Assignment on: Knowledge Networking

Submitted to:Submitted By:Shilpa parikh Swati Vyas

MBA (EC)-4th SEM, 2yrs

Knowledge- based Networking
Knowledge based networking rest on the strong belief that communities have knowledge and expertise which needs to be synergized with the existing information, in the context of decision-making and initiating judicious action. Just as knowledge gap needs to be bridged between developing and industrial countries, so too there are gaps within the country. Knowledge based bridges the gap between the communities and between development professionals and rural people through initiating interaction and dialogue, new alliances, inter-personal networks, and crosssectoral links between organizations so that "useful knowledge" is shared and channeled to develop "best management practices" and provide practical decision support. Knowledge based networking implies that knowledge is acquired not just by creation but also by transfer of knowledge existing elsewhere. Knowledge Networking holds the prospect of an accelerated introduction of state-of-art technologies superseding the stepby-step process of transferring know-how and

technologies among users and possessor of information. With the plummeting costs, the transfer of knowledge is becoming cheaper than ever. Networking for knowledge -sharing caters to the global thirst for information, builds up awareness among the change agents or those who can exert external pressure, and encourages informed and active participation of communities and individuals. Further it creates a mechanism which enables articulation and sharing of local knowledge with potential for further enrichment of this information as it passes through the network users. Benefits include more efficient and targeted development intervention, less duplication of activities, low communication costs and global access to information and human resources.

Knowledge Networking (Abstract)
The Knowledge Networking (KN) initiative focuses on the integration of knowledge from different sources and domains across space and time. Modern computing and communications systems provide the infrastructure to send bits anywhere, anytime

in mass quantities-radical connectivity. But connectivity alone cannot assure (1) useful communication across disciplines, languages, cultures; (2) appropriate processing and integration of knowledge from different sources, domains, and non-text media; (3) efficacious activity and arrangements for teams, organizations, classrooms, or communities, working together over distance and time; or (4) deepening understanding of the ethical, legal, and social implications of new developments in connectivity. In short, we have connectivity, but not interactivity and integration. KN research aims to move beyond connectivity to achieve new levels of interactivity, increasing the semantic bandwidth, knowledge bandwidth, activity bandwidth, and cultural bandwidth among people, organizations, and communities.

Knowledge Networking
To "know" about something is a much stronger claim than to learn about it or to gather information on it. "Knowledge" implies consensual verification, as well as the ability to predict and shape outcomes. Advances in computing and communications now hold the promise of fundamentally accelerating the creation and distribution of information. However, the construction of knowledge requires more than collecting and transmitting large amounts of data. Building knowledge requires the scientific community coming to grips with new forms of gathering data, new tools to manipulate and store information new ways of transforming that information, and new ways of working together over distance and time. The challenge for NSF is to facilitate the evolution from today's emphasis on information and distributed data to emerging systems for knowledge and distributed intelligence. The payoff for the scientific community is that interdisciplinary communities that can be joined in sharing

data, accumulating information and building knowledge together will treat complex problems, traditionally addressed within disciplinary boundaries. This shift from simple information access to knowledge networking holds great promise for to transforming society and science. NSF represents large science, engineering, and education communities that understand and can contribute to building these knowledge networks. Technological advances, spurred by the NSF, now enable scientific practitioners, who may be widely dispersed, to become a science network, sharing and integrating data, analyzing information and synthesizing knowledge. NSF wants to expand and scale up these activities in the sciences and engineering, enabling society to apply similar strategies throughout its information infrastructures. The NSF Knowledge Networking initiative creates a program of closely interconnected activities to facilitate advances enabled by simultaneous revolutions in technology, content, and epistemology. The intellectual insights and the new process of science enabled by knowledge networking are central to NSF's mission.

Challen ges
One challenge is to support activities that will create new ways of collecting, transforming, representing, sharing, and using information. The support must be applied effectively across a wide range of activities to enable the solution of the Knowledge Networking challenge and to provide to scientists, engineers, and society useful and easily implemented solutions to complex problems. A complementary challenge is to comprehend the human dimensions associated with knowledge networking communities. Multidisciplinary knowledge networking efforts will fail unless we understand and provide for the learning environments that enable skill sets, conceptual models, and values to be rapidly shared across disparate fields.

Designing tools for gathering and analyzing data. New types of tools are required to collect,

share, and manipulate increasingly complex data sets and structures. Utilizing these tools involves innovations in computing, advances in telecommunications, and the development of more sophisticated algorithms and hardware/software systems. Building the next generation of representations. Data, information and knowledge require increasingly complex representations. New kinds of media are required to enable the communications of new types of messages and meanings. For example, transforming symbolic information into sensory form (e.g., visualization) necessitates translating scientific and mathematical notations into tangible modalities. Extending the human infrastructure that underlies knowledge networking. Generating new ideas increasingly involves participants in knowledge networks communicating with one another in real time and obtaining data from disaggregated sources. Expanding the knowledge networking community to new participants requires:

Mastering a common language and a generally accepted set of theories and conceptual models (to provide a framework for communication)

Inculcating communally defined processes of collecting and analyzing data (to enable sharing and validating information) Developing proficiency in design, reasoning, and argumentation (to facilitate the evolution of ideas) Accepting a common set of values that include respect for others' perspectives and for intellectual property (to encourage wide participation)

The Knowledge Networking Initiative Integrates Layers of Achievement
The Knowledge Networking Initiative aims to create the underlying science and the tools, infrastructure, and distributed intellectual processes to achieve the layered aims. The overarching goal is improving our understanding of and ability to manage larger and more complex natural, social, and material phenomena. Knowledge networking can enhance the operations of many human enterprises, with science and education the most obviously relevant to NSF's mission. The crucial added benefits that knowledge

networking brings to the scientific enterprises are the abilities to:

Couple models, knowledge, data, instruments, and intellectual activity across space, time, and disciplinary boundaries, Work with new types of content and knowledge bases of radically increased scope and scale, Enhance the overall cognitive ecology of science and engineering.

Achieving these aims of coupling, scope, and intellectual community depends critically upon new levels of functionality in information infrastructures. We need a better understanding of how to push or pull relevant information wherever, whenever and to whomever it is useful; how to create true semantic interoperability in heterogeneous knowledge environments; and how to make knowledge maximally accessible with new modalities of interaction such as real-time multimedia, visualization, and simulation. Achieving such new functionality and making them widespread and universally accessible also requires re-conceptualizing the human processes involved in creating and disseminating knowledge. The groups involved include data gathering enterprises such as field

research teams, observatories, and cyclotron facilities; information transmission functions such as messaging, publishing, and library systems; and integrating/stabilizing infrastructures such as standards and user groups. Each type of human interaction in the overall scientific process must alter if knowledge networking is to reach its full potential.

Examples of Social Objectives and Relevance Outcomes that could be enabled by the Knowledge Nets Initiative.
The following examples are potential outcomes of Knowledge Networks. They illustrate the use of science and technologies to meet larger societal goals. These examples involve science and the use of scientific information that are possible only with the use of Knowledge Networks. In addition the examples require

advancements in one or more of the subsystems (such as social use of the new knowledge, science modeling, data melding, and real-time networks) from each of the top three layers of the Framework .

Coping with Natural Disasters
In 1995, twelve forest fire fighters died tragically when they were trapped on the side of a mountain in Colorado, unaware that sudden changes in meteorological conditions had caused a change in the path of the fire. Although some data were available indicating a shift in the fire, this information could not be delivered to the scene of the fire in a timely and clearly understood manner. The enterprise, infrastructure and tools which constitute the framework of the Knowledge Nets (KN) initiative will enable an integrated framework which does not exist today for dealing with natural disasters, ultimately leading to minimizing loss. Specifically, the KN initiative could support the development of coupled fire and atmospheric models. These models require as input detailed knowledge of topography, ground cover and synoptic

weather conditions. These data exist in various data bases spread over the country and are expressed in different formats. The result from a simulation must be overlaid with the detailed knowledge of the location of human and physical resources. In cases where fire is near more populated areas, as in the Oakland, California fires, additional information about the demographics and civil infrastructure must be incorporated. Even if this synthesis of rapidly changing information could be assembled today, delivery to strategic locations in an understandable form would still be necessary to ensure benefit. The infrastructure and tools components on the KN initiative are "glue" that will enable the effective management of natural disaster situations.

Aviation Safety:
Delivery of current information to the cockpit and proper pilot training are essential elements in improving air safety and reducing operating costs. Significant progress has been made in pilot training and alerting pilots to potential life threatening situations. Examples of improved safety and reduced operating costs that could result from the research supported by KN are: 1) At many airports in the US, information on low-level wind shear coupled with Doppler

radar allows air traffic controllers to alert pilots to unusual meteorological conditions. Improvements to the current capabilities could save additional lives and money for the airline industry. The current information that is assembled by air traffic controllers is of limited predictive value and must be reduced to a few numbers to allow the pilot to comprehend the information in the cockpit during takeoffs and landings. Synthesizing the results of models of the atmosphere and air traffic into the cockpit and control towers would allow the pilot and controller to better prepare for approaches or takeoffs through in-flight simulation of conditions. In addition to offering improved safety, this information will save significant fuel costs because planes would not have to be routed to different approaches at the last minute due to changed conditions on the ground. 2) The FAA is considering the feasibility of free flight by commercial airlines. This concept would allow aircraft to take the most direct route between cities rather than following established routes that pass predetermined checkpoints. Essential for freeflight are current information on weather conditions, location of other aircraft and conditions at airports along the route. Gathering this information and synthesizing and delivering it in a useful form is beyond our

current capability. The airline industry estimates the annual savings, which may be recognized by implementing free flight, is tens of millions of dollars. 3) In-flight icing conditions are difficult to detect and even more difficult to predict. Several recent airline disasters have been attributed to icing. Improvements in the detection, prediction and delivery systems available to the airline industry are necessary to overcome this silent threat. The enterprise, infrastructure and tools that will be developed as part of the KN initiative will accelerate the ongoing research into in-flight icing.

Research Opportunities in Knowledge Networking:
Knowledge Networking presents a number of research challenges and opportunities. These can be organized under a set of topics or threads, which we have termed Interactivity, Representation, Cognition, Agents, and Corpora.


Interactivity research studies the creation and maintenance of dynamic, content-rich relationships among people, instruments &

tools, data, and artificial agents, using multiple modalities. Technologies that enable such interactivity encompass input/output devices, communication networks, and their interface characteristics, adapted with the aim of making the best match to what is known about the needs and requirements of individual people, groups, teams, and organizations for effective interaction. The critical multidisciplinary aspects of Interactivity research result from the need to uncover common foundations for understanding widely differing types of participants (e.g. people or agents with particular skills; specialized instruments) coupled through unique domain-specific activities (e.g. doing geoscience or doing disaster relief) integrating problem- and domain-specific information (e.g., specialized datasets or knowledge bases), via a variety of media and channels (text, video, etc.), under a range of specific constraints (e.g. quality-ofservice; sensory limitation such as no vision or hearing, etc.). Another multidisciplinary driver is the need to understand how to apply the fruits of Interactivity research effectively in many different domains.

New interdisciplinary Knowledge Networking research under the Interactivity thread includes:
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Access and "universal access" Body language and facial expression capture/generation Dialogue and discourse structures and constraints Ecological & virtual-environmental interactions Image processing and gesture recognition Intermodal mappings for people with disabilities Hap tics, smell, taste and balance technologies Multimodal interactivity Network and communications infrastructures for interactivity Remote access/control and teleoperation Signal processing and understanding Speech recognition and natural language understanding Real-time and time-modified interactivity Valuation and incentives for interactivity


Research on representation studies the processes through which participants (people, groups, agents, etc.) model and encode knowledge about entities, processes, or phenomena in particular representational media, and, conversely, reconstruct meanings and semantics for representations in their contexts of use. The critical multidisciplinary aspects of Representation research result from the need to uncover common foundations for understanding how widely differing types of participants (e.g. people or agents with particular domain- or culture-specific viewpoints; specialized data-gathering instruments), represent problem- and domainspecific entities or processes (e.g., protein molecules; organizational workflows), of differing representational level (e.g., sensory; cognitive), scale and complexity, for use in unique domain-specific activities (e.g. doing bioscience or doing collaborative design) via a variety of representational media and modalities (text, software, graphical data, simulations, in visual, audio, haptic modalities, etc.), under a range of specific constraints (e.g. size limitations, specificity constraints). Another multidisciplinary driver is the need to understand how to apply the fruits of

Representation research effectively in many different domains. New interdisciplinary Knowledge Networking research under the Representation thread includes: Representation of new entities or attributes, such as:
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Complex data types Complex systems and their structure Domain- and discipline-specific objects, actions, and processes Gestures and facial expressions Human sensory information: touch, smell, taste, and balance Illumination and rendering Know-how and commonsense knowledge Large-scale systems and phenomena Mathematics and logic Ontologies Open physical, computational and biological systems Organizational processes and workflows Real world objects, processes and environments Scientific principles, methods, and theories Uncertainty

Complex operations on representations, such as:

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Automatic generation of representations Domain-independent abstraction (e.g., of texts and images) Compression Integration, fusion and interoperability; Interpretation of representations in context Multimedia indexing, abstraction Translation of representations

New representational techniques and media such as:
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Distributed representations Distributed interpretations Non-digital representational media such as culture, the physical world, molecules and Biological objects (e.g., DNA) Multiperspective representations Simulations and computer models Tools for joint or collaborative knowledge construction and representation

New uses for representations


Cognition research investigates interlinked processes of perception, reasoning, memory, learning, and action by participants in physical and socio-cultural situations.

The critical multidisciplinary aspects of Cognition research result from the need to uncover common foundations for integrated understanding of all phases of cognition, as carried out by a wide variety of cognitive entities (e.g., people, artificial agents, groups, organizations), cognizing (perceiving, reasoning/learning about, acting with) domainspecific phenomena of differing character, scale and complexity (e.g. perception of surface textures; organizational memory), in a wide variety of physical and social contexts (e.g. a laboratory, a crisis management scenario) under a range of specific constraints (e.g. complexity, realizability, or real-time constraints). Another multidisciplinary driver is the need to understand how to apply the fruits of Cognition research effectively in many different domains. New interdisciplinary Knowledge Networking research under the Representation thread includes: New cognizing entities:

Cognition by individuals, groups, teams and organizations Empirical studies of Knowledge networks as arenas for scientific experimentation, data gathering, analysis

Human comprehension in networked environments Organizational and community memory systems

New objects of cognition such as:

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Behavior and event processing of non-rigid objects Complex, distributed, and open systems Groups, teams, organizations, institutions Specific domain entities Tasks of high complexity

New cognitive issues and methods:
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Distributed cognition Dynamic adaptation Error processing and propagation; Exploiting parallel architectures for computation; Focus of attention High-level reasoning; Knowledge-based information processing; Learning effects of human exposure to virtual and real environments. Non-conceptual cognition; Perceptual, motor, and sensory-motor models; Perception-based problem solving Reliability of cognitive models Situated cognition

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Symbolic and geometric processing; Transfer of learning; skill training and acquisition Cognitive aspects of trust and believability


Agent’s research studies the active and sometimes physically embodied algorithms, software, communications, and tools that can assist people in Knowledge Networking activities. Examples of agents include knowledge agents that seek and manipulate specific data or information collections ("Know bots") from interconnected commuter networks, and cooperative physical agents such as robots, intelligent devices, special instruments, and other non-human natural agents or environments. The critical multidisciplinary aspects of Agents research result from the need to uncover common foundations for understanding how to support and augment a variety of people, teams, groups, and organizations, each with particular domain- or culture-specific needs, in performing unique domain-specific activities (e.g. doing bioscience, doing collaborative design, or emergency management), using a varied array of resources (scientific data sets, distributed simulations, specialized

instruments), under a range of specific constraints (e.g. time, methodological, or performance quality constraints). Another multidisciplinary driver is the need to understand how to apply the fruits of Agents research effectively in many different domains. New interdisciplinary Knowledge Networking research under the Agents thread includes:
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Autonomy Building (and dismantling) information-rich virtual communities and organizations Domain-specific contextual knowledge and commonsense knowledge for agents Coordination of activities and knowledge in heterogeneous systems and environments Degrees and types of augmentation and support for participants such as people, teams, or organizations. Designs and criteria for sensory-motor systems Distributed control Domain-specific contextual knowledge and commonsense knowledge for agents Dynamic adaptation and evolution of agents Engineering methodologies Interoperability of agents Incentive structures

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Knowledge at new scales: large collections of tiny, heterogeneous distributed agents; distributed knowledge networks for control of MEMS Load and complexity management Mathematical algorithms, machine architectures, and networking technologies for knowledge agents in information spaces Multi-agent systems Modularity, parallelism and complexity Pathologies and immune systems in largescale human-computing aggregates, e.g. malicious agents, viruses, junk, "knowledge storms" Possible or optimal domain, range and scope of the agents' functionality Principles of decomposition and organization of tasks and resources (division of labor) Robustness, fault-tolerance, and reliability Specific domain-dependent agents for assisting in information analysis, decision making, and remote control of instruments and access to information resources Trust, confidence, and believability User, team, and organizational requirements and their evolution.

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Investigations of corpora (plural of "corpus") research the entire lifecycle (creation, structuring, storage, maintenance, use and disposal) of general and community-specific collections of data, information, and knowledge, ranging across ad hoc data collections, complex scientific databases, large and distributed digital libraries and even such unconventional entities as digital forms of artifacts in museums. Research in Corpora is a critical enabler of Knowledge Networking: people's ability to access, retrieve and comprehend information from complex databases and sources depends on how that information is created, structured, stored, presented, and managed. New interdisciplinary Knowledge Networking research under the Corpora thread has two objectives: To accelerate cross-disciplinary database research, and to develop new kinds of cross-disciplinary data-sharing mechanisms, infrastructures, and relationships that can facilitate new interdisciplinary experimental research. Relevant research topics include:

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Active and real-time databases and data sources Classification and taxonomizing processes Collection and indexing of retrospective and real-time data sources

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Community, organizational, and social filtering of information and knowledge Data and knowledge mining Dealing with evolution of structure, function, content, and user requirements Digital libraries and repositories across disciplines and application domains Disciplinary databases; multi-lingual, crosscultural, societal collections Dissemination and distribution Domain-specific taxonomies and ontology Dynamic synthesis of new structure, views, and metadata Economics and valuation of information and content Evolution of structure, function and content Experimental evaluation High-confidence and reliability Intellectual property rights and ownership Intelligent transaction processing Meta-data research Multi-modal information management Object and multimedia environments Organizations as active knowledge bases Public access policies Reliability, security, quality of data and data services Searching, filtering, fusion, indexing and retrieval tools Security and authorization

Structure, functionality and organization of corpora Technologies of intellectual property, e.g., "terms and conditions" Vertically and horizontally linked data sources

End Note
In developing nations, where access to simple technologies is terribly skewed in favor of the economically privileged, harnessing and spreading the potential of Information and Communication Technologies for knowledge based networking will continue to be a daunting challenge. Participation of the private sector, the creation, management and dissemination of strategic information and data pertaining to the various dimensions of development- globally, regionally and nationally and at community level is essential. Ultimately, information and communication technologies by itself cannot be an answer and elixir to problems facing sustainable development, but it does bring new information resources and can open new communication channels for the marginalized communities. It offers a means for bridging the information gaps

through initiating interaction and dialogue, new alliances, inter-personal networks, and cross-sectoral links between organizations. It can create mechanisms that enable the bottom-up articulation and sharing of local knowledge. The benefits include increased efficiency in allocation of resources for development work, less duplication of activities, reduced communication costs and global access to information and human resources. SDNP-India through its functioning can effectively facilitate knowledge based networking but the degree to which people in developing countries can benefit from the networking potential to spread knowledge, bring about good governance and lead to sustainable development will depend on how much support the information-poor get to have access to the networking process and the strength of the complimentary human network. Further, focusing on training, organizational development and capacity building is often more important than investing in the technology itself. Communities must not underestimate the critical importance of building and maintain local capacity. It needs to be recognized that capacity building is a vital element of any

Information and Communication Technologies-enabled development effort. Thus building up of national human, technical and economic capacities to facilitate access to and utilization of Information and Communication Technologies should be central and continuous element of community based development efforts.

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