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PHYSICAL PRINCIPLE 1

*MULTIPLE CHOICE: Write the letter only.

_______ 1. Four liters of gas are contained under a pressure of 1140 mm and a
temperature of 273oC. The volume of this gas (in liters) at STP will be.
a.) 1.5
b.) 3
c.) 9
d.) 6
e.) 12
_______ 2. The number of liters of air needed to burn completely 8 liters of acetylene is.
a.) 40
b.) 60
c.) 80
d.) 95.24 L e.) 120
_______ 3. The pressure at which one mole of a gas at 0 oC occupies a volume of one
liters is closest to which one of the following?
a.) 1 atmosphere
d.) 273 atmosphere
b.) 760 mm
e.) 2 atmosphere
c.) 22.4 atmosphere
_______ 4. Assuming that at STP gas A has a density of 0.09 g/L, gas B gas a density of
1.43 g/L. The relative rate of diffusion of gas A to that gas B is.
a.) 1 to 16
d.) 4 to 1
b.) 16 to 1
e.) 1 to 2
c.) 2 to 1
_______ 5. 50 mL of a gas at 0oC are heated to 27oC at constant pressure. The resulting
volume is.
a.) 23.0
b.) 45.5
c.) 54.9
d.) 77.0
e.) 85.0
_______ 6. Assume that air is 21.0% oxygen and 79.0% nitrogen by volume. If the
barometric pressure is 740 mmHg, which of the following is the partial pressure of O 2?
a.) 155.4 mmHg
d.) 740 mmHg
b.) 310 mmHg
e.) 320 mmHg
c.) 580 mmHg
_______ 7. Assume that a mole of gas X weighs 70 grams at STP. The weight of 300 mL
of this gas at 27oC and 760 mmHg pressure.
a.) 0.853 g b.) 0.938 g c.) 1.030 g d.) 2.330 g e.) 3.310 g
_______ 8. One liter of a certain gas under standard conditions weighs 1.16 grams. A
possible from of the gas is.
a.) C2H2
b.) CO
c.) O2
d.) NH 3
e.) CH 4
_______ 9. A cylinder contains 0.3 moles of nitrogen 0.1 mole oxygen and 0.1 mole of
helium. If the total gas pressure of oxygen equals 1 atmosphere, the partial pressure of
oxygen in mmHg is which of the following?
a.) 304
b.) 380
c.) 456
d.) 760
e.) 152
_______ 10. A gas cylinder contains 370 g of oxygen gas at 30.0 atm pressure and 25 oC.
What mass of oxygen would escape if first the cylinder were heated to 75 oC and then the
valve were held open until the gas pressure was 1.00 atm, the temperature being
maintained at 75oC?
a.) 285 g
b.) 428 g
c.) 359.54 g d.) 363 g
e.) 397 g
_______ 11. How much water vapor is contained in a cubic room 4.0 m long an edge if the
relative humidity is 50% and the temperature is 27 oC? The vapor pressure of water at
27oC is 26.7 torr.
a.) 0.94 kg b.) 0.82 kg c.) 1.3 kg
d.) 0.88 kg e.) 1.2 kg
_______ 12. Mixtures of oxygen and helium can be tolerated by divers. What proportion
should be oxygen if the diver works 50.0 meters below the surface and the partial pressure
of oxygen should be 0.30 atm (The pressure changes by 1 atm for each 10.30 meter of
depth change in water).
a.) 5.12%
b.) 4.88%
c.) 6.00 % d.) 5.86 %
_______ 13. In which type of system is change in internal energy always zero?
a.) open
b.) closed
c.) isolated
_______ 14. A gas is cooled in a rigid (constant volume) vessel. What will happen to its
internal energy?
a.) increase
b.) decrease
c.) unchanged
_______ 15. Which is correct during compression?
a.) volume of the system increases
b.) internal energy decreases

c.) work is done on the system

_______ 16. One liter-atmosphere equals:
a.) 19.2 J
b.) 4.18 J
c.) 101.27 J d.) 8.31 J
_______ 17. When a sample of gas expands from 2.0 to 7.0 liters against a constant
pressure of 0.6 atm, the work done by the gas is
a.) 303.8 J b.) 12 J
c.) 0.5 J
d.) 34 J
_______ 18. A gas expands from 1.5 to 4.5 L against a constant pressure of 0.2 atm. If it
simultaneously absorbs 50 J of heat, U for the gas is
a.) 61 J
b.) 11 J
c.) + 111 J d.) 111 J
_______ 19. Suppose a person does 622 kJ of work on an exercise bicycle and losses 82
kJ of energy as heat, what is the internal energy change of the person?
a.) + 70 kJ b.) 704 kJ c.) 540 kJ d.) + 540 kJ
_______ 20. A certain gas undergoes an expansion in volume from 2.0 L to 6.0 L at
constant temperature. How much work is done by the gas if it expands against a vacuum?
a.) w > 0
b.) w < 0
c.) w = 0
_______ 21. At constant pressure reversible, q =:
a.) w
b.) U
c.) H
d.) U + H
_______ 22. Which of the following is a state function?
a.) q
b.) H
c.) w
d.) H and w
_______ 23. For a system at constant volume, U must equal:
a.) H
b.) H + w c.) q
d.) PV
e.) q + w
_______ 24. The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a
substance one degree is called
a.) sensible heat
c.) heat capacity
b.) specific heat
d.) latent heat
_______ 25. If it takes 2.8 x 103J to raise the temperature of a sample of water 27.5 oC, the
mass of the sample is
a.) 4.1 x 10 2 g
b.) 27 g
c.) 6.7 g
d.) 24 g
o
Specific heat of H2O = 4.18 J/g C.
_______ 26. A gas absorbs 300 cal of heat and is compressed from 20.0L to 10.0L energy
by an opposing pressure of 2.00 atm. The internal energy change, in calories, for the gas
is:
a.) + 784
b.) + 184
c.) - 784
d.) + 320
e.) 184
_______ 27. The postulate that Equal volume of gases contain the same number of
molecules at the same temperature and pressure was first proposed by
d.) Dalton
b.) Boyle
e.) Henry
c.) Gay-Lusac
_______ 28. When one mole of Fe2O3 (s) is formed by combustion of iron in oxygen,
H = - 197 kcal. How many kcal will be released if 27.9 g of iron are converted to Fe 2O3?
a.) 49.2
b.) 98.4
c.) 148
d.) 197
e.) 394
_______ 29. When water evaporates at constant pressure, the sign of the heat flow
a.) is negative
c.) depends on the temp
b.) is positive
d.) depends on the container volume
_______ 30. Which of the following reactions would you expect to be the source of the
largest amount of heat?
a.) CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2H2O (g)
b.) CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l)
3
c.) CH4 (g) + /2 O2 (g) CO (g) + 2H2O (l)
_______ 31. The molar heat of combustion of methane, CH 4 is reported as 890 kJ. The
corresponding thermochemical equation is
a.) C (g) + 4H (g) CH4
Hc = - 890 kJ
b.) C (graphite) + 2H2 (g) CH4 (g)
Hc = - 890 kJ
c.) CH4 (g) + 3/2 O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l) Hc = - 890 kJ
d.) CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l)
Hc = - 890 kJ
_______ 32. When 1.00g of ammonia, NH3 (MW = 17.0) is produced from N2 and H2 at
constant temperature (25oC) and pressure (1atm), 2711J are evolved. The molar heat of
formation of ammonia, in kJ is
a.) ( - 2.711) (17.0)
c.) 2.711 / 17.0

b.) 17.0 / 2711

d.) + 2.711 / 17.0
_______ 33. Which property tends to produce large deviations from ideal behavior?
a.) high molecular speed
c.) large molecular volume
b.) small molecular weight
d.) weak intermolecular attraction
_______ 34. A real gas most closely approaches the behavior of an ideal gas under
conditions of:
a.) high P and T
d.) low P and high T
b.) low P and low T
e.) high P and low T
c.) STP
_______ 35. According to the kinetic theory of gases the average speed of the molecules
of a given gas is proportional to the:
a.) absolute temperature
b.) square root of the absolute temperature
c.) square of the absolute temperature
d.) volume of the container
e.) reciprocal of the absolute temperature
_______ 36. At 27.2oC and 1.0 atm, the molecules of which of the following gases have
the largest kinetic energy of translation?
d.) CO2
a.) O2
e.) All have the same kinetic energy of translation
b.) Ar
c.) O3
_______ 37. The molecules of which of the following gases have the greatest average
molecular speed at 300K?
a.) Argon
d.) Neon
b.) Nitrogen
e.) All have the same molecular speed at 300K
c.) Flourine
_______ 38. Based on the kinetic theory of gases, the rate of diffusion of N 2 at 25oC would
be ______ times that of CO2 at 75oC.
a.) 1.16
b.) 1.73
c.) 0.97
d.) 0.8770
e.) 1.41
_______ 39. A leak in a faucet comes in separate drops. Which of the main cause of this
phenomenon?
a.) gravity
d.) surface tension
b.) air
e.) shape of the faucet
c.) viscosity of fluid
_______ 40. Maximum work can be obtained from a system when the change taking place
in it is
a.) isothermal
c.) irreversible
d.) reversible
1
1
_______ 41. A sample of 1.0 mol of perfect gas with Cp = 20.8 J mol K is initially at
3.25 atm and 310 K. it undergoes a reversible adiabatic expansion until its pressure
reaches 2.50 atm. Calculate the final volume and the work done.
_______ 42. A closed isometric and reversible system, the value of the work done is:
a.) negative
c.) cannot be calculated
b.) zero
d.) positive
_______ 43. For the given reaction, calculate the standard heat of reaction at 298K and at
600oC,
4NH3 (g) + 5O2 (g) 4NO (g) + 6H2O (g)
Data:
Hf (kJ/mol)
Cpmean (J/mol K)
NH3
- 46.11
35.06
O2
0
29.355
NO
90.25
29.844
H2O (g)
- 241.82
33.58
_______ 44. What weight of ice could be melted at 0 OC by the heat liberated by
condensing 100g of steam at 100OC to liquid?
Heat of Vaporization = 540 cal/g
Heat of Fusion = 80 cal/g
a.) 675g
b.) 660g
c.) 645g
d.) 630g
_______ 45. The time required for volume of gas X to diffuse through a small hole was
112.2 sec. The time required for the same volume of oxygen gas was 84.7 sec. Calculate
the molecular weight of gas X.
a.) 56.1
b.) 18.2
c.) 42.4
d.) 24.1

_______ 46. Using the Van der Waals equation, calculate the pressure and
compressibility factor of 100g of CO2 contained in a volume of 6Lat 60oC.
a = 3.59 atm L2 mol 2
b = 0.0427 L mol 1
_______ 47. The vapor pressure of liquids
a.) is the same at 100oC
b.) is the same at their freezing point
c.) increases with the volume of liquid present
d.) decrease with increasing volume of the container
e.) increases with temperature
_______ 48. The critical temperature is:
a.) the temperature below which a gas undergoes cooling when expanded
into a vacuum
b.) the temperature at which a gas liquifies at one atmosphere pressure
c.) the temperature at which the average kinetic energy of the molecules is
maximum
d.) the temperature above which it is impossible to liquefy the gas
_______ 49. In the phase diagram below, a change from point A to point B corresponds to
A
B
a.)
vaporization
d.) liquefaction
b.)
condensation
e.) freezing
c.)
sublimation
_______ 50. In the phase diagram below, a liquid can be present at temperature and
pressures corresponding to the points.
A

D
B
G

a.) A, B, G
d.) A. C only
b.) A, C, G, D
e.) A, C, D, F
c.) G, C, D, E
_______ 51. Which of these gases can be liquefied at 25 0C?
a.) CH3Cl (critical point: 144oC, 66 atm)
b.) SO2 (critical point: 158oC, 78 atm)
c.) CH4 (critical point: - 82oC, 46 atm)
d.) Both a and b
e.) None of the above

*I. TRUE or FALSE

_______ 1. The maximum work obtainable from a process is given by the value of G
_______ 2. The standard free energy of any pure substance at standard state conditions is
zero
_______ 3. At 25oC and 1 bar pressure, the reaction between N 2 and O2 to form NO(g) is
spontaneous.
_______ 4. For the decomposition of water to the elements at 25 oC and 1 bar, G=+237
kJ. This means that at least 237kJ of work has to be supplied to make this reaction go.
_______5. Automobiles increase in entropy with age.
_______6. If G for a reaction is positive, it is impossible to carry out the reaction unless
either the temperature or the pressure is changed.

_______7. If H and S for a reaction are both negative, we expect G to be negative at

all temperatures.
_______ 8. The free energies of formation of Cu 2O and CuO at 25oC and 1 bar are

146.0 and 129.7 kJ/mol respectively. This means that Cu 2O, exposed to oxygen at room
temperature, will convert spontaneously to CuO.
_______ 9. For the process CO2(s) CO2 (g), we expect both H and S to be positive.
_______ 10. For the process referred in (9), S should decrease with increasing pressure
_______ 11. Reactions for which H and S have the same sign will tend to reverse at
high temperature.
*MULTIPLE CHOICE: Write the letter only.
_______ 1. For the reaction at 25oC and 1atm:
CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l)
Which of the ff. Statements is not true?
a.) the reaction is exothermic
b.) the reaction is spontaneous
c.) G < 0
d.) work has to be done to make the reaction go
_______ 2. Vaporization is an example of a process for which:
a.) H, S and G are positive at all temperatures
b.) H and S are positive
c.) G is negative at low T, positive at high T
d.) H is strongly pressure dependent
_______ 3. For which of the ff. reactions would you expect S to be nearest zero?
a.) C (s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g)
b.) 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2SO 3 (g)
c.) CaSO 4 (s) + 2H2O (l) CaSO 4 2H2O (s)
d.) CO (g) + O2 CO2 (g)
_______ 4. The reaction CaO (s) + H2O (l) Ca(OH)2 (s) is spontaneous at 298K. The
reverse reaction becomes spontaneous at high temperature. This means that
a.) H is +, S is +
c.) H is +, S is b.) H is -, S is d.) H is -, S is +
_______ 5. The free energy of formation of AgCl is 26.2 kcal/mol. G for the reaction:
2AgCl (s) 2AgCl (s) + Cl2 (g) is:
a.) 52.4 kcal
c.) + 26.2 kcal
b.) -26.2 kcal
d.) + 52.4 kcal
_______ 6. For a certain reaction, H = +2.5 kilocalories, S = 10 calories/mol K. This
reaction will be at equilibrium at about
a.) 0.25 oC
c.) 23oC
o
b.) 25 C
d.) cannot tell
_______ 7. The change in the Gibbs energy of a certain constant pressure process was
found to fit the expression G = - 85.40 + 36.5T where G is in Joules and T in Kelvin.
What is the value of S for the process?
a.) 48.9 J
d.) - 36.5 J
b.) 48.9 J
e.) 129.9 J
c.) 36.5 J
_______ 8. What is the change in molar Gibbs energy of hydrogen when it is compresses
isothermally from 1.0 atm to 100.0 atm at 298K?
a.)
11 kJmol 1
d.) + 250 kJmol 1
b.)
11 kJmol 1
e.) 25 kJmol 1
c.)
1
250 kJmol
_______ 9. When the pressure on a 35-g sample of a liquid was increased isothermally
from 1atm to 3000 atm, the Gibbs energy increased by 12kJ. What is the density of the
liquid?
a.) 0.89 g/cc
c.) 3.2 g/cc
b.) 1.1 g/cc
d.) 0.76 g/cc

_______ 10. What is G for the ff. reaction at 25oC?

4NO(g) + 6H2O(g) 502 (g) + 4NH 3(g)
Given the ff. G values: NO = 86.71 kJ/mol; H2O = - 228.61 kJ/mol;
O2 = 0.0 kJ/mol; NH 3 = - 16.66 kJ/mol
a.) 958.2 kJ
d.) 1318.18 kJ
b.) 2145.14 kJ
e.) 1318.18 kJ
c.) 2145.14 kJ
_______ 11. Why is chemical equilibrium considered dynamic?
a.) The forward and reverse reactions continue to occur after equilibrium is
reached.
b.) The forward reaction is extremely fast
c.) The reverse reactions is extremely fast
d.) The forward ad reverse reactions do not proceed after equilibrium is
reached
e.) None of the above
_______ 12. Consider the chemical equilibrium:
C (s) + 2H2 (g) = CH 4 (g) H > 0
In which direction will the equilibrium shift in response to a decrease in
temperature?
a.) Right
c.) will not shift
b.) Left
d.) none of the above
_______ 13. For the reversible reaction:
4HCl (g) + O2 (g) = 2H2O (g) + 2Cl 2(g)
How would you write the equilibrium constant expression if the reaction was
written in the opposite direction?
a.)
[H2O] 2 [Cl2] 2 / [HCl] 4 [O2]
b.)
[HCl] 4 [O2] / [H2O] 2 [Cl2]
c.)
[H2O] [Cl2] / [HCl] [O2]
d.)
[HCl] [O2] / [H2O] [Cl2]
_______ 14. For the reason forming ammonia.
4H2 (g) + N2 (g) = 2NH3 (g)
What effect will increasing the pressure of the system have on this system at
equilibrium?
a.) It will have no effect on the equilibrium concentrations
b.) It will favor the formation of ammonia
c.) The [H2] will increase
d.) The [N2] will increase
e.) It will shift the equilibrium to the left

_______ 15. Consider the ff. reaction and determine which of the conditions will change
the value of the equilibrium constant?
4NH 3(g) + 5O2 (g) = 4NO (g) + 6H2O(g) + heat
c.) increasing the temperature
d.) none of the above
_______ 16. The equilibrium constant Kc for the ff. reaction at 2127 oC is 2.5 x 10 3 . What
is Kp at this temperature?
N 2(g) + O2 (g) = 2NO (g)
a.)
2.5 x 10 3
d.) 4.9 x 10 1
b.)
1.3 x 10 5
e.) 6.4 x 10 8
c.)
1
9.7 x 10
_______ 17. If the equilibrium constant, K for the conversion of isobutane to n-butane is
2.5, what is the equilibrium constant for the reverse reaction?
a.) 2.5
d.) 1.0
b.) 0.4
e.) 6.25
c.) 1.3
***Nos. 18 23: Assume that the system below is at equilibrium. A stress is applied as
described below:

A (g) + 2B (g) = C (g)+ 4D (g)

The choices are:
a.) favors forward reaction
b.) favors backward reaction
c.) no change
_______ 18. The volume is increased.
_______ 19. An inert gas is added at constant pressure
_______ 20. An inert gas is added at constant volume
_______ 21. A catalyst is added.
_______ 22. D is removed.
_______ 24. One mole of a compound AB reacts with one mole of cpd CD according to the
equation:
When equilibrium had been established it was found that mole of each
reactants AB and CD had been converted to AD and CB. There is no change in volume.
The equilibrium constant for the reaction is
a.) 9/16
d.) 9
b.) 1/9
e.) 16
c.) 16/9
_______ 25. A 1 liter vessel established equilibrium with the ff. reaction:
2SO2 + O2 2SO3
At equilibrium, SO2 has 0.11 moles, O2 has 0.05 moles and SO3 has 0.12
moles. Another 1 liter vessel is used which initially contains 96g of SO 2, how much O2 (in
grams) must be added to vessel such that at equilibrium, one half of SO 2 is converted to
SO3?
a.) 6.00
c.) 13.340
b.) 9.304
d.) none of the choice
_______ 26. What is the entropy change for 1.00 mol of H 2 (g) that ahs undergone a
reversible expansion from 0.100 m 3 at 100K to 0.100m 3 at 600K. For hydrogen.
Cp = 29.066 0.836 x 10 3 T + 20.11 x 10 7 T 2 n JK 1 mol 1
_______ 27. For a reversible process, the entropy change of the universe is
a.) always positive
d.) dependent on the temperature
b.) always zero
e.) dependent on the pressure
c.) always negative

_______ 28. One mole of SO 3 was placed in a liter reaction vessel at a certain
temperature. When equilibrium was established in the reaction. 2SO 3 = 2SO 2. The value
of the equilibrium constant is:
a.) 0.36
d.) 0.54
b.) 0.68
e.) 0.18
c.) 0.45
_______ 29. Iodine vapor dissociates according to the equation
I2 = 2I
The equilibrium constant for this reaction is 3992 and 0.0002 at 1000 oC and
600oC respectively. What is the % dissociation of iodine vapor at 900 oC?
a.) 0.569
c.) 0.325
b.) 0.978
d.) 0.759
_______ 30. Alcohol boils t 79oC and H2O boils at 100oC at 1atm pressure. A mixture of the
two will have a boiling point
a.) lower than 79oC
c.) higher than 79oC
o
b.) higher than 100 C
d.) between 79oC and 100oC

I.

Chloroform, CHCl3, and carbon tetrachloride, CCL 4 form ideal solutions. At 70 oC, the
vapor pressure of pure chloroform is 1.341atm, and the vapor pressure of pure

carbon tetrachloride is 0.819atm. What is the mole function of chloroform in a

solution that boils at 70oC and 1.00atm?
II.

A vessel contains a liquid mixture of 50% toluene by weight at 100 oC. The vapor
pressure at 100oC are as follows:

Benzene: 1340 mmHg

Toluene:

560 mmHg

What is the average molecular weight of the vapor in contact with the solution?
III.

If toluene is steam distilled at 1atm, calculate the boiling point and the kg of steam
required to carry 5 kg of toluene into the distillate.
Antoines Constant

Benzene
Toluene

6.90565
6.95464

1211.033
1344.800

220.79
219.482