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Industrial Water

Boiler Feed-Waters
* Modern high-pressure boilers must be supplied
with feed water of high purity.
* As the water evaporates the concentration of
impurities in the liquid phase rise, dissolved and
entrained impurities accumulate, heat transfer
deteriorates and boiler tubes are overheated, porous
sludges, crystalline scales, and other coatings appear
on the boiler metal.
* Rising concentrations of specific soluble impurities
cause metal corrosion.

The most important boiler precipitates consist of silica iron,

suspended matter, and oil in addition to calcium and
magnesium as bicarbonates and sulfates. The principal
factors in corrosion are DO, CO2,
low pH, and deficient alkalinity, can promote corrosion.

Boiler waters are kept to specification by one or

more of the following techniques:
(1) External treatment for the removal of impurities
from the raw water
(2) Internal treatment for the conditioning of water
within the boiler
(3) Blowdown for the removal of concentrates and

Cooling Water
Water is the common coolant of the process industries
Water has a high heat capacity, is almost universally
available, and is easy to transport and apply.

Especially in re-circulating systems must cooling water

be treated to inhibit corrosion/ scales formation,
sediment deposition, and microbial growths.
The most important water properties affecting corrosion
are oxygen and other dissolved gases, dissolved or
suspended solids, pH, velocity, temperature, and
microbic growths.

Irrigation water
Irrigation waters should not contain more than the limit the
following substances:
Sodium-5 mg/l
Boron0.5 mg/1
Chlorides-5.3 mg/1
Sulphates10 mg/1
Total salts700 mg/l
Specific conductivity1000 micro-mhos.

Excessive salinity at root-zone level leads in

succession to leaf burn, leaf drop, twig dieback, and
plant destruction. Salinity effects are largely osmotic.
High sodium exchange breaks down soil structures,
seals pores, and interferes with drainage, in extreme
cases of soil breakdown the pH of the soil may rise to
the level of alkali soils. Although traces of boron are
essential for plant growth, high concentrations are
injurious. Chlorides are generally more injurious than
sulfates, because chlorides are relatively more soluble
and more toxic to some plants and because sulfates
are precipitated as calcium sulfate.

Swimming Pool Waters : The sanitary quality of water in

swimming pools is determined by certain bacteriological,
chemical, and physical tests. The bacterial quality of
swimming pool water is indicated by the bacteria count and
coliform test. Not more than 15 percent of the samples
covering any considerable period of time shall contain more
than 200 bacteria per ml. Swimming pools must be kept
clean at all times. Sediment, fungi, algae, and visible dirt
should not be permitted to accumulate on the bottom,
sidewalls, or surrounding walks.

A free chlorine residual of at least 0.4 ppm must be

maintained throughout the pool. The alkalinity of the
water shall beat least 50 ppm, and a pH greater than
7.2 but less than 8.2 shall be maintained. Pool waters
should be highly transparent so as to keep divers
from colliding with bathers swimming under water.
To avoid rapid multiplication of saprophytic
bacteria, pool temperatures should not be raised
above 78 F.


Ion Exchange