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You are on page 1of 13

Jason Zhang (jz7486)

April 7th, 2016

Th. 3:30-6:30 PM

Introduction:

Bipolar junction transistors act as amplifiers when operating in the forward active region, which

requires that the base-emitter and base-collector junctions are forward- and reverse-biased,

respectively. Additionally, designers must consider the small signal parameters gm, ro, and r

(and their dependence on collector current) when creating a circuit. To this end, biasing schemes

and particular amplifier topologies have arisen, of which the common emitter topology is only

one.

Relevant properties of the CE core include a negative gain (Av = -gmRc), an input impedance of

Rin = r||ro, and an output impedance of (Rout = Rc||ro). However, these properties can be

manipulated to suit the designers needs through the customization of the surrounding circuit.

Such alterations include emitter degeneration and resistive-divider biasing, which were explored

experimentally in this lab.

Components:

The same components as those listed in the Lab 7 instructions were used.

Procedure:

The same procedures as those listed in the Lab 7 instructions were followed.

Results & Discussion:

Task 1:

Without Resistor Divider Bias:

1. Using Multisim, perform a sweep of VB from 0 to VCC. Using the

plot, find the DC bias of the amplifier that achieves the

maximum gain? What are the values for VB, VOUT and IC for this

gain?

Using the values: = 200, RC = 1.5 k, and RE = 500 , we sweep VB from 0 to 5 V and

use the linear region for IC and VOUT to bias our transistor. We choose IC = 1 mA to be our

bias current. This corresponded to a DC bias of approximately VB = 1.176 V. At this

bias, VOUT is approximately 3.369 V and IC is approximately 1.087 mA.

2. What is this value of gain? (Hand-calculated small signal gain

w/ emitter degeneration)

AV =

RC

1500

=

=2.86

1

26 mV

+ RE

+ 500

gm

1.087 mA

values above.

Figure 2. Measured Vout is around 3.85 V. The hand-calculated Vout is about 3.37 V.

4. Now, design the resistor biasing circuit for this amplifier using

divider for maximum gain.

We set VBE by using a resistor divider and applying the appropriate voltage-divider rules

to determine the requires resistances:

R2

R 1+ R 2

1.176=5

1.176

R 1 + R2

=5

R2

R1

=5

R2

( )

1.176 1+

1.176 V 5 V R1

=

1.176 V

R2

R1

=3.25

R2

Thus, we can choose R1 = 3.9 k and R2 = 1.2 k to set the appropriate VB to bias the

circuit.

5. Use the simulator to verify your hand calculations.

Figure 5. Shows the simulated resistor-divider biased circuit along with its simulated operating

point values.

The above circuit was simulated using Multisim. The table to the right shows the associated

operating point variables and their simulated values. These values agree with what we have

determined in the previous circuit that did not use a resistive divider for biasing.

6. Setup the circuit on the protoboard, and verify the design values above.

Figure 6. Measured Vout is around 4.30 V for the resistor-divider biased circuit.

7. Calculate the small-signal gain of the circuit, both from the signal source to the output, and

base to the output. Use the value of IC that you measure from the previous step in your

calculations.

A v , b output =g m R C =

I C

0.486 mA

RC =

( 1500 )=28.04

VT

26 mV

R1||R2||r

R

R

=(28.04 )

=(28.04 )

Rsig + R

Rsig + R

Rsig + R 1||R2||r

gm

) (

20026 mV

3.9 k||1.2 k||(

(

)

0.486 mA )

(28.04 )

=(28.04 )

20026 mV

50 + 3.9 k||1.2 k||

50 + 3.9 k||1.2 k||(

( g )

0.486 mA )

(28.04 )

845.162

( 50+845.162

)=26.47

8. Simulate the circuit and compare the simulated gains to the hand-calculated gains.

The

9. Why are these gain values different? What is the relationship between these two gain

values?

These gain values are different because of the non-ideal voltage source. Since it not ideal, there

exists a voltage drop across a source resistance in series with the signal. As a result, the base

voltage is not exactly the same as the signal voltage, as it would be in the ideal case. This leads to

a difference in these gain values. These gains can be related via voltage division.

10. Using the AWG, apply a 100 mV peak-to-peak sine wave at the input with a DC offset

corresponding to the required base bias voltage. Measure both the small-signal gains you

calculated above.

Avsig

Avin

Task 2:

1. Calculate the small-signal input impedance of the BJT amplifier.

R1, calc=R1||R2||r =

1

1

1

=

=

=845.162

1 1 1

Ic

1

1

0.486 mA

1

1

+ +

+

+

R1 R 2 r 3900 + 1200 + V t 3900 1200 20026

1,=

R source

1

A v ,sig output

A v ,b output

A v , sig output

A v , b output

)(

60.75719

60.75935

=

=766.3

60.75719

1

60.75935

R

50

3. Using relationship between the two gains you measured in the previous step, you should be

able to find the input resistance. Report this as Ri1. Once you find do this, find the value of

r.

R1, measured=

R source

1

r =

A v , sig output

A v, b output

)(

A v, sig output

A v ,b output

1

1

1

1

26.47

28.04

=

=842 . 994

26.47

1

28.04

50

=10,362.2

The first input impedance is calculated using hand-calculations and the measured I C. We assume

that the Early resistance, ro, is extremely large and can be neglected from the expression. The

second input impedance is calculated using the gains simulated in Multisim. Because the input

impedance can be related to the two voltage gains via a voltage division equation, we can solve

for input impedance. The simulated input impedance is slightly lower than the measured. Finally,

the last input impedance is calculated in a manner similar to the simulated input impedance,

except the measured voltage gains are used.

5. Another method of estimating input impedance is to artificially increase the source

impedance by connecting a physical resistor in series with the AWG (or using it in highimpedance mode). Do this by picking a suitably-sized resistor and repeating measurements

to calculate input impedance. Report this as Ri2.

R3

R2, measured=

A v ,b output

A

1 v , sig output ,new

A v ,b output

=822.482

Task 3:

1. Calculate the small-signal output impedance of the BJT amplifier.

Rout =R C r o RC =1.5 k

2. Obtain the value of small-signal output impedance via simulation.

The simulated value agrees with our hand calculated value. The reason why it is negative is

because of the reversed polarity of the current as defined in the simulation program. In reality, it

is approximately 1.5K.

3. Explain the differences between three values you obtain.

The differences in the three values measured for output impedance may be due to non-idealities

within the circuit, including the potentiometer and the measuring equipment.

4. Explain why this procedure measures the output resistance.

This procedure measures the output resistance because you are creating a voltage divider between

the output and ground. The potentiometer acts as a variable resistor that you can modulate until

the voltage measured at the output is of the original peak-to-peak value. When this condition is

met, it implies that an equal amount of voltage is being dropped over the output impedance and

the variable resistor. In order to have an equal amount of voltage dropped, the resistances must be

the same. Therefore, whatever resistance is measured across the potentiometer is equivalent to the

output impedance. This is an indirect way to measure the output impedance.

5. Explain the function of the capacitor and speculate as to why its value was chosen as such.

In any circuit that involves small signals, capacitors are used to either perform AC coupling or to

short out components such that they can be ignored in AC conditions. Because the impedance of a

capacitor is 1/(2fCj), the impedance of a capacitor to AC signals can be modulated by changing

the value of C. In the case of this circuit, we choose C such that, for our frequency of interest f,

the value of 1/(2fCj) is low enough so that the emitter resistor is shorted to AC ground.

Task 4:

1. Explain why a large capacitor was connected in parallel with the emitter resistor in the

previous circuit. You can use theoretical gain calculations to support your answer. Speculate

on the choice of size of this capacitor.

We place a capacitor in parallel with the emitter resistor to short out the resistor such that for

small signal analysis, emitter degeneration is ignored. This is useful so that you still have the DCproperties of the emitter resistor to determine the quiescent operating point of the transistor.

2. Now remove the capacitor and carry out calculations for small-signal gain, input-impedance

and output impedance

0.486 mA

( 1500 )

gm RC

26 mV

AV =

=

=2.71

1+ gm R E

0.486 mA

1+

( 500 )

26 mV

R =R1||R 2||r + ( 1+ B ) R E =845.162+ ( 201 )( 500 ) =101.3 kOhm

Rout =R c||r o ( 1+ gm r o ) =RC =1500 kOhm ,assuming r o is very large .

4. Explain based on the experiments you have conducted, the tradeoffs involved in choosing

emitter degeneration for AC operation of the amplifier. Your discussion must take into

account the fact that CE and its size is also an important cost and design consideration.

The benefit of emitter degeneration is that it makes the transistor less sensitive to variations in the

transistor properties (such as hFE). However, it also decreases the voltage gain of the circuit by a

factor of (1 + gmRE). If you are certain about the characteristics of a transistor, you may not want

to use emitter degeneration in order to achieve a higher gain. In the end, one must consider the

desired gain and the uncertainty in the component before deciding whether to employ emitter

degeneration.

Conclusion:

This experiment explored different varieties of the common emitter stage and their relative

utility. The simulation of the simple (no divider) circuit paralleled the measured values (albeit

imperfectly) as may be seen through comparison of the values provided in Task 1 above. Once a

voltage divider was implemented, we performed a simulation to determine the resulting values

for the operating point parameters. The similarity of these values to those seen before

implementing the divider indicate that we have chosen appropriate resistors to maintain function.

However, the simulated gains found after were admittedly different, indicating some error in the

implementation or calculations. Task 2 involved hand calculating, simulating, and measuring the

input impedance using the bias condition parameters measured in Task 1. We found that,

generally, all three agreed with each other. The simulated case, being ideal, was slightly higher

than the output impedances that were both measured and hand-calculated. Task 3 was concerned

with determining the output impedance of the transistor circuit. Since we assumed that the Early

resistor is extremely large, the output impedance simplifies to approximately the collector

resistance. This simplified our calculations substantially. Values found during simulation agreed

with those obtained via hand calculation. Finally, in task 4, we assessed the small signal

parameters (as done in tasks 1-3 above) for the transistor circuitry without the capacitor in

parallel with the emitter resistance. The effect of this was to introduce emitter degeneration,

which ultimately decreased our gain and increased the input impedance. We discovered that to

use emitter degeneration effectively, one must decide on the necessary gain and impedance

values needed.

Bonus:

Hooking up the speaker to the signal generator directly causes a majority of the voltage drop to

occur across the speakers internal resistance. This makes the speaker sound loudly. However,

when connected to the circuit, the speaker outputs a much quieter sound. This is because of the

high output impedance of the transistor circuit relative to the resistance of the speaker. By

voltage division, a majority of the signal power is now dissipated in the transistor circuit instead

of the speaker, causing the speaker to behave as if in low-power conditions. In other words, its

very quiet.

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