You are on page 1of 9

# 9.

of 2d Systems:
 Classification


## x = Ax, A = ac db : T = a + d, D = ad bc, p() = 2 T + D

Case A: T 2 4D > 0
real distinctqeigenvalues
1,2 = (T

T 2 4D )/2

General Solution:
(v1 , v2: eigenvectors)
1 t

2+

x(t) = c1e v1 + c2 e v2
L1,2 : Full lines generated by v1,2
Half line trajectories:
if c2 = 0 x(t) = c1 e1tv1
trajectory is half line
H1+ = {x = v1 | > 0} if c1 > 0
H1 = {x = v1 | < 0} if c1 < 0
Same for H2 if c1 = 0, c2 > 0 or < 0
The 4 half line trajectories separate
4 regions of R2

H1+

2v

v2

v1
x

2v

v1

2v
v

v2
2v

H1
2 t

Phase portrait:
Sketch trajectories. Indicate
direction of motion by arrows pointing in the direction of increasing t
Direction of Motion on Half Line
Trajectories:
If 1 > 0 then x(t) = c1 e1tv1
moves out to for t
(outwards arrow on H1+ )
approaches 0 for t
If 1 < 0 then x(t) = c1 e1tv1
approaches 0 for t
(inwards arrow on H1+ )
moves out to for t
1

Subcases of Case A
1 > 0 > 2
Half line trajectories
L2

Nodal sink
1 < 2 < 0

Nodal source
1 > 2 > 0
Half line trajectories
L2

## Half line trajectories

L2

fast

fast
x

slow

slow

Generic Trajectories

Generic Trajectories
L2

Generic Trajectories
L

L1

Generic trajectory in
each region approaches
L1 for t
L2 for t

: fast escape to
Generic trajectory is
parallel to L1 for
t
tangent to L2 for
t

L1

: fast approach to 0
Generic trajectory is
parallel to L1 for t
tangent to L2 for t
2

## Phase Portraits and Time Plots for Cases A (pplane6)

Nodal Sink
Nodal Source
Ex.: A =

1
4
2 1

Ex.: A =

1 = 3 v1 = [2, 1]T
2 = 3 v2 = [1, 1]T

Ex.: A =

5
5

5
5

3 1
1 3

30

x
y

20

10

15

x and y

x and y

x
y

20

15

## Time Plots for thick trajectory

20

x=3xy, y=x3y

1 = 4 v1 = [1, 1]T
2 = 2 v2 = [1, 1]T

x=3x+y, y=x+3y

3 1
1 3

1 = 4 v1 = [1, 1]T
2 = 2 v2 = [1, 1]T

x=x+4y, y=2xy

x and y

10

10

10
5

20
30

0
0.5

0.5

0
2.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

4D T 2/2

## complex eigenvector v = u + iw complex no half line solutions

General Solution: x(t) = et[c1 (u cos t w sin t) + c2(u sin t + w cos t)]

Subcases of Case B
Center: = 0

## Spiral Source: > 0

growing oscillations
trajectories are
outgoing spirals

x(t) periodic
trajectories are
closed curves
y

decaying oscillations
trajectories are
ingoing spirals

## Spiral Sink: < 0

x
x


c > 0 counterclockwise
Direction of Rotation: At x = [1, 0]T : y = c. If
c<0
clockwise
Borderline Case:
Center ( = 0) is border between spiral source ( > 0) and spiral sink ( < 0).
4

## Phase Portraits and Time Plots for Cases B (pplane6)

Center
Spiral Source
Spiral Sink


4 10
Ex.: A =
2
4


2+i
= 2i v =
1




0.2
1
0.2
1
Ex.: A =
Ex.: A =
1 0.2
1 0.2




1
1
= 0.2 + i v =
= 0.2 + i v =
i
i


x=4x10y, y=2x4y

x=0.2x+y, y=x0.2y

x=0.2x+y, y=x+0.2y
1

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

2
1

1
5

0.5

0.5

x
y

5
4

x and y

x and y

x
y

0.5

x and y

0.5

1
0

0
1
2

2
1

5
5

20

15

10

10

15

20

## Degenerate Node: Borderline Case Spiral/Node

Assume T 2 4D = 0 single eigenvalue = T /2
Assume generic case: (A I) 6= 0 single eigenvector v
Let (A I)w = v General solution:

## x(t) = c1etv + c2et(w + tv)

only two half line solutions on straight line generated by v
Degenerate Nodal Source:
T >0
borderline case

nodal source
spiral source

## Degenerate Nodal Sink:

T <0
borderline case

nodal sink
spiral sink

Assume D = 0, T 6= 0 eigenvalues 1 = 0, 2 = T
Let v1, v2 be the eigenvectors General solution:

## x(t) = c1v1 + c2e2 tv2

line of equilibrium points generated by v1
infinitely many half line solutions on straight lines
parallel to line generated by v2
T >0
borderline case

nodal source

T <0
borderline case

1=0

2>0

nodal sink

1=0

2<0

## 9.4: The (T, D)Plane: = T/2 T 2 4D/2

Five Generic Cases:
D=T2/4
D
if D < 0
degenerate
degenerate
nodal source
nodal sink
if D > 0 and
spiral
spiral
T >0
source
source
sink
T <0
sink
center
nodal
nodal
T 2 > 4D node
source
sink
2
T < 4D spiral
T
Borderline Cases:
unstable
stable
if T = 0 and D > 0 center



8
5 
if D = 0, T 6= 0 saddle-node Ex.: A =
D = 6
10 7
if T > 0 unstable



if T < 0 stable
D = 2, T = 3
2 0
if T 2 = 4D, A 6= (T /2)I, and

Ex.: A =

1 1

T 2 4D = 1

 nodal sink


10 25
D = 25
Ex.: A =
5
10
T =0
Other Special Case: A = I, 6= 0
center
only half
line
solutions
from
origin



 c = 5 > 0 counterclockwise
unstable
>0
direction of rotation
Name:
star if
8
stable
<0

## T > 0 d. nodal source

T < 0 d. nodal sink

## Typical Homework and Exam Problems



a b
, classify the type of phase portrait.
c d
In the case of centers and spirals you may also be asked to determine the
direction of rotation.


a b
2. Given a matrix A =
, sketch the phase portrait.
c d
The sketch should show all special trajectories and a few generic trajectories.
At each trajectory the direction of motion should be indicated by an arrow.
1. Given a matrix A =

In the case of centers, sketch a few closed trajectories with the right
direction of rotation. For spirals, one generic trajectory is sufficient.
In the case of saddles or nodes, the sketch should include all half line
trajectories and a generic trajectory in each of the four regions separated
by the half line trajectories. The half line trajectories should be sketched
correctly, that is, you have to compute eigenvalues as well as eigenvectors.
In the case of nodes you should also distinguish between fast (double
arrow) and slow (single arrow) motions (see p.2).
3. Given A, find the general solution (or a solution to an IVP), classify the
phase portrait, and sketch the phase portrait.
9