WRITING CODES ESL PJC URL fld nts GED PISD US #’s ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﮔ‬ wk with without week

English as a Second Language Paris Junior College Uniform Resource Locator Field Notes General Equivalency Diploma Paris Independent School District United States numbers

SUB-COGNITIVE BEHAVIORS: Repeats: upon hearing a single word, says the word so that the instructor is satisfied with the production of each phoneme. Imitates: upon hearing a word or sentence, says the same phrase or sentence so that its features satisfy the instructor. Differentiates: upon hearing a pair of words differing by one phoneme, says either “same” or “different” or pronounces the pair with sufficient distinction to enable the instructor to hear two different words. Recites: upon hearing a cue which contains none of the words in the intended response, or upon seeing a visual one, utters a phrase, sentence, or passage from memory. Associates: upon hearing a single word in the target language, utters a synonym. (This is a format much used in native-language vocabulary and reading tests for testing the mastery of idioms.) Permutes orally: upon hearing an example of a specified grammatical permutation followed by a word or phrase that forces a grammatical change, says a phrase or sentence that incorporates the forced change.

Names: upon seeing an object, a color, a digit, or a picture or a demonstration of an action, says its name. (Notice that this form of paired associate learning demands a one or two word response.) Reads orally: upon seeing a printed word or phrase, utters the same word or phrase. (This demands only a knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and stops short of connected discourse, which demands an understanding of the content to make intonation coherent.) Answers orally: upon seeing a formula question such as “How are you?” “What’s your name?” or “Where are you from?”, utters the most conventional reply, or the one in the text. Copies: upon seeing words or sentences in print or in hand-written script, copies the stimulus in hand-written script. (This is appropriate for students who are either illiterate or literate in a nonRoman alphabet.) Spells: upon hearing a single word, writes the correct spelling. (The thousand most common words in English are traditionally memorized because they violate the most powerful phonemegrapheme rules of English. Lists: upon command or visual cue, writes in conventional orthography, words or sentences from memory. Transcribes: upon hearing connected discourse of sentence length or longer, writes in conventional orthography the spoken stimulus. Answers in writing: after seeing or hearing a formula question, such as greetings, inquires after health, and the yes/no questions asked of small children, writes the most conventional reply. Chooses: after reading a sentence containing a multiple choice set of words or short phrases, circles the words deemed correct. Matches: given a physical object or picture of it, and a set of printed cards with the name of the object on one of them, places the card with the correct name next to the object. Identifies: upon seeing a printed sentence and a set of lines representing rises and falls in intonation, selects the linear representation of the intonation characteristically given to the stimulus sentence. Intonation: the systems of levels (rising and falling) and variations in pitch sequences within speech. Phoneme: the smallest phonetic unit of a language that is capable of conveying a distinction in meaning, as the m of mat and the b of bat in English. Phoneme-grapheme: English connections with Spanish, same or similar sound, or same letter.

Answers direct question: given a simple yes/no/ or wh—question which can be answered by reference to personal knowledge, general knowledge, or to physically discernable fact, writes or speaks the answer in maximally reduced form. Performs: given a spoken or written command to perform an action which no special skill, performs the prescribed action. CODING TERMS AS SEEN IN INTERVIEWEE’S: Daniel Morin: appeared to have trouble understanding the question, “should a pseudonym be used” and originally circled “yes.” I went back to him on another day and explained again what that specific word meant. I got the feeling that because I questioned his original answer was the only reason he changed his decision to a “no.” It seemed that there were some other meanings to my questions on my written survey that were confusing, for example “when did you arrive in the US,” should have been “what year did you begin living in the US?” Daniel also circled his answer to question 10 as opposed to writing it out. MinervaVelorquez: also answered “yes” to the second survey question, “Are you employed or unemployed,” and circled the choice that answered the question. And to a and b sub questions of #2, she also just wrote “yes” as her answer, not explaining or circling any answers as she previously did. Salvador Palomares: also originally circled “yes” to “should a pseudonym be used” making me think that because they have all agreed to be a part of this project, the answer should automatically be “yes”. The question “are you employed” was answered “yes” as well as two other questions, with nothing else added. Laura (she spelled it Luara) Chim: was another who answered “yes” to the pseudonym question and to three other questions on the written survey. This leads me to assume they don’t stop to think the word “yes” needs further explanation. Ana Hopkins: a student in the advanced ESL classroom also circled two of her answers on the written survey as did the rest of my selected interviewee’s, but went into much more detail on the other questions than did the students from the basic language-learning class, writing very legibly. Tiffany Sok: another ESL student who answered “yes” to “should a pseudonym be used” is also a student in the advanced language-learning section. While Tiffany’s writing is choppy letters and words, she speaks English pretty well and says she relates this to the fact that she works around people who speak English directly to her on a daily basis. Tiffany also writes on her written survey that she studied English speaking, reading, and writing at her home in Cambodia.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.