Unknown Organic Compound= X

Test PH with litmus paper Neutral (No change)
Place 5 drops of X into test tube. Add 10 drops of 1M H2SO4 and 2 drops of 0.1M K2Cr2O7 (potassium dichromate–orange)

Acidic (Litmus paper red)

No change

Turns Green (oxidized)
Silver Mirror Test Add 5 mL of 0.1M AgNO3 (Silver Nitrate) to test tube. Add 2M NH3 (Ammonia) until initial cloudy precipitate of Ag2O just dissolves. Add 1-2 drops of X into mixture & place in water bath.

No change
Place 15 drops of X into a test tube & 15 drops of 2-butanol into a separate test tube. Add a small piece of sodium metal to each test tube & compare the reactions

Grey silver precipitate

Carboxylic Acid Check by adding 10 drops of X to 10 drops of saturated = NaHCO3 (sodium bicarbonate) There should be fizzing as CO2 gas is released

Same

Different
Set up apparatus & test the boiling point

Aldehyde Methanal Checked with the Silver Mirror Test

Secondary Alcohol 2-butanol Already checked by comparing sodium test to a known sample of 2-butanol in previous step.

Below 107°C

Above 107°C

Primary Alcohol 1-propanol BP 97.4°C

Primary Alcohol 1-butanol BP 118°C

Set up apparatus & test the boiling point

Above 129.5°C
Add a small piece of sodium metal

Below 129.5°C

Reaction

No reaction
Alkyl Halide Test A)Warm a mixture of 2 drops X & 5 drops ethanol with a little solid KOH (potassium hydroxide) B)cool mixture & add 2M HNO3 (nitric acid) until blue litmus paper turns red indicating solution is acidic. Add 3 drops of AgNO3 (silver nitrate) solution.

Carboxylic Acid Propanoic Acid BP 141°C

Carboxylic Acid ethanoic acid BP 118°C

Tertiary Alcohol 2-methyl-2-propanol Check by comparing sodium test to a known sample of 2-methyl-2-propanol

Alternatively use expected density

26.23g/25mL

24.83g/25mL

No precipitate

Precipitate
Carboxylic Acid ethanoic acid Carboxylic Acid Propanoic Acid

Ketone Propanone Check by comparing density to expected density of 0.7850g/L

Halo Alkane dichloromethane Check by comparing density to expected density of 1.32g/L

Mark Riley 3107631608

Organic Chemistry

Experimental Design & Practical Test

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