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FEBRY PEROT INTERFEROMETER

Shyam Kumar
M.Sc Physics
Roll No-15510059
shyam.kumar@iitgn.ac.in
January, 2016

Physics Lab Report

IIT GANDHINAGAR

Contents
1 ABSTRACT

2 INTRODUCTION

3 THEORY
3.1 THEORY OF MULTIPLE BEAM INTERFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4
4

5
5
5
6
6

DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Calibrating the Micrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS FOR FINDING THE WAVELENGTH
4.2.1 ERROR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 CALCULATION OF ETALON SPACING . . . . . . . . .

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Physics Lab Report

IIT GANDHINAGAR

ABSTRACT

In this experiment we will find the wavelength of monochromatic light,Here in this experiment as a
monochromatic source of light we have used a red laser source. and will determine the gap between
plates of Fabry-Perot ethalon from the fringe pattern at different micrometer reading.

INTRODUCTION

The Fabry Perot interferometer arrangement acts as optical resonator which may be result in an

extremly high spetral resolution power


up to 107 for optical wavelength .In this way, state-ofthe-art Fabry-Prot cavities may exceed the resolution of classical diffraction gratings by a factor of
100 and provide an irreplaceable tool in particular for studies of the hyperfine structure in atomic
spectra. Interferometer consists of two flat glass plates, semi-silvered on their inner surfaces and
mounted parallel to one another.

Fig: Movable Etalon showing how multiple reflection gives rise to formation of
Interference Pattern
Michelson Interferometer is a two beam Interferometer. But Fabry-Perot Interferometer is a multiple beam interferometer in contrast to the Michelson Interferometer. We can get a clear idea about
the interference pattern of the two system from the interference pattern figure given below.

Fig(a): Interference patter for F-P Interferometer & Fig(b): Interference patter for
Micheleson Interferometer
From the figure it is clear that Fabry Perot spectroscopic device is more efficient and accurate for a
given resolsving power as it gives more luminous and sharp images. The F-P interferometer is used
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Physics Lab Report

IIT GANDHINAGAR

for precision measurement of the wavelength of any unknown light source and for the fine structure
of a spectrum.

3
3.1

THEORY
THEORY OF MULTIPLE BEAM INTERFERENCE

The Fabry perot interferometer generally uses the concept of multiple beam interference. Consider
the incidence of a plane wave on a plate of thickness d and having Refractive index n surrounded
by medium of refractive index n1 as shown below. And as in Fabry perot interferometer the film
between the glass plates is air , we will use n = n1 to get desired result.

let A0 be the amplitude of incident wave. The wave will go multiple reflection in between the
two interface as shown in figure above. Let r1 , t1 represent the amplitude reflection and transmission coefficient when the wave incident n1 towards n and r2 , t2 represent the corresponding
coefficient when the wave incident from n to n1 .So the amplitude of successive reflected waves will
be A0 r1 , A0 t1 r2 t2 ei , A0 t1 r23 e2i .......... and so on. Where
=

2
4ndcos
=

= Phase difference between 2 successive wave emanating from the surface


=The path difference due to additional path travelled in the film
= The angle of refraction
d = Thickness of the film
= The wavelenght of the incident wave
Thus the resultant amplitude of the reflected wave will be
Ar = A0 [r1 + t1 t2 r2 ei (1 + r22 ei + .............)]


t1 t2 r2 ei
Ar = A0 r1 +
1 r22 ei
If we use the glass of same reflectivity we can write R = r12 = r22 and = t1 t2 = 1 R and by using
r2 = r1 we have


Ar
(1 R)ei
= r1 1
A0
1 Rei

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Physics Lab Report

IIT GANDHINAGAR

Thus the reflectivity of the above arrangement is given by



2

2
2
Ar
1 ei 2
4Rsin2 2
= R (1 cos) + sin =
R = = R
A0
(1 Rcos)2 + R2 sin2
1 Rei
(1 R)2 + 4Rsin2 2
By putting F =

4R
(1R)2

we get
R=

F sin2 2
1 + F sin2 2

And the corresponding transmitivity


T =1R=

1
1 + F sin2 2

Thus T=1 when = 2m for m=1,2,3,...

DATA ANALYSIS

4.1

Calibrating the Micrometer

For more accurate measurement of the mirror movement we can calibrate the micrometer as follows.
Now turn the micrometer upto count of 10 fringes or more. Note the changes in micrometer reading
and record this value as d0 . But the actual mirror movement is given by d = N2 where is the
wavelength of the light source and N is the no of fringes counted. Then = dd0 is the calibration
constant for the micrometer.
Here N=10, d0 = 0.01785 mm = 532 nm
d=

N
10 532 109
=
m = 2.66 106 m
2
2
=

4.2

d
= 0.0149
d0

DATA ANALYSIS FOR FINDING THE WAVELENGTH

No.
of obs.
1
2
3
4
5
6

No.
of fringes
10
10
10
10
10
10

Initial Reading (A) in mm


M.S.R V.S.R Total (mm)
4.5
0
4.50
4.5
29
4.79
5.0
0
5.0
5.0
20
5.20
5.0
39
5.39
5.50
10
5.6
=

Final Reading (B) in mm


M.S.R V.S.R Total (mm)
4.5
29
4.79
4.5
50
05.0
5.0
20
5.20
5.0
19
5.39
5.50
10
5.6
5.5
30
5.80

(A-B)
in mm
0.291-9
0.21
0.20
0.19
0.21
0.20

Mean
dred (mm)

0.217

2 0.217 103
0.0149 = 646 nm
10

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Physics Lab Report

4.2.1

IIT GANDHINAGAR

ERROR

The actual wavelength for the RED laser is 650 nm


My experimental value came as = 646 nm
So error = = 0 = 4nm
Percentage in Error=
0 100 = .615%

4.3

CALCULATION OF ETALON SPACING

If the wavelength of light is given then we can also find the spacing between the silvered mirrors
of the experiment. Light incident on the fabry perot etalon if allowed to fall on a white screen will
produce circular fringes. the radial distance of the circles are measured with a metal scale provided
by our laboratory whose values are as follows:
D= Distance between the Etalon and the white screen
Data as taken for D = 500 mm = 50 cm and =650 nm and m= Order of the circular fringe
Sl
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Fringe
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6

Radius
in cm
0.0
0.06
0.85
1.00
1.20
1.40

Radius2
in cm2
0.0
0.36
0.7225
1.00
1.44
1.96

2m = 2n+m 2n
0.00
0.36
0.7225
1.00
1.44
1.96

Order
m
0
1
2
3
4
5

t= mD
2n
in meter
0
4.51x103
4.49x103
4.87x103
4.51x103
4.14x103

Avg t
in m

4.506x103

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