

prayers,
legal alms, and

of

Gha-

Makkah.

to

lah

such

stated

of

giving

is

up

reading

To

infidels

the

It is summed

which

the fanatical

or

notice

must

now

practice
the

to

tyrdom.
mar-

of the

Soudan.

Darwesh

of

hope
hope

ranks

Afghanistan

zies of

sure

this

is

It
ever

OR,

death, with

before
and

loud

cere
sin-

voice, in the

of witnesses.

duty of prayer requires the


of five daily
punctiliousobservance
stated prayers.
ing,
Early in the mornThe

at the
44

very

first streak

of dawn,

RELIGION

THE

Muazzin's

the

next

o'clock

in the

closed

be said

in

the

They

fourth

may

should

language,

for

that

purpose.
and

erally
genthe

wherever

be at the

and

assemble

should

men

night

prayers

Arabic

offered

are,

It is

fifth when

be, however,

may

at

afternoon, the

Mosque

Moslem

offered

three

at

in. These

if possiblethe

The

about

the

in the

announce

be

third

the

sunset, and

has

TURK.

first prayer.

must

prayer

midday,

THE

call will

for the

time

the

at

OF

hour.

prayer

to witness
impressive scene
Moslems
as
they drop their implements
of daily labor
and
either in
companies or alone spread a sheet
the ground
and
proceed to
upon
an

their

say
the

roadside

no

matter

whom
his
faith

It may

prayers.
or

at

where,

railroad
no

be

station,

matter

surrounded, the Moslem


prayers.
is clear

His

witness

on

by
says

for

and

his

unequivocal. He
On
glories in his faith.
Friday
Moslems
assemble
punctiliouslyat
the Mosque, where
special prayers
suited to this holy day are
offered.
45

ISLAM

Sometimes

the

by
Prayers
their

the

entire

obliged

or

panied
accom-

sermon.

faithful

of

fasting

the

fast of

sacred

is

return

to

occupations.

to

is

service

the

over,

duty

This

OR,

discourse

usual

The

fast

sunset.

No

of water

may

Ramadhan.

month.

month

to

relates particularly

During

the
from

morsel
pass

Moslem
sunrise

of food
his

is
until

drop
lips during
or

the

in
day. This in hot climates
the long days of summer
is a serious
trial.
Many lose their health and
their
lives through the rigor
some
of

this

fast.

The

sick

weakly are exempted on


they fast an equal number
time.
at another
During
the
as

Moslem
much

is free to eat
as

minded,
of

this fast

he

pleases.

and

condition
of
the
and

The

if sick, escape

the

the

days
night
drink

ly
world-

rigor

of
by turning as much
the day into the night as possible.
Almsgiving (Zakat) is a kind of
legal tax, corresponding in some
the
tithe of Judaism.
to
measure
It is assessed
variously according
46

THE

RELIGION

the

to

to

of his

spent

in

the

not

be inferred

total of

of

the

Turks

and

and

the

and

gold

into

the

are

erous
genand

poor

gers.
stran-

between

war

India

the

ted
contribu-

relief of the
their

among

city the

one

off their

took

their

Russians

wounded

even

sum

To

and

for the

In
co-religionists.

of

the

late

of

large sums

It must

charity.
said they

travelers

Mohammedans

sick

this is the

the

silver

men
wo-

ornaments

and

contribution

is

religionand

that

to

per

and

poor.

be

hospitable to
During

half

one

of

kind

and

giver.

the

Moslem

it must

the

income,

or

cause

support

TURK.

of

and

two

gains

the

credit

THE

employment

It amounts
cent,

OF

them

put

plate.

The

pilgrimage to Makkah, like


the duty of prayer
and
fasting and
almsgiving, is enjoined by the
ed
teaching of the Quran and sanctionby the example of the prophet.
health
and
with
Every Moslem
wealth

sufficient

perforrQ
must

the
do

to

enable

pilgrimage
so

at

least

him
to

to

kah
Makin his

once

47

ISLAM;
lifetime.
the

The

Hajj

of Arab

OR,

rites connected

Pilgrimage

or

heathenism,

with

are

but

relic

purged

are

of all idolatrous

sentiments.

rite which

nearly approaches
is that of kissing

the

to

most

idolatrous

the

Black

Stone

the

Kaabah,

Makkah.

in

conversion

his

addressed
I

kiss

not

thus

thou

good

if it

art

kiss thee

harm

or

that

not

was

I would

thee."

of

duties

was

no

prophet

addition

In

of

dost

lam,
Is-

to

stone

that

world, and
the

saw

this

know

thou

of

one

Caliph Omar,
performed the pilgrimage

after

"Verily

in

at

that the

first he

in the

temple

It is recorded

when

of

corner

sacred

or

the traditions

stone

the

The

to

Islam

we

these

practical
add

may

that

This
Jahad, or Crusade.
duty
hammed.
recognized in the days of MoIndeed

it

the

to

was

performance of it that the mission


its success.
of
the
prophet owes
lam,
According to the teaching of Iseverv

self

ready
48

Moslem
to

fight

must

in

hold
the

him-

Way

of

THE

RELIGION

God.
in

This

of

the

their

under

that

of

nation

this

It is under
that

shelter

Arab

their
and

work

Turks

Christians
The

always
assault

unbelievers.

of this

principle
practise

in Central

ca
Afri-

ruthlesslyslaughter

in Armenia.
atrocities

recent

Turks

of

slave-hunters

bloody

to

doctrine

libertyto

tribe

or

view

have
at

war

extirpation. It

or

Mohammedans

any

make

to

with

shelter

fight

to

faith, or, under

infidels

felt themselves

by

the

conversion

TURK.

means

guidance,

competent
upon

THE

either

defence

is

OF

and

Kurds

perpetrated
in

Armenia

striking illustration
of the
terrible cruelty and
ish
fiendoutrage and
slaughter which
a jahad
always ensue
or
sade
cruupon
in the name
of religion. That
to

present

the

us

in

massacres

prompted
emanated

by
from
and

religious

zeal

Sultan

his

advisers

The

from

statement

at

following

official who
4

were

the

certain.
the

Armenia

of
made

and
stantinople
Con-

seems

extract

medan
Moham-

a
a

careful
49

ISLAM

inquiry as
of the

the

to

extent

Harpoot, Arabfirms
places, fully con-

other

this

and

causes

at

massacres

kir, and

OR,

view

of Armenians
petition in behalf
in
was
given to the powers
the hope of improving
their condition.
An
was
imperial firman
issued for carrying out the reforms
On
this
suggested by the powers.
the
Turkish
account
population
much
excited
was
by the thought
that an
Armenian
principalitywas
be
to
established, and they began
"

to

show

hostilities

great

obedient

to

had

lived

than

six

hundred

to

and

them

they

their

had

who

Armenians,

poor

evil

for

years.

In

tion
addi-

added

the

was

of

name

the
with

the

undertaken,

intent

Turks

ment,
govern-

the

reforms

whole

ish
Turkto

obliteratingthe
and

the

neighboring
50

more

the

aroused

was

of

whom

in peace

anger

population

been

with

permission and help of


by which, before
were

the

to

then

the
menian
Ar-

behold

district, joining
Kurdish

tribes

THE

by

RELIGION

the

allowed

are

and

army,

in

TURK.

THE

thousand, armed

which

the

OF

with

the
of

guidance
an

ons
weap-

only

to

help

and

Turkish

the

under

officials,

and

manner

open

with

in

the

daytime, attacking the Armenian


houses, shops, stores, monasteries,
churches

and

schools, and

fearful
""

After

they

atrocities.

burned

schools

burn

Some

with

they

which

worship, and

the

were

converted

devoted
books

small

even

Moslems
turbans

by

sacred

the

on

hair

of

the

that

of

the

made
prayers.

children

them

tians
Chris-

Besides
and
made

were

and

men

in

Moslem

Married

into

They put

women

go

ways.

to

in

force.

could

Moslem

to

pieces.
this, priests,laymen, women
torn

were

white

cut

the

bangs

like
and

women,

through
women

had

large

they
in other

and

kets
mar-

they

ruined

churches

mosques

and

petroleum
them, and

churches

stone
not

the

places

es,
houses, church-

many

monasteries,

brought

these

plundering

with

ting
commit-

Moslem
and
51

girls

ISLAM

OR,

defiled,against the sacred

were

and

some

and

are

married

were

houses.

koosh

many

taken

to

Arabkir
and

soldiers'

the

Many,
threw

dishonor,
suicide

influence

in

writer

few

Men

complacency."
passed since
massacres.

has

voiced

We

word
Moslem
52

"

is

war

ence
indiffer-

revolt

to

view

at

intelligence
these

Many
the

deeds
months

Christian

horrified

was

them.

holy

of

with

nation

*'

of culture

people everywhere.

education

these

ways."

of

and

world

into
ted
commit-

some

seemed

deeds.

have

such

*'

Moslems

such

escape

The
strange
says,
it all is that
very

about

thing

and

cold-blooded

of Moslem
The

girlswere

of centuries

kind

the

Choon-

barracks
to

and

in other

in this

Seve-

themselves

Euphrates,

seen

Turkish

and

women

dishonored.

The

in

Especially in Talu,

rek, Malatia,

the

force

by

still detained

law,

have
of

by the first of
Every Christian
its protest against
yet

to

hear

disapproval
people on earth.

from

gle
sinany

THE

RELIGION

This

has

certain

been

ever

missionary

of Moslem

missions
fairness

to

and

the

of their

results

Such,
Islam,

work.

Like

Shiahs

of

customs

been

have
of

divisions

no

have

been

the

Sunni

from

the

and

was

The

should
of
claimed

be

Shiah

earliest
to

the

AH,

years

dispute

Caliph

Mohammed.
that

trinal
doc-

great

and

due

less

ical
polit-

character, others

of

its

Some

Moslems.

philosophical.

dates

religion
by the

Christianityit has
and
esies.
herby schisms

50 sects

in their

other

influenced
and

of

religion

every

been

There

successor

moral

the

its fundamental

divided

who

by

in

votaries.

of Islam

used

means

least

life

schism

fully
care-

the

national

or

all

is

at

of these

in

then,

it has

tian
Chris-

then

and

principles. Like

to

When

ought

compare

missionaries

these

sects

favorite

and

they

catalogue

than

the

of Islam.

agency

success

been

TURK.

tute
instiapologists for Islam
the relative
comparison between

as

THE

OF

or

The
the
53

hus-

ISLAM;

band

of

OR,

Mohammed's

Fatima,

have
been
the
daughter, should
first Caliph.
ject
reThey therefore
Abu
and
Othman,
Baqr, Omar
the first three
caliphs,as usurpers.
This
led to
has
politicaldivision
The
division
bloody wars.
many
between
Persia
and
Turkey is yet
and
wide
a
as
impassable stream.
A

modern

influence

of

sect

in

considerable

Arabia

and

and

reform

bring
purity.

to

back

have

who

that of the Wahabbis,


to

India

deavored
en-

abuses

many

to its

Islam

is

inal
orig-

The

politicalpower
of this sect was
broken
by the late
Mohammed
Ali of Egypt.
has
On theologicalgrounds Islam
had

many

believe
the

that

various

The

sects.

God

was

Imaums

or

all

dispensations down

of

Ali, who

was

the

Ali-IUahis
incarnate

in

Leaders

in

to

unitarianism

sect, the
54

of

the

how
of

upon

Islam.

time
It is

last.

notice
interesting to
of
incarnation
thought
godhead forced itself in
bold

the

the
the
other
An-

Mushabiites, taught

RELIGION

THE

that

possessed a

God

held

Still another
God

of

body

yet it

was

ites, who

which

rationalistic
has

sect

under
Amir

to

liberal

the

This

of Islam.

revived

India

in

leadership

sulted
re-

Mutazal-

the

called

sect

been
the

led

heresies,

be

may

butes
attri-

the

to

as

rise of

the

in

or

body.

aforementioned

the

the

in outline

luminary

divinity,

of

form.

though

human

was

TURK.

human

that

discussion

The

THE

OF

of

Sayed

of Calcutta.

Ali

of

Sufis

endeavor

mystics
pantheisticphilosophy and
to explain the
Quran in

accord

with

The

sect

adopt

orthodox
on

the

the

it.

hand, and

one

The

the Moslem

moment

to

the

evano^elization.
of
most

is

blind

atheism,

to

influence

heterodox
upon

result

The

an

highly spiritual
worship,

amounting
other.

or

ism,
fatalon

of these

schools

of

mind

is of

cause

These

of

the
ous
vari-

thought
small

no

Christian
elements

Moslem

the
nationality afford
ary
hopeful subjects of mission-

endeavor.

When,

therefore,
55

ISLAM

it becomes

loses, so

OR,

subject

to

India

and

in

as

power,

Christian

Egypt, it
right arm.*

speak, its
On
its theological side
Islam
is
ture
literasupported by an extensive
and
logical
a
regular system of theoto

instruction.

this, thousands

of

intellectual
whole

addition
of

men

no

Vast

institutions

been

their

spend
study and

in its

to

mean

calibre

lives

have

In

gation.
propa-

of learning

established, and

are

still

supported by the generosity


cate
eduprinces and kings, which
Moslem
ing
allowyouths without

of

them
*

to

notion

The

of

of

The

entirely

dinate
subor-

religion.

The

lawful

rulers

of his

subjects

to

therefore

of

bound

These

war.

by
Moslem

all

our

the

facts

call
cannot

statesmen

problem.

56

at

once

of
be
in

too

their

giance
alle-

government.
faithful

He
the

will, and
owes

and

Islam.

orthodox

obey

to

be

if he

Moslem

kill fourteen

may

Moslem

dominion

Christian

follower

The

than

other

no

day,

every

question.

cannot

of

king

knowledge
ac-

Constantinople.

at

kings, who

of

is

who

Moslems,

are

hierarchy

Sultan

that without

He

is

earthly kingdoms
the

other

any

patriotism

of

that

to

under

come

consistent
is

Caliph
well

ject
sub-

always
to

holy

ed
consider-

study

of the

RELIGION

THE

OF

THE

TURK.

Such
a
religiousinfluences.
ion,
religholding sway over
one-eighth
of the population of the globe, second
ical
only to Christianityin numerthe
strength among
religions
of the world, occupying the chief
of influence

centres

in the

world, commands

spiteof

its

forces

it

that
the

it

in

thought

of

Moslems

of

then

little

with

sions
mis-

our

and

Jews, our
America
have
hardly
to
a
special mission

True

it is that

men

are

India, Egypt, and Turkey


in the providence
Persia, who
to

God

led

are

speciallyto
yet the

churches

of missions
very
heathen
not

already said,
our
ligion.
holy reseem

Mormons

churches

and

of

that, what

to

sent

have

we

conviction

the

us

it not

strange

while

appalling errors,

principal rival

Does

respect, in

our

upon

is,as

Eastern

devote

the

Moslems;

and
to

seem

much

to

as

elsewhere.

enough.

It is

of

think
do

But

only

and

boards

even

they

selves
them-

lems
Mos-

of

the

this

reasonable
57

is

ISLAM

require

to

their

work

such
shall

as

sent

to

preparation for
enable

understand

least

at

of missionaries

lands

Moslem

OR,

the

them

to

thoughts

and

of
feelings of these followers
the false prophet, and
be able to
so
direct
them
intelligently to the
of that
truth
is attested
gospel which
by the Quran, and to the
Saviour

claims

of

Sinless

Prophet
they confess

whom

in

that

do

disparaging

as

for

Moslems.

would
and
for

men

The

What

alted
ex-

is

the

to

true

earth.

the

understood

has

been

missions

done
among

vocate
only desire to adimprovement of method.
ough
thorplead for a more
systematic training of

work

among

dans
Mohamme-

everywhere.
question is sometimes
is the

influence

upon
of

now

who

to be

what

and

We

an

We

and

upon

of

work

the

be

to

wish

not

is the

Islam,

establish

come

We

of

heaven,

again to
religionof God

who

Moslems?

58

the
In

asked,

of

medanism
Moham-

moral

ter
charac-

reply

to

this

RELIGION

THE

OF

question,it

must

wherever

brings

it

TURK.

THE

be

admitted
its

to

that

allegiance

people,
grossly idolatrous
if they be fetish or devil
raise

it does

abolished

are

obliterated
enforced

in

State

toms,
cus-

immoral,

and

certain

fixed

respect

to

are

rules

are

society and

and

thieves

moral

idolatrous

degrading

shippers,
wor-

cide
infanti-

and

Cannibalism

status.

the

their

cially
espe-

murderers

severely punished ; the use of


minished
is greatly diintoxicating drinks
if not absolutelyprevented
are

children
and

extent

of
ideas

of
are

of
and

trained
the

yet there

is

in morals

limit
a

shippers
wor-

certain

and

tion
devo-

the

so

greatly

some

the

God

true

is

to

as

up

honor, courage
inculcated, and

morality

progress

educated

are

scale

advanced
to

long

Moslem
way

this

ethics.
goal of Christian
The
permissions of the Quran in
respect to polygamy, concubinage
side

the

and

divorce, the
and

Mohammed

sanction

of

very
sla-

holy war, the example of


himself, the adoption
59

ISLAM

of

OR,

the

principle that the end justifies


the
means
ting
thereby consecraform
of deception and
every
of
sort
persecution
lying, every
and
violence
of religto the cause
ion
these
things effectuallyblock
"

"

the

wheels

of

in

progress

ethical

nations
spheres, so that Moslem
reached
the
have
even
hardly ever
planes of moral purity occupied by
the most
tions.
degenerate Christian naThe

immoral

Christian

of his

be

may

between

and

Christian

Moslem
the

difference

thus

the

the

Moslem

60

his

in

spite
is immoral

religion. It
is, indeed, chiefly owing to this
that Moslem
cause
empires are not
enduring. The social and national
ease,
life is undermined
by a fatal dislike
which,
leprosy, festers
be
and
rots, though the life may
long continued.
Another
question has been asked ;
has accomIslam
plished
namely, whether
Aside
good to the world.
that the
from
the a priori argument
because

of

al
immor-

described

is immoral

religion;

the

RELIGION

THE

Lord, who
and

OF

has

THE

all power

earth, overrules

good

his

to

history of
while

ruin

world

will

of

of

instrument
deal

think

the

show

has

that,

world.

has

and

of it.

made

been

of
been

ever

in the

idolaters

to

has

advancement

She

scourge

terial
ma-

accomplishing a
the
spiritual

towards

intellectual

out

for

wrought the
people she
every

the

the

things

has

she

and

all
we

conquered, yet
good

in heaven

church,

the

Islam

TURK.

has

She

church

borne

ness
wit-

in
living,personal God
of generations of heathens,
the midst
their
moulding
language
and thought in monotheistic
forms,
of
breaking up powerful systems
to

heathenism,

and
the

preparing
Thus

has

she

how

of

been

the

of

the

Islam
hand

Turk
has

of

at

been
the

to

Lord.
to

Every

history

success

sense

by God

purposes.

due

was

the

used

church

much

in

of

way

his

accomplish
reader

thus

of
the

knows

the

ormation
Ref-

presence

Constantinople.
hammer

Almighty

in
wherewith
6i

the

ISLAM

he

has

smitten

work

to

The

and

Their

lost
be

to

subjection

have

the

of

Christian

to

secute
per-

ably
consider-

Almost

Moslems

without

fear.

one-half

the

world

rule.

are

Among

in

faith

of bastinado

profess

to

fear

Not

only so,
being honeycombed
have
which
greatly

is

its hold
What

upon

with
in

Wahabbiism
Ahmadism

choose

without

death.

influences

weakened

free

are

Christ

or

Lslam

who

Those

Islam

abjure

their

by

and

gospel is preached by
of Christ
peaceful messengers

the

but

powers.

the

them

to

their

destroy
already been

under

now

by the
prestige
to speedy-

doomed

curtailed.
of

ruled

to

has

plished.
accom-

Christian

to

power

That

been

nations

have

seem

OR,

his enemies.

seems

Moslems

in

its

own

Babism

herents.
ad-

in Persia,

Arabia,

India, Mahdiism

Syedin

Central
Africa, Islam
Egypt and
sions.
dissenis sorely rent
by internal
Not
least important is the
influence

of

through
62

Protestant
its missions

ity
Christianand

edu-

RELIGION

THE

In

institutions.

cational

Word

unable

though

profession of
have

of

and

in

the

the

many

learned
in

ministers

the
of

votaries

ing
already workand
our
hope is
mass,
the
speedily leaven
is

leaven

in this

whole

the

of

and

schools

once

The

it

that

Moslem

Many

eloquent

were

Islam.

of

educated

schools.

native

church

that

of

being

most

the

India

into

received

in these

the

In

followers

of the

are

teachers

public

faith.

Thousands

Christian

of

make

their

been

church.

youths

believe,

publicly abjured

and

faith

Some

to

hundreds

many
Islam

many

studying

are

God.

of

Syria,

Persia

Turkey, Egypt and


thoughtful Moslems
the

TURK.

THE

OF

may

lump.

The
that

have

Moslems

tradition

when

Masih-ud-Dajjal,
Antichrist, shall sorely press
Moslems

"

will

Mary,
Imaum,
when

all

begin,

will
or

on

and

come

to

of

Son

and

act

as

And

them.

enemy

the

ers
pray-

Jesus,

down

Leader,

Dajjal, this

sudden

the

of

63

God,

ISLAM.

Jesus, he will fear to be


like salt in
dissolving away
near,
And
if Jesus lets
him
water.
alone, verily he will melt and perish,
will kill him
and
God
by the
of Jesus." Let
hand
us
hope the
Jesus
day is not far distant when
shall

see

indeed

shall

forces

**

the

of Antichrist

salt in water

sword

of his

brightness of

64

his

Leader

the
and

multitudes,

these

like

become

of
the

that

melt

shall

away

perish before
the
Spirit and
coming."

and

"

''