Assignment 2

DISASTER MANAGEMENT
(5584) MBA (COL)

ZAHID NAZIR
Roll # AB523655 Semester: Autumn 2009

ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

QUESTION 1
Discuss major steps of flood management and government enactments pertaining to flood management.

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FLOOD
Flood is a state of high water level along a river channel or on the coast that leads to inundation of land, which is not usually submerged. Floods may happen gradually and also may take hours or even happen suddenly without any warning due to breach in the embankment, spill over, heavy rains etc. There are different types of floods namely: flash flood, riverine flood, urban flood, etc. Flash floods can be defined as floods which occur within six hours of the beginning of heavy rainfall, and are usually associated with cloud bursts, storms and cyclones requiring rapid localized warnings and immediate response to reduce damage. Wireless network and telephone connections are used to monitor flood conditions. In case of flash floods, warnings for timely evacuation may not always be possible.

Causes:
There are several causes of floods and differ from region to region. The causes may vary from a rural area to an urban area. Some of the major causes are: a) Heavy rainfall b) Heavy siltation of the river bed reduces the water carrying capacity of rivers/stream. c) Blockage in the drains lead to flooding of the area. d) Landslides blocking the flow of the stream.

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e) Construction of dams and reservoirs f) In areas prone to cyclone, strong winds accompanied by heavy down pour along with storm surge leads to flooding.

Warning:
Flood forecasting and warning has been highly developed in the past two decades. With the advancement of technology such as satellite and remotesensing equipments flood waves can be tracked as the water level rises. Except for flash floods there is usually a reasonable warning period. Heavy precipitation will give sufficient warning of the coming river flood. High tides with high winds may indicate flooding in the coastal areas. Evacuation is possible with suitable monitoring and warning. Warning is issued by the Central Water Commission (CWC), Irrigation & Flood Control Department, and Water Resources Department. CWC maintains close liaison with the administrative and state engineering agencies, local civil authorities to communicate advance warning for appropriate mitigation and preparedness measures.

Mitigation Measures
Mapping of the flood prone areas is a primary step involved in reducing the risk of the region. Historical records give the indication of the flood inundation areas and the period of occurrence and the extent of the coverage. Warning can be issued looking into the earlier marked heights of the water levels in case of potential threat. In the coastal areas the tide levels

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and the land characteristics will determine the submergence areas. Flood hazard mapping will give the proper indication of water flow during floods.

Land use control will reduce danger of life and property when waters inundate the floodplains and the coastal areas. The number of casualties is related to the population in the area at risk. In areas where people already have built their settlements, measures should be taken to relocate to better sites so as to reduce vulnerability. No major development should be permitted in the areas which are subjected to high flooding. Important facilities like hospitals, schools should be built in safe areas. In urban areas, water holding areas can be created like ponds, lakes or low-lying areas.

Construction of engineered structures in the flood plains and strengthening of structures to withstand flood forces and seepage. The buildings should be constructed on an elevated area. If necessary build on stilts or platform.

Flood Control aims to reduce flood damage. This can be done by decreasing the amount of runoff with the help of reforestation (to increase absorption could be a mitigation strategy in certain areas), protection of vegetation, clearing of debris from streams and other water holding areas, conservation of ponds and lakes etc. Flood Diversion include levees, embankments, dams and channel improvement. Dams can store water and can release water at a manageable rate. But failure of dams in earthquakes and operation of releasing the water can cause floods in the lower areas. Flood Proofing
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reduces the risk of damage. Measures include use of sand bags to keep flood water away, blocking or sealing of doors and windows of houses etc. Houses may be elevated by building on raised land. Buildings should be constructed away from water bodies.

Flood Management In India, systematic planning for flood management commenced with the Five Year Plans, particularly with the launching of National Programme of Flood Management in 1954. During the last 48 years, different methods of flood protection structural as well as nonstructural have been adopted in different states depending upon the nature of the problem and local conditions. Structural measures include storage reservoirs, flood embankments, drainage channels, antierosion works, channel improvement works, detention basins etc. and nonstructural measures include flood forecasting, flood plain zoning, flood proofing, disaster preparedness etc. The flood management measures undertaken so far have provided reasonable degree of protection to an area of 15.81 million hectares throughout the country.

FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN
It is recognized world over that floods are the most destructive of natural hazards and the greatest cause of large scale damages to lives and property. Over the years, major floods have occurred in almost all the south asian

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countries, causing huge loss of life and property. Despite the investment of millions, even billions of dollars to tame the rivers of the region, the frequency of major flood disasters has actually increased over the past 25 to 30 years. There is a growing consensus that the impacts of climate change may well lead to an increase in both the frequency and magnitude of floods. Mankind has to live with the floods and devise measures to better manage them to minimize the losses and harness benefits. During the last fifty nine years in Pakistan, the total losses ascribable to floods are colossal, while more than 7200 peoples lost their lives. Heaviest direct flood damages in Pakistan occur to infrastructure, agricultural crops, damage to urban and rural property and public utilities.

Organizations with overall Disaster Related Responsibilities
The Federal Flood Commission (FFC), Emergency Relief Cell (ERC) and Pakistan Meteorological Department are the key agencies for disaster management in Pakistan. However, in case of a disaster, almost all federal and provincial ministries, departments and divisions start dealing with the situation offhandedly. A brief description of responsibilities of such organizations is given below:

1. Emergency Relief Cell (ERC)
Responsibilities of the ERC in connection with disaster relief are:  To provide in cash as well as in kind to supplement the resources of the provincial governments in the event of major disasters  To coordinate the activities of the federal Division, Provincial Governments, as well as governmental, semi governmental,
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 

international and national aid-giving agencies, in the conduct of operations for relief of disasters To maintain contact with international aid-giving agencies/ voluntary organizations and donor countries for disaster relief measures To administer Relief Funds, being maintained at the Federal Level To stockpile certain items of basic necessity and establish central inventory of resources f. To provide assistance to the calamity stricken friendly countries

The ERC operates an Emergency Control Room, which coordinates the situation during calamities by liaising with relevant agencies such as the Federal Flood Commission, Meteorological Department, and Provincial Governments. The ERC maintains a warehouse in the capital, Islamabad, stocking essential non-perishable relief item such as medicines, blankets, clothing and tents. In addition, there is a Relief Goods Dispatch Organization (GDO) located in Karachi. This is responsible for receiving and dispatching all relief goods from foreign and local agencies in the event of a disaster. The ERC also maintains an Aviation Squadron with a fleet of 4 helicopters, whose task is to assist rescue operations and enable officials to visit the affected areas.

2. Pakistan Meteorological Department
The Met Department is both a scientific and a service department, and functions under the Ministry of Defence. It is responsible for providing meteorological service throughout Pakistan. Apart from Meteorology, the department is also concerned with Agrometeorology, Hydrology, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Seismology, Geomagnetism, Atmospheric Electricity and studies of the Ionosphere and Cosmic Rays. The major functions of the Met Department are to provide information on meteorological and geophysical matters with the objective of disaster
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mitigation due to weather and geophysical phenomena, agriculture development based on climatic potential of the country, prediction and modification of weather forecast. The department has established:

 

A network of observing stations to generate meteorological, geophysical and phonological data. A telecommunication system for speedy dissemination of data Meteorological offices to analyze data for issuing forecasts and warnings for aviation, agriculture, shipping, sports, irrigation etc. Climatological and data processing units for scrutinizing, comparing and publishing data for appraisal of long term weather trends and earthquakes.

The department has introduced a modern flood forecasting system, earthquake and nuclear explosion detection system, radar, satellite, computer technology, flight safety consultancy services in seismic design of dams, buildings and other development and disaster relief schemes.

3. Federal Flood Commission (FFC)
The Federal Flood Commission was created in 1977. Till the end of 1976, the Provincial Irrigation Departments (PIDs) were responsible for the planning and execution of flood protection works. But after the massive floods of 1973 & 1976 and huge losses to human lives, land and property, the federal government deemed it necessary to have a federal agency in place for flood protection and preventive measures across the country. Responsibilities of the FFC:
 

Preparation of flood protection plans for the country Approval of flood control / protection schemes prepared by provincial governments and concerned federal agencies Recommendation regarding principles of regulation of reservoirs for flood control

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  

Review of damage to flood protection works and review of plans for restoration and reconstruction works Measures for improvement of flood forecasting and warning system Preparation of a research programme for flood control and protection Standardization of designs and specifications for flood protection works Evaluation and monitoring of progress of implementation of the National Flood Protection Plan Monitor the provincial government’s implementation of the national Flood Protection Plan. The federal government provides the resources for meeting the capital cost of the project(s)

4. National Crisis Management Cell (NCMC)
The National Crisis Management Cell, under the Ministry of Interior, has a round the clock operational control room for collecting information of emergencies of all sorts in the country. It coordinates with the Provincial Crisis management Cells (PCMCs) and other security agencies to gather relevant information. It is also responsible for coordinating plans for emergency response services in case of emergency situations / disasters.

5. Civil Defence
The Civil Defence Department was established through an ordinance in 1951. It is now governed through 1952 Civil Defence Act. Before 1993, it was mandated to “take measures not amounting to actual combat, for affording defence against any form of hostile attack by a foreign power or for depriving any form of hostile attack by a foreign power of its effect, wholly or in part, whether such measures are taken before, during or after the time of the attack”. But then it was assigned with an additional task during peace times to take remedial measures against natural or man-made disasters. Specifically, the Civil Defence is to:

assist local administration / Army in rescue, evacuation and relief measures
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 

supplement anti-flood equipment of Army Provide personnel for anti flood training in rescue and relief work

6. Provincial Relief Departments

  

Provide adequate resource support to area Administration through coordination with Provincial Government Departments / Agencies Provision of necessary funds to the area administration for relief work Oversee the working of area administration for relief work Obtain field reports of losses and apprise the Provincial Government / Federal Government Assess and evaluate losses and suggest to the Federal / Provincial Governments for providing relief to the affected persons

7. Provincial Irrigation Departments
   

Complete repairs of the flood protection works in the pre-flood season Provide funds to the Army for replenishment of stores Review the plan for regulation of water supply Position requisite machinery and material at safe localities near vulnerable points for emergency repairs Inspection of breaching sections and carrying out final survey

8. Provincial Health Departments

Establish a system of high readiness and list of personnel to be mobilized when alert of danger warning is received or impact of disaster reported Establish an Emergency Cell (Medical) to ensure better coordination in disaster situations Set-up medical camps and organise Medical Mobile Teams (MMTs) to be sent to the scene of disaster with a minimum of delay Ensure communication links between hospitals and the scene of disaster e. Activate emergency field medical units

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9. Provincial Agriculture & Livestock Departments

To assist in saving crops, agriculture land and livestock in disaster situation To make available inputs like seed plant, fertilizers and agriculture equipment to the victims of disaster on credit basis To survey and investigate extent of damages to the crops and livestock

10.
 

Provincial Food Departments

To ensure adequate availability of food stocks in disaster situation To organize ration depots at location required by the local authorities

11. Communication & Works
 

To supervise, direct and control protection of roads and structures To coordinate survey investigation of the extent of damage to roads and structures To organize emergency repairs for restoration of public transport routes

12.

Planning & Development Departments

To assist in obtaining of information and data for pre-disaster survey and planning to serve as a basis for prevention measures and for relief operations To assist in evaluation of losses and damages

13. Army
  

 

Survey and inspect flood protection works Assess resources for relief, rescue and evacuation work Position personnel, material and equipment at planned predetermined location Review and revise flood protection and relief operation plans Train civil / military power boats operators
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Review the logistics of ration, POL, arms and ammunition, medical cover, tentage, communications and allied measures for movement of troops in aid of civil powers Set-up flood emergency cells at each corps headquarters

14.

Police Department

  

Operate through Police Telecommunication the wireless and teleprinter network for flood information and messages to all concerned departments and agencies Ensure law and order during flood emergency Provide assistance in flood warning, rescue, relief and evacuation operations

15. Dams Safety Council

To carry out periodic inspections of dams and advise WAPDA and provincial governments regarding repairs and maintenance of dams and reservoirs To review the plans of new dams to ensure adequate safety of structures To review the plans and specifications for enlargement, modifications, major repairs, revival or abandoning of dams / reservoirs To supply technical data and maintain general liaison with World Bank and UN Organizations To keep a close liaison with International Commission on Large Dams based at Paris, France

16. Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO)
The Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) is the country’s national space agency, responsible for the execution of the space science and technology programs in the country. SUPARCO is an autonomous R & D organization under the Federal

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Government. The Commission comprises the Chairman and four Members for Space Technology, Space Research, Space Electronics and Finance. SUPARCO undertakes studies / surveys on environment and has developed natural hazard monitoring system that deals with thunderstorms, floods, drought and desertification. It also keeps tracks of the movements of tropical cyclones in the Arabian Sea. By using satellite images, cloud cover and rainfall data, SUPARCO monitors drought conditions in Pakistan. Satellite Remote Sensing has been used to monitor and map flood risk zones in order to enable the flood risk zones management agencies to take remedial measures to minimize damages to population and property. Reference:
www.cwc.nic.in www.imd.ernet.in www.ndmindia.nic.in www.weather.nic.in

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QUESTION 2
Disaster brings out best Human Behavior, Comment on it.

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Introduction
This essay summarizes what social science research has established about human and group behavior in the emergency time period of disasters. First, we discuss the behavior of human beings at the height of a disaster. This is followed by a similar discussion of how groups react during the same time period. We conclude by very briefly looking at whether the behaviors that have been observed in the last half century are likely to be the same in future decades. Our remarks are drawn from a large body of research literature developed over the last 40 years. Some findings come from the over 535 field studies that the Disaster Research Center (DRC) alone has conducted on natural and technological disasters since 1963. However, we also draw from the systematic work done by others including the research undertaken in three dozen countries around the world. For expositional purposes, we primarily focus on community type disasters-where there is a sudden and major disruption of the everyday routines of an urban area as a result of some natural or technological disaster agent that threatens and/or impacts life, property, and social routines. However, there are –community type disasters such as most transportation accidents which seldom disrupt the ongoing routines of an urbanized area (an exception was the chemical threat from a train derailment which forced the evacuation of 215,000 residents near Mississauga, a Toronto, Canada suburb. At the other extreme, there are also catastrophic occasions that extend far beyond temporarily disrupting the normal habits of a single community and that are qualitatively as well as quantitatively different from typical “disasters”. Overall, our remarks will be mostly about individual and organizational behaviors in community disasters.

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The Reactions of Human Beings
There is a prevailing popular image of how people will react in disasters. While there are variations in the imagery, the general picture is that human beings do not respond too well in such situations (Wenger, Faupel and James, 1985). It is generally assumed that individuals are likely to panic and act irrationally, will be stunned and unable to take care of themselves, act in antisocial ways, be emotionally traumatized or psychologically incapacitated, and generally react selfishly and in self centered ways during and immediately after a disaster threat and impact. However, the research studies indicate that this picture is an incorrect one in almost every respect. The popular image is a compound of myths and misunderstandings about how human beings actually behave in the emergency time periods of disasters. 1) The panic myth.
If there is one word associated with disaster behavior, it is the word “panic”. Of course, the term can have many references. If the referent is to the probability that most human beings during disasters will be frightened and afraid, that is a correct perception. Any sane person will be scared in the face of great personal danger. However, when the term panic is used in everyday speech, mass media accounts, or official statements in connection with disasters, usually far more is implied. It is assumed that in the face of great danger most people will “panic” in the sense of wildly fleeing, aimlessly running around or hysterically breaking down. Even if the response is not viewed as intrinsically self destructive, the behavior is seen as nonadaptive and inappropriate for the situation and in a basic sense as being irrational. However, research has consistently shown that panic in these behavioral senses of the term, is extremely rare if not actually nonexistent in community disasters. Disaster victims do not flee wildly, they do not run around aimlessly, they do not hysterically break down. Instead of fleeing away, they will usually converge upon impact sites to help in whatever ways they can. Instead of irrationally running around (a favorite scene in disaster movies), victims intentionally and deliberately proceed to search for relatives and friends. Instead of breaking down in hysterics, they do what they can for themselves and others in the situation.
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Disaster victims may be very concerned and frightened, but that does not mean they will act selfishly, impulsively or without thinking. They do not become unreasoning animals. In fact, it is arguable that they show more rationality under stress than they do normally, if by rationality is meant conscious weighing of alternative courses of action. None of us undertake much conscious weighing of optional courses of actions in performing the great majority of our daily routines. But those caught in disasters, when their very lives and those of others that are important to them may be at stake, become very conscious and aware of the behavioral choices they have and make. Panic flight behavior can occur. But it is quite rare, usually engaged in by very small numbers of people, and typically is of short duration and distance. Furthermore, the occurrence of panic requires an unusual combination of circumstances, mainly the perception of an extremely sudden and very direct threat to one's life in a very limited spatial area, that escape by one's own actions from a specific danger is still possible, and that self can not be helped by others around them. These are conditions that are not usually present in community disasters; they are more likely to be present in a spatially focused emergency occasion such as a nightclub or hotel fire. Overall, panic behavior is not a major characteristic of almost any kind of disaster. It is of very little practical or operational importance in the great majority of community disasters. It can be ignored in disaster planning, except for the keeping in mind that it is a myth and not something to be expected.

2 The passivity myth.
If panic is not generated, it is sometimes thought that disasters create just the opposite-paralysis of action. Thus, it is believed that in the face of warnings of extreme threats, people will freeze and be unable to react. Another related widespread notion is that most victims are so stunned or shocked, that they cannot cope with the crisis in which they find themselves. There is a tendency to assume survivors are so dazed, shocked and disoriented that outsiders will have to do the most elementary tasks for victims such as feeding, clothing and sheltering them. Essentially the image is one of passive dependency on others by those impacted, and that nothing will happen unless Big Brother in the form of helping outsider agencies step in. Research has consistently shown that this image of helplessness is also quite incorrect. In the face of credible warning messages, people will seek safety and generally take actions that are adaptable for the situation. Furthermore, those who experience disasters are not
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immobilized by even the most stressful of occasions. They are neither devoid of initiative nor passively expectant that others will take care of them and their needs. Usually before full impact is over, survivors initiated search and rescue efforts (over 90 percent are typically rescued in this way). The injured are found and transported as quickly as possible by any available means to hospitals. Temporary shelter is actively sought from and offered by kin and friends; the same is true of food and water. In fact, the evidence is substantial that far from even seeking and depending upon formal relief organizations, these are among the last sources that most victims will turn to for help. In the immediate aftermath of disasters, self- and kin-help and mutual informal initiative and assistance will emerge. Except for the severely injured, survivors respond quickly and initiate many personal and social recovery actions. Helplessness and passively waiting for organizations to provide help is far from the norm.

3

The antisocial myth.

To inexperienced officials and journalists, disasters are seen as offering opportunities for the surfacing of antisocial behavior. It is assumed that deviant behavior will emerge and that dazed victims will be the easy targets for looting and other forms of criminal activity if they do not engage in widespread pillaging themselves. In fact, next to the supposed “panic” problem, is the supposed “looting” problem. The imagery is that as Mr. Hyde takes over from Dr. Jekyll, crime will increase and exploitative behavior will spread. This picture is often supported by mass media accounts and widely circulating stories or rumors. According to research studies, this image is also basically incorrect and fundamentally mythical. Many stories of looting do typically circulate, but actual instances will be very rare and if they occur will be done by outsiders rather than the impacted population itself. Far more material will be freely donated and given away than could conceivably be looted. Postimpact crime rates almost always drop. Exploitative behavior is only likely to be seen in relatively rare instances of profiteering after the immediate emergency period is over. In actuality, prosocial rather than antisocial behavior is a dominant characteristic of the emergency time period. If disasters unleash anything, it is not the criminal in us but the altruistic. Such crime as occurs will be far below that which would normally occur in the community on a normal everyday basis.
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4

The traumatized myth.

The traumatic stress of a disaster experience is widely thought to have both short and long run negative consequences for the mental health of the survivors. Thus, supposedly some people are driven “crazy”. Numerous others are so psychologically scared that they cannot function normally, and many seriously emotionally damaged victims are left behind. These pathological reactions are presumably manifested by a great majority of victims and may last indefinitely unless treatment is given.

The Reactions of Groups
Just as there are many mythologies about human behavior in disasters, there are also widespread misconceptions about organizational responses. In what follows we will summarize under four categories the major mythological and real problems of organizations in the emergency time periods of disasters.

The mobilization of groups.
It is sometimes thought that organizations cannot mobilize and function well because of a possible conflict between the work role and the family role of officials. Thus it is sometimes assumed that key personnel will stay away or leave their jobs at the emergency times of disasters because of a concern for or a need to take care of their victimized families. Forced to choose, it is believed that people will choose family over work responsibilities, thus hindering organizational mobilization for a crisis. Research however shows that this role conflict does & result in the failure to carry out or the abandonment of major occupational responsibilities. At least it is not a major problem, especially in the higher echelons of organizations and particularly those work roles that are seen as necessary in a crisis. Studies indicate officials in such positions can be expected to do their jobs, although it does result in psychological stress for those caught in such a role conflict (Dynes and Quarantelli, 1986; Rogers, 1986). It is also sometimes believed that local organizations cannot mobilize quickly because they are overwhelmed by a disaster. Part of this is seen as stemming from the shock that groups undergo as a result of the experience (paralleling the shock that humans supposedly undergo as noted earlier) , and part from the belief that organizations are faced with a totally unfamiliar situation.
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Studies do not support this view of organizational paralysis. Groups move quickly to do what they are capable of doing; many tasks and responsibilities are the same as in normal times (e.g., fire departments can continue to fight fires, lifeline agencies can provide usual services). While often there may be a lag in group mobilization, this stems mostly from the lack of adequate information and knowledge about the needs and demands of the disaster which are relevant to the operations of the organization. Learning what has happened in the immediate aftermath of a disaster impact is usually a major problem for all responding organizations; this is the problem rather than any kind of organizational shock. There are also other organizational difficulties in mobilizing. One problem is that often there is little of an appropriate nature around for a required task. For example, it is not always clear, who has the responsibility for suddenly performing new disaster related tasks, such as undertaking large scale formal search and rescue, making up lists of missing persons, or processing large number of dead bodies. These are not the normal responsibility of any community agency, but these and similar tasks in a major disaster will have to be assumed by someone sooner or later. Absent prior planning, some group will have to mobilize its personnel for the work and attempt to ascertain what has to be done and what will be needed for a rather untypical type of work activity. So while a disaster does not generate an overall unfamiliar social setting, it can create specific new tasks that will hinder group mobilization. Along another line, the problem in mobilizing may be an overabundance of something that is not needed. For example, an almost always existing problem at emergency time of disasters is the use of volunteers. Many well motivated volunteers with a wide variety of skills are not necessarily an organizational resource. In fact, in the absence of very good prior planning of who will use volunteers, where they will be sent, how they will be supervised, when they will be used, and so on--in the absence of such detailed planning, the sheer presence of masses of individual volunteers will simply create another disaster related organizational problem. Often, vitally needed regular staff members will have to be used to attempt some ad hoc planning and/or training for some hurriedly designed tasks. Consequently, volunteers often hinder rather than help in the mobilization of almost all organizations.

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QUESTION 3
Explain the concept, factors and significance of disaster rehabilitation.

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DISASTER REHABILITATION
Disaster rehabilitation is an integral part of disaster management. Disasters, as we all know, are catastrophic events that can seriously degrade a country’s long term potential for sustained development. They can also cause government to considerably modify their socioeconomic priorities and programs. Disasters also create psychological stress leading to many dysfunctional consequences. In the process, they do highlight high-risk areas where necessary actions must be taken before another disaster strikes. Managing disasters thus is an uphill task. Disasters are very costly in terms of both human life and resources and require a long gestation period of rehabilitation. Disaster management should therefore involve systematic policy making and effective use of resources to make a potent dent in disaster relief, rehabilitation and long term recovery. In common parlance, disaster rehabilitation involves methodical steps for necessitating changes in the disaster affected site, with a view of ensuring long term recovery. Disaster rehabilitation may be considered a transitional phase between immediate relief and recovery. It refers to actions taken in the aftermath of a disaster to enable basic services to resume functioning, assist victim’s self help efforts to repair physical damages, revive economic activities and provide support for the psychological and social well being of the survivors. To understand the intricacies of disaster rehabilitation process, its place in the disaster management cycle needs to be comprehended. The cycle comprises five major stages:

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1. Disaster preparedness and mitigation, which rests on the principle that prevention is better than cure. It involves all the steps necessary for creation of disaster resilient structures and communities. 2. Disaster response, which includes immediate disaster search and rescue operations. 3. Disaster relief, which involves provision of food, clothing and shelter for the affected. 4. Disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction that takes into view the efforts to restore all essential facilities to pre-disaster status. 5. Disaster recovery, which focuses on measures that will pave the way for long-term recovery of social, economic and physical structures, as well as processes in such a way that future disasters are unable to impact severely and irreversibly. All the five stages are well integrated into the disaster management cycle. These stages could be examined separately, but it needs to be kept in mind that they essentially complement and supplement each other in an attempt to rectify the disaster related problems. Disaster rehabilitation is thus preceded by disaster response and relief and followed by disaster reconstruction and recovery. Disaster preparedness and mitigation, however are continual processes that are part of each and every stage of disaster management cycle. It is often not possible to suggest any time frame for disaster rehabilitation, reconstruction and recovery, as these processes are completely intertwined. Reconstruction represents long term development assistance that could help the affected people to rebuild their lives and meet their present and future needs. Rehabilitation and reconstruction should together lead to long term recovery, but this may not happen unless certain measures are closely adhered to. A comprehensive rehabilitation and reconstruction plan, or what can be called a long term recovery plan should taken into consideration both physical and non physical requirements of the affected areas, or else it may result in large and unwieldy investments in infrastructure. The plan then
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may not be able to provide for the necessary inputs to help the victims in becoming socially ready, economically self-sufficient and psychologically fit. Purpose of Rehabilitation The basic purpose of rehabilitation is to provide services and facilities which will restore to communities, families and individuals their former living standards whilst at the same time encouraging any necessary adjustments to drastic changes caused by the disaster that has occurred. If as a result of the material damage suffered in locality. A large scale programme of rehabilitation is seen to be required, the aim might be to improve rather than merely restore the accustomed living standards and social conditions. Morale is one of the most important factors in rehabilitation. This factor should be considered in relation to the community itself and also in relation to families and individuals. It is possible for people to emerge from a disaster in a hopeless and apathetic state of mind. If this attitude is allowed to persist, people affected will become over dependant on welfare services and be a permanent burden on the nation. A spirit of high morale can be fostered by helping people to realize that the efforts made on their behalf are prompted by a regard of tier value to the country and by the desire to promote feelings of self reliance and a determination to participate in the work and social life on a community growing in prosperity. Principles of Rehabilitation Rehabilitation and reconstruction programs need to base themselves on a few guiding principles. The broad priorities in a disaster rehabilitation plan could be: 1. Provision of emergency relief to be operationalized by the way of mobilizing human and material resources, ensuring food security,

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constructing temporary structures and making available all basic needs. 2. Relocation of all the displaced people, restoration of basic and alternative means of livelihood along with community based infrastructure and institutions. 3. Initiation of long term development interventions, which would lead to sustainable community based strategies for disaster reduction. Disaster rehabilitation planning needs to be broadly based on these three priorities. However, it can produce results only if it entails sub-plans pertaining to the different facets of rehabilitation. Dimensions of Disaster Rehabilitation There are three types of rehabilitation i.e.
  

Physical rehabilitation Social rehabilitation Physiological rehabilitation

Physical Rehabilitation Physical rehabilitation is a very important facet of rehabilitation. It includes reconstruction of physical infrastructure such as houses, buildings, railways, roads, communication networks, water supply, electricity and so on. It comprises short term and long term strategies towards watershed management, canal irrigation, social forestry, crop stabilization, alternative cropping techniques, job creation, employment generation and environmental protection. It involves rehabilitation of farmers, artisans, small businessmen, and those engaged in animal husbandry. The physical rehabilitation and reconstruction package must also incorporate adequate provision for subsidies, farm implements, acquisition of land for relocation sites, adherence of land planning, flood plain zoning, retrofitting or strengthening of undamaged houses and construction of model houses.
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Social Rehabilitation Social rehabilitation is also an important part of disaster rehabilitation. The vulnerable groups such as the elderly, orphans, single women and young children would need special social support to survive the impact of disaster. Thus construction of infrastructure such as community centers, day care centers, homes for women and old age homes is a vital part of social rehabilitation. The rehabilitation plan must have components that do not lose sight of the fact that the victims has to undergo the entire process of resocialization and adjustments in a completely unfamiliar social milieu. Physiological Rehabilitation Another crucial dimension of disaster rehabilitation is physiological rehabilitation. Dealing with victim’s psychology is a very sensitive issue and must be dealt with caution and concern. The psychological trauma of losing relatives and friends and the scars of the shock of disaster event can take much longer to heal than the stakeholders in disaster management often presume. The fear of changing the means of livelihood could lead to occupational disruption and subsequently high degree of occupational redundancy in the victims. Thus counseling of stress management should form a continuous part of a disaster rehabilitation plan. Efforts should be made to focus more on psychotherapeutic health programs, debriefing and trauma care. While implementing the disaster rehabilitation program, tradition, values, norms, beliefs and practices of disaster affected people need to be kept in mind. It is therefore essential that social welfare and psychological support measures be considered immediately after a disaster event so that they could be made a vital part of a rehabilitation program.

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QUESTION 4
Explain the policy and institutional frameworks of some successful practices in dealing with disaster mitigation around the world.

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Successful National Practices

1. The US System
Of all the national emergency management structures, the United States of America has one of the most comprehensive and efficient emergency regimes and institutional structures. In the USA, domestic emergencies are handled by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), set up in 1979 by president Carter. Overseas assistance is handled by the Office of the Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), which functions under the Administrator United States Agency for International Development (USAID) with tenure coterminous with the president. The focal point of the US Government Domestic Management System is FEMA.

FEMA History
FEMA has more than 3,700 full time employees. They work at FEMA headquarters in Washington D.C., at regional and area offices across the country, the Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center, and the National Emergency Training Center in Emmitsburg, Maryland. FEMA also has nearly 4,000 standby disaster assistance employees who are available for deployment after disasters. Often FEMA works in partnership with other organizations that are part of the nation's emergency management system. These partners include state and local emergency management agencies, 27 federal agencies and the American Red Cross.

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FEMA Mission
FEMA’s mission is to support our citizens and first responders to ensure that as a nation we work together to build, sustain, and improve our capability to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate all hazards. DISASTER. It strikes anytime, anywhere. It takes many forms -- a hurricane, an earthquake, a tornado, a flood, a fire or a hazardous spill, an act of nature or an act of terrorism. It builds over days or weeks, or hits suddenly, without warning. Every year, millions of Americans face disaster, and its terrifying consequences. On March 1, 2003, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) became part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS).

FEMA’s Role
The disaster life cycle describes the process through which emergency managers prepare for emergencies and disasters, respond to them when they occur, help people and institutions recover from them, mitigate their effects, reduce the risk of loss, and prevent disasters such as fires from occurring. And at every stage of this cycle you see FEMA -- the federal agency charged with building and supporting the nation's emergency management system. FEMA’s activities include:
    

advising on building codes and flood plain management teaching people how to get through a disaster helping equip local and state emergency preparedness coordinating the federal response to a disaster making disaster assistance available to states, communities, businesses and individuals training emergency managers...supporting the nation's fire service
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 

administering the national flood and crime insurance programs the range of FEMA's activities is broad indeed and spans the life cycle of disasters.

FEMA’s organizational structure mirrors the functions that take place in the lifecycle of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. FEMA also contains the U.S. Fire Administration, which supports the nation’s fire service and the Federal Insurance Administration, which provides flood insurance to property owners nationwide. Local and state governments share the responsibility for protecting their citizens from disasters and for helping them to recover when a disaster strikes. In some cases a disaster is beyond the capabilities of the state and local government to respond. The Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act was enacted to support state and local governments and their citizens when disaster overwhelms them. A guide to the Disaster Declaration Process explains the declaration process and provides an overview of the assistance available. Assistance is available in the form of Public Assistance programs (PA) or individual assistance programs. FEMA’s public assistance programs is one way in which federal assistance goes to the state and local governments and to certain private non-profit organizations. These grants allow them to respond to disasters, to recover from their impacts and to mitigate impact from future disasters. The PA program provides:

the basis for consistent training and credentialing of staff who administer the program more accessible and understandable guidance and policy for participating in the grant program

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improved customer service through a more efficient grant delivery process, applicant centered management, better information exchange continuing performance evaluations and program improvements

Apart from the above, other federal, state, local and volunteers agencies offer disaster assistance in several forms’ some of which are discussed below. Low interest loans, such as The Farm Service Agency (FSA) and the Small Business Administration (SBA), offer low interest loans to eligible individuals, farmers and businesses to repair and replace damaged property and personal belongings not covered by insurance. Assistance for individuals and households. This program, which may include cash grants of up to $25,000 per individual or household, offers housing assistance in the form of lodging expenses reimbursement (for a hotel or motel); rental assistance (cash payment for a temporary rental unit or manufactured home); home repair; home replacement; permanent housing construction in rare circumstances; other needs assistance; medical, dental, funeral costs, transportation costs and other disaster related needs like veterans benefits.

2. The Canadian System
Canada’s history of disasters and the emergency management systems that have resulted mirrors that of the United States, but it is a distorted reflection. While Canada has not experienced the same number or degree of tragic events, and although the emergency management systems have always been on a smaller scale, emergency management in Canada has, like so many other aspects of the culture, been caught in the wake of the events and

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developments in the United States. In the Canada, domestic emergencies are handled by Canadian Center for Emergency Preparedness (CCEP). The Canadian Centre for Emergency Preparedness (CCEP) is a federally incorporated, not-for-profit organization based in Burlington, Ontario.

CCEP Vision
 

To foster the development of a disaster resilient Canada through individuals, communities and businesses. To increase community resiliency through emergency preparedness programs that drive individuals, small enterprises and non-profit organizations from awareness to action.

CCEP Purpose

   

  

To provide assistance to the disaster management community through consultation, access to information and the delivery of applicable programs and services. To be a national advocate for disaster resilient communities across Canada. To provide leadership to Canada's disaster management community as its premier advocate. To foster soundly researched public policy that reflects the interests of a more disaster resilient Canada. To foster the establishment and maintenance of professional standards, best practices and certification for the disaster management community. To influence government policy in a positive, visible, consistent and representative manner. To improve communications between the disaster management community, private sector and all levels of government. To liaise with the international disaster management community as Canada's premier advocate.

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Organizational Framework
In 2001, the Canadian prime minister announced the creation of the Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Emergency Preparedness (OCIPEP). The office was established to enhance the protection of Canada’s critical infrastructure from disruption or destruction and to act as the government of Canada’s primary agency for ensuring national civil emergency preparedness. Critical infrastructure (which includes energy and utilities, communications, services, transportation, safety and government) constitutes the backbone of the nation’s economy, and is essential to the health, security, safety and economic well being of all Canadians and to the effective functioning of government. The minister of national defense is responsible for OCIPEP, which encompasses all the responsibilities of the previously named Emergency Preparedness Canada (EPC). With a necessarily broader mandate than the Emergency Preparedness Canada (EPC), OCIPEP takes an all hazards approach, recognizing that different hazardous events can have similar impacts.

2. The Bangladesh System
A low-lying country with more than 230 waterways, Bangladesh is one of the most disaster-prone nations in the world. Fifteen per cent of its land floods annually on average. In 2004 that figure reached 34 per cent and in 2007 two floods and a cyclone together killed 4,000 people and caused economic losses of about $3 billion. When such events occur water-borne diseases and mass internal displacements are inevitable consequences. Natural disasters disrupt the nation’s food supply and decimate the livelihoods of the many Bangladeshis who work in agriculture. Besides
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triggering flooding, severe weather frequently causes environmental damage by eroding riverbanks, directly affecting 100,000 people every year. Poor town planning, overcrowding and weak infrastructure amplify the threat of disasters to urban communities, particularly in cities vulnerable to earthquakes. Dealing with these many hazards is a major challenge for the national government. As well as the immediate cost to life and to the economy, largescale disasters in such a small country can negate poverty-reduction efforts and divert development resources from more productive uses.

Disaster Management in Bangladesh
In 2003 the Ministry of Food and Disaster Management launched the Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP) in partnership with DFID and UNDP. The European Commission became the Programme’s third major donor in September 2006. Phase I of the initiative, due to conclude in December 2009, aims to improve Bangladesh’s disaster management system’s ability to reduce unacceptable risks and improve response and recovery activities. It supports significant policy and planning reforms, shifting the focus of disaster management from response to comprehensive risk reduction. And it increases efficiency and coordination, integrating sustainable risk management initiatives into broader development planning. The Programme has rolled out in two stages. Seven particularly vulnerable districts – Cox’s Bazar, Faridpur, Lalmonirhat, Rajshahi, Shatkhira, Shirajgonj and Sunamgonj – were pilots for phase I. Remarkably the success of the Programme’s partnership mobilization efforts has covered 32 of the total 64 districts in the first four years. In the second phase the Programme will extend to other districts.

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The structure of the Bangladesh Disaster management System is made up of the following:
   

 

Ministry of Food and Disaster Management (MoFDM) Disaster Management Bureau (DMB) National Disaster Management Council (NDMC) Inter-Ministerial Disaster Management Coordination Committee (IMDMCC) National Disaster Management Advisory Committee (NDMAC) District, Upazila and Union Disaster management Committee

This structure supports policy formulation and coordination of disaster management at the national level. The focal point for disaster related issues is the Ministry of Food and Disaster Management (MoFDM). The Disaster Management Bureau (DMB) assists the MoFDM with information on all phases of disasters. The ministry supplies information to NDMC and IMDJMCC, and assists them in making decisions. The NDMC, headed by the prime minister, formulates policies and guidelines on the disaster management. The Secretary of Ministry coordinates the activities of all officials directly and indirectly engaged in emergency relief work. Bangladesh is the only South Asian country to have a separate ministry for disaster management and relief. References: www.fema.com www.mofdm.gov.bd Disaster Management (AIOU)

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QUESTION 5
Write a detailed note on “Planning Tools”. Also explain the Problem Solving Techniques.

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PLANNING TOOLS
Many tools can be used to assist planner in developing a planning process and implementing an emergency training and practical exercise program. Two areas that warrant mention are:
 

Budgeting Project Planning

Budgeting Programs cost money and when you want to set up an emergency planning process, it is important to learn how to develop and propose a budget. During a disaster, costs are often considered irrelevant, but they can cause major problems for companies and individuals later on. The uncertainties of a disaster often make it difficult to prepare a budget. A good budget for dealing with disaster should:
      

Be flexible Be simple Be realistic Be based on trust Provide for fixed and variable costs Be based on policy Provide for use of cash

Program Planning Graphic charts and diagrams are an excellent way of helping those involved in the planning process to visualize the relationship between activities and the time needed to complete them. Gantt or bar charts, and models such as PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) are very useful in the planning phases. Note the following use of a PERT chart to assist a

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emergency planner who is starting work for a company that already has an emergency plan in place.

Reference: Disaster Management (AIOU)

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PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES
Sometimes solving problems generated during the planning phase seems to be overwhelming, and people wonder how they are ever going to solve problems during a disaster itself. Here are some problem solving techniques that can be used while the plan is being developed or during the emergency itself. 1. What is Problem ? Although this may seem to be a foolish question, in many cases getting to the point can save a lot of time. Many people when
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seeking assistance especially in times of crises, describe the situation but never get to the point. By merely asking, “what is the problem” one can get people to rephrase the situation, focus on the problem and see their way toward solving it. Don’t try to solve the problem until you determine exactly what the problem is. 2. Why me ? Why are you being asked to solve the problem? In times of crises, people often start to work on the problem without first asking themselves if they are the best people to respond to the situation. In many cases, delegating the responsibility to someone else can best solve the problem. 3. What are the Constraints ? The two most common constraints are time and resources. In many cases, there never appears to be enough time to resolve the issue. Often people spend more time discussing how there is not enough time to solve it than getting to the problem and doing something about it. Be realistic. When must a solution be reached? What are the consequences of delaying the answer? People never have all the time and information they would like, but given the time constraints, what is the best way of solving the problem? Information, money, personnel and materials are seldom available in the quality and quantity we would like. There is no purpose in stating that you need twenty people and $1 million to solve the problem when you have four staff and a budget of $100,000. If the problem has to be solved, it must be solved with the best available resources. Before beginning to solve a problem, it is often useful to quickly jot down the constraints, as this helps to keep the problem in
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perspective. If a suspected toxic gas is going to approach the company in five minutes, the constraints are very different from those if the gas will reach the company in one hour. Especially in a disaster, people often lose track of the constraints and start to treat every problem as if it has to be resolved right away. That is not always the case. 4. What are the Priorities ? Sub-problems At first the problem may seem overwhelming, it seems too complicated to solve. Can the problem be divided into subproblems? And can these sub-problems be delegated to others? Seldom is only one problem presented at one time during a crisis. Usually there are numerous problems at the same time. If you are responsible for their resolution, it is critical to keep priorities in mind. If a flood is rising and people’s lives are at stake, saving lives becomes the priority. If the company is threatened with rising flood waters, what should be done? Rather than coping with the problem in its entirety, concentrate on pinpointing the sub-problems. One person or team could be working on preventing the water from coming into the premises, another could work on moving materials above the possible water level, and yet another could set up the EOC. Each problem should be examined to see if it has sub-problems. You may not be able to delegate the sub-problems to others, but by having the big problem broken into smaller problems, the situation may be easier to handle.

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References

Disaster Management (AIOU)

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