You are on page 1of 14







Chapter 11

1 1 . 1 I NT RO DUC T IO N
The Utility Master Plan for
Toronto Pearson International
Airport encompasses all utilities
required to serve and operate an
efficient and dependable airport.
The Plan addresses power, communications, natural gas, hot and
chilled water for heating and
cooling, jet fuel, water for fire
and domestic use, sanitary and
storm sewers and their associated
Following the completion of the
first phase of the Airport Development Program, the GTAA will
continue to work within a consultative framework with the various
federal, provincial, regional and
municipal authorities that provide
utilities, have jurisdiction over
them, or are impacted by the
requirement for services by
the Airport.
As development of Toronto
Pearson continues, the demand
for services will increase. The
Airports utility infrastructure will
continue to be constructed in
areas where the constraint on
development is minimized.

The primary supplier of domestic
water to the Airport is the Region

Chapter 11 > U T I L I T I E S

of Peel. The Region connects to

the Airports watermain infrastructure with three feeds:
Airport Road at American Drive,
Britannia Road to the Infield, and
Elmbank Road. A fourth feed is
available from Courtneypark
Drive but it is not yet fully
developed across to the Infield.
Airport facilities, located in the
Airport North area, the Vista Cargo
area, and the Cogeneration and
Central Utilities Plants are serviced
directly from the Region of Peel
water distribution network, and
are not connected to the Airports
internal distribution system.
The City of Toronto provides a
secondary domestic water feed to
the airport grid from Etobicoke
Pressure Zone 4. The Toronto
system is connected to the domestic and fire water system in Area
2A, and provides two unmetered
watermain service connections for
emergency backup purposes
should the Peel Region supplied
watermain loop for Area 2
suffer a severe pressure drop
associated with a fire pump
start or other high water
demand. The water
distribution model for the
Toronto Pearson was
updated in 2004, and
confirmed that the
existing watermain

system capacities are adequate

to handle the forecast 2030
demands. See Figure 11-1.

11.2.1 Development by 2010

The Region of Peel has indicated
that its watermain along Airport
Road, crossing under Hwy 409,
is to be abandoned and relocated
because of its age and condition.
A new watermain connection
between Airport and Viscount
Roads is required for the development of Areas 6A and 6B, and
will also replace the existing
Airport Road watermain under
Hwy 409.
The watermains in Area 8 are the
oldest at the Airport. Over the
years, Area 8 has been redeveloped
in different stages, therefore the
area accommodates new and old
buildings. New building code and
life safety requirements are placing


additional strains on the existing

watermains. Old watermains will
be systematically replaced as redevelopment occurs.

Chapter 11 > U T I L I T I E S

Demolition of Terminal 2 started

in March 2007. As a result, a new
watermain alignment replacing the
existing fire and domestic water
supplies to Area 2A will be

constructed in 2007. The new

watermain alignment will border
Stage 2 of the Terminal 1 apron
and will follow the planned GTAA
road network at full build out.

Enbridge owns and operates its
infrastructure to each building
meter. Enbridge does not have
any easements or rights-of-way
on GTAA property and has
serviced the Infield area much
like a subdivision within a typical
Terminal 1 and the Terminal 1
Garage are serviced by a 200 mm
intermediate-pressure system from
an Enbridge regulating station
located on airport lands.

Aviation Fuel Tank Farm

11.2.2 Development beyond 2010

Construction of the Courtneypark
Drive watermain extension across
the Infield area will occur some
time after 2010 as a secondary feed
to the facilities. Properties in Areas
13C, 13E, and Area 16 (Skeet
Club lands) can be serviced directly
from a Region of Peel watermain
grid when development occurs.

1 1 . 3 N AT URAL GA S
Natural gas service is supplied
solely by Enbridge Gas Distribution (Enbridge) through a system
of high- and intermediate-pressure
gas mains, used primarily to heat
buildings and heat water for
domestic use. The mains are
located within the right-of-way
of all the major arterial roads
bordering the Airport. High and
intermediate pressure natural gas
connections were used from this
external network to centrally
located gas meters and regulators
within the Airport for subsequent
sale to commercial users at
lowered pressure levels.

Chapter 11 > U T I L I T I E S

The major demands for natural gas

are from the Cogeneration Plant
and the Central Utilities Plant,
which provides hot and chilled
water to Terminal 1, and provides
auxiliary building heat to several
buildings, including snow-melting
facilities around Terminal 1
(10 units) and Terminal 3 (1 unit).
The Central Utilities Plant is
serviced through Enbridges highpressure grid. The Cogeneration
Plant is serviced from a dedicated
extra high-pressure service.

Peak demands from the Terminal 1

complex and the Infield area are
estimated at 300 million BTU/h
and 50 million BTU/h respectively. The estimated increase in
heating demand attributable to the
relocation of the GTAA administration offices, field maintenance,
and other airport support functions to the Airport South area was
determined to be offset by the
relocation of the former Canadian
Airlines and Skyservice hangars to
the Infield area.

The Infield area is serviced by a

250 mm high-pressure connection
that runs along an old alignment
of Britannia Road. On the east
side, a 100 mm high-pressure
connection is from the Renforth
and Silver Dart Drives intersection
along Silver Dart Drive to serve
the Pearson International Fueling
Facilities Corporation (PIFFC)
headquarters. Additionally,
Terminal 3 is serviced from a
200 mm intermediate-pressure gas
main on Airport Road.

Buildings in Area 2A are serviced

on a per building basis by a high
pressure connection. This connection is adequate to support
future needs.

The Infield area is serviced along

the Britannia Road allowance and

11.3.1 Future Infrastructure

Future natural gas servicing
requirements in the proposed
new development areas such as
Area 6, Boeing Lands (Area 15),
Areas 13A, 13B, etc. will be
supplied through Enbridges
external distribution network.

pipeline. Fuel is then distributed
from the tank farm to airside,
where aircraft are fuelled from

11.4.1 Future Demand

Stormwater Management Pond

11.3.2 Developments to 2010

An Enbridge gas main extension
along the access road into Area 6A
and 6B will be constructed to
bring natural gas services to the
Area 6A redevelopment, and an
upgraded supply to the Viscount
Road Airport LINK train station
and the Area 6B garage.

11.3.3 Developments
beyond 2010
In conjunction with the
Courtneypark Drive watermain
construction, a gas main will be
constructed to supply additional
load and to supply additional
redundancy to the Infield gas
distribution network.

1 1 . 4 JET F U E L SUP P LY

Additional fuel storage capacity is

needed to meet current and future
demands. At present, PIFFC is
developing an off-airport storage
and distribution facility with a rail
connection. This facility will
supply fuel to the Airport by
pipeline. A fuel line corridor has
been reserved on airport lands. In
addition, the GTAA has set aside
property in Area 6C for the future
relocation of the existing tank
farm on Silver Dart Drive.


The sanitary sewage discharged
from Toronto Pearson flows to the
City of Toronto Mimico Creek
trunk sewer in the east and to the
Region of Peel Etobicoke Creek
trunk sewer along the western
boundary of the Airport. The
Mimico Creek trunk sewer

PIFFC, an airline consortium,

owns and controls the supply and
distribution of all aviation fuel at
the tank farm in Area 11. PIFFC,
in turn, contracts with Consolidated Aviation Fuelling of Toronto
to manage the day-to-day fuelling
operations. The tank farm has two
independent fuel storage areas
with a capacity of 17,400 m3
(3.8 million gal.). Fuel is supplied
to the tank farm by truck and by
Cogeneration Plant

Chapter 11 > U T I L I T I E S

discharges to the Humber Sewage

Treatment Plant. The Etobicoke
Creek trunk sewer discharges to
the Lakeview Sewage Treatment
Plant. Low concentrate glycol is
discharged into the sanitary
sewage system in accordance with
the compliance agreement
between the GTAA and the City
of Toronto and Region of Peel.
The peak rate of sanitary sewage
that flows from the terminal areas
is primarily a function of the
forecast volume of passenger
activity over the forecast horizon.
Sufficient sewer outlet capacity
exists in the existing infrastructure
to handle airport expansion to full
A new sanitary sewer, including
a pumping station, services
Terminal 1, the Terminal 1
Parking Garage, and ancillary
buildings, and connects to a Peel
Region Etobicoke Creek trunk
sewer. Terminal 3 and adjacent
buildings are currently serviced by
a gravity sewer running northerly
across Areas 6A and 6B and into
a Region of Peel trunk sewer.

relocated. The relocation includes
the construction of a sewage
pumping station.

Flight Information Display System

Terminal 2 was demolished in

2007 and with it a large section
of sanitary sewer connecting the
old terminal to the Terminal 1
sewage lift station. The discharge
for two facilities that were connected to the Terminal 2 outfall
sewer were rerouted. A sanitary
holding tank was installed for the
fuel tank farm, and the existing
75 mm forcemain servicing the
Terminal 1 Satellite was converted
into and connected to an existing
sewer discharging to the City of
Toronto system.
Sanitary effluent from future
developments in Area 15 (the
Boeing lands), Areas 2A, 13A,
13B, 13C, and 13E can be directly
discharged into adjacent municipal sewer systems.

11.5.1 Development to 2010

The existing Terminal 3 outfall
sanitary sewer has been compromised through Areas 6A and
6B, by the Airport LINK train
station, a parking garage (under
construction), and several tie-back
penetrations from an adjacent
retaining wall. The sanitary sewer,
north of Airport Road to its
present connection into the
Region of Peels collection system
at Northwest Drive, will be

Chapter 11 > U T I L I T I E S

The 50-year-old sewage pumping

station in Area 5, serving the Vista
Cargo and the Air Canada Flight
Simulation Centre is at its end of
life and will be replaced in 2007/08.

11.5.2 Development beyond 2010

The construction to complete the
twinning of the existing Peel
Regions Spring Creek trunk sewer
is scheduled to occur in concert
with the construction of Runway
05-23 and Taxiway Hotel. This
would pre-empt the need to
tunnel the storm sewer extension
under the runway at some future
date to service a future stormwater
management facility.

The Airports stormwater management practices adhere to the
guidelines and requirements of
local and provincial conservation
authorities. In general terms, this
requires that run-off of stormwater
not exceed pre-development levels,
and that sedimentation and
pollutants must be prevented from
reaching streams and rivers.
Stormwater management facilities
are located throughout the airport
lands, which is divided into a
number of drainage areas.
Figure 11-2 depicts the drainage
areas and Figure 11-3 the stormwater facilities. A summary and
description of existing facilities is
shown in Table 11-1.

11.6.1 Development to 2010

Facility 24A Area 13B A
surface dry pond with a storage
volume of 4,500 m3 will be constructed, providing stormwater
quality and erosion control for
21.9 ha of Drainage Area 24
west block. Spring Creek bisects
this development area and the
resulting floodplain requirements
significantly reduce the amount of
land available for development.
Facility 24B Area 13B An
underground storage facility
(stormceptor) with a storage
volume of 1,000 m3 will be constructed, providing stormwater
quality and erosion control for
4.6 ha of Drainage Area 24
north east block. The facility will
be designed for water quality
control. Spring Creek bisects this
development area and the resulting floodplain requirements
significantly reduce the amount of
land available for development.
Skeet Club Lands (Area 16) At
the north end of the Airport, to
the west of the FedEx site, the
GTAA has purchased the Skeet
Club lands (10.2 ha). A surface
dry pond with storage volume of
4,500 m3 will be constructed to
provide stormwater quality and
erosion control. The total contributing drainage area is 19.9 ha.
The stormwater management
facility will control the remaining
portions of Drainage Area 22 not
adequately serviced by the
constructed FedEx Facility and
Juliet Stormwater Pond.


11.6.2 Development beyond 2010

H4 Facility A surface dry pond
with storage volume of 19,055 m3
will be constructed providing

Chapter 11 > U T I L I T I E S

stormwater quality and erosion

control. The contributing drainage
area is 143.8 ha. The stormwater
management facility will control
runoff from Drainage Area 21,

including a large portion of

proposed Runway 05R-23L. Construction of this facility is to be
included with the first stage of
Runway 05R-23L construction.


TABLE 11-1
Etobicoke Creek Stormwater Facility Quantity and Quality

Moores Stormwater Facility

Quantity and Quality

Carlingview Stormwater Facility

Quality and Quantity

Aeroquay Stormwater Facility

Quantity and Quality

Stormwater Management Pond 4

(SWM 4)


Stormwater Management Pond 5

(SWM 5)


Stormwater Management Pond 6

(SWM 6)


Stormwater Management Facility

Stormwater Management Pond 16

Quantity and erosion control

Quantity and erosion control

Juliet Pond

Quantity and erosion control

Pond 6B
427 Ponds (at 409) East and West


WM 4


FedEx Stormwater Pond

Chapter 11 > U T I L I T I E S

56,300 m3 (56 million litres) capacity (engineered wetland).
Drainage Areas 14 & 15 318.41 ha catchment area.
Drains Central Deicing Facility, south Ineld area, and portions of
Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 apron areas.
84,000 m3 capacity (1 underground tank, 2 ponds).
Drainage Areas 2, 16 & 3 406.63 ha catchment area.
Drains T3, Vista Cargo, associated taxiways, Ineld north of the control
tower, and a portion of the Ineld.
Drainage Area 6 58.52 ha catchment area.
Two underground storage tanks with a total of 17,000 m3 of storage
capacity (one at 7,000 m3, one at 10,000 m3).
Drains Terminal 2 on-gate areas, and PIFFCs fuelling facility.
6,600 m3 capacity (underground storage tank).
Drainage Area 5 31.70 ha catchment area.
Drains Terminal 1 groundside roads, and Terminal 1 roof.
26,700 m3 capacity (dry surface facility).
Drainage Area 9 123.84 ha catchment area.
Drains Convair Dr. and Electra Dr. and associated buildings, portions of
the 06-24 runways, portions of the Airside Service Rd.
4,600 m3 capacity (dry surface facility).
Drainage Area 10 19.40 ha catchment area.
Drains portions of the 06-24 runways.
24,800 m3 capacity (dry surface facility).
Drainage Area 11 43.77 ha catchment area.
Drains portions of Airside Service Rd, portions of the 06-24 runways.
4,300 m3 capacity (dry surface facility).
Drains portions of the Airside Service Rd, portions of the 06-24 runways.
11,200 m3 capacity (dry surface facility).
Drainage Areas 7 & 8 30.14 ha catchment area.
Drains portions of Silver Dart Drive, adjacent elds, and portions of the
06-24 runways.
13,900 m3 capacity (dry surface facility).
76.7 ha catchment area.
11,220 m3 capacity (dry surface facility).
Drainage Area 4 26.30 ha catchment area.
10,620 m3 capacity (dry surface facility)
Drainage Area 4 43.70 ha catchment area.
19,400 m3 capacity (dry surface stormwater facility).
Drainage Areas 1 & 26 148.1 ha catchment area.
6,200 m3 capacity (dry surface stormwater facility).
28.6 ha catchment area.
Drainage Area 22 Drains FedEx lands; not controlled by the GTAA.


Included in the construction of

Runway 05R-23L is the triple box
culvert that conveys Spring Creek
through the Airport relieved with an
adjacent 3000 mm concrete pipe.

Chapter 11 > U T I L I T I E S

A hydraulic analysis completed for

Spring Creek during the extension
of Juliet Taxiway indicated that the
downstream extension of the triple
box culvert could result in the
overtopping of Runways 05L-23R

and 05R-23L during a regional

storm event.
Facility 25 Area 13A A dry
surface pond with a storage volume
of 26,500 m3 will be constructed

providing stormwater quantity,
quality, and erosion control for
24.1 ha of Drainage Area 25.
Boeing Lands (Area 15) The
stormwater outlet sewer for the
Boeing lands crosses the property
of the International Centre by
agreement. To some degree, this
controls the retention time and
rate of runoff into the existing
sewer. Preliminary studies indicate
that the lands can be developed
without subsurface retention

11.7 POWER
Toronto Pearson is supplied with
power from four 27.6 kV feeders:
two feeders from the Richview
Transformer Station, one dedicated feeder from Bramalea Transformer Station, and one shared
feeder from the Cardiff Transformer Station. These feeders
supply power from the north, the
northwest, and the east. This
geographic redundancy provides
the Airport a needed level of
secure supplies of power.
The present four feeders terminate
at switchyards designated as
follows: South Switching Unit,
North Switching Unit, and West
Switching Units. The switchyards
consist of air-insulated switchgear
employing circuit breakers for
switching and fault protection.
Dual, full capacity loops connect
from the east switchyards to the
west switchyards along the
southern perimeter of the Airport
while another dual loop does the

Chapter 11 > U T I L I T I E S

same through the middle of the

Airport. At various locations along
the dual loops, there are Load
Modules (LMs) that tap off the
dual loops to provide service
feeders to all of the airport loads.
Critical loads have two adjacent
LMs tapping off each of the dual
loop feeders. This arrangement, in
effect, provides the opportunity
for critical buildings to connect to
four different sources. Non-critical
buildings are supplied from two
power sources.
The LMs are pad mounted
switchgear contained in sealed
enclosures and pressurized with a
gas (Sulfurhexachloride or SF6).
The units employ state-of-the-art
technology for protection and
control, and are interconnected by
a fibre optic cable to facilitate
supervisory control and data
acquisition systems.
The entire electrical system is
continuously monitored from
Enersource Hydro Mississaugas
(EHM) control room on Mavis
Road. In addition to the automatic
response of the protection and
control system to isolate faults as
soon as they occur, the control
room operators can immediately
examine the distribution system
status and effect switching
remotely to restore power to any
airport customer affected by a
fault. Terminal 1 has been constructed with similar technology
and equipment, in that there are
two switchyards, NTA and NTB,
one at each end of the terminal,
and dual loop feeders run the
length of the terminal with

12 LMs tapping off power for all

the terminal loads.
In 2005, a new 117 MW Cogeneration Plant was constructed and
commissioned in Area 6C. The
plant is connected into the
Enersource Hydro Mississauga
distribution system through three
44 kV feeders. The Cogeneration
Plant can provide power to the
Airports distribution system
through three connecting feeders
at 27.6 kV. This takes place at the
Central Utility Plant (CUP)
where there are three LMs that
have direct connections to the
main airport switchyards.
The present airport load is
averaging 38 MW and is expected
to grow to approximately 56 MW
by 2020. The existing incoming
feeders and the distribution
system capacity are able to carry
the forecast load to 2020 and
beyond. The entire 27.6 kV
airport distribution system is
operated, managed, and maintained by Enersource Technologies
under contract to GTAA.
The only exceptions to this would
be the power supplies to the
properties that have been acquired
in recent years by the GTAA,
referred to as the Dorman Road
property and the Boeing lands.
Both of these properties had
previously been developed and
were supplied directly with power
from the local electrical utility. A
GTAA land use study confirmed
that the existing feeders to these
properties will be more than
adequate to satisfy all anticipated

telecommunications closets (TC)
are cross connected to several
sources. Figure 11-4 illustrates a
typical network design concept.

Central Utilities Plant (foreground) and Cogeneration Plant (background)

demands. However, a utility

corridor for the supply of power
through the GTAA grid will be
maintained should it ever become
beneficial to integrate the supply
with the GTAAs Cogeneration
Plant incoming supply.

11.7.1 Cogeneration Plant

At the present time, the Airports
facilities can be supplied from
27.6 kV feeders only, or some
combination of the 27.6 kV and
44 kV feeders, subject to cable
capacities and distribution system
constraints. This arrangement
allows the Airport to supply part
of its load from the Cogeneration
Plant without engaging in switching operations. The incoming
feeders can be isolated or connected at the corresponding
switching unit remotely from the
EHM control room to allow
changes in the incoming power
configuration to respond to
planned or unplanned situations.

Chapter 11 > U T I L I T I E S

11.7.2 Development by 2010

Area 6A: If financially feasible, the
27.6 kV ducts from the Terminal
3 Oval Lot will be extended across
Airport Road and connect to the
existing ducts in the vicinity of the
Airport LINK train 27.6 kV substation. This will complete the
east loop of the Airports 27.6 kV
electrical distribution system and
provide services to Area 6A.

With the advent of the Airport
Development Program, the GTAA
started a major conversion from
conventional processes to electronic data management by
implementing the most current
processes of the information and
telecommunications industries. An
infrastructure was designed and
installed that is resilient and
provides redundancy. Key equipment has an uninterruptible power
supply (UPS) to protect against
power outages and equipment
within the buildings main
computer rooms (MCR) and

The infrastructure is secure and

has sufficient capacity to expand
to meet future demands. A common cabling system providing the
backbone for the Campus Area
Network (CAN) consists of
425 km of fibre optic cable and
2,350 km of copper cables encased
in concrete duct banks. The CAN
interconnects all campus buildings
and provides carrier-class technologies to provide Internet
Protocol-enabled (IP) network
connectivity for the majority of
airport systems, including checkin counters, kiosks, gates, baggage
systems, security, and office computing environments. In addition,
coaxial cables are installed in some
buildings to support specialty
services. Communications Hubs
provide the off-airport linkages to
commercial communications
service providers such as Bell
Canada, etc. The Telecommunications and Network Services
Access Agreement governs the
access conditions and requirements for service providers.
Figure 11-5 shows areas serviced
by the CAN.
An electronic security system
allows the GTAA to monitor and
manage its extensive security
and public safety commitment.
In excess of 2,300 cameras and
17 closed circuit television nodes
have been installed, over 2,030
doors with over 19,000 monitored
alarm points are connected to


Space 1

Space 3

Space 2
Ring 2
Ring 1

Typical Network Design Concept

the system, as are over 320 duress

The system has a database with
12,000 records for security access
privileges. A total of 968 emergency intercom stations are
installed at essential access doors,
in elevators, washrooms, public
areas, and parking garages to give
public and staff instant access to
the Airport Operations Control
Centre (AOCC) in the event of
an emergency. A Public Address
system, part of the GTAA Public
Information and Life Safety
Systems, provides extensive
coverage in all public areas
including the terminal buildings
and other GTAA facilities.

11.8.1 Developments to 2010

Expansion of the communications
utilities are planned for Areas 5
and 7 by 2010. Both these areas
can be fed from the existing East
Communications Hub.

11.8.2 Developments
beyond 2010
The North Communications Hub
and the connection from Area 5

Chapter 11 > U T I L I T I E S

are planned to be constructed by

2015. This linkage also allows the
Boeing lands to be serviced.

30 per cent additional cooling

capacity available in the CUP in
addition to 100 per cent additional heating capacity.


The CUP was designed to support

staged construction and to expand
as the demand for heating and
cooling grows. At full build out,
the CUP can handle 10 chillers
and an additional two boilers.

The Central Utilities Plant (CUP)

generates hot and chilled water for
heating and cooling.
The operation of the CUP and
the Cogeneration Plant are interrelated. The Cogeneration Plant
generates electricity through two
gas turbines, a process which
produces a significant amount of
exhaust heat. The waste heat is
recovered through two steam
boilers to create additional
electricity through the steam
turbine. Steam that is not used to
power the steam turbine can be
redirected to the CUP.
The cooling systems in the CUP
are equipped with five electric
motor-driven centrifugal chillers,
two steam turbine-driven chillers,
five chilled water distribution
pumps, six cooling towers, and
seven condenser water pumps.
The heating systems in the CUP
are equipped with four steam
boilers, three hot-water tube and
shell heat exchangers, five hotwater distribution pumps, and
two de-aerators and expansion
tanks with four boiler feed pumps.
At present, the CUP has a steam
driven cooling capacity of approximately 4,000 tons. This output
can be increased as demand grows.
At present, there is approximately

11.9.1 CUP Main Loop

Distribution System
At the present time, the CUP
supplies hot and chilled water to
Terminal 1, the Terminal 1
Parking Garage, and the Infield
area by means of an underground
distribution network of distribution pipes. Terminal 3 has its own
heating and cooling system and is,
therefore, not serviced by the
CUP. Figure 11-6 shows an overview of the CUPs hot and chilled
water lines.
The distribution system serving
the Infield area has two components. The first component consists of a direct feed from the CUP
to the Infield Hot Water Distribution Plant. The second component
is the Hot Water Distribution
Plants supply lines serving six
buildings in the Infield. These are
the Three Bay Hangar, the Infield
Terminal, Cargo 2, Cargo 3, Air
Canadas Equipment Maintenance
building and the Air Canada
Cargo 1 building.
Four projects are required in the
future. The first three elements


will improve efficiency and add

redundancy for existing demands.
The fourth will be driven by the
need to serve new or expanded

Chapter 11 > U T I L I T I E S

11.9.2 Proposed Improvements

Over time the CUP will require
certain upgrades and expansions
to meet the growing demand for
heating and cooling. These are:
1. Upgrading the CUP Control

2. Enhancing the main CUP

distribution loop
3. Enhancing the Infield distribution loop
4. Increasing overall capacity at
the CUP


11.9.3 Development by 2010

11.9.4 Development beyond 2010

The current control system dates

back to 2000 and has not been
updated to keep pace with the
available improvements in
efficiencies of managing energy.

Adding Terminal 3 to the main

distribution loop would provide
some redundancy for the overall
system and will, in emergency
situations, allow Terminal 3 to
share heating and cooling with
other facilities. The existing single
supply pipe for heating and
cooling under the airfield will be
twinned for redundancy.

Chapter 11 > U T I L I T I E S

Valves and valve chambers will be

installed to the medium hot water
supply lines serving the Infield
area. This will prevent the need
for full shutdown in the event of a
pipe rupture.
There is insufficient capacity to
meet cooling demands once
Pier G comes online. Additional
chillers will be added to the CUP
at that time.