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PHYSICS LAB REPORT ON FABERY PEROT INTERFEROMETER EXPERIMENT

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You are on page 1of 6

Shyam Kumar

M.Sc Physics

Roll No-15510059

shyam.kumar@iitgn.ac.in

January, 2016

IIT GANDHINAGAR

Contents

1 ABSTRACT

2 INTRODUCTION

3 THEORY

3.1 THEORY OF MULTIPLE BEAM INTERFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

4

5

5

5

6

6

DATA ANALYSIS

4.1 Calibrating the Micrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2 DATA ANALYSIS FOR FINDING THE WAVELENGTH

4.2.1 ERROR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3 CALCULATION OF ETALON SPACING . . . . . . . . .

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Page 2

IIT GANDHINAGAR

ABSTRACT

In this experiment we will find the wavelength of monochromatic light,Here in this experiment as a

monochromatic source of light we have used a red laser source. and will determine the gap between

plates of Fabry-Perot ethalon from the fringe pattern at different micrometer reading.

INTRODUCTION

The Fabry Perot interferometer arrangement acts as optical resonator which may be result in an

up to 107 for optical wavelength .In this way, state-ofthe-art Fabry-Prot cavities may exceed the resolution of classical diffraction gratings by a factor of

100 and provide an irreplaceable tool in particular for studies of the hyperfine structure in atomic

spectra. Interferometer consists of two flat glass plates, semi-silvered on their inner surfaces and

mounted parallel to one another.

Fig: Movable Etalon showing how multiple reflection gives rise to formation of

Interference Pattern

Michelson Interferometer is a two beam Interferometer. But Fabry-Perot Interferometer is a multiple beam interferometer in contrast to the Michelson Interferometer. We can get a clear idea about

the interference pattern of the two system from the interference pattern figure given below.

Fig(a): Interference patter for F-P Interferometer & Fig(b): Interference patter for

Micheleson Interferometer

From the figure it is clear that Fabry Perot spectroscopic device is more efficient and accurate for a

given resolsving power as it gives more luminous and sharp images. The F-P interferometer is used

Page 3

IIT GANDHINAGAR

for precision measurement of the wavelength of any unknown light source and for the fine structure

of a spectrum.

3

3.1

THEORY

THEORY OF MULTIPLE BEAM INTERFERENCE

The Fabry perot interferometer generally uses the concept of multiple beam interference. Consider

the incidence of a plane wave on a plate of thickness d and having Refractive index n surrounded

by medium of refractive index n1 as shown below. And as in Fabry perot interferometer the film

between the glass plates is air , we will use n = n1 to get desired result.

let A0 be the amplitude of incident wave. The wave will go multiple reflection in between the

two interface as shown in figure above. Let r1 , t1 represent the amplitude reflection and transmission coefficient when the wave incident n1 towards n and r2 , t2 represent the corresponding

coefficient when the wave incident from n to n1 .So the amplitude of successive reflected waves will

be A0 r1 , A0 t1 r2 t2 ei , A0 t1 r23 e2i .......... and so on. Where

=

2

4ndcos

=

=The path difference due to additional path travelled in the film

= The angle of refraction

d = Thickness of the film

= The wavelenght of the incident wave

Thus the resultant amplitude of the reflected wave will be

Ar = A0 [r1 + t1 t2 r2 ei (1 + r22 ei + .............)]

t1 t2 r2 ei

Ar = A0 r1 +

1 r22 ei

If we use the glass of same reflectivity we can write R = r12 = r22 and = t1 t2 = 1 R and by using

r2 = r1 we have

Ar

(1 R)ei

= r1 1

A0

1 Rei

Page 4

IIT GANDHINAGAR

2

2

2

Ar

1 ei 2

4Rsin2 2

= R (1 cos) + sin =

R = = R

A0

(1 Rcos)2 + R2 sin2

1 Rei

(1 R)2 + 4Rsin2 2

By putting F =

4R

(1R)2

we get

R=

F sin2 2

1 + F sin2 2

T =1R=

1

1 + F sin2 2

DATA ANALYSIS

4.1

For more accurate measurement of the mirror movement we can calibrate the micrometer as follows.

Now turn the micrometer upto count of 10 fringes or more. Note the changes in micrometer reading

and record this value as d0 . But the actual mirror movement is given by d = N2 where is the

wavelength of the light source and N is the no of fringes counted. Then = dd0 is the calibration

constant for the micrometer.

Here N=10, d0 = 0.01785 mm = 532 nm

d=

N

10 532 109

=

m = 2.66 106 m

2

2

=

4.2

d

= 0.0149

d0

No.

of obs.

1

2

3

4

5

6

No.

of fringes

10

10

10

10

10

10

M.S.R V.S.R Total (mm)

4.5

0

4.50

4.5

29

4.79

5.0

0

5.0

5.0

20

5.20

5.0

39

5.39

5.50

10

5.6

=

M.S.R V.S.R Total (mm)

4.5

29

4.79

4.5

50

05.0

5.0

20

5.20

5.0

19

5.39

5.50

10

5.6

5.5

30

5.80

(A-B)

in mm

0.291-9

0.21

0.20

0.19

0.21

0.20

Mean

dred (mm)

0.217

2 0.217 103

0.0149 = 646 nm

10

Page 5

4.2.1

IIT GANDHINAGAR

ERROR

My experimental value came as = 646 nm

So error = = 0 = 4nm

Percentage in Error=

0 100 = .615%

4.3

If the wavelength of light is given then we can also find the spacing between the silvered mirrors

of the experiment. Light incident on the fabry perot etalon if allowed to fall on a white screen will

produce circular fringes. the radial distance of the circles are measured with a metal scale provided

by our laboratory whose values are as follows:

D= Distance between the Etalon and the white screen

Data as taken for D = 500 mm = 50 cm and =650 nm and m= Order of the circular fringe

Sl

No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Fringe

Number

1

2

3

4

5

6

Radius

in cm

0.0

0.06

0.85

1.00

1.20

1.40

Radius2

in cm2

0.0

0.36

0.7225

1.00

1.44

1.96

2m = 2n+m 2n

0.00

0.36

0.7225

1.00

1.44

1.96

Order

m

0

1

2

3

4

5

t= mD

2n

in meter

0

4.51x103

4.49x103

4.87x103

4.51x103

4.14x103

Avg t

in m

4.506x103

Page 6

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