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UNIFORM

- I|I|+ →

CONVENTIONAL CURRENT pos → neg

Type equation here.

Electrons 𝑱𝒖𝒏𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏

𝑳𝒂𝒘
𝑰𝟏

= 𝑰𝟐 + 𝑰𝟑

INDUCTION 𝑹𝑬𝑺𝑰𝑺𝑻𝑶𝑹𝑺

𝑰𝑵 𝑺𝑬𝑹𝑰𝑬𝑺 𝑅𝑇

= 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 + 𝑅3 + 𝑅4 . . 𝐞

= −𝟏. 𝟔 × 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟗 𝐜oloumbs (c)
𝐞

= 𝟗. 𝟏𝟏 × 𝟏𝟎−𝟑𝟏 𝐊𝐠
𝐄

𝐕𝐦 −𝟏 = 𝟏

𝐜𝐨𝐥𝐨𝐮𝐦𝐛 = 𝟔. 𝟐𝟓 × 𝟏𝟎𝟏𝟖 𝐞 𝐕

= 𝐄𝐝 =
𝐤𝐐𝟏

𝐐𝟐

= qE 𝐝𝟐

Coulombs Law 𝐅𝐞

=

**Fe= force between the 2 objects
**

K= constant= 𝟗 × 𝟏𝟎𝟗
𝑵𝒎
𝒄𝟐
𝑸𝟏

&𝑸𝟐 =charge of object 1 & 2 (C) 𝐅𝐞

=

1 𝑅𝑇 𝐰 𝐪 𝐤𝐐𝟏

𝐐𝟐

= 𝐪𝐄
𝐝𝟐
𝐚

= 𝐝 𝐯

Lower Resistance = Thicker Filament 𝟏 𝐬

= 𝐮𝐭 + 𝟐𝐚𝐭 𝟐 𝟐𝐪𝐄𝐬

= 𝐦 𝟐𝐅𝐞

𝐬 𝐦 𝐏𝐎𝐖𝐄𝐑

(𝐖𝐚𝐭𝐭𝐬) 𝐑𝐚𝐭𝐞 𝐨𝐟 𝐞𝐧𝐞𝐫𝐠𝐲 𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐧𝐬𝐟𝐞𝐫
𝐏

=
𝐄

nergy(𝐰) 𝐪𝐕 𝐕𝟐

=

= 𝐈𝐕 =

= 𝐈𝟐 𝐑
𝐭
𝐭
𝐑
𝐑

= 𝐏

𝐪𝐕 𝐕 𝟐 𝐕 𝟐 𝐭 𝐰 𝐕𝐭 𝐕

=

=

=

= 𝟐=

=
𝐈

𝟐 𝐭𝐈 𝟐
𝐏
𝐰
𝐭𝐈
𝐪
𝐈
𝐈

= 𝐏

𝐰 𝐪 𝐂 𝐏 𝐪𝐕

𝐕

=

= = =±
𝐨𝐫

=
𝐕

𝐭𝐕 𝐭 𝐬
𝐑
𝐭𝐑

𝐑 𝐅𝐞

= 𝐄𝐪 = 𝐅𝐰 = 𝐦𝐠 𝐦𝐠 𝐄

ELECTRON GUN 𝐅𝐞 𝐪

= 𝐤𝐐 𝐝𝟐

= 𝐍 𝐂 𝐕 𝑎𝑙𝑠𝑜

𝐄 = 𝐕 𝐦 = 𝐝 𝐅𝐞

= 𝐪𝐄

−𝟏
𝐄

**= electric field strength (𝐍/𝐜)(𝐍𝐂 )(𝐕 𝐦)
**

In the same direction as Fe if Q is positive

Electric Potential near point charge Q
𝐤𝐐
𝐝𝟏
𝐕𝟐

=

Potential V of surface of a sphere 𝐤𝐐 𝐝𝟐

V=

kQ

r

**ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE
**

(Work (Joules) needed to move charge between 2 points
𝐰
𝐉

oules 𝐍𝐦

∆𝐕 = =

=

= 𝑽𝟐 − 𝑽𝟏 = 𝐄𝐝
𝐪

𝐂oloumb
𝐂
𝐕

𝐍 𝐇𝐄𝐍𝐂𝐄

= =𝐄
𝐦

𝐂
𝟏
𝐄𝐍𝐄𝐑𝐆𝐘

𝐌𝐄𝐓𝐇𝐎𝐃 𝐖 = 𝐪𝐕 = 𝐪𝐄𝐝 = 𝐦𝐯 𝟐 𝟐 𝐈

= 𝐕 𝐑 𝐕

= 𝟐

× 𝐪𝐞 × 𝐕 𝐦 𝐪

= = 𝐧𝐪𝐯 𝐭 𝐏𝐨𝐰𝐞𝐫

𝐢𝐧
𝐏𝐨𝐰𝐞𝐫

𝐨𝐮𝐭

× 𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝐕

𝐕𝐭 𝐕

=

=
𝐈
𝐪
𝐧𝐪𝐯
𝐈

= Electric current (𝐀𝐦𝐩𝐬)

(rate of flow of charges with time)

R= Resistance of wire (Ohms)(Ω)=(Volt/amp)

Dependant on temperature T ↑ R ↑
𝐕

= 𝐄𝐌𝐅 voltage − the force moving e (𝐕) (𝐉/𝐜)
𝐯

= e drift velocity (𝐦 𝐬)
𝒏

= 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑒

R∝L
𝐕𝟐𝐭
𝟏

= 𝐈 𝟐 𝐑𝐭 = 𝐏𝐭 = 𝐈𝐕𝐭 = 𝟐𝐦𝐯 𝟐 𝐑 𝐄𝐟𝐟𝐢𝐜𝐢𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐲

= 𝐪𝐑 𝐕

= 𝐈𝐑 =

= 𝐧𝐪𝐯𝐑 = 𝐄𝐌𝐅
𝐭
𝐑

= 𝐏

𝐏𝐭 𝐰 𝐰 𝐉 𝐍𝐦 𝐪𝐑

=

= = = =

= ± 𝐑𝐏 =

= 𝐈𝐑
𝐈
𝐪
𝐭𝐈

𝐪 𝐂 𝐂 𝐭 𝐖

= 𝐪𝐕 =

FOR A PARTICULAR METAL 𝐕𝟏

= 𝐦𝐯

𝟐
𝐪𝐞

× 𝐕 =

⟹𝐯=
𝟐

Ohm’s Law 𝐄

=

3 𝑽

= 𝑽𝟏 + 𝑽𝟐 + 𝑽𝟑 𝐅𝐞

𝐪𝐄

=
𝐦

𝐦

MILIKANS LAW (in suspension) 𝐪

=

1

2 𝑽

− 𝑽𝟏 + 𝑽𝟐 + 𝑽𝟑 = 𝟎 𝟐 𝒗

= 𝟐𝒂𝒔 =

1

1 𝐋𝐨𝐨𝐩

𝐋𝐚𝐰 𝐅𝐎𝐑𝐂𝐄

𝐌𝐄𝐓𝐇𝐎𝐃

**Electric Field Strength
**

Force per coloumb exerted on a test charge at that

point

1

= 𝑅 + 𝑅 + 𝑅 +. . 𝐰

= 𝐪𝐞𝐝 𝐯

𝟐 = 𝐮𝟐 + 𝟐𝐚𝐬 𝐭 = 𝐒𝐮𝐫𝐟𝐚𝐜𝐞

𝐀𝐫𝐞𝐚 𝐨𝐟 𝐚 𝐬𝐩𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐞 = 𝟒𝛑𝐫 𝑹𝑬𝑺𝑰𝑺𝑻𝑶𝑹𝑺

𝑰𝑵 𝑷𝑨𝑹𝑨𝑳𝑳𝑬𝑳 𝐕𝐨𝐥𝐭𝐬 𝐕

𝐅𝐞 𝐤𝐐

= = = 𝟐
𝐦𝐞𝐭𝐫𝐞

𝐝 𝐪
𝐝
𝐈𝐌

≤ 𝐟𝐬𝐝

R S = Shunt resistor (𝐋𝐎𝐖 𝐑)

IS × R s = IM × R M
𝐼𝑡𝑜𝑡

= 𝐼𝑆 + 𝐼𝑀

I ×R M

L

R∝

A
𝐋
𝐑

=𝐩 𝐀

RS = I M

tot −I M 𝐩

= Resistivity of wire (Ω/𝐦)
𝐋

= Length of wire
𝐀

= cross sectional area = 𝝅𝒓𝟐
𝐯

= 𝟐𝐪𝐕 𝐦 𝑽 𝑰

=𝑹

R s = series resistor (𝐇𝐈𝐆𝐇 𝐑)
𝑉

= 𝐼𝑀 × (𝑅𝑆 + 𝑅𝑀 )

CURRENT CARRYING WIRE IN A MAGNETIC FIELD

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

Potential difference (∆𝐕) (𝐄𝐌𝐅)

induced across a conductor in or moving thru a

magnetic field B
𝑷𝑨𝑹𝑨𝑳𝑳𝑬𝑳

𝑪𝑶𝑵𝑫𝑼𝑪𝑻𝑶𝑹𝑺 𝑪𝑨𝑹𝑹𝒀𝑰𝑵𝑮 𝑨 𝑪𝑼𝑹𝑹𝑬𝑵𝑻

A

B 𝐅𝐁

= 𝐤

′𝐈𝟏 𝐈𝟐𝐋 𝐝 𝐈𝟏

𝐈𝟐 = current in each wire 𝐅

= 𝐁𝐪𝐯 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝛝 𝐋

= Length of each wire 𝐖

= 𝐅 × 𝐋 = 𝐪𝐯𝐁𝐬𝐢𝐧𝛉 × 𝐋
𝐃

= distance separating the wires

W = p. d.× q = EMF × q 𝐤

’ = 2 × 10−7

A-Attractive force
𝐅𝐁

= 𝐁𝐈𝐋 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝛝

B-Repulsive force 𝐄𝐌𝐅

= ∆𝐕 = 𝐖

= 𝐁𝐋𝐯 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝛉 𝐪

∆V = EL or E =

∆V

= vB so ∆V = EMF = vLB

L
𝐈

= current (𝐀)
𝐁

= magnetic field strength
𝐌𝐚𝐠𝐧𝐞𝐭𝐢𝐜

𝐟𝐢𝐞𝐥𝐝 𝐬𝐭𝐫𝐞𝐧𝐠𝐭𝐡 − (𝑻) 𝑾/𝒎𝟐
𝐁

= 𝐤

′𝐈 𝐝

∆V

L
𝐋

**= Length of conductor within the magnetic field
𝛉**

= angle between the conductor and magnetic field
𝐄𝐌𝐅

= ∆𝐕 = 𝐁𝐋𝐯 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝛉

Mass Spectrometer

MOVING CHARGES IN MAGNETIC FIELDS

**I= electric current in wire
**

d= distance from the wire
𝐤

’ = 2 × 10−7
𝐁

= magnitude of magetic field strength
𝑴𝒂𝒈𝒏𝒆𝒕𝒊𝒄

𝒇𝒊𝒆𝒍𝒅 𝒔𝒕𝒓𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉 𝒊𝒏 𝒂 𝒄𝒊𝒓𝒄𝒖𝒍𝒂𝒓 𝒍𝒐𝒐𝒑
𝑩

= 𝐅𝐁

= 𝝅𝒌

′𝑰 𝒓 𝐅𝐁

= 𝐅𝐂

r= radius of loop
𝐁

′ for current in a 𝐒𝐨𝐥𝐞𝐧𝐨𝐢𝐝 (UNIFORM)
𝐁

= 𝐁𝐪𝐋

= 𝐁𝐪𝐯 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝛝 𝐓 𝐁𝐪𝐯

𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝛝 =
𝐫

=
𝐦𝐯

𝟐 𝐫 𝐦𝐯 𝐪𝐁 𝟐𝛑𝐤

′𝐍𝐈 𝐋 𝐬

= 𝟐𝐚 𝐮

+𝐯 𝟐 𝐱𝐭

v = u + at
𝐚

=
𝐯

−𝐮 𝐭 𝐦𝐯

𝟐

= 𝐪𝐯𝐁
𝐫

Mark Riley

markriley85@hotmail.com
𝐪𝐁

𝟐 𝐫 𝟐 𝟐𝐕

BCOME(+)

Low Affinity for 𝑒

Rabbit cat fur

Acetate

Perspex

Glass

Wool

Lead

Silk

Paraffin wax

Polythene

Ebonite

Copper

Rubber

Amber

Sulfur

Gold

BCOME(-)

High Affinity for 𝑒

Triboelectric Series 𝐬

= 𝐯𝟐

− 𝐮𝟐 𝐪𝐁𝟐

𝐫 𝟐 𝟐𝐕

**The Centripetal force is provided by the
**

magnetic force 𝐅𝐜 = 𝐅𝐁
𝐦𝐯

𝟐
𝐅𝐜

=

& 𝐅𝐁 = 𝐪𝐯𝐁
𝐫
𝐦

= 𝐋

= Length of solenoid
𝐍

= number of turns or loops
𝐁

**= magnetic field strength
𝐋**

= Length of conductor within the magnetic field
𝛉

= angle between the conductor and magnetic field
𝐦

=

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