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Education is a developmental process, which takes place in an individual

as a result of ones own exposure and interaction with people and other stimuli
in the environment. Due to this interaction the individual acquires a mastery of
knowledge as well as right attitude, appreciation, skills, thoughts and processes,
which enable to utilize the knowledge and prepare the person to live efficiently
in the society and contribute to advance the society. Knowledge affects the
living and as a consequence ones education must be continuous to cope with
the ever rising problems of ever changing society. Thus one of the primary
goals of education is to enable each and every individual to be aware of the
capabilities and to develop them to the maximum extent.
Education is able to instill in the child a sense of maturity and
responsibility by bringing the desired changes according to the needs and
demands of continuously changing society as an integral part. Speaking more
frankly, education bestows immense benefits upon the child. A well educated
person is known all over the region. That person is able to meet the conflicting
challenges and tide over all the difficulties, which confront in day to day living.
Besides this, education culturizes the individual and helps in satisfying the
needs all over the globe. Thus education prepares the individual like a flower,
which spreads widely its fragrance around the environment. Otherwise the
individual will be like a flower without fragrance.
It is only through education that norms, ideals and spiritual values, the
aspirations of the nation and its cultural heritage can be transmitted from one
generation to another for preservation, purification and sublimation into higher
and higher achievements. It not only transmits the above things but also
promotes them.
At the ground level, the aim of value education is not just to provide
degrees. Its aim in true sense is to provide real power of making a distinction
between good and bad, life and death, right and wrong. Knowledge is not only

an exit route to a better life style but also the beginning of a journey. Value
based education is primarily goal oriental concept. Thus a value based
education indicates the existence of an universal order. As the aim of value
education is to recover the belief that there is a transcendent unchanging moral
order and restore it once more to a central place during the educative process.
What is moral or immoral is very difficult to say since subjectivity is
involved in its judgement. If the arguments are teared to the last shreds, even
the most innocuous act, as of using a vanishing cream to improve the face
glow may be labelled as immoral because it may in the opinion of somebody
promote lust.
At present, life is, day by day, becoming complex and complicated crisis
in character. As a result loss of values is reflected always in every sphere of
human life. Standards of moral life of people are gradually declining. The
norm of family, society, politics, secularism, democracy are going down and
continuing under strain. Wide spread disturbance, chaos, confusion and
dislocation in life have become common phenomena. People sticking on to
higher ideals are very rarely found. Contradiction in living is the order of the
day. Deteriorating conditions of the system of values and ethics in our daily
life are realized. Different Educational Commissions and committees in our
country have expressed their deep concern over the declining values in human
activities and emphasized on providing value oriented education. The
NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION-1986 has categorically stated The
growing concern over erosion of essential values has brought to focus the need
for readjustment in the curriculum in order to make education a forceful tool
for the cultivation of moral and social values.
THE EDUCATION COMMISSION OF 1964-66 says A serious
defect in the school curriculum is the absence of provision for education in
social, moral and spiritual values. In the life of the majority of Indians, religion
is a great motivating force and is intimately bound up with the formation of
character and inculcation of ethical values. A national system of education
related to life needs and aspirations of the people can not afford to ignore this
purposeful force.

In our educational reconstruction on the problem of an integrated

perspective on value is pivotal for its solution alone can provide organic unity
for all multifarious activities of a college of education curriculum and
programmes. So, an integrated education is not possible without integration of

MEANING AND DEFINITIONS OF VALUE :Value literally means something that has a price, something precious,

dear and worthwhile. Hence some one is ready to suffer and sacrifice for.
Values are a set of principles or standards of behaviour. In the words of John
Dewey, The value means primarily to price, to esteem, to appraise and to
estimate. It means the act of achieving something, holding it and also the act of
passing judgement upon the nature and amounts of values as compared with
something else.
The term value was first time used in economics, then spread to many
other discipline, including philosophy. Value is used in many ways such as
good, best, right, etc. It can be used as concrete nouns such as his value or her
value system or Indian value system, referring to some object or person or
society that is valued or judged to have value. As an abstract noun, values are
used as desirable, as well as worthwhile. Values are also used as verbs like
valuable, valued, to value, to appreciate, to valuate or to evaluate etc.
Values are regarded as desirable, important and held in high esteem by a
particular society in which a person lives. Thus values give meaning and
strength to a persons character by occupying a central place in ones own life.
Values reflect ones personal attitudes and judgements, decisions and choices,
behaviour and relationships, dreams and vision. They influence our thoughts,
feelings and actions. They guide us to do the right or wrong things. Thus
moulds the total bchaviour of the individual. Every society has some rules and
regulations set for its people. These are nothing but the directions to live
happily both at individual and societal levels.

Values are the guiding principles of life which are conducive to all
round development. They give direction and firmness to life and bring joy,
satisfaction and peace to life. Values are like the rails that keep a train on the
right track and help it to move smoothly, quickly and with direction. They
bring quality to life.

A person with out values is unrecognized by other

members. Values are as old as human civilization.

Every aspect of human life has value. In fact values permeate the whole
of human existence and are major factors in determining what sort of human
beings are we? Everyone has different needs, urges and aspirations. Anything
are that fulfils the needs, satisfies the urges and helps but at the same time it
should not be harmful to others in realizing that aspirations have value. But at
the same time it should not be harmful to others. According to the Oxford
Dictionary, value means worth. The encyclopedia of social sciences refers
to value as interests, pleasures, likes, preferences, duties, morals, obligations,
desires, wants, needs and many other modalities of social orientation.
The word value is derived from the Latin word Valerie meaning to
be strong and vigorous. To be of value is to have certain virtues. From an
historical view point a value may be defined as a thing which is good. A
widely accepted concept of value in traditional Indian philosophy as Truth
Goodness and Beauty i.e. satyam, shivam and sundaram are considered
as eternal values.
According to different Indian schools of thought, the concept of value is
as follows.
a) Charvaka School value is happiness and happiness is value.
b) Jain Philosophy value is celibacy, asceticism and control of
c) Buddhist Philosophy value is the liberation and service of
sentient beings of the world.

d) Sankhya Philosophy Viveka, Jnana and Jeevan Mukti are the

sole ideals.
e) Vaisheshika Philosophy Value is the proper undertaking of the
categories in the light of its atomstic cosmology.
The Yoga Darshana treats the realization of the eight fold means of
value Ashtanaga Marga of Patanjali.

Sigmund Freud (1908) states that the acquisition of morality meant the
installation with in the childs personality of an agency, i.e., the super-ego.


Geiger (1950) says values are the outcomes of human choices among
competing human interests.


Kluckhon (1951) says that values regulate impulse satisfaction, the

requirements of both personality and the socio cultural system for
order, the need for respecting the interests of others and of the group as a
whole in social living. A value is a conception of the desirable and not
something that is merely desired. It is extremely difficult to define as to
what is desirable.


Allport (1951) A value is a belief upon which a man acts by



Hiriyana (1952) states that one of the distinguishing features of Indian

philosophy is that it has consistently given the foremost place to values.
Indian Philosophy is essentially a Philosophy of values. The preferential
behaviour in values which in other words, mean a choice between the
good and the bad.


Pepper (1958) conceives values to be In the broadest sense anything

good or bad. Such things have been considered as pleasures and pains,
desires, wants and purposes, satisfaction and frustration, preferences,
utility, means, conditions, law, duty, beauty and ugliness, truth and
error, reality and unreality or right or wrong.


Smith.J.E (1958)

says There is no term today used with more

frequency and with greater ambiguity than the term Value. He further
states, the difficulty with the term value from the semantic point of
view is that it has become invested with subjective connotation and is
frequently understood as meaning and what ever is preferred or choosen
becomes a value or is valuable solely in virtue of fact that human
preference has become associated with it.

Mukerjee (1964) defines values as values are integrated experiences

that simultaneously touch all the dimensions of human adaptation,
organic, social and cultural and transcend them in all their propriate
forward orientation.


Cattle (1965) defines values thus By Values we mean the social,

artistic, moral and other standards which the individual would like
others and himself to follow.


Gupta. N.L. (1986) explains In philosophical contexts values are those

standards or a code of conduct conditioned by ones cultural tenants
guided by conscience, according to which human being is supposed to
conduct himself and shape his life patterns by integrating his beliefs,
ideas and attitudes to realize cherished ideals and aims of life.


Dewey (1989) indicates that his concept of values include


The idea of praising, cherishing and holding idea.


The idea of reflection and making connections between the factors

of the situation in ones existence to the end that intelligence is
employed and that improved judgement is concluded.


The idea that action is supported of an approved value will be




All good education is, in essence, a process of developing the human

personality in all its dimensions intellectual, physical, social, moral, spiritual


But in recent times, our education could not focus on the effective

dimensions of the personality. When it is thought of developing values among

our children, emphasis on the effective objectives of education i.e. the
development of the social, moral, aesthetic and spiritual sides of personality.
Education has to integrate all the dimensions of an individuals personality by
developing human values in relation to the set standards of the society and its
Value education is a process of developing in the childs knowledge,
skills, attitude, values and behaviour patterns that society considers desirable to
have, both as an individual and as a member of the society.


education in its aims, curriculum and methods should be inseparably bound up

with values.

Society expects to preserve and promote its values through

education through desirable changes in the childs way of thinking, feeling and
is the way one acts in accordance with ideal and acceptable life. Thus value
education implies that something morally acceptable and worthwhile is being
transmitted i.e. the content of education should be worthwhile and passed on in
ways that can not be objected by anybody at any time.
Methods, however, effective and efficient they might be, can not be
appreciated if they do not accept the dignity, individuality and autonomy of the
person that do not value, the readiness, purposiveness and activation of the
learners. Various subjects of curriculum need to be viewed as a repository of
values. Every subject has to be understood and taught as a set of values,
attitudes and dispositions.
Education in independent India has undergone drastic changes but at the
same time education could not pay expected concern on the effective aspect of
learners, though the need for stimulating and developing values among learners

have been pointed out. The most important recommendations regarding value
education were made by Indian Education Commission (1964-66). The first
and the most important goal of the national pattern, is development of
fundamental social moral and spiritual values. Commission further
recommended that apart from Education such values should be made an
integral part of school programmes. Generally, some periods should be set
apart in the time table for this purpose.

Value education was very much

emphasized in Indian Education Commission (1964-66) as, In the situation

that is developing, it is equally important for us to give a proper value
orientation to our educational system. The Commission intended that students
should be exposed to values during their education process.
As it has been pointed out that the highest value is self realisation
(Moksha) or spiritual freedom or eternal bliss, Indian tradition has full faith in
education which can lead person to salvation. It is reflected in the phrase Sa
Vidya ya vimuktaya. Which means the education is that which liberates the
individual. Thus value Education is perceived to lead mankind to their highest
ideals of life i.e. self realization.
The present system of Higher Education has been brought into our
country by an alien empirical Government, for its own purposes. What the
system has done in an over production of folders of conventional degrees and
diplomas over the past hundred and sixty years. This system has been dividing
our society into two classes The educated elite and the uneducated masses, the
powerful and the powerless. The entire education system in its content, finance
and management should have been recast from primary to higher education
The main focus is that the students must be helped to develop the
intellectual strength essential to deal with the problem of discontinuity and
insecurity caused by the on rush of Technology and its impact on socioeconomic life. Finally higher education must promote the values of freedom,
equality and social justice special to the culture of this religion. These values
are basic to the liberation of higher education and of the intellect and social
capabilities of the student, who enters the system in the hope of bright future.

In the Indian context the Open University can best casts to those
millions of men and women, who have been denied an opportunity to pursue
education beyond elementary level. The illiterates or semi illiterates need
value education to prevent them from joining in anti social activities.
The Open University system can penetrate the slum dwellers in some
form with the financial assistance of Govt., industry, or a social organization.
A lot of ground work coupled with imagination is called for to develop
specialized courses for slum dwellers so that they can earn more while learning
about 1) Population explosion 2) Environment 3) Patriotism 4) National
Integration and

5) Social evils. As our country is teaming with millions of

illiterates, who can not be brought under the formal education system, Open
University system should be utilised to create awareness about value education.


UNESCO report (1972), the International Commission on the

Development of Education, rightly named its report as Learning to be which

shows worldwide efforts or revival of the interest in a kind of education leading
to be a kind of person. In ancient India, the concept of Education was Sa
vidya ya vimuktaya means learning or education is that which liberates or
makes the person to be liberated. This emphasizeS on to be or to be a
liberated person. Unfortunately in modern age, education got influenced by
western ideology, which is oriented towards materialistic and outward things,
resulting into degeneration of age old good values even almost among so called
educated persons. This calls for the immediate need for value education.

value free education is as a protein free diet. Therefore for providing a proper
protein to our inner image, education should remain value loaded education,
producing a balanced and enlightened human beings. Realizing the importance
of all round development of learners, Mahatma Gandhiji defined education.
By Education I mean an all round drawing out of the best in child and manbody, mind and spirit. Thus Gandhiji stressed the importance of morality and
spirituality along with other aspects of human personality on the lines of
education in India from the very ancient times.

Though education means wholesome education but Indian education

is now unwholesome as implicit in the words of R.P. Shukla (1984). The
gulf between the rich and the poor, the educated and the uneducated, the
tolerance and selfishness that are widely prevalent, The failure of education
to impart right knowledge and skills to enable majority of students to lead
economically independent lives, the rampant unrest among students and their
tendency to violate values, the unrootedness of the educated in their own
tradition, culture and values the increasing demand for dowry and the incidents
of bride burning even by the educated, violence, killings of innocents, hatred
and ill feelings towards people from different caste, creed, region, religion,
language etc., speak volumes of failure of the Indian Education system in
imparting true education. True education should be the repository of values.
The felt need for education is in a variety of values rather than in a
single value.

Now it is widely being recognized that there are crisis of

character, values and morality among the students and the general population.
Therefore, there is a dire need of education in values or value incorporated
In India, the basic problems today is, that we are neither Indians, nor
westerners in the true sense. With our traditional values succumbed, leave
ourselves open to the more superficial and glamorous aspects of western life
styles. We are willing and consciously turning from traditional Indian values to
develop an attitude to life concerned with the exclusive and influence of
technological advancement. This overtook the abiding qualities without which
life becomes meaningless. This encourages the growth of sensational culture
instead of directing towards spiritual values. It is an attitude that makes for
greed and exploitation. It seeks power in order to suppress others and get profit
from those suppressions. It can also be seen corruption in every sphere and
level of our lives. Society is sick because we are sick and sick people cannot
act as they should.

Values are the principles that lay solid foundation for a civilized and
caring society. A society is said to be a cultured one if it follows a set of norms
that are for the welfare of its individual members; on the contrary, a society
which cares least for its members and where principle of might is right, is
predominant, can not be said to be a cultured society. In such a society, human
dignity finds low priority and the society becomes less caring for its individual
members, who need attention and care because of the conditions that are
beyond their control. If a society is to be made for all, values must become an
integral and inseparable part of each individual. Values thus, are important for
both individual and healthy body. Hence, there is an urgent need to initiate
efforts for inculcating values in society through education.
There has been, however a significant change in our values in the last
fifty years, a shift in the way of thinking and action. There is more emphasis
now on satisfying individual interests, than the collective ones which,
somsimes, results in clashes between individual interests and social interests
values are concerned, the change has affected them adversely. Family bonds
and social bonds are weakened and people have become more egoistic. The
relationships are determined by usefulness of a person or persons for a
particular purpose, i.e. practical benefits that people can derive from each other.
This adverse change influence the whole system of society and life is becoming
more miserable now than ever before. Different types of crimes, including
violence, economic and moral, are on the increase due to erosion of values. If
urgent steps are not taken to control the situation, there will be chaos and unrest
in the society as well as of individuals.
The Kothari Commission has pointed out the vital need for the
inculcation of values in education. The explosion of scientific knowledge
should combine itself with a deep sense of social responsibility and spiritual
values in the building up of ones personal character. Inculcation of proper
social, moral, religious, aesthetic and spiritual values in the child is essential to
meet the challenges of the modern age of science and technology.


But, at present when social, moral, cultural and spiritual values are
disintegrating; when religion is loosing its hold, when power and knowledge
are being misused for vested interests; when nations do not trust one another,
when black marketing, corruption, indiscipline, violence are fast spreading, it is
essential that education should be value oriented. Only value oriented
education can promote individual with social welfare, love, peace, good will,
understanding etc.
The report of Parliamentary Standing Committee (Jan, 1999) rightly
points out that there has been continuous erosion of values in our society,
which is reflected in our day to day life. The National Curriculum
Framework for School Education (NCERT, 2000) also voices serious
concern over erosion of values in our society and stresses the need for
inculcating values not only among children, but also among adults because
adults have to decide what kind of society they would like to make and what
kind of values they would like to inculcate in children. It may sound unpleasant
to say that erosion of values is not only in children but also in adults since
children learn from adults and in most of the cases adults decide the decisions.
Adults need to introspect seriously over the issue of erosion of values as
erosion of values in adult is a fact.
If this proposition is accepted as a fact that there has been erosion of
values in our society, then urgent steps must be undertaken to inculcate values
in adults and children. Families as well as teachers, who lay the foundation of
future citizens must undertake the task of inculcating values in children. Values
inculcated at this stage of life, determine the personality of the child i.e. what
kind of citizen he/she may become. Hence the society has a responsibility to
ensure that values are inculcated in children and congenial environment be
created to nurture those values.
Family is the first social institution where good habits and values are
nurtured in a child. The foundation laid in the formative years of a child, plays
a significant role in determining the personality of a child and making him a

good citizen. It is the family where child learns different values such as love,
sharing, living together, tolerance, respecting elders, obedience, honesty,
kindness etc. therefore parents must ensure that right values are developed in
children. Parents must also volunteer themselves to initiate such efforts that
could contribute to the process of inculcating values in society. Values in
general neither be taught nor be imposed internally. Values are internalized to
through a process of value clarification, a free choice from among different
alternatives and a critical analysis and interpretation of consequences of each
choice. Further, their role taking in both thought and action promotes their
understanding is the crux of the matter.

Our children should have an

opportunity to learn and to foster all the essential values to prepare themselves
ideal citizens of our society. So there is a necessity of inculcating values in
young learners and consolidating them through curricula and school practices.
The National Curriculum Framwork for School Education, broughtout by
NCERT in November 2000 has put considerable emphasis on value
development through education throughout the schooling years right from
elementary stage to higher secondary stage.
The adolescent stage, being most impressionable in the life, deserves
consideration for this purpose. The children at this stage are most receptive and
rely considerably on their textbooks and teachers. Above all adolescent stage is
the base on which later years and expressions are dependent. Their exposure at
home, school, peers, friends vary. As a result, they have disturbed mind with
regard to their judgements. So adolescents are in confusion and chaotic
situation with regard to their moral values. This is the crucial period where
right judgement is needed.
So the investigator felt the need for conducting a study to estimate the
level of moral judgement particularly among high school and junior college
students since their values are at the changing stage due to exposure of these
students to the public sphere.

1.5 Objectives of the Study:

Keeping the above studies and findings is mind.

The following

objectives are considered for the present study.



To see the influence of sex on moral judgement


To see the influence of class of study on moral judgement


To see the influence of locality on moral judgement


To see the influence of subject opted on moral judgement


To see the influence of level of institution on moral judgement


To see the influence of age on moral judgement


To see the influence of family size on moral judgement

Hypotheses formulated for the Study:

The following null hypotheses were formulated for the present

investigation based on the variables considered for the study.


There is significant difference between male and female students

towards their moral judgement.


There is significant difference between 9th class students and 10th

class students towards their moral judgement.


There is significant difference between 9th class students and Junior

Intermediate students towards their moral judgement.


There is significant difference between 9th class students and Senior

Intermediate students towards their moral judgement.


There is significant difference between 10th class students and

Junior Intermediate students towards their moral judgement.


There is significant difference between 10th class students and

Senior Intermediate students towards their moral judgement.



There is significant difference between Junior Intermediate students

and Senior Intermediate students towards their moral judgement.


There is significant difference between Urban students and Rural

students towards their moral judgement.


There is significant difference between Urban students and Semi

Urban students towards their moral judgement.

10. There is significant difference between Rural students and Semi

Urban students towards their moral judgement.
11. There is significant difference between Science students and Arts
students towards their moral judgement.
12. There is significant difference between M.P.C students and Bi.P.C
students towards their moral judgement.
13. There is significant difference between Bi.P.C students and Arts
students towards their moral judgement.
14. There is significant difference between Arts students and M.P.C
students towards their moral judgement.
15. There is significant difference between School students and Junior
college students towards their moral judgement.
16. There is significant difference between different age groups of
students towards their moral judgement.
17. There is significant difference between students having varied
family size towards their moral judgement.


The present investigation is mainly aimed to see the influence of seven

independent variables namely sex, class of study, locality, subject of the study,
level of institution, age and family size on the dependent variable Moral
Judgement. Thus only eight variables are considered for the present



Sex of the individual: Sex has greater influence on value formation and

value implementation. Boys and girls vary in their values. The individual as
well as the society also visualizes like that so Sex is included as a variable in
this study.

Class of study: Class of study has concern in value formation. Till the

schooling, the children will be under the control of parents and other family
members besides peers. Once the child moves from family to school, the
society expands and the influence of teachers and friends/ peers increases. As
class advances, their maturity level also advances. This has influence on their
value judgement. Keeping this in mind the variable class is identified as one of
the variables for this investigation.

Locality: Locality plays an important role in formation of judgements.

The rural, semi urban and urban people differ in their value perception and
accordingly in the value judgements. So locality is considered as a variable in
the present piece of research.

Subject of the Study: The subject one studies has greater impact on the

formation of value system, attitudes, interests etc. The Science students have
different mind set of values when compared to Arts students.

With this

inclination the subject of study is included in this research as an important

variable. In this investigation only Junior College students were divided on
their subject of study since school children study all the subjects.

Level of Institution: Level of institution plays a crucial role in ones

own judgement. As the level advances, not only the age of the child advances,
but also the social horizon widens, physical and mental development takes
place in the individual. The value formation may be crystalised and confirms to
some extent. So the level of institution is included in this study by realizing the
importance in the field of moral judgement.

Age: As age advances ones maturity, reasoning, observation capacity,

establishing cause and effect relationship, discrimination capacity between

right and wrong etc., also increase. Even the responsibilities and life styles are

also influenced by age.

The judgement and moral standards depends on the

age because value at one particular age may not suit at some other age even for
the same individual. So age is also a diciding factor for judgement. So age is
included in the study.
g). Family Size: Family size also influences ones moral judgement. People
living in large family and small family vary in their judgement. The children
born and brought up in a large family develop the values like sharing, caring,
adjustment, love, affection, obedience, cooperation, unity, we feeling etc.,
where as the children born and brought up in a small family develop to the
independent, self centeredness, possessiveness, lack of adjustment etc.,
accordingly their judgements also vary. Keeping this in mind, the variable
family size is included in this study.
h). Moral Judgement: In this study moral judgement of the adolescent student
is considered as a dependant variable. Society, the family, the community, the
school, the religion high and low economic status, educated and uneducated or
aged and young, social status, caste etc. give differential treatment to boys and
girls, the role models differ between male and female students. Accordingly the
judgement of the individual may differ. So this is included in the study.


India is known for its rich cultural heritage. Past culture

is very ideal

with regard to value system. There has been a change in the traditions and
aims of society during different periods of history due to various reasons. A
brief account of it is presented below because it is inthrening the present value
patterns of the society.


The Vedic period is marked with moral education. Hermits, Gurukulas,

Ashramas, Charans, Rishikulas and Vedic Schools were the centers of

imparting value along with education during the Vedic period. Priests, seers,
sages, and religious teachers emphasized moral instruction throughout the

process of .education. Teachers foremost duty is to promote moral awareness

of pupils and to train them to lead disciplined and spiritual life. First deserve
and then desire principle was effective means and teachers themselves were
following exemplary role model.
Roy Choudhury (1979) views Vedic Education that the most
important part of the students education was the religious environment in
which he was brought up.
Mathur (1985) states Education during Vedic age was influencing the
spiritual and physical life of the individual. The relationship between religion
and education may be expressed when it was found that education seeking
inspiration from religious ideals, has values and goals brings about changes in
human behaviour. Religion has provided the norms of conduct.
To promote understanding of the moral value of life.
To provide religious environment of attending emancipation under the
guidance of Guru.
To promote happiness and righteousness of the individuals.
To preserve and spread national heritage and culture.
To propagate eternal values like truth, non-violence and happiness.
To impart education of certain subjects like medicine, astrology, art,
philosophy, archery, language, grammar etc.
Curriculum was based on two aspects such as vocational studies and
religious education. Certain subjects included in the curriculum were medicine,
philosophy, mathematics, animal husbands, science, history, astrology, art and
archery, puranas, Upanishads etc.

Teacher was mostly drawn from the Brahmin community as they were
assigned the duty of knowledge advancement and its spread along with social
well being. The Guru was pivot of the education system. Gurus daily living
it self was to be the yard stick to source of knowledge, values and skills.
Vedic Educational institutions were residential and education was
residential system of education at the home of the teachers (Guru). Apart from
other teachers, the pious environment of the Ashram was unique characteristic
feature. Vedic education was meant for eternal progress including human


The Jains diagnosis of the bondage of the human condition as due to

ignorance, the special role of the teaching of the Tirtankaras and the rigorous
and aesthetic discipline they prescribe as a means to liberation provide the
philosophical basis for education in a broad sense of the term.
The Jains deemed education as a means of illumination and
emancipation. Jaina psychology recognizes different stages of life like the dull
stage, the playful stage, the walking stage, the learning, the adolescent stage
etc. Their schemes of education utilized their ideas about the differrnt forms of
Education began at the age of eight and there was a strong emphasis on
memory. The spiritual as against the secular aspect education was stressed. Jain
education was monastic, that is residential. The curriculam was based on the
three gems-right faith, right knowledge and right conduct. The mother tongue
was the medium of instruction. Memorising the sutras, question and answer
method, verbal exposition

recitation, monitorial and debating were the

methods of instruction in Jain education.


At the practical level there was not much difference between the
Brahminic (vedic), and jainistic schemes of education of the one hand of course
the content (curriculam) varied.
The principles and techniques by which the Jains sought to perpetuate
their ethos of asceticism and non violence (ahimsa) should be relevant to our
war-mongering world today.


Vedic religion gradually confined to caste system and undue importance

to Brahmin, which later became a curse for other people.

In such

circumstances, Gautam Buddha advocated new simple and easy thoughts to

common masses. Boudha religion believed in good activities, good behaviour,
tolerance and non-violence. Vihars and monasteries were established as
specific education system to propagate the principles of Boudha religion.
Though Buddhism looks like a separate religion on its own, it is the off spring
of Vedic system particularly in India and there are minor changes between
these two systems. Both believed on salvation and existence of Soul.
The main aim of education was salvation, emancipation, character
formation and dignity of labour. It was meant for satisfaction of spiritual
hunger and vocational skill for human service. Even during this period also
values were given an immense importance from all the perspectives.
The level of education was divided into two parts such as :a) Primary Education

b) Higher education.

The Primary education during Buddhist period emphasized on 3 Rs i.e.

reading, writing and arithmetic.

The higher education curricula included

teaching of subjects like religion, philosophy, military science, medicine etc.


The Popular methods of training included lecture, question answer,
debate and discussion methods.
The Buddhist Education was meant for the monks. Education started at
the age of eight years.

The student had to beg alms to meet the daily

expenditure of the monastery. Students had to follow and obey the moral
behaviour, discipline of the monastery and its healthy environment. Violation
of discipline of the monastery led students expelled.
The role of the teacher was to preach dharma and impart training to
pupils in moral discipline. The teacher was responsible for care of the health of
the students. The parental role of the teacher during Buddhist period was
Viharas and Monasteries were residential institutions. Some of the
Buddhist monasteries gained world wide reputation by transmitting Buddhist
culture and value education to the students all over the world. Nalanda, the
renowned university of this period became international center of learning to
transmit value education.


During this period, moral education was based on Kuran the religious

scripture of Muslims. Educational institutions like Maktabs and Madrasa were

run in Mosques. Religious men were imparting religious and value education.
Muslim leaders were teachers who inculcated a spirit of piety and
righteousness in their people. Thus education during this period is known as
Islamic education.

To develop morality among individuals.
To promote and develop character of the pupils.
To develop human values such as truth, righteousness, peace, love,
non-violence. etc.
Curriculum had two main aspects such as religious and vocational.
Subjects required for producing civil officers, lawyers, doctors and teachers
were included in the curriculum, while cultural heritage of Islam was the part
and parcel of the curriculum. Curriculum kept on changing under different
Muslim rules.
Oral education and memorization were methods of teaching. Teaching
of 3 Rs was taken by elementary education.
The Teacher had to maintain discipline in classroom and school
premises through eye contact with the pupils. Teacher had to encourage good
students by praise and reward. Besides teaching, teachers were devoted to
students all round development and their comfortable student life.
There were two types of educational institutions such as a) Maktabs,
which are primary schools and b) Madrasas, which were higher education

Mughals deliberately divided the people on the basis religion Hindus

and Muslims. Akbar slightly adopted a secular approach in all the spheres of
community in general, including Hindus and Muslims. Akbar reformed the
existing educational system and revised curriculum. Islam as the religion of the
state was abolished and replaced by Din-I-Illahi, truth; honesty and obedience
were the major emphasis of the school curriculum.

Both the ancient period, and the medieval, period placed great
importance on value education, though it was in the form of religious
education. The remarkable features of these periods are that value education
was imparted through concrete living situations.


Britishers established their trade center at Calcutta in 1600A.D. with the

aim to rule over India. While supporting and maintaining the existing
Pathasalas, Madrasas and Maktabs, Britishers for the first time in 1715, started
St.Mary Charity school in Madras, followed by establishment of school in 1725
for all the community and education was made free.
The East India Company in 1813 owns the responsibility of education
for the people in India. In 1815, Lord Moria gave emphasis on moral, religious,
and spiritual education. Lord Macaulays suggestion English as a medium of
instruction which was supported by Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the founder of
Brahma Samaj, was accepted in 1835.


On 15th August 1947, India got freedom from British Rule.

Independence period is marked with various commissions, committees and

policy emphasizing moral education, character education.
Kar (1996) attempts to show the affinity of modern values with the four
traditional values as follows:
1) Artha

i) Economic value

2) Kama

ii) Organic or health value

iii) Aesthetic value
iv) Recreational value
v) Hedonic or pleasure value

3) Dharma

vi) Moral value

vii) Personal value
viii) Social value
ix) Intellectual value

4) Moksha

x) Spiritual value

TRADITIONAL AND MODERN VALUES: If it is analysed, at each stage

of history including the present, morals are given utmost importance and it is
our responsibility to safe guard the values. Hence the education either formally
or informally should facilitate to take right decision making. Many of the
Traditional values are now seem to be irrelevant and unsound in the modern
context. Such values are either dropped or reinterpreted in acceptable forms.
Some of the new values need to be assimilated, while compromising with the
old. Still many of the traditional values are vital as well as the modern values.
The modern technology is another factor that influences the value system of
our society. As a result even the human values are degrading day by day.


Several commissions and committees on education appointed so far

have insisted on incorporation of values in the process of education to mould

the child into an acceptable adult in the society. Hence it is necessary to know
their recommendations in this context.


It recommends that provision of spiritual and moral instruction for

building up of the character of the young should be the responsibility of the

home and community.




This commission is also known as Radhakrishnan Commission. The

commission strongly felt the need and importance of religious instruction. The
commission observed that the fundamental principles of our constitution call
for spiritual training.
The Commission made the following suggestions with regard to promotion
of moral and spiritual quality among students.

Practicing silent meditation in the schools before the class work


Study of biographies of great people for moral awareness of the


The students should be given suggestion and inspiration for moral


Great literatures and a study of great books be included.

Study of religious scriptures as they play a vital role in character

formation of the students.



It is popularly called Mudaliar Commission.

The aim of the

commission was to examine the problem and perspectives of secondary

education in India and also examine the religious and moral values in

Home, School and Community play significant role in moral

instruction and moral development of the students.

Holding assembly before starting teaching work as a method of

moral development.

Moral instructions from the lives of the great men like Mahatma
Gandhi and religious leaders of all the religions may be given to
create moral awareness.

School should discourage all unhealthy trends of disunity, religious

hatred and bigotry.



(1959) :
This Committee headed by Shri. Prakasha was appointed by the

Ministry of Education, Govt. of India in 1959. The main task of the committee
was A) to examine the desirability and feasibility for the teaching of moral and
spiritual values in educational institutions. B) to define broadly the content of
instruction at various stages of education and to consider its place in the normal
curriculum. The Committee gave special stress on the teaching of moral and
spiritual values. Development of good manners is very important part of moral

The teaching of moral and spiritual values in educational institutions

is desirable and provision for the same should be made with in
certain limitations.

The content of moral and spiritual education should include a

comparative study of lives and teaching of great religious leaders,
followed by their ethical standards of philosophies.

Suitable books should be prepared based on all the religions,

religious leaders, saints, mystics, and philosophers. These books
would help in the inculcation of patriotism, moral and social service

At the elementary stage, apart from moral and spiritual education,

work is worship should be developed among the students.


To study the role of education in strengthening and promoting the

processes of emotional integration in national life.

Curriculum should be based on childrens specific age and their

level of understanding.


Though religious education cannot be a part of curriculum, but

students should be helped to appreciate the spiritual, derived from
various religions.

A Compulsory paper on Indias cultural heritage be introduced for

science students and general science for arts students.



Government of India has appointed this committee in 1961 under the

chairmanship of Dr. Sampurnananda.


To study the role of education in strengthening and promoting the

processes of emotional integration of national life.


Curriculam should be based on childrens specific age and their

level of understanding.


Though religious education cannot be a part of curriculum, but

students should be appreciate the spiritual, derived from various


A compulsory paper on Indias cultural heritage be introduced for

science students and general science for arts students.


Ministry of Education, Govt. of India set up the Education Commission
(1964-66) under the chairman ship of Dr. D.S. Kothari. The Commissions
recommendations are as follows:
Necessity in inclusion of moral, social and spiritual education in
education system.
Moral education should be imparted through both direct as well as
indirect methods.


The entire curriculum and the school activities should be value

Right from school assembly to curriculum transaction and
organizing co-curricular activities all should inculcate among
students values of cooperation, mutual regard, honesty, integrity,
discipline, and social responsibility.


The Committee realized the felt need of educational reform so as to

develop the values of national unity, social integration, moral, social and
spiritual values. The recommendations of the committee are as under:
Curricular and co-curricular activities of the Educational institutions
should impart moral, social and spiritual values.
The curricular and co-curricular programmes should include the
study of humanism based on appreciation of international cultural
For the formation of right attitudes and values, the importance
should be given to quality reading materials, study of humanities,
social sciences, religions, games, sports and hobbies.

UNESCO (1972) :
In its report of the international commission, suggested that educational

system should encourage the promotion of the values of world peace,

international understanding and unity making.


NCERT (1975) :
A Curriculum Frame work for ten year school Education, developed by

National council of Educational Research and Training in 1975 focused on

fostering Social, democratic and secular values. It emphasized that school
curriculum should be related to national integration, social justice, productivity,
modernization of the society and cultivation of moral and social values.

A summarized list of value to be developed among learners through this

ten year school curriculum frame work is:
Social justice, national integration, moral and character building,
international understanding, tolerance, friendship, co-operation, equality,
scientific temper, positive attitude, environment protection, courage, honesty,
leadership, non-violence etc.
The National Policy on Education laid emphasis on the moral and
emotional development of the child.

The National Policy on Education

(1986) rightly expresses this concern as The growing concern over the erosion
of essential values and an increasing cynicism in society has brought to focus
the need for readjustment in the curriculum in order to make education a
forceful tool for the cultivation of social and moral values.
Curriculum need to be readjusted in order to make education a
forceful tool for the cultivation of social and moral values.
Education should foster universal and eternal values, oriented
towards the unity and integration of our people.
Value education should play combative role and its contents should be
based on Indian heritage, national goals and universal perceptions.

Approaches to Education in Values:There are three broad approaches to educate the children in human value

programme. They are:


Direct Approach.


Indirect or Incidental Approach.


Integrated Approach.



Direct Approach: The period allotted to moral education could be converted for value

inculcation. One can take up a quote, prayer, song, story or a recent incident
that had happened to develop the value by way of discussion and other teaching
technique meant for the inculcation of values. The inculcation of values can be
brought about by five teaching techniques, i.e. (a) silent sitting (b) prayers,
quotations or thought (c) group singing (d) story telling (e) group activities.
a) Silent Sitting: - Silent sitting involves encouraging the students to sit silent
for a few minutes everyday. With constant practice, this will result in superior
concentration, and finer grasping power.
In a classroom, the teacher can start and end with two minutes of
silence. All it requires is asking the students to sit in a steady posture with eyes
closed, think, and feel good. It is said that silence is the most effective form of
communication with ones own inner self.
b) Prayer (Quotation/ Thought):- Most of the schools start the day with a
morning assembly or prayer. This should not be a mechanical exercise but a
session on the foundation of which the rest of the day is to be built. Prayers
give an opportunity to address oneself to the creator from whom one asks for
peace and grace and even material possession. Prayers promote truth, peace,
love and non- violence. If a school assembly starts with a thought or quote for
the day the headmaster or senior teacher may take up the responsibility of the
explaining the quote or thought with an appropriate story or incident. The quote
or thought chosen must be relevant and be instilled with values that the
students has to practice in daily life.
c) Group Singing: - All students by nature love music and group singing. A
value, story an aspect of culture can be taught in the form of a group song.
These group songs could be of varied nature i.e. Patriotic, devotional or songs
addressed to nature. Music and group singing are the most powerful weapons
to put the human system into harmony and rhythm. When the students sing

together, they also realize the nature of cooperation because even if one of
them sings differently, the whole song is disturbed. Thus group singing
indicates the value of love, patriotism, devotion, love for nature, cooperation
and peace.
d) Story telling: - This is the most popular and effective technique elucidating
an abstract idea and a difficult concept wherever it might occur; to people of all
categories and students of all ages. The selection of the story should depend
upon the age group of the students, the composition of the class and the mental
maturity level of the class. It should not be either short enough or long enough
but just suitable to serve the purpose. It must contain at least one or two values.
e) Group Activities: - Group activities entail participation of a group of
students and effect the whole class. These activities could be both inside
the classroom or outside. They include a wide range of items like role-play,
attitude development, tests, motivation games, dreams and other games meant
for developing the physical, the intellectual, emotional, psychic and spiritual
aspects of the students personality. Group activities held a teacher to
channelise their energies and instill a sense of discipline and a feeling of
cooperation and one ness.

INDIRECT OR INCIDENTAL APPROACH:An observant and alert teacher will never lose an opportunity to take an

advantage of a chance incident as it arises in the classroom, in the school

campus or on the play field to teach a value by correcting, praising or
discovering certain behaviour .Suppose two students have quarreled on the play
field and one is injured. After treating the student for the injury, the teacher
may raise the questions as to why such a thing happened and what has been its
outcome. The teacher may touch upon the evil effects of violence by taking
examples of wars, feuds between families and bring out the undesirability of
violence. A quote like, Non- Violence is the best duty religion could be given.


Hence, in this way a complete teaching learning situation from an

unexpected incident on the play field can arise. This incident could be used to
develop the value of non-violence among children. This approach is called
indirect; or incidental approach.
The education in the Human value programme should aim at the
development of an integrated personality of the students. The very atmosphere
in school should be such that the students imbibe the values of silence,
discipline, and sense of order, cleanliness, beauty and such other values.
The school session can start with an assembly where the teacher and the
taught as well as the non- teaching personnel participate in the prayers based on
all major religions. There can be a short inspiring talk by either the Headmaster
or one of the teachers on some values such as discipline, cleanliness, health,
honesty, saving habit etc. They should be trained to go to assembly and come
out in an orderly way. The values imbibed should be devotion to God. Value of
silence, attention, patient listening, discipline and the capacity to express their
views boldly.
On a bulletin board, a value- oriented quotation could be written as
thought for the day or week. The same board can also be used for putting up a
wall magazine on a monthly basis and this can be put under the charge of a
teacher and few students, or of houses if the school has this system. This will
provide a forum to all the school students to collect or compose inspiring and
value based quotes, stories, poems, drawings, paintings and displays them. The
walls should be used for quotes, songs, written in bold letters. The library
should be filled with books written for the children for the scripture of the
different faiths of the world in the form of stories and parables on lives of great
people of the world of all walks of life, science, history, art and literature. The
students should be made to come to the library and read books silently. A
reading habit should be developed in students right from the childhood.
Students should also be trained to use these books properly and handle them

On the play ground students can be trained in laying out the track and
keeping the playground clean. The value of team spirit, cooperation, coordination, obedience, fair play, initiative and discipline can be imbibed and
inculcated during play activities.
The programme for the school day should include a variety of
entertainments like group singing, dance, drama, mono acting, fancy dress and
such other activities. All these should be value oriented. The authorities should
see that almost all the children are involved in one way or the other.
At the celebration of national festivals, attendance should be made
compulsory. The celebration should be organized to attract the attention of the
students and elicit their involvement in it. They should experience the joy of
participation in all such celebrations. Values inculcated here can be patriotism,
reverence for great men, eagerness to contribute their talent for the success of
the function.
A clean and peaceful atmosphere should prevail in the entire school.
This is of course a joint responsibility of all the personnel of the school. The
elders should set an example in talking softly, in low tones and be courteous to
one another. Students must be trained to consider the school as their home and
take up the responsibility of keeping the premises of the school as well as the
classroom clean. They should be taught to walk in line silently wherever they
go or move from one place to another. The class leader is usually held
responsible for keeping the classroom clean. Each student as far as possible
should be given the chance of being the class leader, hence it could be a weekly
duty to develop their leadership quality.
III. INTEGRATED APPROACH:Integrated approach aims at inculcation of values through all academic
programme and activities. Even when the teacher is not aiming at inculcating
values through the direct or the indirect approach, it is to integrate the relevant
values in her daily lessons or in other activities out side the classroom. In other

words, value inculcation should remain a conscious aim of the teacher in or

outside the class activities. Thus, the integrated approach should be practiced
through both curricular activities and co-curricular activities.
Values are hidden in all subjects. It is to be kept in mind always, how
they should be naturally interwined in our teaching, so that children learn those
values. The teacher should be able to motivate students to analyze the
justification of their behaviour, ethically in the light of high and noble ideals.
We should not be expected children only to learn values but adopt measures for
the firm inculcation desirable values in them. Hence, values have to be caught
as well as taught. Values may be integrated with curricular as well as co
curricular activities through out either directly or indirectly.
Every subject has values inherent in it, which the teacher can discover
with in the class and highlight, emphasis and reinforce these values through a
variety of teaching methods and activities.
The subjects usually taught at the school level are regional language,
English, Mathematics, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Social Sciences, work
experience and art work. Literature and languages is rich in ethical values and
deals with those instances of human conduct on which most people pass
judgement of approval or blame and it does this with a beauty, which heightens
and reinforces whatever truth may be conveyed. The teaching of language is
intended to enable the students to learn the four skills of listening, speaking,
reading and writing the content of the lesson should be value oriented. All the
values can be imbibed and inculcated through a suitably prepared language text
and supplementary readers.
Mathematics: The broader values inherent in arithmetic should help to offer right
living where even the problems of right living demand such accurate
information. Thrift and wise spending for instance need exact computation.
Much can also be done by making real to students the values behind such terms
as for example budgets and taxes. The mathematics teacher aims at improving
the memory, patience and perseverance. These are the values inherent in the

Science: The study of life sciences and physical sciences promote the values of
reverence and love of nature. This enables the pupil to respect the laws of
nature and creator. The teaching of science and the learning of science
inculcates value of keen observation and drawing right inferences. The main
aim of teaching of science or nature study in schools is to cultivate a sense of
being at home in the world of natural things and to foster a love of the lovable
objects found therein. We must inculcate in the children a love of nature for
natures sake. The need for obsolete dependence on nature should be brought
home to the student, and shown that if it is disregarded, that disturbs leading to
disease and death follows. Children should love mother earth like a mother.
Earth, too is mans larger house, and home is something precious.
Arts: Art subjects like civics, history, geography and social studies aim at
teaching the young minds all the things that will lead them on to good
citizenship. They teach them good behaviour and make them knowledgeable
about the world they live in. They make to realize them about their own state
and its link with the other states of the country or the world.
Through Civics, the students should be made to understand and
appreciate their place in society and the relationship within and without the
home circle. It should teach them a number of facts they must know in order to
live successfully in modern times.
History has a record of the struggles of individuals and their
achievements and failures. Students can learn lessons from the past. It indicates
patriotism and love for cultural heritage and our country. There are
innumerable examples and situations in which heroism, nationalism, courtesy,
consideration for others, service, compassion etc, can be brought out and
developed naturally in the students.

Geography, which is a part of environmental studies-II, is intended to

know everything about the earth and our neighbor planets.
Geography presents the value of the concepts of one world, unity in
diversity and the interdependence of human beings with nature.
Work experience is viewed as purposive and meaningful manual work,
and organized as an integral part of the learning process and resulting in either
goods or services useful to the community. Work experience should inculcate
in the learners a respect for manual work, values of self-reliance,
cooperativeness, work ethics, attitudes and values related to productive work,
and concern for the community.
When teaching the teachers should go beyond the narrow aim of
implementing only knowledge. It is not right for them to confine themselves to
teaching chemistry or geography as a subject by itself and say it just is not
relevant to deal with values inherent in it. In each subject, the content and
knowledge are interwined with values and all of it is redolent with a score of
elevating ideas, which transcend this vicissitudes of time and man.
Values are to be fostered through education. The values should be useful
and non-sectarian appears and should promote the unity and integrity of the
people. Realizing the importance of value education significant suggestions as
regards to the human values in the education programmes for young persons in
universities and colleges / schools.
All the above committees and commissions appointed from time to time
have been highlighting the urgent need for incorporating appropriate
programmes in our educational system at various levels that would directly or
indirectly develop among the students an integrated growth of body, mind and



Children are influenced to a great extent by the social environment in

which they find themselves. Environment at home, in community and in the

classroom and school should not have inherent contradictions with the values
Home is the dominant factor. Value inculcation permeates from the
influence of the parents and other members of the family, elders in the
community and through the conduct and behavior of the teachers and from the
life in the school and the community as a whole. The influence of the home is
crucial in the development of the childs personality. Habits formed and
attitude framed at home persists through ones life. Moral standards of the
parents is therefore essential. The drawbacks of our majority of homes, both in
the matter of their physical orderliness and their psychological atmosphere,
should be made known through talks, radio, cinema, voluntary organizations
etc., . Value conception, cherishing and fulfilment are directly and indirectly
influenced by parent and society apart from teachers. Values are developed
consciously and purposefully but what the parents and the society try to do
mostly unconsciously and haphazardly. Often it is observed that even educated
persons in different walks of life preaching desirable values but their behaviors,
actions and way of life are in contradictions what they preach. So much of
hypocrisy has developed. It is, therefore, essential on the parts of parents and
elders in the community to alter the existing situation.
Teachers at all levels of education are today face with the problem of
imparting functional type of education to promote human values. Teachers
role is to initiate such processor by which students develop their ability,
attitudes and other forms of behaviour of practical life in the society in which
they live. The influence of school environment is expected to enable students
to obtain social competence and individual development.Added to this school
provides the foundation in observing the basic values like caring, sharing, cooperation, team spirit, unity, responsiveness, obedience, co-ordination, honesty,
sincerity, punctuality, discipline, sociability, respect and so on.

Unfortunately teachers are being criticized for not being committed to

our age-old time tested value system. They often do not follow values in their
lives. On the other hand, teachers have developed a wrong notion that in the
subject centered education; there is no room for inculcation of ideals and
values, especially of traditions in general.

Teacher often fails to resolve

conflict between traditional and modern values. Teacher thus should see that
students are growing in value awareness and experiencing enrichment of

Added to these technological devices like T.V. etc. are also

responsible for today degradation of values. Due to onset of education through

distance is diminishing the values by widening the gap between the Teacher
and Student. Teacher should establish clear standards of behaviour and
encourage the students to behave in an ideal manner.

Thus many aspects

influence for right judgements among the people.


INCULCATION OF VALUES: The inculcation of values is by no means a simple matter. There is no

magic formula, technique or strategy for this. Value education in all its
comprehensiveness involves developing sensitivity to values, an ability to
choose the right values, internalizing them, realizing them in ones life and
living in accordance with them. Therefore, it is not a time bound affair. It is a
life long quest.
In inculcating values, all human faculties such as head, heart and hand
should play a role. Thus, value education covers the entire domains of learning,
the cognitive, affective and psychomotor.
Inculcation of values is influenced by a complex network of
environmental factors such as home, school, peer group, community, the media
and society at large. Home takes the highest position in the hierarchy followed
by school. As the home, so the society and with in the home, as the parents so
the children, and within the school, as the teacher, so the taught are common


In the pursuit and promotion of values the teacher has the most vital role
to play. It is the teacher who is the guide, friend and philosopher and the first
interaction of children, after the parents, is with the teacher. Teachers with
vision, dealing with curricular subjects such as languages science, social
science, music, art, work experience and curricular activities such as NCC,
Scouts and Guides, Community Service, Red Cross, Field Trips, Sports and
Games can develop suitable strategies and methods which would enable
transmission of values.
Value education can be achieved both directly and indirectly. Direct
value inculcation refers to deliberate, conscious, systematic, sympathetic
instruction given during the time of formation. Indirectly, value inculcation can
be imparted through the regular subjects of curricular and co-curricular
activities. Incidental value inculcation can be given through events and
incidents related to values occurring around thus relating to value inculcation to
concrete situations.
There is an urgent need for adopting such methods, which promote
value education, through the use of various curricular and co-curricular
activities in the entire educational programme. There is also a growing
awareness among the educationists that ear-marking one period exclusively in
the school time-table for value education and allocating this work only to one
teacher will not be very helpful because values cover the whole gamut of
curricular and co-curricular activities of schools.
Since every person belongs to the family of humanity, there are certain
basic values, which are accepted universally. Without these basic values, the
character would be lacking in certain primary traits. The basic values are
essential to a profound character just like the foundation to the building.
Without the foundation, the building would not stand, so also with out essential
basic values, we cannot build a sound character.

In the past, with the help of strict discipline, child was trained to control
his desire to gain knowledge and acquire skills required for self perfection. In
ancient system of education teacher was an exemplary model to students for
imbibing noble values. Imparting knowledge and inculcating values was
considered by ancient teacher as social responsibility.
Social and educational needs are changed due to modernization
westernization and industrialization. Further scientific and technological
development poses a challenge to educational practices to inculcate scientific
temper, scientific insights and inquisitiveness among younger generations
besides preparing them for democratic citizenship. In order to inculcate these
values among younger generations, modern classroom practices have become
more sophisticated and technologically oriented and this is the context where
exactly the ancient system of education is believed to be inadequate.
Rapid scientific and innovative thinking resulted many possible
strategies to inculcate values. Different methods of inculcating values are1. First way of inculcating values is by verbal communication. This is a
suitable method for inculcating intellectual values rather than aesthetic,
ethical and religious values.
2. Demonstration is the second method of teaching values. This method is
more apt to teach ethical and aesthetic values.
3. Imitation is the third method of teaching values. Children learn values
through imitation of exemplary behaviour of teacher and other elders.
4. Values can be taught by a method of evaluation where children are
guided by rewards and punishments, approval and disapproval,
intellectual, aesthetic and ethical. Values can best be taught in this
method. But this requires mental maturity of the individual who


5. Participation is the other method of teaching values where teacher and

pupils enact various roles. This method is useful in inculcating ethical
values among children. Teacher should direct hoe to enact different
roles appropriately.
6. Values can be inculcated of through discussion method. In this method,
both teacher and children discuss the worth of a value and the need to
follow them.
It must be recognized that some values are better taught in one method
than other is. No single method of teaching values is sufficient to initiate
desired virtuous behaviour on the part of the learner. Hence, a teacher should
select suitable method to inculcate values.
Besides, above mentioned methods of teaching values creative and
innovative programmes can also be organized in schools to facilitate the child
in practicing the values, as values can best be inculcated through practice. For
example, a shop without a salesman, conducting examination without
invigilator etc., are some of the creative and innovative practices to inculcate
honesty among children.
Now-a-days, academicians are contemplating to introduce a curricular
paper on value education. This is definitely a good gesture but the problem is to
evolve the right curriculum, arranging and grading instructional material,
identifying educational outcomes and evaluating educational programmes.
Development of values is considered to be a lifelong process. Hence, teaching
of values becomes an integral part of education. The formulation of aims of
education depends upon the kinds of values that are regarded as most important
for directing and guiding human development. It may be reiterated that, if
education is concerned with the well-being of individual and society, then
education has to deal with the teaching of values. Then only children will be
able to imbibe values for the good of any individual and for the welfare of the



EROSION OF VALUES:Decline of values began with the invasions of foreigners to this country.

Besides this, internal conflicts and evil practices rose to the maximum during
the company rule. Recent development in different disciplines of knowledge
such as physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, geology, astronomy,
oceanology, methodology, technology, engineering, medicine etc. without the
parallel development in value systems; sudden explosion of population in this
century, particularly in our country; rapid increase of environmental pollution,
increase in illiteracy rate, scarcity of essential food grains; dearth of
commodities, soaring prices; continuous; depletion of natural resources;
increase in problems of employment; imbalance in the eco system; decrease in
quality of life; low standard of multi-fold problems in education; low percapita
income; increase of illegal encroachment of forest areas and agricultural lands
and deforestation; lack of morality in teachers, administrators, lawyers, doctors,
politicians, judges, business people, etc. in their professions; increasing
egotism, jealousy, enmity, hatred and greediness in everybody; corruption,
adulteration, cheating, looting, robbery, terrorist or militant activities and
disputes are increasing in an alarming rates. Practical hypocracies and
criminalization in all the fields are further intensifying the rate of decay of
values in our country. Bulimia is another major cause for erosion of values.
Poverty motivates people to involve in anti social activities. Even cultured
people are forgetting their own rich part culture and blindly imitating the
western culture. Hence the steep fall of values are observed during the country.
Distortion of values is partially due to imbalance between ancient values
and explosion of knowledge in war field technology. Atomic weapons, bio
weapons, explosives, missiles etc. are threatening the whole mankind.
Developed countries possess all types of dreadful modern weapons and trying
to boss over developing and underdeveloped countries. Today, the entire
humankind is living in the shade of fearful atmosphere. Mans very existence is
at stake and hence he is indulging himself in all wicked activities.

The role of home, school, and society cannot be neglected in the

degradation of values. Definitely, the living styles of parents leave deep
impressions in the minds of children. Usually every child imitates virtues and
vices of parents. Petty quarrels at home between husband and wife, parents and
children, elders and youngsters, frequent use of vulgar language in socio
economic backward families; bad habits of elders, and poverty at home are
responsible for dis-improvement of value system in our country. Prostitution,
illegal marriage, broken home structure, divorce etc. are the main factors in the
decline of values. Lack of mutual concern between each other at home, dis
affection and lack of security in families are other factors responsible for the
erosion of values.
Fall in values is mainly due to non conducive environment present in
our schools. School education will definitely play a vital role in moulding and
nurturing the future life of an individual. An upsurge in enrolment rate of
students in educational institutions, lack of essential facilities and resources in
schools, imbalance between teacher student ratio, increase of mechanical
book learning or cook book system of education, faulty evaluation schemes
followed by schools and authorities, faulty policies of the government, worst
type of political influences in schools, wrong attitude of teachers towards their
profession and teaching, illegal and immoral home tuitions from kindergartens
level to higher education, no job security for teachers and also very low salary
for teachers in many management schools, highly ambitious parents with
regard to performance, progress and future job opportunities of their children,
commercialization of education, aimless student communities, student
disinterest in studies, loaded curriculum without values, agitations, protests,
bundhs, boycotts, cheating and malpractices in examinations, aggressive
behaviour of students, disrespect to teachers and elders, increasing indiscipline
in schools, drinking, drug addiction, gambling etc., are the source factors in
decay of values in schools.


Modern society has not set moral standards. Sense of responsibility and
belonging to a group are completely vanished. Mutual respect and
consideration for others are disappearing. Social gatherings and group activities
are organized without giving due weightage to values. Communities are
disunited virtues in people but still it is continued. Evil activities are increasing
day by day. Cynicism has spoiled every body. It is rightly observed by the
members of National Education. Policy (NPE 1986) The growing concern
over the erosion of essential values and an increasing cynicism in society has
brought to focus the need for readjustments in the curriculum in order to make
education a forceful tool for the cultivation of social and moral values. This
observation indicates that the present day education has failed to cultivate
necessary and sufficient social and moral values in the members of society.
Hence, values get no better fast in our society. Now a days extreme violence,
terrorism, naxalism etc. are prevalent in the society. Unless the society both at
individual and group levels takes the steps to vanish these evil practices, it is
threatening to the human beings even in this civilized and modernized society.
Even the policies of the Government like liberalization, privatization,
globalisation, modernization, industrialisation, urbanization etc., are leading to
crime and violence day by day all over the world. Even among these criminals,
there is different type of judgement from their point of view.

MEANING OF MORALITY: Morality comes from the Latin word

moralis, which means Customs, manners or patterns of behavior that confirm

to the standard of the group.
Morality is the self-regulation of conduct with the due consideration for
both ones own welfare and the welfare of others. One cannot be moral until
one recognizes the social consequences of ones acts and one is moral to the
degree that one controls ones conduct with concern for these consequences.
One may say that an act is right to the degree that it furthers the rights the
welfare of all those involved in the act and that is wrong to the degree that it
hinders the welfare and growth of any one.

Morality is generally used to mean the accepted code of conduct in

society. It also means the pursuit of a good life. It is used in the sense of a
condition with respect to discipline and confidence, pride, fixity of purpose and
faith in the course exposed.
The individual has many potentialities of behaviour. One must choose
between different courses of action. What the person chooses will, in turn
determine the quality of the behaviour and in turn this behaviour will be judged
as right or wrong, depending upon what effect it has upon others. Under any
circumstances, it should not be harmful to the society.
When a person becomes morally mature by regulating the behaivour,
by controlling the emotions from with in not by controlling or imposed upon by
environment. A morally matured person is a well disciplined person, who has
total control of one self, who takes care of the situation with self and without
outer regulation. The behaviour is characterized by increasing self-control and
selfdetermination. However this person does not become a law unto ones
self, instead takes into consideration the welfare of the group as well as of the
different individuals, who compose the group whether known or unknown.
The individual is judged by how success or failure to confirm to the
standards of the group. These judgements lead society to label the individual as
moral or immoral, depending upon the degree of ones conformity. From
such judgements, the individual acquires a reputation in the group. The
person, who confirms and dictates of the group not only gains a favourable
reputation, but also experiences satisfaction. Deviations from group standards,
on the other hand, lead to an unfavourable reputation and feeling of guilt. As
Hollingworth (1949) has stressed, many problems of adjustment in
adolescence hinge on moral dilemma. Improved insight into the meaning and
origin, of moral obligations may contribute effectively to attainment of

The individual learns to control ones behaviour by confirming to the

moral codes or moral values that the individual has learnt from the group. This
learning takes place in many ways namely through reward and punishment;
through unconscious imitation of those with whom the individual is associated
and whom he /she looks upon as ideal and generalized moral principles to
apply to situations that may arise in the future and that are similar to the one in
which the moral principles are formed.
Moral training consists not only of teaching the individual, the moral
codes of the group but also of instilling a high regard for these codes, so that

person will be willing to accept them and mould the


accordingly. Many adolescents, as is true of children and adults, know what is

considered right, but they may for one reason or another, refuse to accept this
standard as their own. Only fear of punishment or loss of social esteem
motivates them to confirm to a moral standard they refused to accept.
Therefore, there is the possibility of escaping punishment or loss of social
approval they act in accordance with their own standards disregarding the
standards of the group. The individual who, by contrast, accepts the moral
standards of the group controls his own behaviour thus making external
restraints unnecessary.
As the social horizons broadened in adolescents, face with
inconsistencies in moral values more or less in the same manner as faced with
inconsistencies in religious values. But no longer do the moral values learnt in
the narrow environment during child hood days apply to all the new social
groups in the school, neighbourhood and community with which the individual
The adolescent of today faces with more moral alternatives than
members of the older generations ever had to face. This is due to many reasons.
The most important of them are: A) movement in modern society, which
results in the adolescents leaving the neighbourhood and family group early in
life. B) Rapid change in all phases of life, which has resulted in the breakdown

of well-established moral standards, with the result that parents lack positive
ness in their teaching of moral precepts or they neglect it entirely. C)
Adolescent codes holding sway in many of the young groups, with little
chaperonage by adult codes. When the moral values of the adolescents peer
group differs markedly from those of parents, the parents refuse to accept these
new moral values, these new moral values, with the result that there is constant
friction between the adolescent and his parents.
In meeting the problem of conflicting moral values, the adolescent must
first know what values to accept and then have sufficient experience in meeting
such conflicts so that they will be able to do so when they are independent of
adult guidance and help. The role of parents and teachers is very crucial at this
stage of moral development of adolescents. They must therefore pay special
attention during this period.
The Indian concept of morality is based on the idea of Dharma (Duty).
Sathyam vada Dharmam Chara (Tell the Tru th Do ones own Duty).
These two sterling qualities enunciated the trends of morality. Dharma means
to uphold certain noble things in life. If Dharma, is protected it protects
people. Dharma upholds certain principles in life.
Morality is imbibed among them. Protection and progress are the
constituents of Dharma. One who follows dharma must be duty conscious.
Dharma means nature. It is that which is inherent and cannot be given
up or taken on. Our own true nature is sat -cit- ananda (ExistenceConsciousness- Bliss). To abide in ones nature is called following
swadharma. Swadharma is the individuals tendencies and vasana which one
has come into the world to exist. That which determines one mans personality
as distinctly different from another in thoughts which are in turn sdetermined
by vasana. To act against the grain of ones own vasana is to act in terms of
para-dharma. Following paradharma brings sorrow and is fraught with fear

(Paradharmao bhayaavahah- Bhagavad Geetha Ch.3). Since the divine self is

the true nature of individual and since the self is eternal, the Hindu Dharma
which deals with it is called as the eternal Dharma or Sanatana Dharma.
That which remains in a substance from the beginning to the end constantly
and which is its most essential property is called its Dharma .For example:
Sapidity in liquids, heat and light in the Sun, sweetness in sugar are the
essential properties of very dharma in them.
The most essential factor in human being is Atman, the touch of life the
essential Dharma living being is the divine spark of existence, the infinite
Lord. Dharma not only indicates all the ethical and moral rules of conduct, all
duties in life, all duties towards relations, friends, community, nation and the
world, all our obligations to our environment, reverence, charity and sense of
good will in and around through our physical, mental and intellectual actions,
but in addition to live truly as the Atman, and to express its infinite perfection
through all our actions and in all our contacts with the world outside is to bring
forth expression of ones true Dharma and to rediscover our Dharma.
One should practice Dharmic rites, which will form moral rites.
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and his disciple Vivekananda have given special
preference to dharma which will lead to moral values. When a person dies,
only the dharmic acts follow. Non- violence is the essence of Dharma. No
living object should be harmed in this world either physically or mentally.
Varnashram Dharma means one should stick on to Varna Dharma,
which means performing the duties related to ones own caste to which the
person belongs and Ashrama Dharma, Which relates to the age or stage of the
life Both need to be followed strictly by everyone with out any exception.
Basavanna says that Dharma includes kindness, which leads to a moral
behavior. This is one of the qualities of moral behaviour and morality,
according to the Indian philosophy.


Everyone should follow the tenets of ones own Dharma which has
been handed down from generation to generation. The different dharmas
should not be violated by need to be followed by others. At the same time, the
individual should not discard his/her dharma. The Indian constitution does not
interfere with the private life of its citizens in the matter of Dharma. Dharma,
which means duty. In its broad sense should be followed according to what is
known as Varnashram Dharma.. The Indian concept of morality stresses the
importance of moral and ethical values.
Ancient namely Vedic, Buddhistic and Jainistic systems of education
attached great importance to the ethical pursuits. Character building was given
the main prominence. Self control,

character, conduct and behaviour were

considered as the primary qualities of morality right from childhood.

According to the Indian concept of morality, education must lead the youth to
the things that are true, honest, pure, and lovely and of supreme good.
Formation of right conduct is character developing process. This ultimately
leads to ethical standards.

A child develops moral force and as a result

becomes highly ideal.

The first and foremost requisite for any society is that its members must
be moral. It is not possible to expect good education or harmony in any society
without morality. Morality is directly concerned with a certain range of actions:
not only the manifest behaviour, but the thoughts, attitudes, motives, intentions,
feelings and decision dispositions of the agent. Morality is linked with basic
virtues like sincerity, simplicity, gentleness, modesty, compassion, humility,
courtesy, co-operation, self-reliance, self-control, truthfulness, dutifulness,
good conduct, courage, non-violence, non-stealing, endurance, knowledge,
wisdom etc., (Prahallada, 2000, Rama Rao, 1992, Frankel, 1988, and
Crittenden, 1972).
Morality is essential to develop positive and healthy attitude towards
life, to mould the balanced personality, to develop high degree of intellectual
maturity and to learn adjustment with changing environmental conditions .It

gives directions and firmness to life. It is a set of guiding principles of life and
brings quality of life. It teaches us to preserve whatever is good and worthwhile
in what we have inherited from our culture (Joshi Kireet, 1979& 1984).
Morality is not a thing that simply 'radiates' from one person to another. It
includes both thinking morally and behaving morally. Hence, it is needed to
think of morality extensively in the field of Teacher Education for bringing out
moralistic teacher in order to fulfil the aspirations of the nation.
The word morality is derived from the Latin words Moralis, Mos
and Moris which mean manner, custom, habit, tradition, or the way of
accomplishing things. Moral means dealing with, or capable of distinguishing
between right and wrong. It is characterized by conventional virtues: trust
worthy, kindly, courteous, respectable, proper, scrupulous, conscientious, good,
truthful, decent, honourable, honest, high minded, saintly, pure, worthy,
correct, seemly, dutiful, principled, , chaste and ethical (Webster's New
World Dictionary, 1996, P 401).
Morality means the quality of being moral, which renders an action right
or wrong. It also means the conformity to the moral code of the social group
(Chambers 20th Century Dictionary, 1983; Encyclopedia of Values and
Morality. 1998). Morality is concerned with those principles, rules, ideals and
behaviour patterns that a man takes to be of over riding importance
(Encyclopedia of Values and Morality, 1998).







distinguished among the concepts of moral, morale and morality. According to

this dictionary a) Moral means pertaining to, or concerned with the principles
of right conduct or the distinction between right and wrong; capable of
recognizing and conforming to the rules of right conduct. Morals are principles,
standards or habits with respect to right or wrong conduct. b) Morale means
emotional or mental condition with respect to confidence; zeal etc. c) Morality
means conformity to the rules of right conduct; virtuous conduct; a doctrine or
system of morals.

Different faculties have viewed morality from different points of view.

Philosophers, psychologists, educationalists, scientists and moralists have
defined in various ways.

Concept of Morality in Philosophy, Sociology and Psychology


Philosophical concept of morality

According to the RigVeda, the best basic moral principles were equality,

mutuality and freedom. RigVedic morality is not a customary morality. It

showed some awareness to universal principles. The AtharvanaVeda has given
a wide description of dharma (morality). It says that the earth is upheld by
dharma and dharma has six limbs. They are: 1) truth 2) eternal cosmic order
3) consecration4) austerity 5) prayer and 6) sacrifice. Radha Krishnan (cited
in Rama Rao, 1994) said that individual's life would be judged on the
touchstone of morality. Morality saves man from worldly sorrows. It is a base
for good character and personality. Sacrificial action is a symbol of the offering
of will and self which is inner most and precious to us. Vivekananda (cited in
Rama Rao, 1994) adds that to be selfless in our deeds is morality (dharma).
According to Hiriyanna (cited in Rama Rao, 1994), dharma (morality)
is an innate in man. Man of dharma has the sense of discriminating between
good and evil. The Charvakas hold that dharma (morality) could be known by
common experience. They hold that seeing is believing. Hindu theists,
Buddhists and Jains believed that dharma was something more than merely
utilitarianism. They call this as Pramana (methods of verifications). According
to Jewish thought, the fundamental rule of morality is self-evident. He
expresses, Do not do unto the neighbour, what you do not want him to do unto
There are three major theses in moral philosophy that attempt to say
what it means to have a moral code: 1. Intuitionism, 2. Emotivism and 3.
Prescriptivism. The first one holds that people know intuitively what is moral
and good. However, intuitionists provide no rational basis determining what is

moral. Emotivism holds that morality is an attempt to influence some one to

behave in certain way. According to prescriptive view, morality consists of
agreeing to certain basic principles about how to treat others (Sieber, 1980). s

Sociological concept of morality

The most prominent among the sociologists who wrote on morality was

Durkheim (1925). He viewed morality as a process of socialization. According

to his conception, moral standards originated external to the subject and
eventually were internalized by the subject. Psychologists also explained this
internalization of cultural norms as values. Durkheim (1925) believed that
morality resulted from social interaction or immersion in a group. He also
believed that moral development was a natural result of an attachment, which
manifested itself in a respect for the symbols, rules and authority of group.
Morality, so far as it concerns an individual, includes his/her manners
habits and customs. It also includes the values he/she cherishes and the moral
principles he/she has imbibed. Manners are concerned with how he/ she
conducts himself/ herself in the company of others. Habits are concerned with
such things which affect his/her health and hygiene. Values refer to end state of
experience, desires and goals which can be achieved through learning,
conditions and socialization.
Manners, traditions and customs differ from country to country and from
one social group to another in the same country. There is always scope to
change one's way of behaviour so as to obtain social approach in a new set-up.
Hence, the proverb is "Be a Roman while in Rome". It is also possible to
improve one's manners by looking at examples in a more civilized society.
Habits are as important as manners. Manners can be learnt even after some age.
But, habits are to be acquired early in life. Habits form an important part of a
disciplined life. Keeping the mind clean by daily prayer and meditation, being
punctual in respect of food, sleep, duty and other engagements etc., constitute
good habits.


Values refer to mode of conduct. They are conceptions of something

that is socially preferable. They are aimed at perfection, satisfaction, selfrealization, development, integrity and cohesion etc. They are influenced by
philosophical, cultural and religious perspectives. Value system is a backbone
of a unified society. Values help in developing good habits and manners. They
are set of impressions, which lead to character and personality (Rao, 2004).
Values are the essence of morality handed down by each human
generation to the succeeding generation for the latter's own well-being. They
are standards or ethics for moral behaviour conditioned by one's cultural tenets
and guarded by conscience. Values relate to interests, pleasures, likes,
preferences, duties, moral obligations, desires, needs and many other
modalities of social orientation (William, 1968). Personal and social values
lead to moral and spiritual values. Personal values include regularity,
responsibility, self-respect, self-control, industriousness, truthfulness, honesty,
trustworthiness, dutifulness, service-mindedness, integrity etc where as social
values include patriotic look, egalitarianism, justice, equality, environmental
protection, team spirit. Leadership, friendship, accountability, freedom, good
conduct, social service, scientific temper, co-operation, forgiveness, tolerance
etc. Thus, moral values are unique original and permanent (Rao, 1992).

Psychological concept of morality

Mc Dougall may be considered as the first psychologist who dealt with

morality in some detail. According to Mc Dougall (1908), every moral

tradition embodies a great number of ready-made judgements formulated in
words and every well organized society imposes its moral traditions upon each
of its members with tremendous force. The child simply learns to accept
maxims simply through suggestion by his/her parents as well as by his/her
teachers. Therefore, Mc Dougalls explanation indicates the internalization of
moral standards through suggestion. Psychologists explained morality in three
modes. They are: 1) psychological conception of morality, 2) social learning
conception of morality and 3) structural developmental conception of morality.

1) Psychoanalytic Conception of Morality: According to Freudian theory

(1933), moral standards are largely unconscious products of powerful irrational
motives and are based on the need. For the Freudians, what is moral is that
which is socially sanctioned and that which the individual internalizes, through
identification with his or her parents. Based on psychoanalytic tradition,
psychological characteristics of moral progress, which were a trend away from
egocentricity and towards sociability. He said that moral judgement
increasingly would be penetrated by intellectual understanding and morality
would increase self-responsibility. The psychoanalytic perspective takes into
account of interpersonal and socio-cultural influences on moral development.
2) Social Learning Conception of Morality: Social learning approach regards
moral development as a matter of internalization. According to this approach to
behave morally is to internalize the controls on behaviours that inhibit harmful
acts and facilitate beneficial acts. Eysencks (1976) definition of morality as
'conditioned reflex' is an example of this approach. Social learning theorists
believe that children largely learn to behave morally through modeling,
observing and imitating adults who demonstrate appropriate behaviour
(Bandura, 1977; Sieber, 1980).
Thus, psycho-analytic and social learning theorists approached morality
through the internalization (the process of adopting societal standards for right
action as one's own), while the structural developmental theorists approached
morality through the concept of a universal concern for justice and fairness.
3) Structural Developmental Conception of Morality: Piaget and Kohlberg
are two prominent persons who followed developmental approach to morality.
Piaget (1932) began his search for stages in moral development with the notion
that the care of morality is two fold processes. i.e., 1) Respect for the rules of
the social order and 2) A sense of justice. According to him, morality consists
in a system of rules and the essence of morality is to be sought in the respect,
which the individual acquires for these rules.


Kohlberg (1968) believes that the essential structure of morality is the

principle of justice and the core of justice is the distribution of rights and duties
regulated by the concepts of equality and reciprocity. According to him, justice
is not a rule or set of rules. It is a moral principle. By a moral principle, he
means a mode of choosing ,which is universal and all people either adopt or
accept it always in all situations. There are exceptions to rules, but no
exception to principles. A moral principle is not only a rule of action, but also a
reason for action. Kohlberg (1968) explained that principle of justice, as
respect for persons was "higher than law" because the claims of the law and
social contract may be deduced from it.
Moral philosophy is thus used to define the end point of moral
development as being justice and to analyze the observed developmental
progress towards the highest form of justice. It may be seen that psychoanalytic
and social learning literatures are far behind cognitive and structural
developmental studies in attempting systematically to specify the stages of
development that underlie specific kinds of moral perspective, reasoning and
capacity to act.

Essential Features of Morality


Morality as rooted in human nature

During the 1970s, biological theories of human social behaviour

suggested that many morally relevant behaviours and emotions have roots in
our evolutionary history (Wilson, 1975). According to socio-biologists, much
morally relevant pro-social behaviour, such as helping, sharing and cooperating are rooted in the genetic heritage of our species (Trivers, 1971;
Anderson, 1999). Still the biological perspective reminds morality as adaptive

Morality as the adoption of social norms

According to Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory, morality is

strengthened by super ego in middle childhood. Guilt or conscience


development is an important motivator of moral action. Recent psychoanalytic

research underscores the importance of a positive parent-child relationship,
emphasizing attachment as vital foundations to acquire moral standards.
Psychosocial theory placed greater emphasis on the super ego as a positive,
constructive force that leads to the development of morality.
As per social learning theory, moral behaviour is acquired just like other
set of responses through reinforcement and modeling. Social learning theorists
believe that children learn to behave morally through modeling, observing and
imitating adults who demonstrate appropriative behaviour (Bandura, 1977).
Both psycho analytic and social learning theories view moral development as a
process of adopting societal norms. Personal commitment to society is an
essential aspect of moral development.

Morality as social understanding

According to the cognitive-developmental perspective, cognitive

maturity and social experience lead to advances in moral understanding from a

superficial orientation to physical power. Piaget stated that morality was
supported by cognitive maturity and peer interaction. The cognitivedevelopmental approach assumes that individuals develop morally through
construction-actively attending to and inter-relating multiple perspectives on
situations in which social conflicts arise. In sum, the cognitive developmental
position on morality is unique in its view of the child as a thinking moral being
who searches for moral truth.

Theories and research on moral development

Historically, three philosophical doctrines have attempted to explain

moral development of children. First, one is the doctrine of 'original sin'. This
doctrine is represented in modified form by psychoanalysis. They conceived
the young child must be subordinated by adults to societal objectives. Second,
one is the doctrine of "innate purity". It places great emphasis on the role of








developmental approach is a descendent of this doctrine. The third doctrine

assumed that the infant is neither corrupt nor pure but an infinitely malleable
tabula rasa. Learning theorists followed this doctrine. Though there are many
theories on morality, few important theories are presented here.

Mc Dougalls Theory of Morality

Mc Dougall (1908) may be considered as the first who delineated four

broad stages in moral development. They are: 1) Anomy 2) Heteronomy 3)

Sense of reciprocity and 4) Autonomy. The child begins his / her life in a stage
of anomy (lawlessness). His / her behaviour is not governed by any rules and
he / she is at the mercy of instincts and impulses.
But, in second stage, the child is dominated by the rules imposed by
others. Here, the rules are external to him / her and he / she inevitably interprets
them within the narrow limits of his / her egocentric immaturity. Towards the
age of eight, the child in developing relationship with peers, becomes
conscious of give and take between them i.e., the sense of reciprocity develops
in the child. At the age of 11 years, the child enters the stage of autonomy i.e.,
self-rule. It is marked by the progressive interiorisation of the rules learned
under the way of heteronomy. At this stage the child develops his/her own
ideals of conduct. He / she has no longer development on fear of authority or
fear of public opinion. Moral development culminates with the attainment of

Bulls Theory of Morality

Norman J. Bull (1969) admits that moral knowledge and understanding

are pre-requisites of moral action. He has recognized four stages of moral

development. They are: A) Anomy B) Heteronomy C) Socionomy and D)
Autonomy. These stages are in the order of chronological age development of
the child. Each stage has its own characteristic features.



This is the stage of morality from birth to a few years of childhood. The

child has not developed any sense of morality or immorality. The behaviour of
the child is based purely on his/her instincts and controlled by pleasure or pain
as a result of natural consequences. It is so to say "amoral' with no capacity for
moral judgement.
B) Heteronomy
This stage is characterized by the child's obedience to external authority.
The child's behaviour is controlled by the adult through reward and punishment
and it is disciplined by artificial consequences. It is an essential stage for moral
development. It is stronger between the ages 7 to 9. It should be treated as a
stage at which the seeds of moral autonomy must be sown.

During this stage, the child's moral judgement is shaped by social forces.

The child becomes conscious of himself/herself and his/her self-respect, feels

responsibility and likes to establish healthy relationship with others in the
society. The measures of the society exercise control' over the child through
their remarks of praise or blame, approval or disapproval of his/her actions. At
this stage, sympathy merges into reciprocity, reciprocity merges into
conscience. Conscience becomes the dominant motivating factor in moral

This is a stage of purely internal moral development a period of self-rule

for the individual who imposes moral codes on himself / herself by himself/
herself. His/her actions are guided by his/her conscience and the nature or
discipline is self-discipline. It is the stage when an individual is capable of
taking moral decisions on his/her own without any fear or fervour. His/her
moral consciousness or conscience is aroused. According to Norman J. Bull,
conscience is born out of emotions, trained by critical reasoning and the
application of one's own moral principles to particular situations.


Durkheim's Theory of Morality

Durkheim (1925) viewed moral development as a process or

socialization. According to him, moral standards originate outside the

individual and are pressed upon him/her through social pressure and eventually
get internalized by him.
The first critical stage in moral development involves acquiring an
unquestioning sense of respect for the rules of one's culture. The second critical
stage of moral development entails adopting impersonal ends for one's actions.
Development of empathy is the basic element in the second stage of moral
development. The final stage of moral development is development of
autonomy the capacity to make moral decisions without being influenced by
peer group pressure dictates of authority (Durkheim, 1925).

Psycho-Analytic Theory of Moral Development

Psychoanalysts explained the process of moral development through

development of superego. Freud saw morality and justice as functions of the

super age, that heir of the Oedipus complex, which stemmed from
identification with parental authority. He has postulated five stages in recent
version or psychoanalytic theory of moral development.
Stage 1: Primary Morality
Stage 2: Middle Childhood Morality
Stage 3: Adolescent Morality
Stage 4: Early Adult Morality
Stage 5: Late Adult Morality
Stage 1 : Primary Morality: The first moral stage is achieved through the
formation of super-ego structures. In the first stage, which may stretch between
5-6 years of age, true morality begins with the internalized criticism and
coincides with the ego's perception of its own fault. True autonomy is only
possible through internalization of earlier identification with parents and their
directives, criticism prohibitions and ideas.

Stage 2: Middle Childhood Morality: The second stage which stretches

between 8-l2 years is a period of elaboration and consideration and is brought
about by the achievement of latency tasks. These tasks involve reality testing
and abstract conceptual memory organization. In this stage, much greater
competence is accrued in all six sets of moral capacities, viz., a) To be a moral
agent b) To take moral point of view c) To attain moral values, rules principles
and ideals. d) To gain information relevant to moral decision-making e) To
exercise moral judgement and f) To take moral course of action once it has
been chosen.
Stage 3: Adolescent Morality: This stage appears in early and middle
adolescence i.e., 14-16 years of age. The pubertal child tends to want his/her
heroes to be actual people, although these heroes are projections of Child's own
trial fantasies. By middle adolescence, the child is capable of internalizing hero
images and making them into more abstract ideals. During this stage, the child
is able to use verbal representations and symbolization to handle conflicts, to
entertain hypothesis, to formulate generalization through thought and to engage
in co-operative efforts.
Stage 4: Early Adult Morality: This stage appears between ages of 16-20
years. In late adolescence, a person builds on developing a sense of individual
self-hood and identity. It is the time to reform old values, rules, principles and
ideals and form new ones within freshly ordered structures of meaning,
intention and primary action.
Stage 5: Late Adult Morality: In this stage, individual tries to attain long term
relationships. He/ she frames professional commitments and set priorities.
He/she focuses on spiritual aspects. This stage is turning to high-level morality
with respect to righteousness, dutifulness, truthfulness etc. As one grows older,
aging and death are bound to take on new significance.



Peck and Havighusts Theory of Morality

Peck and Havighust (1960) explained moral development through

character development. Through longitudinal study, they classified five stages

in character development. They were: A) Amoral Stage B) Expedient Stage C)
Conforming Stage D) Irrational- Conscientious Stage and E) RationalAltruistic Stage.
A) Amoral Stage: During the period of infancy, the child follows his/her
whims and impulses without regard for how it affects other people. He/ she
feels no need to control his/ her personal impulses and exhibits no controls.
His/ her impulses may or may not be immoral, anti-social or destructive in
intent but he/ she disregards the moral connotations and consequences of his/
her behaviour. He has no super-ego or conscience or internalized moral
B) Expedient Stage: In this stage, child considers other's people welfare and
reactions only in order to gain his/her personal ends. He/ she follows social
rules only when it suits his/ her purpose. He/she exhibits correctly in the
presence of adults. He/she has no internalized moral principles, conscience, or
C) Conforming Stage: In the later child hood years, the child develops one
general internalized principle i.e., to do what others do. He/she wants to
conform to all the rules of the group. He/she is not consistently honest in all
situations. The child in this stage has only a crude form of conscience.
D) Irrational-Conscientious Stage: During adolescence or adulthood some
persons behave according to their own internalized standards of right and
wrong. Every act is judged according to his/ her own standards and he/ she
disregards the opinion of others around him/ her. Here, the 'blind' super ego is
at work. There are the characteristics of the children who have accepted and
internalized the parental rules, but, have not attained the awareness that the
rules are man-made and intended to serve a human and functional purpose.

E) Rational-Altruistic Stage: This stage is the highest level of moral maturity.

A person in this stage has a stable set of moral principles, by which he/she
judges and directs his/ her own action. He /she objectively assess the results of
an act in a given situation and approve it on the grounds of whether or not it
serves others as well as himself/ herself. He/ She is altruistic because he/ she is
ultimately interested in the welfare of others. He/ she is a rational because he/
she is not following the rule for rule's sake, without regard to its human effects.
He / she have a strong and firm conscience or super-ego.

Loevinger Theory of Morality

In contrast to psychoanalytic viewpoint that concentrates on super-ego,

Loevinger (1970) explains moral development through ego developmental

stages. He has proposed a theory of ego-development in six stages.
In the first stage, an infant constructs a stable world for himself / herself
rand separates himself / herself as an object in that world. In the first stage
(impulsive stage) the infant is governed by impulses. In this stage, punishment
seems to be retaliatory and as immanent in things. The child is dependent and
equates good and bad with clean and dirty. In the second stage (opportunistic
stage), the child is capable of delaying his / her impulsive behaviour for his /
her immediate advantages. He / she understand the concept of blame, but use it
for blaming others or circumstances. He / she understand the rules clearly.
In the third stage (conformist stage), the child feels what is conventional
and socially approved is right and what is disapproved is wrong. The child
shows a sense of belongingness, a superficial niceness and also helpfulness. In
the fourth stage (conscientious stage), self-evaluated standards and selfcriticisms are developed. He/she feels guilt not for breaking rules, but for
hurting another person. He / she is aware of choices and strives for long term
goals and ideals.


In the fifth stage (autonomous stage), a sense of individuality and

concern for emotional dependence are well developed. He / she can cope with
conflicting inner needs with an increase in tolerance. He / she shows respect for
autonomy in other people. In the last stage (integrated stage), the person shows
a reconciling of inner needs and renunciation of unattainable goals and wishes.
Here, the person cherishes individuality. This stage can be equated with
Maslows self-actualizing stage.

Piagets Theory of Morality

Piagets (1932, 1965) early work on childrens moral judgement was the

original inspiration for the cognitive-developmental perspective. To study the

childrens ideals about morality, Piaget relied on open-ended clinical
interviews, questioning 5 to 13 years old Swiss children about their
understanding of rules in the game of marbles. He proposed a system of two
major stages of moral development which encompass both respect for rules and
sense of justice. One was heteronomous morality and another was autonomous
A) Heteronomous Morality (about 5 to 10 years): Heteronomous means
under the authority of another. The term Heteronomous morality suggests
children of this stage view rules as handed down by authorities (God, parents
and teachers) as having a permanent existence, as unchangeable, and as
requiring strict obedience. In this stage, the child judges the rightness or
wrongness of an act on the basis of the magnitude of its consequences, the
extent to which it conforms exactly to established rules and whether or not
elicits punishment. In this stage, the moral understanding is characterized by
B) Autonomous Morality (about 10 years to order): It is more advanced
stage and also called as morality of co-operation or reciprocity. It is the stage in
which children view rules as flexible, socially agreed-on principles that can be
revised to suit the will of the majority. Duty and obligation for the autonomous
child arc more apt to revolve around conforming to peer expectations and

considering their welfare, expressing gratitude for past affection and favours.
He/she views that punishment should be reciprocally related to the misdeed.
Here the moral understanding is characterized by ideal reciprocity.
According to Piaget (1965), each stage is an integrated whole rather
than simply the sum of ideas pertaining isolated bits of behaviour. Both stages
differ qualitatively rather than quantitatively. Maturation and experience play a
role in the transition from one stage to the next. Maturation is related with
cognitive capacities and experience is related with peer interaction. Although
Piaget repeatedly refers to the importance of cognitive development and peer
interaction, he/she does not attempt a systematic explanation of the process by
which these two factors interact to more the child through moral realism to
moral autonomy.
In short, Piaget viewed moral development as the outcome of an active
process, involving the development of certain cognitive capacities in
conjunction with the exposure to new modes of social experience.
Based on research on Piaget's theory, researchers concluded that the
children at all ages and all levels of ego-centricity took into account both
intentions and consequences when making moral judgements. The child would
become subjective rather than objective. (Boehm, 1962). In some studies, it is
found that children at all ages use intention cues, but the weightage given to
intentions is less than the weightage given to consequences.

Kohlberg's Theory of Morality

Another important researcher who investigated morality through

cognitive developmental approach was Lawrence Kohlberg (1968). While

accepting the basic cognitive developmental approach of Piaget, Kohlberg is
critical of much of the substance of Piaget's theory and has developed his own
scheme or stages through analysis. Instead of using story pain as Piaget did for
thinking about moral problems, Kohlberg presented more complicated
dilemmas to subjects. Kohlberg's aim was to retain the best of the Piaget's
scheme and fit it into a more refined comprehensive and logically consistent
frame work.

Kohlberg's system of morality consists of six developmental stages. The

six stages were ordered into three levels of moral orientations. In each of the
six moral stages, there are four kinds of decisional strategies or moral
orientations. each focusing on one of the universal elements such as welfare,
liberty, equality, reciprocity, rules and social order in any social situation. The
four decisional strategies are summarized below.
1. Normative order: Orientation to prescribed rules and roles of social
2. Utility consequence: Orientation to the good and bad welfare
consequence or action in the situation for others and the self.
3. Justice or fairness: Orientation to liberty, equality, reciprocity and
contract between persons.
4. Ideal-self: Orientation to an image of actor as a 'good self or as some
one with conscience, and to his motives or virtues.
Kohlberg proposed three levels in moral development, each of which
was further divided into two stages. So, there were six stages, out of the three
levels. They are briefly given below as:
Level I: Pre-Conventional Level
Stage I: Punishment and Obedience Orientation
Stage 2: The Instrumental Relativist Orientation Level
II: Conventional Level
Stage 3: Good Boy/ Girl Morality Orientation
Stage 4: Society and authority maintenance orientation
Level III: Post- Conventional Level
Stage 5: Contrast and Legalistic Orientation
Stage 6: Principled Orientation


Kohlberg claims that the above sequence is universal and the cultural
factors may only speed up, slow down, or arrest the development but not
change its sequence. These moral stages are primarily the products of child's
interactions with others, rather than direct unfolding of biological or
neurological structures. He says that both role-taking opportunity and cognitive
development are necessary, but not sufficient conditions for moral
development. It means that all morally advanced children are bright, but not all
bright children are morally advanced. His findings suggest that intellectual
development, social participation and role-taking opportunities in family, peergroup, and secondary institutions have positive impact on the development of
Based on research on Kohlberg's theory, Turiel (1966) conducted a
well-defined study by using six stories of Kohlberg's moral judgement
interview technique. He concluded that experience of cognitive conflict might
be an important factor in moral development. Keaseys (1973) study also
confirmed that opinion agreement / disagreement has exerted greater influence
on moral development.
Holstein (1976) also conducted a longitudinal study on 13 year old
adolescent males and females with 3-year interval gap. He administered five
Kohlbergs stories to the subjects and found that there was sequentiality of
development level-wise but not stage-wise as proposed by Kohlberg. Sullivan
(1977) believed that Kohlberg had failed to integrate into his theory an account
of moral sensitivity.
Kohlbergs claim of sequentiality of moral stages was further confirmed
by Pages (1981) longitudinal study. These researches acknowledged that
Kohlbergs theory of justice is necessary but not sufficient for defining the full
domain of what is mean by moral development.



Importance of the Morality

Morality studies the elements of moral consciousness, viz., the ideas of

rightness and wrongness, of moral obligation and responsibility of merit and

demerit and of virtue and vice, together with the sentiments or emotions arising
in the mind from these. It is also an investigation of the rational precepts of
conduct and deals with moral reasoning as well as moral judgement. John
Dewey (1959) stated that every aspect of the learning process was pregnant
with moral possibility as they more feature teachers from self-centredness to
social intelligence, social power and social interest. Johnson (1962), Boehm
(1962), Keasey (1973) and Kohlberg (1977) found positive correlation
between morality and intelligence. They revealed that all students who were
morally advanced, were bright in various aspects.
Bull (1969) and Benniga (1977) revealed that intellectual abilities were
more closely associated with development of morality. Keasey (1973)
indicated that morality was positively correlated with role-taking abilities,
which were needed for interaction between the self and the other. These
abilities can make specific inferences about another's capabilities, attributes,
expectations feeling and potential reactions.
Goldsmith (1929) found that morality had influenced the personality
characteristics of an individual. Kohlberg (1968) and Bull (1969) reported that
morality was an important factor in social participation and socialization. He
indicated that mature principled morality required high autonomy and high
Gururaja (1978) investigated the relation between self-concept and
morality in boys at school level. It was found that the boys who made relatively
advanced in morality tended to be self-assured and confident in the areas of
social relationships. Further more, these boys regarded themselves as adaptable
assertive and decisive individuals capable of coping with new situations as they
arose. Gewirth (1994) and Singh (1978) found that morality had influenced


self-concept of students. Rorty and Wong (1990) identified that morality was
positively connected with internal locus of control creativity and fielddependence and field-independence.
Based on the reviews related to morality, it is clean that morality is very
much needed for individuals in order to manifest their behaviour thoughts.
Attributes, motives, feelings, dispositions of the agent. Morality gives
standards, principles, ideals of action that are thought to be fitting for human
beings to live happily in physical and socio-cultural world. It also inf1uences







characteristics, role-taking abilities, socialization, field-dependence and fieldindependence.

It seems that Sinha and Verma (1972) are the first persons who studied
morality. They conducted a cross sectional study to assess the moral values of
children of 6-11 years. Most of the researchers have been doing on Kohlberg's
theory of morality, Piaget's theory of morality, moral judgement, moral
reasoning, moral education and moral status relevant to children studying at
school level. But. a few researchers were done on morality of teachers and
prospective teachers. Not much of work has been undertaken with regard to
morality of prospective teachers.

Sources and Factors related to Morality

Lord Sri Satya Sai Baba has mentioned that Satya (truth fulness),

Dharma (righteousness), Shanti (peace), Prema (love) and Ahimsa (nonviolence) are the main moral virtues of Sanathana Dharma. Without imbibing
these moral values, acquisition of education, performance of all acts of charity
and undertaking of all spiritual practices is of little worth, what else is to be
conveyed to this assembly or noble souls. Yagnavalka in his Smrit, speaks of
nine moral values - I) Non-injury 2) Sincerity 3) Honesty 4) Cleanliness 5)
Control of Senses 6) Charity 7) Self Restraint 8) Love and 9) Forbearance
(Rao, 2004).


In addition to above said moral values, morality includes dutifulness.







respectability, responsibility, sincerity, punctuality, discipline, servicemindedness, self-respect, self-control, regularity, industriousness, diligence,
courage, egalitarianism (welfare for all), equality, protection of environment,
justice, sympathy, team-spirit, tolerance, brotherhood, courtesy, forgiveness etc
are also termed as moral virtues which are interrelated and interdependent.
In the present study, the important sources are:1) Truthfulness
2) Dutifulness 3) Good Conduct 4) Helping Nature 5) Honesty and 6) SelfControl. Truth is a moral value by itself. Being truthful is being reliable. It is
basic quality of human life. It makes man capable of thinking rationally and
meaning of mental life. It develops self-awareness among individuals. It serves
to eliminate evil-social activity. So, it is essential quality for teachers and
prospective teachers. Dutifulness is essential quality to reach the goal. Dignity
of human life is connected with duty. Success depends upon dutifulness. As a
prospective teacher, he/she should have dedication, devotion and discipline in
his/her duty and that will make him/her to think constructively and
independently after he/she becoming a real teacher.
Good conduct improves self-discipline and purity. It fosters simplicity
and systematic nature. Good conduct makes prospective, teachers to be capable
and responsible for himself / herself and for his/her choices in teachinglearning process. Helping nature is an important moral virtue of teachers and
prospective teacher. When prospective teachers become real teachers, they
have to provide guidance and counseling for progressive out look of students.
They have to develop team-spirit within the students through democracy,
secularism and socialism. They have to act as an agent between authorities and
Honesty is the starting stage of ethical behaviour. It is a social
obligation. Each and every individual should be honest to his/ her family,
friends, teachers, colleagues and state. The beam of sincerity comes out from
the light of honesty. It helps prospective teacher to modify his/her behaviour

and shape the behaviour in a desirable way. Self- control gives moral and
spiritual strength. A balanced and peaceful mind is possible only through selfcontrol. Will power will be attained through self-control. As a prospective
teacher, he/ she should have control on evil thoughts and should have ideals.
He/ she should avoid taking of narcotics.
Keeping in view the sources of morality, the present investigator has
prepared morality attitude scale for prospective teachers due to lack of tool in
assessing the morality of prospective teachers. He has made final form of the
morality attitude scale including six subtests (dimensions). They are: 1)
Truthfulness 2) Dutifulness 3) Good Conduct 4) Helping Nature 5) Honesty
and 6) Self-Control. Each dimension consists of 7 items with 5 alternatives,
namely Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Undecided (UN), Disagree (D) and
Strongly Disagree (SD).


Moral Judgement is a by-product of the childs general social

experience. Pattering of experience is necessary before the child is capable of

higher forms of moral judgement. The ability to make moral judgement plays
an important role in the moral development, as it is a process of defining a
happening in terms of moral justifiability.

It is the insight to see the

relationship between an abstract principle and concrete cases. It is the cognitive

capacity which helps the child to evaluate the worthiness or unworthiness of an
action. It requires

the ability to look for the common features of apparently

different situation and to evaluate the situation as right or wrong.

Moral education as the stimulation of natural development is widely
acceptable in the area of moral judgement where there appears to be

regularity of development of

consequences and directions in

various cultures. Because of this regularity it is possible to define the

maturity of a childs


judgement without considering whether it

agrees with the teachers own particular moral judgement or values.


According to Piaget , the development of moral judgement is a

direct consequence of cognitive

development. The moral cannot be

understood or explained without a complete comprehension of the

cognitive Moral judgement made by individuals is related to the level
and kind of intellectual process of which they are capable moral
judgement are judgements about the good and right action . Not all
judgements of good or right are moral judgements.

However many

judgements are of authentic, provential or technological goodness or rightness.

Thus moral judgement is the result of a complex and interactive
process of many psychological , social , cognitive

and emotional factors. It

is a byproduct of many other learning. It is made up of self control, awareness

of self, skill and insight,

reaction to authority of parents and cultural

A large part of that mature balance of judgement which sees

individual rights in clear perspective with the rights of others and the
relationship of ones own present behaviour to ones own future well
being is called Moral Judgement.
Play field is the best laboratory, where a childs judgements and
behaviour can be explored in relation to set rules. Two aspects can be
studied: the practice of rules and awareness of them. In relation to practice,
it is observed how children apply and adapt in terms of age and
cognitive development. In relation to conscience , emphasis is placed on
observing how they represent the obligatory character of the rules and what
level of awareness they have concerning their obligation to follow them.
After several years of longitudinal and cross sectional studies Piaget
concluded that children pass through two stages
Rules are imposed from outside ; and are considered to be sacred.
Later, a process of internalization, mutual autonomous and autonomies
conscience occur. Each stage leads to certain type of behaviour. In the first
stage, any of these two behaviours can take place rebellion or obedience. In
the second, cooperation is a conviction of individual and social utility.

Piaget (1932) identified different types of moral judgement which

appeared among children of different age groups.

Internationality in Moral Judgement:Young children judge

and act in terms of its actual physical

consequences where as older children in terms of the intent of the


Relativities in Judgement:The young children sees, acts as either totally

right or totally

wrong and believes that everyone view them in the same way where as
an older child on the other hand is aware of a diversity of views of
right and wrong.

Independence of Actions:For the young child , an act is bad if it elicits punishment , while

the older child says an act is bad because it violated a rule and does
harm to others.

Use of Reciprocity:Young children

show selfish


concrete reciprocity in their

judgements and say, hit him back. They anticipate relation and returns
of favour equally from others while older

children judge in terms of

sentiment of gratitude from past actions and favour shown by others.


The use of punishment as a restriction and reform:Young children sanction

severe and arbitrary punishment of

misdeeds, where as older children increasingly favour milder punishment

as well on the acts of restitution to the victim and reform the culprit.



Naturalistic view of Misfortune:Young children view accident and misfortunes occurring after misdeeds

as punishment willed by a deity, God or nature. Older children do not interpret

accidents and natural misfortunes or misdeeds. One of the increasingly
important tasks of education is to help children to develop the appropriate skills
and judgements to cope up with the variety of moral choices they have to face
in the present complex world.
Determinants of Moral Judgement:
While the findings stressed so far suggest the determination of moral
action by non-moral situational and personality forces, there are also some
findings suggesting the determination of action by specifically moral values ,
subjects which says that cheating is very bad or that they would never cheat or
as likely to cheat in an experimental situation as subjects which express a
qualified view as to the badness of cheating; the same willingness deceives in
order to make a good appearance which implies cheating. It impels the child to
make a pious moral statement about cheating.
The basic social problem of moral development is not that of accounting
for individual differences in moral character as revealed in behaviour. Moral
behaviour that involves conformity to social rule is on the whole, to be
explained as the result of the some situational forces, ego variables and
socialization factors that determine behavior, which has no direct moral
relevance. A more distinctive focus of analysis centers instead upon the direct
study of the development of moral values, judgement and emotions. The study
of actual conduct becomes relevant to problems of moral development as far as
research is able to find links between the childs conduct and the development
of moral values and emotions.
Psychological as well as sociological thought has assumed that the
problem of the origin for moral judgement is a culture problem. It has been
assumed that morality was system of rules and values defined by the culture
and that the individual child acquires these values by general cultural
transmission mechanism such as reinforcement learning or identification during
the process of socialisation.