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Diliman, Quezon City


SUBMITTED BY: Frances Abegail G. Quezon

SUBMITTED TO: Ms. Irina Diane Castanos

DATE: November 21, 2012

Calorimetry is the measurement of heat evolved or absorbed from a reaction. It is
derived from the Latin word, calor, meaning heat and the Greek word metry, meaning to
The process of calorimetry makes use of a device called a calorimeter. The
calorimeter measures the heat of reaction of the system. The heat of reaction is the heat
required for the system to return to its original state.
The experiment makes use of a Styrofoam ball that acts as the calorimeter. It acts
in the same principle as the coffee-cup calorimeter. The first part of the experiment is
calibration of the calorimeter where the heat capacity of the calorimeter would be
determined for further use.
The equations used for the experiment are the following:
Qrxn = mCT
Qrxn = -Qcal
Qcal = CcalT
H = Qrxn /n
H = enthalpy of formation of products enthalpy of formation of reactants
Where: Qrxn = heat of reaction
m = mass
T = temperature change
Qcal = heat of calorimeter
Ccal = heat capacity of calorimeter
H = enthalpy of reaction
For the computation of the theoretical enthalpy of reaction, a table of standard
heats of formation for some substances is used.
Ca 2+ (aq)
Mg 2+ (aq)
Zn 2+ (aq)
CO3 2- (aq)
OAc - (aq)
NH4 + (aq)
NH3 (aq)
Cu 2+ (aq)
Al 3+ (aq)
H+ (aq)
CaCO3 (s)
CH3COOH (aq)

heat of formation(kJ/mol)

H2O (l)
OH - (aq)


The following chemical reactions are witnessed in the experiment in the same
order as below:
NH3 (aq) + H+ (aq)
NH4 + (aq)
CH3COOH (aq) + OH - (aq) OAc - (aq) + H2O (l)
NH3 (aq) + CH3COOH (aq)
NH4 + (aq) + OAc - (aq)
H+ (aq) + OH - (aq)
H2O (l)
2 H (aq) + Mg(s) Mg 2+ (aq)
+ H2(g)
Mg(s) + 2 CH3COOH (aq)
Mg 2+ (aq) + 2OAc - (aq) + H2(g)
Cu (aq) + Zn(s) Zn (aq) + Cu(s)
Ca 2+ (aq) + CO3 2- (aq) CaCO3 (s)
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the heat evolved or absorbed from
the given reaction and compare it to the theoretical. It is also done to practice the students
in the process of calorimetry.

From Manual:
1. Errors could arise from the improper set-up of the calorimeter. The Styrofoam ball
could be damaged which could cause improper insulation, therefore, improper
temperature readings. Wrong preparation of solutions would also cause discrepancies
from the experimental and theoretical heat of reaction. Using a wet test tube would also
yield incorrect results because it would lead to the misreading of the temperature.
Residue from chemicals used in the calibration or previous trials that are left from
improper washing would also affect experimental results.
2. a.) Because of the set-up used. We used an 8 or larger Styrofoam ball and a 6 test
tube. A lesser amount of solution might cause the improper reading of the temperature
because the bulb would not reach the solution. A big difference from 15ml might fill the
test tube and interfere with proper temperature readings.
b.) We need to know the concentration of reactants in order to solve for their moles and
further for the limiting reagent in the reaction. The moles of limiting reagent would then
be used to compute for the enthalpy of reaction.
c.) For the same reason of knowing the concentration of liquid reactants, knowing the
weight of metals would let us know the number of moles that we would use in the
reaction. Using stoichiometry, we could compute for the moles of the limiting reagent
which we could use for computing the enthalpy of reaction.
3. a.) mol = 0.2 L (0.5 M) = 0.1 moles HA
Enthalpy = -6 kJ/0.1 moles =
-60 kJ/mol

b.) HA is a weak acid. The neutralization reaction of a strong acid and strong base
would result to the net ionic equation H+ (aq)+ OH - (aq) H2O (l). This enthalpy of this
reaction is -55.8 kJ/mol which is not the case with HA and NaOH.
c.) HA(aq) + OH - (aq) A- (aq) + H2O (l)
4. a.) H+ (aq)+ OH - (aq) H2O (l)
b.) Cu 2+ (aq) + Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu(s)
c.) mol = 2M (0.015L) = 0.03 moles HCl
mol = 2M (0.005L) = 0.01 moles NaOH
-55.85 kJ/mole ( 0.01 mol) = -0.558 kJ (Qrxn)
Qcal = 0.558 kJ
Ccal = 0.558 kJ/ 5.60 C = 99.64 J/ C
d.) Qcal = 99.642857 J/ C ( 8.83C) = 879.8464286 J Qrxn = -879.8464286 J
mol = 0.450M (0.02 L) = 0.09 mol CuSO4 0.264gZn/65.39g = 0.004 mol Zn
enthalpy = -879. 8464286 J/0.004 = -217.93 kJ/mol
5. H (aq)+ OH - (aq) H2O (l) -55.8 kJ/mol
-55.8 kJ/mol = -285 kJ/mol - (0.00 kJ/mol + OH)
-55.8 kJ/mol = -285 kJ/mol -OH

OH = -229.2 kJ/mol
From Guide Questions:
1. a.) Exothermic
b.) HCl
c.) 279 J
2. If T is positive then H is negative. This is because the T computed is for Qcal.
Qcal = -Qrxn and since H is Qrxn/moles of L.R., H would also be negative.
3. Heat capacity of the calorimeter is Qcal/T. When T is positive, so is the Ccal.
4. Qcal = CcalT
Ccal = Qcal
1. NH3 (aq) + H+ (aq) NH4 + (aq)
2. CH3COOH (aq)
+ OH - (aq) OAc - (aq) + H2O (l)
3. NH3 (aq) + CH3COOH (aq) NH4 + (aq) + OAc - (aq)
4. H+ (aq)
+ OH - (aq)
H2O (l)
5. 2 H (aq) + Mg(s) Mg 2+ (aq) + H2(g)
6. Mg(s) + 2 CH3COOH (aq) Mg 2+ (aq) + 2OAc - (aq) + H2(g)
7. Cu 2+ (aq) + Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu(s)
8. Ca 2+ (aq) + CO3 2- (aq) CaCO3 (s)
1. HCl
5. Mg(s)
6. Mg(s)
7. Zn(s)
4. HNO3
8. CaCl2 & Na2CO3
7. a.) 1. exothermic
4. exothermic
2. exothermic
5. exothermic
3. exothermic
6. exothermic

7. exothermic
8. endothermic
b.) Group 1 10.95%
Group 7 4.13%
Group 3 36.79%
Group 8 78.59%
Group 4 86.996%
Group 9 21.68%
Group 5 12.63%
Group 10 100%
Group 6 12.63%
8. When T is positive, Qcal is positive, therefore Qrxn is negative, thus H is also
9. Theoretically and experimentally, the least exothermic reaction is the first one, NH 3 (aq)
+ H+ (aq)
NH4 + (aq). It is the least exothermic because its H is the least negative
among the given reactions.
10. Theoretically, the more exothermic would be the reaction between magnesium solid
and acetic acid. Experimentally, the reaction between HCl and magnesium gave a more
negative H, but the percent error is 37.06%. The reaction with the weak acid gave a
more exothermic value because of the incomplete dissociation of the weak acid.
7. Cu (s)
0.007646429 mol Zn x 1 mol Cu x 63.636 g Cu = 0.487 g
1 mol Zn 1 mol Cu
8. CaCO3 (s)
0.005 mol CaCl2 x 1 mol CaCO3 x 100.02 g CaCO3 = 5.001 g
1 mol CaCl2
1 mol CaCO3
12. The theoretical H is positive, therefore the reaction is endothermic. This means that
the breaking of bonds of the reactants overpowered the formation of bonds of the
13. Qcal = Ccal T
Qrxn = -Qcal
Source of Error
Effect on T
Effect on Ccal
Effect on H
Wet test tube
decrease (water cools rxn) decrease(direct
proportion to T) proportion to Qrxn)
decreased molarity decrease(incomplete
of reagents acting with reaction would cause proportion to T) proportion to Qrxn)
it to be less exothermic)
Petrucci, R. , Herring F. , Madura J. & Bissonnette C. (2011). General Chemistry.
Canada: Pearson Education
Institute of Chemistry. (June 2011). General Chemistry : Laboratory Manual
The Physics Classroom (n.d.) Calorimetry. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from
Computer Assisted Chemistry Tutorial (n.d.) Calorimetry. Retrieved November 17, 2012,