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REHABCON IPS-2000-00063

ANNEX A
Existing management systems

EC DG ENTR -C-2
Innovation and SME Programme
IPS-2000-0063

________________________________
REHABCON
Strategy for maintenance and
rehabilitation in concrete structures
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ANNEX A Existing management systems

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CONTENTS
1

MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR BRIDGES ............................................................................................. 3


1.1

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 3

1.2 PONTIS - A management tool from the United States.............................................................................. 3


1.2.1
The tool ........................................................................................................................................... 4
1.2.2
Condition state and feasible actions ................................................................................................ 5
1.2.3
Cost models..................................................................................................................................... 6
1.2.4
The prediction model / assessment.................................................................................................. 7
1.2.5
The MR&R optimisation model...................................................................................................... 7
1.2.6
The Improvement Optimisation model ........................................................................................... 8
1.2.7
The Integration and Programming Planning Model ........................................................................ 8
1.2.8
Database Management system ........................................................................................................ 8
1.3 DANBRO Danish approach................................................................................................................... 9
1.3.1
The tool ........................................................................................................................................... 9
1.3.2
The Basic Information Module ..................................................................................................... 11
1.3.3
Experience Module ....................................................................................................................... 11
1.3.4
The Price Catalogue module ......................................................................................................... 12
1.3.5
Optimisation module ..................................................................................................................... 12
1.3.6
The Budget and cost module ......................................................................................................... 13
1.3.7
The Maintenance module .............................................................................................................. 13
1.4 BaTMan A brief overview of the Swedish bridge and tunnel management system .............................. 13
1.4.1
Object databases............................................................................................................................ 14
1.4.2
Knowledge databases .................................................................................................................... 15
1.4.3
Management activities................................................................................................................... 15
1.4.4
On-line documents ........................................................................................................................ 16
1.5 GEOCISA BMS Spanish approach ...................................................................................................... 16
1.5.1
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 16
1.5.2
The tool ......................................................................................................................................... 16
1.5.3
Inventory module .......................................................................................................................... 17
1.5.4
Conservation module..................................................................................................................... 18
1.5.5
Management Module..................................................................................................................... 18
1.5.6
Economical module....................................................................................................................... 19
1.6 BridgeMan UK approach .................................................................................................................... 19
1.6.1
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 19
1.6.2
Ease of use..................................................................................................................................... 20
1.6.3
Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 20
1.6.4
Inventory ....................................................................................................................................... 21
1.6.5
Inspection data .............................................................................................................................. 21
1.6.6
Reporting....................................................................................................................................... 23
1.6.7
Customisation................................................................................................................................ 24
1.6.8
AutoCAD drawings....................................................................................................................... 24
1.6.9
Hyperlinking to other data............................................................................................................. 24
2

A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FROM THE NUCLEAR POWER INDUSTRY........................................ 25


2.1

The process working process ............................................................................................................... 25

2.2 Management of maintenance .................................................................................................................. 26


2.2.1
Control .......................................................................................................................................... 26
2.2.2
Analysis and development of methods.......................................................................................... 27
2.3 Operative maintenance ........................................................................................................................... 27
2.3.1
Assessment.................................................................................................................................... 27

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2.3.2
2.3.3

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Planning ........................................................................................................................................ 28
Execution ...................................................................................................................................... 28

2.4 Tools ....................................................................................................................................................... 29


2.4.1
Tools.............................................................................................................................................. 29
2.4.2
Optimisation of the maintenance programme ............................................................................... 30
2.4.3
Technical status ............................................................................................................................. 30
2.4.4
LCC Life Cycle Costs ................................................................................................................ 31
2.4.5
Risk Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 31
3

A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FROM THE HYDROPOWER INDUSTRY.............................................. 31


3.1

The process working process ............................................................................................................... 31

3.2

AN01 ....................................................................................................................................................... 32

3.3 AN02 ....................................................................................................................................................... 32


3.3.1
Description .................................................................................................................................... 33
3.3.2
Inputs and outputs ......................................................................................................................... 33
3.4 AN03 ....................................................................................................................................................... 33
3.4.1
Description .................................................................................................................................... 33
3.4.2
Inputs and outputs ......................................................................................................................... 34
3.5 AN04 ....................................................................................................................................................... 34
3.5.1
Description .................................................................................................................................... 34
3.5.2
Inputs and outputs ......................................................................................................................... 34
3.6 AN05 ....................................................................................................................................................... 34
3.6.1
Description .................................................................................................................................... 35
3.6.2
Inputs and outputs ......................................................................................................................... 35
3.7 AN06 ....................................................................................................................................................... 35
3.7.1
Feasibility study phase .................................................................................................................. 35
3.7.2
Execution phase ............................................................................................................................ 35
3.7.3
Conclusion phase .......................................................................................................................... 35

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MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR BRIDGES

1.1 Introduction
Bridges are an important part of societys infrastructure. In order to function effectively, they
must be managed with a clear strategy and philosophy. The different parts of the life cycle
(construction, operation, maintenance, repair and demolition) demand a management system
that handles all the information and the different activities.
In EU project BRIME [1] (Bridge Management in Europe) a literature study was carried out
to evaluate existing management systems for bridges. Two commercial existing systems were
studied in detail, the PONTIS [2] bridge management system from the United States and the
DANBRO [3] bridge management system used in Denmark. These are briefly described here:
more details can be found in BRIME report (available on website
http://www.trl.co.uk/brime/deliver.htm). Additional management systems are also described.
BaTMan [4] has recently been developed by the Swedish Road Department. Other users of
this management system are the Swedish Railway Department and some city and harbour
owners in Sweden. The Bridge Management System for bridges developed by GEOCISA has
been used since early nineties by several local and regional networks in Spain. BridgeMan,
the commercial BMS developed by TRL and adopted by some local authorities and bridge
owners in the UK is described. Finally a management system from the Nuclear Power
Industry and the UNO Management System [5] from the Hydro Power Industry are described.

1.2 PONTIS - A management tool from the United States


There are over 550,000 highway bridges in the US. Over half of these bridges were built
before 1935, and approximately 40% are considered either structurally deficient or
functionally obsolete. Preserving and improving the bridge network is a complex and
expensive, but vitally important task. PONTIS is a bridge management system developed
as a tool to assist in the task of bridge management. PONTIS stores bridge inventory and
inspection data; formulates network-wide preservation and improvement policies for use in
evaluating the needs of each bridge in a network; and makes recommendations for what
projects to include in an agencys capital plan for deriving the maximum benefit from limited
funds. Developed in 1989 for the FHWA, PONTIS is currently licensed through the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) to over 40 state
Departments of Transportation and other agencies.
PONTIS supports the entire bridge management cycle, allowing user input at every stage of
the process. The system stores bridge inventories and records inspection data. Once inspection
data have been entered, PONTIS can be used for maintenance tracking and federal reporting.
PONTIS integrates the objectives of public safety and risk reduction, user convenience, and
preservation of investment to produce budgetary, maintenance, and program policies.
Additionally, it provides a systematic procedure for the allocation of resources to the
preservation and improvement of the bridges in a network. PONTIS accomplishes this by
considering both the costs and benefits of maintenance policies versus investments in
improvements or replacements.

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The working process that is the base for the system can look like the scheme in Figure A. 1.

Construction
of new bridges

Planning

Figure A. 1

1.2.1

Maintenance
and repair

Demolition

Working process of PONTIS

The tool

PONTIS is a flexible and interactive tool, which allows user input in every stage of the
process and uses mathematical models to help in generating and evaluation alternatives. The
main objectives are:
Meeting and maintaining the highest standards of safety for the travelling public
Improving riding comfort and convenience of the public
Preserving the considerable investment in structures
Providing efficient routes for emergency services
Minimising disruptions and delays and costs to users
Providing economical routes for transport of industrial goods and agricultural products
Correction deficiencies within reasonable time
Equitable allocation of resources to the various geographical areas and bridge
activities
Avoidance of costly repairs though appropriate preventive maintenance
Efficient utilisation of engineering and maintenance personnel
Efficient utilisation of funding sources
Minimisation of total expected cost over the long term
The activities involved in this management system are:
Information gathering
Interpretation
Prediction
Cost accounting
Decision making
Budgeting
Planning
Figure A.2 shows schematically the major components of PONTIS.

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Inventory Information
Data base

Prior
model

Condition Survey

User Costs

Prediction Model

Posterior
model

MR&R Optimization

Improvement Optimization

Cindition State

Improvement Cost
Replacement Cost

Feasible Actions

Budget and Policy Issues


Management Objectives
Level-of- Service

MR&R

MR&R Policy

Integrated Planning
Programming

Traffic Growth

Improvement Work
Current Work Plan
Network Conditions
Future needs

Figure A.2

1.2.2

Major components of PONTIS

Condition state and feasible actions

In PONTIS each bridge is divided into its constituent elements and the possible conditions
that each unit of element can be in is defined. These elements are placed in environmental
categories: benign, low, moderate or severe. Each bridge may have up to 40 elements. The
number of possible condition states is normally four for each element, and for each condition
state there are up to three feasible actions.
Typical bridge elements include the deck, superstructure elements such as trusses and arches,
substructure elements such as pier caps and columns, and other elements such as joints and
bearings as shown in Figure A.3.

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Figure A.3

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Typical bridge elements

Inspection records are stored for each bridge element. For each bridge element PONTIS
develops models for how the element deteriorates over time (which may vary by operating
environment), what preservation actions may be taken in response to deterioration, how much
actions cost, and how effective actions are at preserving the element.

1.2.3

Cost models

There are several cost models that provide inputs to other models. These are:
Improvement costs: calculates the costs associated with improvement of each bridge for each
feasible option.
Replacement costs: calculates the replacement for each bridge when this is a feasible option.
MR&R costs: (maintenance, repair and rehabilitation): calculates the costs of the feasible
actions associated with preventive, rehabilitative and corrective measures. It consists of a set
of detailed equations that estimates the various cost associated with each element, condition
and feasible action.
User Cost Model: provides input to the improvement optimisation model, which compares the
savings in user costs due to replacement or improvement with the cost of the investment. It
deals with costs for:
Accident costs
Vehicle operation costs
Travel time costs

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The prediction model / assessment

The prediction models estimate deterioration rates for each element and quantify the
uncertainties inherent in such predictions. These models are updated each time new
experience is gained.
The prediction model consists of two separated models:
1 - Prior Model
Quantifies the likelihood that a unit of a particular element would make a transition from one
condition state to an inferior one within a period. A computer program helps the engineer to
get the best information and the probabilities are derived from a series of questions.
2 - Posterior Model
After each inspection, this model analyses the collected data, weights them against the prior
transition probabilities. This leads to a new set of transition probabilities that consider the
prior information as well as the new data.

1.2.5

The MR&R optimisation model

The main objective of this model is to find for each element in each environment, the policy
that minimises the long-term maintenance funding requirements while keeping the elements
out of risk of failure. The fundamental difference between MR&R and improvement models
is that MR&R activities are geared towards keeping a bridge in the best possible condition but
at its current level of service, retarding or repairing the effects of deterioration, while
improvement activities usually change the level of service of the bridge.
Components of the MR&R model
The model consists of two interrelated models:
1. The first model determines the optimal action for each condition of each element
2. The second model calculates the steady state network conditions if optimal actions are
followed.
Optimisation procedure
MR&R optimisation is formulated as a Markov decision model. The planning horizon is
infinite and the future cost is discounted.
The mathematical formulation used is the optimality equation of the expected life-cycle cost
involving the following parameters:
i = Condition state observed today
j = Condition state predicted to occur one year in the future
V(i) = Long-term cost expected as a result of being in the state i today
C (i,a) = Initial cost of an action taken in the state i
= discount factor for a cost incurred one year in the future
Pij (a) = transition probability of state j conditional on state i and action a
V(j) = long-term cost expected as of next year if state j occurs
Data requirements
The outputs from this model are:

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Optimal MR&R policies for each element and each condition


Long term conditions of the network
A MR&R work plan for each bridge
The set of bridges that should be scheduled for MR&R work when budgetary
constrains exists.
Markovian decision process
From data on condition and feasible actions and predictions the transition probabilities matrix
is obtained for each element for a specific period of years.
Prioritization procedure
Another component applies the optimal network policies to individual bridges to specify what
action should be taken for each bridge. It then calculates the associated cost and prioritises the
bridges in need of work. This is simply done by a benefit/cost ration, ranking according to the
ratio, and chooses the bridges that fall within any cut-off budget level.
MR&R Costs Sub-model
The MR&R optimisation uses the failure cost along with the probability of failure to assess
the risk of allowing an element to deteriorate. Elements with high failure costs tend to be
recommended for more preventive maintenance and are kept, on average, in better condition.
MR&R Results
The same results that are mentioned under data requirements.

1.2.6

The Improvement Optimisation model

This model weighs the benefits of improvement or replacement against its cost and prioritises
the bridges in need of improvement or replacement.
Improvement decisions usually changes the level of service, but once an action is taken, the
physical characteristics remain the same and no new action to be considered until future
traffic growth makes an action necessary again.

1.2.7

The Integration and Programming Planning Model

This model not only combines the results of MR&R and Improvement Optimisation models
but is a powerful tool for predicting future network conditions, needs and backlogs as a
function of budget allocations etc. It is not an optimisation model by itself but a device for
bringing the results of the optimisation models together, and for simulating future events
according to the criteria set by the other models.
The results are presented in reports: MR&R Policy & Improvement Work (showing how they
grow or shrink over time), Current Work Plan (shows a first-year project list with
recommended actions), Network Conditions and Future Needs (lists of scheduled actions by
element on each bridge).

1.2.8

Database Management system

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The PONTIS software is structured in a way that implements each of its models as a separate
module communicating with a central data base.

1.3 DANBRO Danish approach


The following information is a compilation of the BRIME reports and a homepage of the
company that owns and has developed the system.
DANBRO is a bridge management system developed by Ramboll in Denmark. First the main
user was the Danish Road Department but now the system is spread between city and harbour
owners. The system is currently used in many different countries.
The codes and rules that are the basic documents that initiate all the activities for the Danish
Road Administration are:
1. The Road Legislation
2. Design codes and standards for bridge construction and repairs together with standards
and guidelines for inspections and special investigation
3. The manuals, which have been specifically written for the system, give guidelines for
activities not covered by the other documents mentioned
DANBRO is a computer supported bridge management system where the main objectives are:
Ensuring traffic safety
Optimising utilisation of allocated funds
Minimising maintenance costs
Preserving the road network capacity
Forecasting budget needs
Organising preventive maintenance
The working process of DANBRO is shown schematically in Figure A.4.

Construction
of new bridges

Planning

Figure A.4

Maintenance
and repair

Demolition

The working process of DANBRO

In general the program is adapted to each owners specific needs. Ramboll will provide
adapted requirement specifications, test methods and produce manuals and other needed online systems. This work is done through collaboration between Ramboll and the
customer/owner.

1.3.1

The tool

DANBRO is a window-based computer program that can be used in all parts of the
maintenance process. The main purpose is to register and handle data regarding the following
activities:

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1. The administrative and technical data on the bridges and structures, including location,
size, year of completion, constructions principles and materials.
2. The information on the present maintenance condition of the bridges input from a
general inspection every four or five year.
3. Registration of need of measures and rules of the performance.
4. The economic information incl. gadgets and allocations as well as various repair solutions
and their prices.
5. Prioritising, a further development of the repair strategies in combination of the often
limited budgets.
The output will be:
1. Condition reports actual status of the structures and what and where damages accurse.
2. Maintenance plans which bridges should be repaired, how the repair should be carried
out and the estimated costs.
3. Calculations of economic consequences comparing short-term solutions and major
repairs.
The computer program involves a series of interrelated activities that interact with each other
as shown in Figure A.5.

Requirements - Codes and Rules


Principal inspection

Inventory (Rehabilitation
strategies,
economical
evaluation

Tender
prices

Optimization

Budget
Policy

Basic
Optimisation
Experience Price
information
Catalogue

Planning of
Maintenance

Budget
Maintenance
and Costs

Special Investigations(Rehabilitation
strategies, economical evaluation)

Clearing
Bearing
Capacities

No
Repair

Police
authorities

Repair
Design

Maintenance
Works

Construction
Works

Figure A.5

Activities included in the computer program

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The Basic Information Module

This module contains the administrative and structural databases and principal inspection
databases, as follows:
Inventory
Inventories are carried out by the head office of the Bridge Department and contains:
Administrative data
Technical data bridge types, dimensions, material etc.
Passage data data on roads, water ways etc
Archive references: information on the contents of the archives
Chronological overview: a list of important events in the life of each bridge.
Principal Inspection
The bridge inspectors from the Bridge Department carry out principal inspections at regular
interval (between two and six years). This is a visual inspection of all visible parts of the
bridge. For each standard components of the bridge information such as condition rating,
description of significant damage, need for routine maintenance/cleaning, need for special
investigation etc. The essential part of the principal inspection is to determine the year of the
next inspection for the individual bridge.
During the principal inspection an inspector could with prior experience say what measures
are necessary otherwise a special investigation is needed.
Special Inspections/investigation
These are carried out by experienced materials engineers whenever the need is recognised
(otherwise the decisions are taken during the Principal Inspections). For example, this could
be when the inspector is not certain about the cause of damage, or the proper rehabilitation
method. Special inspections might include destructive and non-destructive test carried out insitu or in laboratories. The objectives include:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Determine the cause and extent of damage


Predict the development of damage if nothing is done
Identify relevant rehabilitation strategies
Determine the cost to society of each strategy
Choose the strategy that is least costly to society

Two or three repair strategies are considered here. The time looked considered is 25 years.
The economic consequences are evaluated for these strategies and compared to postponing
the work for 5 years. The users costs are taken into account.
This part of the DANBRO system is close to the process in REHABCON and the results of
REHABCON will be useful here.

1.3.3

Experience Module

Information about the damage and measurements are stored in the Experience Module (feed
back). This includes economical and damage data.

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Damage data relates to information about position, type and cause for the damage as well as
the materials involved and results from special investigations.
The economic data includes all expenditures on each structure over a number of years.
The module information on service life and service life costs of the bridge and material types.

1.3.4

The Price Catalogue module

This module supports the estimation of the costs of repairs in relation to general inspections,
special inspections and design. The database contains unit prices for various works, based on
tender prices.
All costs are based on the unit prices presented in the price catalogue. The data from the two
lowest bids at a remedial works are stored here.

1.3.5

Optimisation module

Proposals for remedial works and costs of these are stored in the optimisation module.
Optimisation is carried out once a year when funds are made available, or whenever changes
in the allocated fund are made during the year.
For bridges in need of remedial works an optimisation is made. This includes a priority list
based on a 5 years budget. The net present value method is used.
The database in this module contains the economic data for the various repairs alternatives set
up at special inspections.
Optimisation of repair and rehabilitation works.
The repair and rehabilitation work is decided during the Principal Inspection or through a
Special Investigation. The results are always one of the following rehabilitation strategies:
Make a thorough repair now: the structure reverts to a No deterioration condition.
Make some superficial repairs now in order to postpone major repair.
Do nothing now: wait until the bridge or component, is longer safe and then replace it.
Do nothing at all: when the bridge is no longer safe, close it and accept the consequent
road user costs.
Economical evaluation
The net present value method is used to identify the solution with the lowest overall cost.
Comparison is made between execution and postponing each strategy.
1. Direct costs
The actual cost of the rehabilitation works (including design, construction, supervision and
administration). Information from the price catalogue and the experience module is used.
2. Indirect costs Road user costs
To make the right choice, the indirect costs are important, but they should not be included
when deciding whether the available funds are sufficient.

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Examples of indirect costs are:


Restrictions on the permitted load on the bridge
Closure of the bridge for safety reasons before or during rehabilitation
Reduces traffic capacity during rehabilitation.
A special formula is used to take account of traffic, speed restrictions and waiting time unit
based on cost per km, etc.
3. Additional costs of changing strategy
To identify the best option on each bridge is not sufficient for carrying out the optimum
strategy on all bridges. The goal is to find the best solution with limited funds. This is done
with help from the special inspections and the optimisation module. For each strategy, all
costs, direct and indirect, are re-evaluated under the assumption that all activities are
postponed by five years. A 25 year lifetime is used.

1.3.6

The Budget and cost module

Budgets for remedial works to be carried out are stored in the budget and cost module. The
economic data from the tendering are stored in here.
The databases in this module contain information about budgets for maintenance and repairs.
The information is always updated.

1.3.7

The Maintenance module

The module contains the database with information about the components of the bridges that
have to be cleaned or maintained at regular intervals. A database containing possible remedial
works on the components is included.

1.4 BaTMan A brief overview of the Swedish bridge and


tunnel management system
The Swedish National Road Administration has recently developed a new management
system, BaTMan (Bridge and Tunnel Management) [4]. BaTMan is a computerised tool
(Figure A.6) for organising and storing data and carrying out activities within the
management process. The basic idea of BaTMan is the same as that of its predecessor
SAFEBRO [6], but the software has been replaced allowing the incorporation of modern
technology into the system. One of the foremost improvements is that the new system is webbased, allowing anyone with the proper access rights and a standard web-browser to use the
system. As the name implies the new system is not limited to bridges. The management of
other structures such as tunnels, retaining walls, troughs, quays and noise barriers is now
supported by the system.
BaTMan is currently used by several state and local authorities that own and manage
structures in Sweden. Approximately 30,000 structures, mostly bridges, are currently
managed using BaTMan. The system supports the management process during the entire life

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cycle of a structure from the early planning stages to demolition. This support is provided at
both the object and network levels.

Figure A.6

1.4.1

The BaTMan welcome page

Object databases

The object databases include information about the individual structures. This information
includes:
Administrative data
Drawings and other archive documents
Technical data
Load capacity data
Passage data
Inspection records
All repair, strengthening and maintenance activities and their costs
Technical data includes the basic technical aspects of the structure such as the type of the
structure, types of elements and components, dimensions and materials.
Passage data refers to those aspects of the structure that affect the traffic using it. This
includes, for example, widths and heights of openings.
All types of inspections, such as superficial, principal and special inspections, are recorded
with condition information such as the type, cause, location and extent of damage, type and
material of the damaged element, type of repair, direct cost of repair and a condition class.
Since BaTMan is web-based it is possible for data to be recorded closer to the source. The
engineer, inspector or contractor can, from the site or office, record data directly. The
database is not, however, updated until the manager of the structure has verified and accepted
the new data.

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Knowledge databases

The knowledge databases contain information that is not structure specific. These databases
are:
Standardised condition measurement methods
Standardised technical requirements
Common test methods
Common technical solutions
Reference objects
Current unit prices.
The standardised condition measurement methods provide a way of quantifying and
standardising the severity of certain types of damage. This is often an aid in determining the
condition class.
The standardised technical requirements are taken directly from the road administrations
code for the repair and maintenance of bridges [7]. These can then be directly inserted into the
procurement documents. Requirements for tunnels and other structures will also be included
in the near future.
The database of common technical solutions supports the planning process by describing
alternative repair and strengthening methods that have been carried out with good results.
These are available for several common repair and strengthening situations.
The database of current unit prices contains unit prices for common works based on actual
costs from the previous year.

1.4.3

Management activities

The activities supported at the object management level are inspection, project planning,
design, procurement, execution and follow-up. There are also modules for result analysis,
load-bearing classification and exceptional convoys.
In order for the manager to quickly see the progression of damage to the structure, the
software provides graphs showing the change with time in the condition class, the extent of
the damage and a measure of the severity of the damage for certain damage types such as
crack width.
The project planning module supports the bridge engineer in producing an optimal
repair/rehabilitation strategy for the bridge. Alternative strategies can be studied and both the
direct and indirect costs are calculated to a present value based on the recommended discount
rate. The calculations show which strategy gives the best overall economy and which
strategies can be carried out within the current budget. A cost-benefit analysis on the network
level can be made in order to compare strategies for different structures with one another.
The manager can quickly produce procurement documents such as bills of quantity and
technical requirements with the help of the knowledge databases. This can be done for
individual structures as well as for operation and maintenance packages that cover several
structures.

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The module for exceptional convoys is a calculation module that supports the engineer in
evaluating the load-bearing capacity for heavy vehicles. The load effect from the heavy
vehicle in question is compared to a classification vehicle, and if necessary, the possibility of
reducing the speed or introducing lane restrictions can be investigated.

1.4.4

On-line documents

BaTMan also contains supporting documents for the system and the management process. A
digital users manual for the software and a digital handbook that covers the management
process are integral parts of the system. The handbook includes a complete inspection manual,
provides definitions of bridge types and components and even describes the management
process. Links to the codes, standard technical specifications and other important documents
are also provided.

1.5 GEOCISA BMS Spanish approach


1.5.1

Introduction

Since early nineties GEOCISA has been developing its own bridge management system. It is
a flexible and practical tool created to be able to solve specific owners and users needs;
therefore it can be adapted to owners requirements.
As some examples, GEOCISA BMS has been implemented in both local and regional
networks:
Madrid Community
Municipal government of Madrid
Municipal government of Sevilla
Municipal government of Bilbao
County council of Guipzcoa
County council of Vizcaya.

1.5.2

The tool

This BMS is based on four basic modules:


Inventory module
Conservation module
Management module
Economical module.
These basic modules (Figure A.7) can be adapted to the users needs and several other
modules can be implemented to cover all the owners requirements. These modules include:
Scour module; Monitoring module; Special Loads module; Life Cycle Cost Analysis module;
etc.

ANNEX A Existing management systems

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GEOCISA BRIDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


MANAGEMENT
PLANING

Evaluation of the structure

Periodical inspections

Technical and economical


definition of the repair and
maintenance options

Extraordinary inspections
Common maintenance

DATA BASE
INVENTORY

CONSERVATION

DATA UPDATE
INSPECTIONS
Principals
Specials

Figure A.7

1.5.3

MAINTENANCE AND ECONOMIC


CONTROL
Maintenance and repair
registration
Economic resources

Basic modules of GEOCISA BMS

Inventory module

This module (Figure A.8) collates all the location, geometric, structural and functionality data,
taking into account the structural diversity and the synthesis needs.

Figure A.8

Inventory data form

ANNEX A Existing management systems

18 (37)

For each structure the tool records the following information:


Location and general data.
Structural data
Geometric sketch
Representative photographs
Existing documents related with the structure.

1.5.4

Conservation module

In this module (Figure A.9) the tool records the information from the Principal Inspections:
1. General information about the inspection and the inspection conditions (bridge code, date,
inspector, atmospherically conditions, etc).
2. Photographs.
3. Visual damage assessment. Damages detected are assessed through predefined indexes to
obtain the Damage Index.

Figure A.9

1.5.5

Principal inspection data form

Management Module

This module (Figure A.10) uses all the information registered in the data base through the
inventory and the inspections.

ANNEX A Existing management systems

19 (37)

This information links with the Repair and Budget data developed in the BMS, allowing the
generation of Repair Plans for singular and multiple selection of bridges, and even the whole
bridges heritage. These plans are prioritised according to the damage indexes of the structures.

Figure A.10

1.5.6

Repair recommendation form

Economical module

With this module the owner is able to carry out economical control of all the repairs and its
costs. It can perform the following:
To determine the repair actions developed in each structure, including costs, times,
contractors, etc
To register all the investment done in repair and maintenance
To control current investment
To prepare investment statistics by road, bridge, period of time, etc.

1.6 BridgeMan UK approach


1.6.1

Introduction

BridgeMan is a commercial Bridge Management System developed by TRL which has been
adopted by some local authorities in the UK other bridge owners overseas. BridgeMan is an
application for the Microsoft Access database. The current version can be used in Access 97
and subsequent versions. BridgeMan acts as a central location to keep all the information on a
bridge stock, storing general inventory information and inspection reports, as well as
providing a means to link to other data in the form of photos, drawings, reports, etc. In
developing BridgeMan, great emphasis was placed on creating a flexible application that can
easily be tailored to meet a users specific requirements, including integration with existing

ANNEX A Existing management systems

20 (37)

management systems and GIS systems. Microsoft Access is probably the most widespread
database system for PCs at the current time and takes full advantage of all the facilities
offered by Windows-based programmes.

1.6.2

Ease of use

Being based on Microsoft Access BridgeMan benefits from:

User friendly Windows interface;


The ability to easily create advanced queries and reports using built-in Access facilities;
The ability for users to carry out minor modifications / customisation to the database if
required.

BridgeMan was designed and created with constant input by bridge engineers, so screen
layouts and data required should be familiar and intuitive to fellow bridge engineers.
Any stand-alone computer or computer network that can run Microsoft Access can run
BridgeMan. Obviously to store large numbers of photographs, drawings, etc, sufficient
capacity will be required. Alternatively BridgeMan can be set up to access photographs, etc,
stored on CD.

1.6.3

Overview

BridgeMan has three main modules: Inventory, Inspection and Reporting.


As well as these there are also other facilities to help the user in their use of the system:

An address book for contact details of Utilities, Owners etc;


Financial module to allow expenditure to be recorded;
Various pre-written reports to cover some of the most common reporting tasks;
System Maintenance facilities Add users, change default inspection intervals, etc.

Microsoft Access query and reporting routines make it easy for a user to employ the power of
a modern relational database to generate the reports they need. This increases the flexibility of
the way the system handles data; a user is not restricted to a limited number of reports
provided by the system.
TRL is continually improving the BridgeMan system. Proposed developments include the
ability to download inspection data from hand-held loggers, work prioritisation schemes
based on structural assessment and condition state and whole life costing of a structure.
BridgeMan is designed to be customised. If the system in its present form does not meet the
exact requirements of a user, the open nature of the system and the ease of use of the Access
database allow the core BridgeMan system to be easily altered to meet these requirements.
Work has already been carried out for clients to extend BridgeMan to allow its use for storing
information on tunnels, culverts, etc, and to provide differing inventory and inspection forms
based on local requirements.

ANNEX A Existing management systems

1.6.4

21 (37)

Inventory

BridgeMans main inventory form (Figure A.11) records the fundamental information on a
structure. The form covers the location and owner of a structure, a structural summary, the
year of construction, a comments field for additional data as well as details on historical
status.

Figure A.11

BridgeMans main inventory form

On the right-hand side of the screen, a number of buttons allow access to further forms listing
details about the structure. Additional information available includes details on span,
supports, drawing and document register, route and traffic details, photographs, bearings,
Public Utilities and inspection data.

1.6.5

Inspection data

The main inspection form shown in Figure A.12 records the dates and types of inspection
carried out on a particular structure. Information on any special access requirements and any
hazards associated with the bridge may also be recorded so that this may be taken into
account when planning inspections. Other options allow the type of inspection to be selected,
and a list of existing inspections of this type will then be shown.
A choice of forms may be used to enter data. A local version can be used, or for Highways
Agency (or other central government) reports a different form may be employed. Buttons to
the right of the screen allow the selection of either of these forms.

ANNEX A Existing management systems

22 (37)

Also provided are buttons to link to details on assessments for this structure, brief summaries
of test results and a simple risk assessment for the structure.

Figure A.12

Main inspection form

Additionally, facilities may be added to allow direct links to electronically stored reports or
spreadsheets etc containing the results of testing.
Copies of inspection results may be formatted so that when printed from the system they
produce a completed version of standard forms as shown in Figure A.13.

ANNEX A Existing management systems

Figure A.13

23 (37)

BridgMans inspection forms

It is also possible from the main form to change the inspection intervals for different types of
inspection for an individual bridge. If intervals need to be changed globally, or for a group of
bridges, this can be achieved from the utilities module of BridgeMan.

1.6.6

Reporting

There are a number of standards reports in BridgeMan, covering:

Lists of bridges by number, name;


Lists of bridges due for inspection;
Lists of Bridges based on Assessments;
Lists of Bridges with drawings available.

Non-standard reports can also be produced using the Access facilities. Before each report is
produced there are also various filter screens, which will allow the selection of bridges in
certain categories, within a range of numbers, of certain construction, etc. This facilitates the
production of reports (Figure A.14) for different purposes.

ANNEX A Existing management systems

Figure A.14

1.6.7

24 (37)

BridgeMans reports

Customisation

The open nature of BridgeMan means that it is possible for the end user to customise the
package to fit in with their exact requirements. A simple method of linking BridgeMan to a
GIS system can also be implemented.

1.6.8

AutoCAD drawings

Using a combination of Hyperlinking and AutoDesks Volo View viewer, it is now simple to
access AutoCAD drawings of bridges, allowing the user to view and print drawings without
the need to have AutoCAD on the machine.

1.6.9

Hyperlinking to other data

ANNEX A Existing management systems

25 (37)

Using hyperlinks and extra forms within BridgeMan, it is possible to link to other sources of
data about a bridge. Examples of this include clients who have all inspection reports produced
electronically. By storing a brief description of the report, the date, the bridge it relates to, etc,
BridgeMan can then show what reports exist for a particular bridge, and at the press of a
button, hyperlink to that file, bringing the report up in Word. Other applications include
linking to spreadsheets containing detailed testing results ie. half-cell surveys etc.

A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FROM THE NUCLEAR


POWER INDUSTRY

The following information is a compilation of documents distributed by Forsmarks


Maintenance Department.
The company Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB was created in 1973 and the nuclear power stations
were built during the 80th century. The company is owned by Vattenfall (66%), Swedish
power group (28,5%) and Sydkraft (8,54%). There are three boiling water reactors. Forsmark
is known to have a high availability of energy production and low maintenance costs. This is
possible through skilled personnel, reliable operational units and qualified performed
maintenance.
The Maintenance Department of Forsmark with a staff of 180 persons runs the maintenance.
The maintenance system involves maintenance on all installations and machines including the
buildings and the outer areas etc.
The maintenance is divided between two types of measures preventive maintenance and
corrective maintenance. The preventive measures are a planned activity that is performed in
the purpose to prevent function failures or to measure and decide the technical condition.
Corrective maintenance is a planned or an unplanned maintenance action caused by failure of
any component.
The part of the buildings and installations that are of concrete does not, according to a sent out
questionnaire, have a maintenance system to handle their constructions. Instead they use an
inspection programme and when finding a damage/failure they do a detailed assessment and a
plan for the measures to be taken is made. There is a need for a tool for the assessment - a
manual would be useful (REHABCON). But according to the Maintenance Department in
Forsmark they should follow the same management system as the rest of the installations.
There is only a lack of history and experience in performing these types of repairs.

2.1 The process working process


The maintenance working process is showed in Figure A.15. The figure shows the important
input and output flow of orders and reports. The boxes show the different activities/functions
that are a part of the process. The activities are explained in sections 2.2 and 2.3.

ANNEX A Existing management systems

Goals, limits,
regulations,
resources and
laws

26 (37)

Management of maintenance

Result- and activity report

Management and Control

Directives, criterions
and priorities
Development

Analysis

External and
internal
experiences

of methods

Methods, instructions
and operative policies
Initiating of renewal
measures

Operative maintenance

Assessment
Planned measures

Technical status

Value the need:


Right
extent?Failure
frequency,
Cost/benefit,
Risk/consequence,
co-ordinate

Planning

Execution /
Realization

Unit in working
order

Received
experience

Resources, orders and delivery

Figure A.15

The working process of maintenance at Forsmark

2.2 Management of maintenance


The main task for this part of the management system is to systematically lead, develop and
report all activities. This part of the process considers a longer period of time and is more
strategic. The time perspective is usually weeks, month and years.
The part about management of the maintenance exists of two parts:
Management and control
Analyse and method development.

2.2.1

Control

Within this part of the process the ambitions, strategies, goals and responsibilities of the
maintenance programme are formulated.
Specified responsibilities are:
Planning, prioritising, control and follow up of the activity including development of
the process and long term maintenance strategies.
Reversion and inform of internal process activity plans etc.
Economical budgets, trend and follow up and results, and activity reports.
Planning of human resources, an overall management of personal and assurance of
competence.

ANNEX A Existing management systems

2.2.2

27 (37)

Analysis and development of methods

This part of the process is the link towards the operative maintenance with focus on
optimisation of maintenance, such as development of methods for maintenance, instructions
and maintenance policies.
Specified responsibilities are:
Inquires and analyses on installations and components regarding:
Security, availability, function and performance
Unpredicted events
Optimisation of maintenance
External and internal experiences
Create prerequisites for operative maintenance in forms of:
Maintain installations registers and spare parts registers
Update and compile maintenance programs and plans
Compile programs for scheduled control and continues supervision
Co-ordinate and cooperate towards operation and the renewal process regarding:
Initiating of renewal measures
Presentation of technical status
Referral instance when renewal measures are taken

2.3 Operative maintenance


The main task of this part of the management system is to value, perform identified needs of
maintenance. This part of the process usually run by actions and the time is days, weeks and
sometimes month.
The operative maintenance exists of three parts:
Assessment
Planning
Execution.
Some measures that have been carried out before will pass this part of the process without
going through analyse, control and development of new methods face. This is typical for the
optimized preventive maintenance.

2.3.1

Assessment

The main task of this part of the process is to collaborate with the analysis function,
continuously value the maintenance policy and other measures and to initiate operative
maintenance activities on the basis of the maintenance policies and identified technical status.

ANNEX A Existing management systems

28 (37)

The activities must aim towards an optimisation of the maintenance where only wellmotivated measures are performed.
Specified responsibilities are:
Generate working orders for measures to the planning function for further work
Initiate changes of maintenance methods or intervals that are aiming for a optimal
maintenance
Evaluate results from performed maintenance measures
Report the operative maintenance to the management of the maintenance
Maintain the value part

2.3.2

Planning

The main task of this part of the process is the responsibility for operation planning, planning
of maintenance and management of personal and performance preparations for planned
measures. Within this part a scheduled measure plans, prepares and resources are booked,
after that the project goes to the next phase of the process, the execution part.
Specified responsibilities are:
Operation planning of scheduled measures with regards to operative management aspects
such as:
Overall time plans according to annual and production plans
Detailed revision and recorded plans
Affect on the planned production, actual operation status, process etc.
Maintenance planning of decided measures regarding to maintenance aspects such as:
Performance time plans, management of personal and working units, quality and
security
Coordination of parallel measures regarding resources and time
Resource planning on short and long terms such as available competent personal,
material, spare parts, documentation etc.
Planned detailed of management and preparation of decided measures such as:
Development of working instructions and program for testing and verification of
function
Ordering of spare parts, external resources, personal and supervision of deliverables
Get needed permissions and secure personnel.
Appoint personnel in charge and co-ordinate on the sight
See to that working environmental rules and locally working hours are followed

2.3.3

Execution

The main task for this function is to see to that planned and ordered measures are executed
and reported and that experience is collected and documented. The final result is a functional
unit.

ANNEX A Existing management systems

29 (37)

Specified responsibilities are:


Person in charge that leads the work according to existing rules, routines, plans, quality
requirements and instructions must:
Co-ordinate all work on the sight so the optimal time and resources are used
See to those personnel in charge of safety leaves support to person in charge of the
planned work.

2.4 Tools
2.4.1

Tools

All information involved in this management system needs support. This is done by using
different data bases that are all connected to each other according to Figure A.16.
DegraLex

Descriptions of failures

Database of knowledge

RCM/REM

and consequences

Database for documentation

regarding cause of failures

of REM-analyses

on different devices.

A chose of typical failures

Altered measures program

from studied working orders.

Bicycle

Unstudied working orders

Analys program for

of installations, program of

history of working orders

measures, Working permits

TeCoMan
Studied working order

FENIX
System containing register

and history of workingorders

Computer program for


collection information of

statistics

status and calculation of


technical status index.

Economy
SAP R/3
System for economical

Process data

Data of the installations


ManCo
Tool for administration of
rounds and collection of condition

collection and presentations

PDB
Process database for
collection and storage of

status.

Data of status

processdata

Figure A.16

Scheme of data tools used within Forsmark Management of their maintenance

ANNEX A Existing management systems

2.4.2

30 (37)

Optimisation of the maintenance programme

The maintenance programme within a management system demands to be revised


continuously so it contains the right things and the right requirements on technical status,
production level, security, environmental issues and costs.
The tool used for these revisions are a based on a method called RCM (Reliability Centred
Maintenance) and is built on the amount of maintenance performed and based on the risk that
different failures will lead too within the installation. Forsmark uses a method called REM
(Reversed Maintenance). The method is used for a more general revision of the maintenance
program. REM is based on information collected from preventive and corrective maintenance.
A REManalysis should be performed in 16 steps:
1. Choice of studied system or function
2. Assess and get resources needed important with the right competence according to each
specific problem.
3. If necessary arrange an education in REM
4. Specify existing preventive maintenance
5. Collect the failure / causes every preventive maintenance measure must prevent
6. Compile historical corrective maintenance and add new types of failures
7. Specify effects of failures and the consequences for compiled failures examples of
questions to be answered are: what are the consequences of this failure, what are the
personal consequences, what are the consequences for inner and outer environment, can
the failure effect adjacent equipment, how can the failure be attended to, how long is the
non-operating state, what are the costs (including material, personal and loss of revenue)
etc.?
8. Value the consequences according to a specified matrix
9. Risk Analyses - Set risk indexes with help from the specified risk matrix a high index
can lead to more extensive measures.
10. Decide what measures to take according to a decision tree depends on failure,
effectively, costs (LCC) etc.
11. Decide intervals for measures that are related to time decides from the time a failure can
be predicted to the time it occurs.
12. Compare the result to existing maintenance includes the benefit of the measures
13. Compile a short report with motivation of a new maintenance program.
14. Establish the new maintenance program
15. Address the new maintenance program into the maintenance system
16. Verification and follow up of the new program

2.4.3

Technical status

To be able to optimise the maintenance one need to know the technical status of the
installation in focus. This is done on-line by measures, trending and studying history of
recorded events. A technical condition index is set (TCI). The index is used to present the
status of the installation and it can vary between 0 and 100.
TCI is a powerful tool for prioritisation maintenance activities and renewal measures. TCI
together with information of maintenance costs and a quantified availability and safety it is a
useful instrument for management by objectives and optimisation.

ANNEX A Existing management systems

2.4.4

31 (37)

LCC Life Cycle Costs

A calculation tool in excel is used to calculate and evaluate different alternatives. The
lifecycle costs refer to the costs of the investment including depreciation, interest rate,
increased maintenance etc. and comparison is always compared to the zero alternative no
action. The method used is the net present value and the alternative with the lowest value is
often chosen. The time considered is usually 15 years for larger investments, but can be varied
if necessary. Another more expensive alternative can be chosen when the consequences of the
risk involved are so high that it is not an alternative.
The LCC tool is used in the analysis phase of the process but also when initiating renewal
measures.

2.4.5

Risk Analysis

To get some basic data for decision making weather to act or not and in what extent a risk
analysis could be performed. The probability that a failure will occur is decided with the help
from a set matrix including different kinds of requirements that have to be full filled. The
result will be a risk index between 0 and 5 for each type of failure.
The index will be a base for deciding of preventing measures or not. All failures with an index
over 2 must be analysed regarding choice of suitable maintenance measure. If the studied
failure has an index under 2 a control of the costs for preventing maintenance and corrective
maintenance must be performed. The most cost efficient alternative is chosen.
The risk analysis is performed as a part of the optimization of the maintenance program.

A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FROM THE HYDRO


POWER INDUSTRY

Vattenfall has developed a set of processes which are gathered under the name of UNO.
These processes are to be used within the different areas such as hydro power, nuclear power
and other. The processes are not implemented everywhere today but the implementation work
is proceeding especially within the hydro power area.
The sub-process that is relevant here is called Building process and includes maintenance and
support of the buildings. The report describes the implemented process in one of the larger
hydro power plants. The Building process consists of seven sub-processes, called AN01 to
AN07.

3.1 The process working process


The maintenance working process is showed in Figure A.17. The figure shows the important
in- and out torrents and flows of orders and reports. The boxes show the different
activities/functions that are a part of the process. The activities are explained from chapter 3.2
to 3.7.

ANNEX A Existing management systems

Figure A.17

32 (37)

The working process of the maintenance

3.2 AN01
The purpose of this sub-process is to develop and maintain the steering document for the
Building process.

3.3 AN02
The purpose of this sub-process is to give recommendations of measures to be taken for
maintenance or structural improvements. This is done by analysing new requirements and
information from authorities, surrounding environment and the operation. Figure A.18 shows
the sub-process AN02.

ANNEX A Existing management systems

Figure A.18

3.3.1

33 (37)

Working process of AN02

Description

Requirements, data and information from scanning the world around as well as the own
operation are gathered and compiled. The gathered information is analysed and interpreted
into possible measures which are documented.

3.3.2

Inputs and outputs

Inputs
Demands from the authorities
Demands from customers
Owners requirements
New knowledge

Outputs
Prioritised suggested measures
Updated activity list

3.4 AN03
The purpose of this sub-process is to register and analyse the condition of the buildings and
estimate the need of maintenance. The outcome of the process is a recommendation of
measures and a updated schedule for maintenance.

3.4.1

Description

The condition of the building is continuously monitored and an error report is written if an
error should occur. The error report is registered and estimation is done whether it is

ANNEX A Existing management systems

34 (37)

considered as an emergency and should be dealt with immediately or if it could be scheduled


and handled during the normal maintenance routines.
In case of an accident or an environmental effect the proper authorities are notified
immediately.
If the error report is classified as an emergency then the proper measures are suggested to subprocess AN04 for further handling.

3.4.2

Inputs and outputs

Inputs
Observed conditions
Error report
Requirements

Outputs
Suggested measures

3.5 AN04
Sub-process AN04 is a overall instance with competence to prioritise and decide among the
suggested measures.

3.5.1

Description

Suggested measures from other sub-processes such as AN03 are gathered and analysed. The
different measures are grouped into different categories such as environmental needs, safety
recommendations and economy to name a few. The suggested measures are then priorities
and put in range using business plans and economic figures.
Necessary decision documents and activity plans are produced and updated and an assignment
specification is formulated.

3.5.2

Inputs and outputs

Inputs
Support information for decisions
Propositions of measures
Overall planning
Steering documents

Outputs
Decision documents
Activity plans
Assignment specification

3.6 AN05
The purpose of this sub-process is to perform a pre-study according to PROPS project
steering model.

ANNEX A Existing management systems

3.6.1

35 (37)

Description

Based on the expressed and unexpressed needs and requirements from customers,
documented in a assignment specification, the pre-study shall estimate the feasibility from
technical and commercial viewpoints. During the pre-study a set of alternative solutions is
formulated and an estimate is made of the time and amount of work needed for the different
alternatives.

3.6.2

Inputs and outputs

Inputs
Assignment specification

Outputs
Pre-study report

3.7 AN06
The purpose of sub-process AN06 is to describe the execution of a project according to
PROPS project steering model.

3.7.1

Feasibility study phase

During the feasibility study phase a good basis for the future project is formed and prepared
for the successful execution of the project. The decision to begin the feasibility study phase is
taken in the outcome of sub-process AN05 by the sponsor. During the feasibility study phase,
different realisation alternatives and their potential consequences are analysed, as well as their
potential capacity to fulfil the requirements. The project goals and strategies are defined,
project plans are prepared and the risks involved are assessed.

3.7.2

Execution phase

In this phase the project is executed as planned with respect to time, cost and characteristics,
in order to meet the project goals and the customers requirements.

3.7.3

Conclusion phase

The purpose of the conclusion phase is to break up the project organisation and to compile a
record of the experiences gained.
REFERENCES
[1]

BRIME (Bridge Management in Europe), EU-project, Deliverable D14, Final


Report, March 2001. (www.trl.co.uk/brime/deliver.htm)

[2]

PONTIS. The American Association of State Highway and Transport Officials


(AASHTO). 1989. (www.transportation.org)

ANNEX A Existing management systems

36 (37)

[3]

DANBRO. Danish Bridge Management System, Danish Road Administration.


(www.vd.dk)

[4]

BaTMan (Bridge and Tunnel Management). Management system for bridges


and tunnels. Swedish National Road Administration. (www.vv.se)

[5]

UNO. A Management System for the Hydro Power Industry, Internal Vattenfall
document.

[6]

SAFEBRO. Bridges management system. Swedish National Road


Administration.

[7]

Swedish National Road Administration. Bridge Repair and Maintenance Code


2002 (Vgverkets allmnna tekniska beskrivning fr underhll av broar
Brounderhll 2002). Swedish National Road Administration, Publ 2002:48,
Borlnge, 2002. (In Swedish.)