Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness

A MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROJECT ON

ROLE OF CELEBRITIES IN ADVERTISEMENT & ITS EFECTIVENESS
SUBMITTED TO:
VIPUL PATEL
(HOD. MBA Dept.) S.P.B. Patel Engg. College Linch, Mehsana

Affiliated To:
Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University, Patan. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the subject Management Research Project-I (Sem-IV) Master of Business Administration Program 2008-10 Batch: - 2008-10 Date: -08/04/2010

SUBMITTED BY:
Joshi Ashish (487) Vijay Manundra (498) Patel Kiran (518) Patel Chirag (641)

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness

TABLE OF CONTENT SR. NO SUB. NO * * * Chp.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Research Methodology Research Objectives Research Methodology for primary survey Analysis of research Introduction to the topic Concepts Celebrity Endorsement Celebrity Branding in Asia History of Celebrity Endorsement First time Celebrity Used in India Global Scenario of Celebrity Endorsement Kinds of celebrity endorsement hood Celebrity as a Trap Celebrity branding and its effect on consumer Relationship between a Celebrity & a Brand Scope of celebrity on incumbent brand Need for celebrity endorsement Is celebrity advertising effective? Why companies use celebrity Process of celebrity endorsement Compatibility of celebrity persona Successful celebrity endorsement How Celebrity endorsement influence the consumers Literature review Important Celebrity attributes The argument for Celebrity Endorsement The argument against Celebrity Endorsement Brand, Celebrities & Consumer Celebrity selection Difference between Brand Ambassador n Brand Face Types of celebrity endorsement Multi celebrity endorsement Advantages of celebrity Endorsing a Brand Disadvantages of celebrity Endorsing a Brand S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA I II III 1 2 2 4 6 8 11 17 19 23 27 30 32 35 39 41 42 45 46 47 52 54 55 63 64 66 69 72 73 74 75 78 80 2 PARTICULAR PAGE.NO

Chp.2

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 2.34 2.35 2.36 2.37 2.38 2.39 Chp.3 Chp.4 Facts over the years Celebrity endorsement as a strategy Objectives of marketing communication Brand, image & celebrity Measuring a Celebrity Endorsement Framework to make effective celebrity Programme The Impact of celebrity Endorsement Why Celebrity endorsement Fails? Endorsement Risks and Return Celebrity Endorsement: The issues Involved Primary Survey Analysis of Consumers CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURE(Questionnaire for consumers) 82 83 84 86 89 92 98 104 107 110 114 227 231 I

Chapter : 1
Research College, LINCH, MEHSANA Methodology S.P.B. PATEL ENGG.
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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness

Chapter : 1 Research Methodology
1.1 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES :  To find out celebrity’s Effectiveness in Brand Recall.  To determine the Brand with different celebrities.  To know the perception of consumers about celebrity.  To understand influence of celebrity endorsement in purchase decision.  To determine the brand celebrity fit/congruence of selected endorsement.  To determine most preferred celebrity which people like which people like to see in an advertisement endorsing a product.  To know the overall effect on sales and people by using of celebrity.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness SOURCES OF DATA For unsystematic research, information is required from different  Primary Data: Primary data may be described as those data that have been observed and recorded by the researcher for the first time to their knowledge. We have collected primary data through close ended questionnaire method, filled by consumers.  Secondary Data: Secondary data means the data which are readily available from different sources. We have gathered these data from the websites, books and magazines. sources of data.

1.2

Research methodology for Primary Survey
The research methodology adopted for primary survey is given below:

Research Approach:  For gathering primary data, we have used survey approach, which is widely used method for data collection and best suited for qualitative explorative type of research survey. Research Instrument:  For our research we have used questionnaire, which is the most, common instrument used to collect the primary data. A questionnaire consists of the set of questions presented to the respondents for their answers.. Questionnaire design: Our prime objective of making questionnaire design is such that we find out effectiveness of celebrity in advertising on consumer behavior, Like we want to measure consumers perception, attitude towards celebrity advertisements, their likeability , their recognition , etc.  For fulfilling our objective we make questionnaire design on the basis of following methods of measuring advertising effectiveness.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness

 Likert Semantic Scale. `

Sampling plan:
Here for research purpose sampling plan is prepared. This plan called for three decisions. I. Sampling unit II. Sample size III. Sampling procedure Sampling unit (who is to be surveyed?) The sampling units are the generally Consumers & focused group of Ahmedabad city. Sample size (No. People should be surveyed) For the purpose of research 150 consumers from different places have been surveyed. Each and every Consumer & Retailer is contacted to his or her preference, attitude and perception towards celebrity advertisement. Sampling procedure (how should the respondents chosen?) To obtain representative center sample of the population should be drawn. Thus here non-probability, convenient sampling method is used for Consumers. 1.3 ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH:

STATISTICAL TOOL : CHI-SQUARE  Chi-square is used with the help of applying SPSS software. In test we make certain hypothesis and by applying Chi square-Test and check the hypothesis on the bases of choosing appropriate factor. So this way we try to analyze the data collected through survey and try to present a clear picture of effectiveness of Celebrity endorsement in the mind of consumers.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness

Chapter : 2
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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness

Celebrity Endorsement

Chapter: 2

Introduction
2.1 Definition :

According to Friedman & Friedman, a “celebrity endorser is an individual who is known by the public for his or her achievements in areas other than that of the product class endorsed.” So, in the Coco-Cola advertisement; actor Amir Khan is the celebrity endorser for the product or brand called Coke, and this process is referred to as Celebrity Endorsement. Celebrities might endorse as a brand ambassador or a brand face.

CELEBRITY BRANDING AND ITS EFFECT ON CONSUMERS
It is a known fact that the best endorsements achieve an eclectic balance between the product (brand) and the celebrity. Giving a brand a 'face' is more than just a marketing

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness strategy to increase sales or gain market share, it is a decision that can change the future of the brand forever. Choice of the celebrity, hence, is of utmost importance and is usually done based on many different parameters - appeal, looks, popularity or even just a fantasy figure to endorse a brand. In today's highly competitive markets, big brands are at logger-heads when it comes to products, each having a similar product to that of a rival. Where does one brand gain that quintessential advantage - advertising, service, promise of trust, or even the all important price factors? Advertising seems to be the best platform where brands prefer to compete on - right from hiring the best advertising agencies to getting the biggest celebrities. What would be the formula to success then? Well, a good creative agency, a large enough promotional budget and a huge star to endorse your brand would definitely ensure in the minds of a brand management team a feeling of security, success and a triumph over the competitors brand. The general belief among advertisers is that brand communication messages delivered by celebrities and famous personalities generate a higher appeal, attention and recall than those executed by non-celebrities. The quick message-reach and impact are all too essential in today's highly competitive environment. The different models applied by brands to achieve the full potential of such endorsements, highlight the need for a convergence between the theoretical and pragmatic approaches of brand building and effective advertising. The importance of a celebrity-brand match and the various roles played by them as brand-associates show the momentum this strategy has gained in the last decade or so. We put forward certain ideas like 'positioning by association', 'diminishing celebrity utility' and the Multiplier Effect which show the triangular relationship between the brand, the consumer and the celebrity. India is a country where people are star-struck by film stars, cricketers, politicians, and even criminals. Why? Populations of 1 billion and ticking, everyday people need something or someone to look up to. A sense of security, admiration, comfort, familiarity, S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 9

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness and above all, someone they aspire to be at some hidden level in their lives. And clever marketers leverage this very celebrity appeal and are successfully carrying out their jobs by giving the bottom lines of all the brands what they want - profit, market share and even recall. But how much star power is too much? "Does Amitabh really use Tide," asked a 6 year old to her mother. Her mother laughs and says, "No way, just a gimmick." What does that do to the brand? Now, despite the potential benefits derived from celebrity endorsements, they increase a marketer's risk manifolds and should be treated with full attention and aptitude. A brand should be cautious when employing celebrities to ensure promise believability and delivery of the intended effect. The growing importance of mythical characters as celebrities and their sway over the target segments are ample proof of public demand for icons to look up to. As the celebrities traverse from a mere commercial presence to public welfare message endorsements, a whole new dimension is added to this process and helps us in achieving a holistic view of the impact which celebrities generate in every sphere and segment through their well-versed endorsements. At the end of the day, do any stakeholders in a company (employees, contractors, customers, shareholders, communities the company supports with jobs) benefit from a celebrity endorsement? Does anyone buy a product because a Bollywood or TV actor/actress stands up and reads a script in somewhat convincing manner? Are their distinctions in how consumers perceive these types of endorsements and respond to them? What happens when a celebrity endorser gets involved in a public scandal, or worse, dies? Will the product lose consumer support or perish? The most important thing to remember is that putting a celebrity in an ad is not an idea in itself. Unfortunately, this is how most celebrities are being used in Indian advertising, where they just become a prop. Ideally, there should be an idea that makes the celebrity relevant to the product and the consumer. A celebrity's presence in the ad should be contextual. S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 10

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Celebrity endorsement cannot guarantee fool-proof success. The celebrity endorsement strategy must be integrated with target market characteristics, and the other elements of the marketing mix such as product design, branding, packaging, and pricing. The message execution that will be mouthed by the celebrity must likewise be made clear and single-minded. You can do this cleverly by aligning the spirit of the brand to the product, or by using a celebrity because it ensures that people will notice you, and hopefully remember what the brand is saying. Smart associations are ones where the former happens.

2.2 Concepts of Celebrity Endorsements
Advertising experts concur that you must consider a celebrity endorsement if, and only if, the message strategy warrants it, not as a cover for a poor idea or bad product quality. And last but not the least, one should seriously consider the risks of associating with a well-known personality, and hedge against a future scandal by not relying on just one celebrity and instead linking the brand's association with a broad theme represented by several celebrities. And if you can't afford many celebrities, then get your thinking caps on, and come up with a better, safer idea. That will ensure that you're in control of the brand's destiny - not the stars! Inertia is a potent force and consumers have that in plenty. Brand managers employ celebrities in the age-old AIDA model to counter that. The Celebrities draw Attention, generate Interest, evoke Desire and induce Action from the audience. Our safe assumption till now has been that there is perfect congruency between the brand, the celebrity and the target segment. Let's drop this for a while, to land on the practical ground and look into real-time decisions. An old Japanese proverb goes that "Vision without action is a daydream but action without vision is a nightmare." Managements across the world need to realize that no matter how great the ad-spend and famous the celebrity, they cannot succeed if the core product offering fails to meet the consumer expectations. Every endorsed brand may garner some start-up euphoria and blind-spot sales, but to sustain its meteoric rise, it cannot afford product dissatisfaction. In

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness such cases, the celebrities are also quick to dissociate themselves from the brand, as it hampers their carefully cultivated image of an infallible character. Again, not every celebrity works for every product. Each personality carries a set of perceptions attached to it and these have to be in sync with the perception the brand has or wishes to generate. Mercedes Benz would never hire a Govinda in India or Michael Jordan elsewhere, but these same men have simply worked wonders for respective brands like Navratan Oil and Nike. A clean, natural fit between the celebrities and the brand image enhances the latter's value. Lux is a glowing example of being the 'beauty soap of film stars' since the last fifty years! A well-managed celebrity endorsement has the ability to convey to the customers that the celebrity is benefiting from the brand, and they will too.Many endorsements fail because they use the celebrities like a prop in the advertisement copy. There should be an idea which makes the celebrity relevant, firstly to the product and finally to the consumer. The bottom line is that the celebrity endorsements work truly only when the commercial is provoking and original. Aamir Khan's successful incarnations in the 'Thanda Matlab' copies for Coca-Cola have added a new dimension to this assertion. It projected the brand as the star, being cherished by the celebrity and not the other way round. In addition, an effective endorser should not associate with many different products and fall in the trap of overexposure. Keep the consumer's mind clear from confusion and do not let him feel that you are in it for the money rather than truly believing in the brand. The celebrity-brand saliency takes a beating if he is rummaging with several brands and distorts the brand image.

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2.3

Celebrity Branding in Asia

Michael Jordan vouching for Nike’s shoes, Michael Schumacher endorsing Ferrari and Tiger Woods endorsing Accenture have been some of the more popular brand–celebrity collaborations in the Western world. Lately, we have seen the emergence of brand– celebrity collaborations within Asia with the Chinese basketball star Yao Ming endorsing a range of products from consumer electronics and clothing to fast-food chains in China, Bollywood superstar Shah Rukh Khan endorsing an ever-increasing portfolio of brands in India, and Jackie Chan speaking for many brands. For a long time, companies have used well-known public figures, movie stars and sports personalities to endorse their brands, as it is widely believed that these celebrities help to build or reposition brands by extending their personality, character and popularity to the brands they endorse. This chapter looks into this brand building tool that is fast gaining currency with leading corporations in Asia.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Brand endorsement has been covered widely in the branding literature. Brand endorsement can be simply defined as a persuasive communications strategy used by companies to have their products and services represented by a spokesperson. This can be a paid, a value in kind or an unpaid activity. The main aim of product endorsement is to persuade consumers to buy a particular product/service, to shape their perceptions toward it and position it more as a lifestyle product or service rather than solely on its application merits. It is also intended to shape or change perceptions of a particular brand, increase brand popularity and consumer mind share of the brand, strengthen brand recall, and highlight differentiation and its uniqueness. Comprehensive research conducted in this field of marketing communications suggests that celebrity testimonials do increase advertisement readership. Through their extensive work in this area, many researchers have concluded that endorsement by celebrities has a positive effect on the overall branding communication and perception. Although no study has proved, in quantitative terms, any direct relationship between celebrity endorsement and an increase in sales, corporations worldwide resort to celebrity endorsements to create a positive effect for their brands. An Asian example is Jun Ji Hyun, the young South Korean actress and poster girl, who became famous after she appeared in the 2001 blockbuster movie My Sassy Girl. She has been used for magazine and TV commercials throughout Asia, and her TV campaign for Olympus digital cameras reportedly helped to increase the brand recognition by more than 15 percent, according to advertising company LG Ad.5 Similarly, SK-II had a reported 50 percent sales increase in South Korea when P&G switched endorser from Shim Hae Jin to the famous movie actress Chang Jin Young in 2004. A case in point is Nike using endorsements by Tiger Woods and Cristiano Ronaldo to enter into the golf and football categories. Traditionally Nike has not been known for its products in either golf or football. Had Nike chosen the conventional marketing way of entering these segments, it would have taken some considerable time. Instead, by signing on the most famous golfer in the world, and the leading sports personality, who plays for one of the most famous football teams in the world, Nike has been able to shorten the

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness time needed to make an impact. With Ronaldo endorsing Nike, the brand has almost established itself as an equal to Adidas, which has been the dominating brand in football for almost 50 years. The concept of celebrity endorsements and their effect on brand building is derived from seminal research conducted in the areas of psychology and sociology. The basic premise is quite simple. With so many products in the marketplace, it is almost impossible for any consumer to absorb all the information and process it, and then decipher the information and evaluate its credibility. In such a scenario, customers seek to simplify things by depending on cues or easy rules of thumb. These cues can be either intrinsic or extrinsic and can be communicated through any medium. These simple rules of thumb help customers to sift through the massive amount of information to make an informed judgment or develop perceptions about products in the market. With ever-increasing numbers of advertisements and newer ways of communications being devised, even these cues have become abundant. Thus, a brand endorsed by a celebrity seems to establish a connection with customers, as many relate to or aspire to emulate their Personalities. As will be explained in Chapter 6, a strong brand will not only provide the basic functional benefits, but also provides its customers with an identity, a personality to whom they can relate and who expresses their own beliefs and attitudes. Using a celebrity to endorse a brand provides one such channel for the brand to associate itself with the unique identity and personality of the celebrity. At another level, a celebrity endorsement also helps the brand to achieve wider awareness and better recall. But having said that to maximize the return on brand endorsement, companies must strive to arrive at a good match between the brand being endorsed and the endorser.

Endorsements
Based on these many factors, endorsements can broadly be classified into four categories:  Endorsements by ordinary people  Endorsements by experts in their respective fields  Endorsements by celebrities S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 15

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness  Mixed endorsements. In discussing the product type as the basis for deciding the type of endorsement, the focus is usually on how motivated or involved consumers are in processing or searching for information about the product. Even though high or low involvement is relative, products can be classified into these two categories. For example, a less expensive consumer good like shampoo or soap could be categorized as a low involvement product, whereas an expensive digital camera, which requires an in-depth purchase evaluation, could be categorized as a high involvement product In discussing the product benefits as the basis for deciding the type of endorsement, these can be separated into two types, namely functional benefits/values and social benefits/values Functional benefits/values relate to consumers at a cognitive or logica level, where the product’s functionality and features help consumers to perform a certain function in life. Asimple example would be of a shampoo that cleanses hair.

The four categories Celebrity Endorsement
Endorsement by ordinary people The bottom left quadrant consists of products which provide functional benefits, with low involvement. For these products, normal consumers can be used as product endorsers. The many advertisements for shampoos, detergents and so on, where it is common to see actual users being interviewed to gauge their opinion and experience of using that particular product, fall into this quadrant. Research shows that using an ordinary consumer as a product endorser for low involvement products has two main advantages. The first is that, as the endorsing consumer belongs to the same community as other consumers, he/she is presumed to possess a similar lifestyle and product usage and is therefore in a better position to comment on the suitability of the product for that community of users. The second advantage is that the endorsing consumer is perceived to speak the truth as he/she belongs to the user community and is therefore perceived to be S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 16

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness more believable than other paid endorsers. Despite this, there have been many instances where companies have used celebrity endorsements in low involvement categories to increase awareness levels and persuade customers to buy certain brands over others.

Endorsement by an expert
The bottom right quadrant represents products that provide functional benefits, with high involvement. For such products, endorsement by an expert would be a fitting match. An expert is someone who is seen to possess expertise related to the product class marketed and is able to give expert advice. Few people would probably argue about the effectiveness of the endorsement by the Indian dental association for Oral B’s claims. The reason is Customers tend to believe in the knowledge of the dental association. By the same token, a well-known appliance expert can be effective in endorsing refrigeration equipment, as would be a well respected health practitioner for health-related products. Expert endorsement is more feasible for products with high functional and physical values. Products with such characteristics are most likely to be of high involvement, where the diligent consideration of information and evaluation of the true merit of the product are essential.

Celebrity endorsement
The top left quadrant represents products which provide social benefits without high involvement. As social benefits include emotional and self esteem benefits, consumers would like to see and emulate some well known personalities who use those products that they want to purchase. By having a celebrity endorse these categories of products, consumers are provided with a strong personality and a persona to emulate. A celebrity can be defined as an individual who is well known by others and for whom most people have well-developed, trait-based impressions. A celebrity can also be a person who is widely known to the public for his/her accomplishments in his/her respective field, be it the movies, sport, music or politics. Sometimes, however, the celebrity endorses a product or product class that has no match with his/her accomplishments or achievements. Some of the better known examples are

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Tiger Woods endorsing Accenture and Tag Heuer, the Bollywood star Amitabh Bachan endorsing Cadbury chocolates in India and Yao Ming endorsing McDonald’s globally. Despite this mismatch between the celebrity and the product class, companies still continue with such endorsements as these celebrities help to pass on their charisma and personality to the products they endorse.

Mixed endorsement
The top right quadrant represents products that provide social benefits, with high involvement. High end products like a premium luxury car, the latest mobile phone, or a high end consumer electronic item serve as suitable examples for this quadrant. This category of goods not only involves a lot of customer deliberation with regard to its functionality, its technology and design but also gives immense opportunity for customers to flaunt their personality and convey their beliefs. The nature of these products necessitates combining different types of endorsers for this category. Celebrities are used to bolster the self-esteem and image needs of customers and experts are used to covey the functional credibility of the products. But in certain categories like sports goods, the celebrity sports stars themselves double up as experts as they use the products on a regular basis. Numerous celebrities have appeared in countless commercials. These celebrities have been from various fields – sports stars, world famous athletes, prominent musicians, singers and popular Hollywood stars. Singapore Airlines, which has built its brand based on excellent service, has been successful in developing and managing the Singapore Girl as the iconic symbol of the brand. Using celebrity endorsement as a communication strategy has on many occasions been an effective way to influence consumer attitudes and generate positive purchase behavior for products with high social and emotional values, involving elements such as good taste, self-image, and the opinions of others.

Celebrity endorsements have been gaining higher levels of acceptance as an important tool to build brands by creating positive associations and building unique personalities. Effective celebrity branding efforts focus on utilizing celebrity figures who can help to

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness communicate a brand’s unique value proposition, strengthen its identity and provide it with a desirable personality.

2.4 Celebrity Endorsement in India
Phase 1: The Pioneering Phase (1950-1980)
this phase was characterized by: 1. Limited channels of communication 2. Demand exceeded supply 3. Heavy regulation and governmental regulations some bigger companies from their global experience introduced the concept of celebrity endorsement. HLL has used Hindi film stars to endorse their beauty soap Lux since the fifties.

Phase 2: The Growth Phase (1980-1990)
the introduction of television added a variable effective medium of communication. Indian stars going global with events like Asiads and World Cup victory. Vimal, ThumsUp, Gwalior and Dinesh are some of the other brands that used star-appeal in the early days of mass advertising. There was a spurt of advertising, featuring stars like Tabassum (Prestige Pressure-cooker), Jalal Agha (Pan Parag Pan-masaala), Kapil Dev (Palmolive Shaving Cream) and Sunil Gavaskar (Dinesh Suitings). S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 19

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness

Phase 3: Globalisation
In highly competitive markets, the following realities about brand management exist: 1. Product differentiating factors are duplicable and imitable. 2. All long existing and successful brands imbue their products with a meaning. (Article by Country head, O&M India) India’s Bollywood has an audience of approximately 3.6 billion globally compared to 2.6 billion for Hollywood. This fact gives enormous power to the big and mighty Bollywood stars as they chart new territories beyond Indian soil. Amitabh Bachan, a demigod in India, and Shah Rukh Khan (orKing Khan as he is fondly called) are the new power centers. AishwaryaRai, a former Miss World, and one of the leading actresses in Bollywood and now the Indian face in Hollywood, has also become one of the most sought-after celebrities. They have tremendous power at their disposal to influence the public. With a strong list of achievements in their respective fields, these personalities are the new weapons of companies in branding and marketing their offerings. Moreover, these Bollywood personalities have such a huge fan base that it has become the norm for them to endorse a wide portfolio of products and brands. The spectrum spans fast moving consumer goods, consumer electronics, cars, cosmetics and leisure destinations. Another category of celebrities in India are cricket players, especially those who play for Team India. It is surely not an overstatement to say that cricket is one religion that unites the diverse landscape of India. Its popular-ity is so enormous that literally the entire country shuts down when India plays against its neighbor Pakistan – such is the power of cricket in the Indian mindset. Realizing this power and the loyalty that cricketers command, companies have used them as spokespersons for their companies’ offerings since the early 1970s. Even here, the portfolio of products that cricketers endorse is very wide and often the endorsers have nothing to do with the products they endorse. But given the nature of awareness and recall that these endorsers generate, companies appear

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness to be willing to play along. The huge population in India and the Indian diaspora in almost everyother country in the world also enhance the reach and power of these Indian celebrities. Indian movies typically depict extended families who are attached to their roots and an Indian youth who is struggling to find the right balance between traditional values and the allure of westernization, themes that cut across many developing countries. Indian films resonate as much in Nigeria, Mali and Morocco, as they do in Russia, Nepal, Pakistan, Singapore and Malaysia. Viewers in these countries are not just aware of Bolly-wood but actively watch, memorize, and adore the films and their stars. With such a tremendous audience reach, Indian movie stars command apowerful following.

2.5

History

Celebrities are involved in endorsing activities since late nineteenth century2. The advent of celebrity endorsements in advertising in India began when Hindi film and TV stars as well as sportspersons began encroaching on a territory that was, until then, the exclusive domain of models3. One of the first sports endorsements in India was when Farokh Engineer became the first Indian cricketer to model for Bryl cream. The Indian cricket team now earns roughly Rs. 100 crore through endorsements. There was a spurt of advertising, featuring stars like Tabassum (Prestige Pressure Cookers), Jalal Agha (Pan Parag), Kapil Dev (Palmolive Shaving Cream) and Sunil Gavaskar (Dinesh Suitings).

Evolution of subject:
The celebrities get huge amoun t of money to endorse the product which actually creates for Recall-value for the product like Coca Cola - Aamir Khan Tag – Heuer – Shahrukh Khan Cadbury chocolate – Amitabh Bachan

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness The adding up of any celebrity with any brand may not always increase the sales volume but if somehow the image of the product damaged, celebrity endorsing helps in recovering the image. Like when Cadbury India’s reputation as a safe chocolate was almost gone due to the worm controversy, they used Amitabh Bachan in a commercial assuring the audience about the quality of the Cadbury. Similarly when Pepsi & Coke was infected by the Pesticides controversy, Pepsi used both SRK & Sachin Tendulkar for damage control & coke used Aamir Khan for image recovery. Not all products go with the image of all celebrity. It depends on the matching of attributes between the product & the celebrity. In the age of Sunil Gavaskar & Kapil Dev, Gavaskar’s attributes matched with the products which were being used by the higher society people & Kapil dev’s attributes matched with products that were for common man. This means Gavaskar was much trustworthy for the advertisement of pen & cans and Kapil Dev had gone for shaving cream & bicycles. Kapil’s advertisement of Palmolive Ka Jawab nahi in a slightly hariyanvi style is still a legend among the Indian advertisements. Sachin Tendulkar is the first celebrity in India whose mass appeal is so high that he can endorse product for any section of the society. The filmstars before year 2000 has limited endorsement and didn’t explore the advertising market of India but post 2000 the scenario has changed. Amitabh Bachan after KBC got huge popularity among the masses & his popularity is being used by various products from Reid & Taylor to Parker. But during his hay day as a superstar in the ‘80s, he never endorsed anything. Another success story is SRK who is currently endorsing more than 35 products & earned more money from endorsement than his last 2 super hit films Chak DE INDIA & OSO. The cricketers are also not in the backyard. After wining the T-20 World Cup Indian cricket players also got few numbers of endorsements Dhoni, Yuvraj & Zaheer Khan grabbed few endorsements but in terms of numbers they are much less than the actors. With the change in strategy of PepsiCo India to promote their ‘Youngistaan’ campaign they didn’t renew their contract with players like Sachin and Sourav. Instead they have taken rising actors like Ranbir Kapoor and Deepika Padukone to promote their product. This incident also indicates that the cricketers are loosing their endorsed products to the

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness filmstars. One exception is Sania mirza, in spite of all controversies, off-form and injuries she is able to survive in the advertisement world.

Brand V/s Celebrity
Sometimes the celebrity is more highlighted than the products, making no recall value of the product. When Rahul Dravid advertised for Castrol, the brand gets overshadowed by the celebrity & that is also a wrong choice of celebrity. Dravid is never famous for racing & when he promotes the product, if gives a wrong signal to the customers. The product can use Narain Karthikeyan to endorse it which will give some reliability to the product. The problem in the endorsement market is that here glamour plays a big role. That is why Abhinav Bindra, the only Indian to win a Gold Medal in the Olympics gets only Samsung as the only product to endorse whereas filmstars gets offers from various companies to endorse their products.

Some success story
Cadbury India used Amitah Bachan not only to recover their image from worm controversy but also to establish itself as the leading company in the Indian chocolate market. Aamir Khan’s ad campaign ‘Thanda Matlab Cocacola’ was also a huge hit. Not only that the company uses the superstars to come out from the pesticides controversy. Dabur brings in Amitabh Bachan in the stagnant chawanprash market which brings in boost in market and helps Dabur to remain the market leader.

The Lux Story
The Lux Soap in its 75 yrs journey as a product always used a Film Celebrity to promote the product with the most catchy lines ‘Lux meri Khubsurti Ka raaj’. They used a huge number of celebrities from the beginning to promote their product & in their 75 years celebration advertisement campaign; they used SRK as the main endorser who has said

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness the famous ‘Lux mera Khubsurti ka raaj’ along with Hema Malini, Sridevi & KareenaKapoor. That is the first time a male celebrity endorsed a female product in India.

Some Controversies
When SRK promoted Emami’s Fair & Handsome cream. It was highly criticized as saying that if a star with SRK’s stature promote whiteness cream then actually we are advocating for racism saying black is bad & white is gold. And how SRK could can endorse such products as there will be a huge impact among the masses regarding theskin colors. A person must be judged by his/her qualities & not by his/her skin color. But what we basically forgot that stars get money to endorse products & we shouldn’teye washed by the advertisement & there is no point in criticizing a celebrity forendorsing product like Fair & Handsome.

Shilpa Shetty & Romanov Vodka. Shilpa Shetty also hardly criticized for promoting alcohol. As being a celebrity she must be a responsible citizen & a responsible citizen should never promote alcohol. Celebrity branding is all right as long as the celebrity conducts himself in a good manner but if something wrong happens it will affect the image of the product also. When Salman Khan got warrant for killing endangered dear ‘Thumbs Up’ has no option but to replace him. So the product and the celebrity remain good as long as both of them remain individually good. The main problem of celebrity branding is that when a particular product is known to the common people with the effect of the celebrity, it is very difficult to separate the product from the star. Like Coca-Cola - Aamir Khan, Cadbury- Amitabh Bachan, Santro-SRK. Now, if any one of the company want to change their endorser they have to redesign the product to let out their product from the shadow of the old campaign. In case of celebrity marketing another problem also arise, that no separate brand value grows up for the product unless and until the product is extraordinary. The product is

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness known in the name of the celebrity. Sometimes if the attributes of the celebrity doesn’t matches with the product, it also gives a negative attribute to the product endorsed. Like in a Survey study it is found that people locates Amitabh Bachan with Asian Paints the most but in reality Amitabh endorsed Nerolac paints and Nerolac’s biggest competitor is Asian paints. So there are certain positive as well as negative points in celebrity branding in India. As a producer of the product the company always wants to minimize the negative sides of the celebrity endorsement and maximize the positive impact of the celebrity endorsement.

2.6 Global Scenario of Celebrity Endorsement
There has been an explosion in the interest of celebrity in the last decade - but what are the impacts on celebrity endorsements? Choosing the wrong face can send a product into consumer oblivion – whilst the right one can propel a brand to global awareness.

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Clark Turner, editor utalkmarketing said: “Today, thanks to reality television, it seems that every Tom, Dick or Harry can become a celebrity. Marketers have to think very carefully about the message their chosen ‘face’ is sending out. For example, if a low profile reality TV star is chosen to promote a particular product some consumers may feel it was all the marketing budget could stretch too!” Another problem faced by ad directors is making sure their chosen ambassador has credibility in the field. Clark continues: “Product and celebrity must go together in all spheres of the market. ABC 1 consumers want to see aspirational celebrities such as Keira Knightley in the ads they watch. Whereas brands like Iceland who appear to have more of a C2D2 audience, choose a face such as Kerry Katona who has a more down to earth image.”

Top Celebrity Earners in the UK
1. David Beckham - £25.7m (Adidas, Motorola, Pepsi, Armani and Calvin Klein)

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‘Golden Balls’ is the undisputed king of celebrity endorsement. Though some commentators may say his star is beginning to wane, no other British sportsman has the looks, lifestyle, connections and glamour, which have resulted in the global appeal of Brand Beckham. Key sponsors include Adidas (£10m) in which his deal secures him a share of annual profits, Motorola (£2.5m), Georgio Armani (£9.7m over three years) Pepsi (£2.5m) and Calvin Klein (£1m). 2. Kate Moss – £11m (Rimmel, Topshop + others) Dubbed ‘Cocaine Kate’ by newpapers after being exposed as a user in 2005, some pundits predicted the supermodel’s downfall. But Croydon’s finest export has bounced back from the brink and is now more bankable than ever with an annual income of around £11m from endorsements alone. Her biggest sponsors include Rimmel (£3m), Burberry (£1m), Stella McCartney (£1m), Dior (£500k), Calvin Klein (£1.5m), Nikon (£1.5m), Roberto Cavalli (£800k) and Topshop (£1m).

3. Wayne Rooney – £9m (Nike, Electronic Arts, Coca-Cola) Whilst he may not have the conventional appeal of England team-mate David Beckham, the 21 year old from Liverpool can certainly hold his own in the global

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness marketability stakes. He currently has contracts with Nike (£5m - £500k every year for 10 years), Electronic Arts (£3m) and Coca-Cola (£1m) - though it seems one of his main rivals may be fiancee Colleen who is proving a hit with marketers and consumers alike! 4. Coleen McLoughlin – £6.9m(Asda, Diet Coke, Nike and LG) The Liverpudlian school girl once only known for being Wayne Rooney’s other half is now a bankable commodity in her own right. She said in a recent interview: “I like to think I’m someone people relate to” – and it seems the girlnext-door image is working. Recently she has won lucrative contracts with George @ Asda (£3.5m), Nike (£1.5m) and Diet Coke (£500k) amongst others, meaning this WAG won’t be reliant on hand outs from her other half to indulge in her love of shopping. 5. Spice Girls – £5m (Tesco) The ‘Fab Five’ marked their 2007 comeback by signing a heavy weight deal with supermarket giant Tesco - each member of the band reportedly bagging a cool £1m for appearing in the Christmas advertising campaign. 6. John Terry – £4m (Umbro and King of Shaves) The current England football Captain is said to pick his endorsement deals carefully – so far he has only put his name to King of Shaves (£1m) and sports label Umbro (£3m) 7. Gary Lineker – rumoured to be £3m (Walkers) Gary Lineker has been the face of Walkers crisps for 10 years and even spawned a brand called Salt ‘n’ Lineker. According to Walkers, his campaigns have helped

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness the company sell an extra 1.4 billion bags of crisps in seven years! The firm saw sales grow from 1.34bn to 2.75bn packs a year – or a 105% surge in sales between 1995 and 2002, when Walkers launched its "No More Mr Nice Guy" campaign featuring the star. 8. Girls Aloud – £2.25m (Sunsilk and Samsung) Pop’s sexiest quintent were appointed ambassadors of the Sunsilk hair care range in 2007 for £1.25m and additionally to Samsung for a cool £1m. Additionally, Sarah Harding received £100k to be face of leading lingerie brand Ultimo and Cheryl Cole, along with her footballer husband can be seen promoting the National Lottery and Coke Zero (amounts undisclosed).

9. Jamie Oliver - £1.2m (Sainsbury) Jamie Oliver and radio has been the advertisements public face of and in-store

Sainsbury since 2000, appearing on television promotional material. In the first two years these advertisements were estimated to have given Sainsbury's an extra £1 billion of sales or £200 million gross profit.

2.7

KINDS OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT-HOODS

(1) Product Placements

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness While the movie 'Taal' brandished Coke bottles unabashedly, (2) Celebrities Co-Owning the Brand Madhuri Dixit and Emami 'Beauty secrets by Madhuri' range (3) Fictional Heroes Shaktimaan has sold Parle-G, and Popeye single-handedly revived the consumption of spinach in the US. (4) No More but Celebrities Still Campaigns created around a dead personality was the 'Kar lo duniya muthi mein' campaign for Reliance featuring Dhirubhai Ambani (5) Page 3 Celebrities (6) Celebrities for a Cause The Pulse Polio campaign being coordinated by UNICEF for the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare had Amitabh Bachchan and Sachin Tendulkar (7) Spoofing Mirinda spoofed the Hutch puppy (a celebrity in its own right). (8) Mascots Ronald McDonald, the Amul girl (9) Men are from Mars, Women from Venus John Abraham lends his rugged image to Yamaha bikes while Priety Zinta lends her cute dimples to peddle Scooty.

(10) Celebrities Lending their Name to Brands Sharukh Khan, Amitabh Bachchan and Rekha have perfumes named after them

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness (11) Company Owners Being Celebrities Vijay Mallaya and Richard Branson who are walking talking celebrities and endorse their own brands through their extravagance, their flamboyant lifestyle (12) Political Leaders The 'India Shining' campaign from the BJP and the 'Congress ka haath aam aadmi ke saath' campaign from the Congress with Vajpayee and Sonia Gandhi lending their faces (13) Using a Social Proposition Built Within the Brand The Surf campaign done by Revathy and Shabana Azmi (in the south and north respectively) which stressed on the prudent usage of valuable water was a social proposition cleverly inter-woven in the brand. (14) Duration of Usage - Promotional or Long Term Strategy Short-term example is the Rani Mukherjee campaign for Bata which is believed to have helped boost sales for the ladie's footwear brand, Sundrop, by a whopping 500 per cent. The same Rani Mukherjee has a longer association with Fanta and Munch. (15) Stealth Advertising Since a cynical public no longer believes that celebrities actually use the products they endorse in commercials. Revlon launched an online marketing campaign targeting female customers via chat rooms talking about who Revlon's new face would be. Consequently the announcement of Halle Berry as Revlon's new face was met with great anticipation. (16) Foreign Celebrities Jackie Chan doing a Discover commercial or a Boris Becker doing a Siyaram commercial (17) Unintentional Celebrity Endorsements

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness The year before the late Princess Diana bought an Audi, they sold just about five hundred pieces in the UK. The following year sales figures were close to ten thousand mark. John Abraham haybusa

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2.8

The celebrity Trap:

Once into a celebrity, it is hard to get out of it. If the brand has done even moderately well after the break of a celebrity campaign, it becomes difficult to separate the role of message and the role of the celebrity in selling the brand.

And hence, the celebrity becomes an addiction for the marketing team. • And the task to find substitutes becomes more and more difficult. Interestingly, celebrity is a disease that is seen to spread across a marketing department. Once one brand manager gets into it, others tend to follow, not wanting to be left behind! • • With the surfeit of celebrities on screen and in the newspapers, there are two new drawbacks emerging for celebrity usage. Celebrity credibility is coming under question. Consumers are getting more and more advertising savvy and are beginning to voice opinions, even in small towns, like "He has been paid to sell the product." • • • Clearly celebrity endorsement is no longer as credible as it was a few decades ago. Unless category and celebrity are closely linked (like Nike and sports stars), the power of a celebrity's word is questionable. The trustworthiness of public figures, which celebrities tended to bring in the past, is bound to disappear if a celebrity begins to appear and endorse a brand in every conceivable category! • Celebrity clutter. With each celebrity endorsing multiple products and multi brands in a category, resorting to different celebrities, the consumer is left confused.And reluctant to get into 'this celebrity is bigger than that comparison' to make brand choices. • Santro is endorsed by Shah Rukh Khan and Palio by Sachin Tendulkar… does the consumer buy the brands because of the star pull? … a question worth pondering

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness about. It ends up making brand parity rather than giving brand differentiation, often one of the key aims of using a celebrity. • • • • When Palmolive used Kapil Dev in the '80s, his line 'Palmolive da jawaab nahin' became famous -- it is remembered even today. Pataudi gave Gwalior suitings a strong competitive edge and pushed it to Number 2 in perceptions in the suitings market. Even Sridevi made Cema bulbs and tubes memorable by dancing in a bulb! The advertisements by themselves were fairly non-descript; the celebrities gave the brand the differentiation. Celebrity advertising were few and far in between in those days. The days of 'pure' celebrity working for the brand seem to be over. • Today, it is back to the power of an idea and an insight. No simple solutions exist any longer. Unless there is something powerful in the idea, the celebrity is just another cost. • Aamir Khan and Coke is the ultimate example of the same. As long as the brand depended on his star value and wove interesting stories around him, it just didn't cut ice with the consumer -- until 'Thanda Matlab Coca-Cola' happened. • Could it have worked as well without a celebrity? One will never know as the brand has entered the celebrity trap.

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2.9

CELEBRITY BRANDING AND ITS EFFECT ON CONSUMERS

It is a known fact that the best endorsements achieve an eclectic balance between the product (brand) and the celebrity. Giving a brand a 'face' is more than just a marketing strategy to increase sales or gain market share, it is a decision that can change the future of the brand forever. Choice of the celebrity, hence, is of utmost importance and is usually done based on many different parameters - appeal, looks, popularity or even just a fantasy figure to endorse a brand. In today's highly competitive markets, big brands are at logger-heads when it comes to products, each having a similar product to that of a rival. Where does one brand gain that quintessential advantage - advertising, service, promise of trust, or even the all important price factors? Advertising seems to be the best platform where brands prefer to compete on - right from hiring the best advertising agencies to getting the biggest celebrities. What would be the formula to success then? Well, a good creative agency, a large enough promotional budget and a huge star to endorse your brand would definitely ensure in the minds of a brand management team a feeling of security, success and a triumph over the competitors brand. The general belief among advertisers is that brand communication messages delivered by celebrities and famous personalities generate a higher appeal, attention and recall than those executed by non-celebrities. The quick message-reach and impact are all too essential in today's highly competitive environment. The different models applied by brands to achieve the full potential of such endorsements, highlight the need for a convergence between the theoretical and pragmatic approaches of brand building and effective advertising. The importance of a celebrity-brand match and the various roles played by them as brand-associates show the momentum this strategy has gained in the last decade or so. We put forward certain ideas

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness like 'positioning by association', 'diminishing celebrity utility' and the Multiplier Effect which show the triangular relationship between the brand, the consumer and the celebrity. India is a country where people are star-struck by film stars, cricketers, politicians, and even criminals. Why? Populations of 1 billion and ticking, everyday people need something or someone to look up to. A sense of security, admiration, comfort, familiarity, and above all, someone they aspire to be at some hidden level in their lives. And clever marketers leverage this very celebrity appeal and are successfully carrying out their jobs by giving the bottom lines of all the brands what they want - profit, market share and even recall. But how much star power is too much? "Does Amitabh really use Tide," asked a 6 year old to her mother. Her mother laughs and says, "No way, just a gimmick." What does that do to the brand? Now, despite the potential benefits derived from celebrity endorsements, they increase a marketer's risk manifolds and should be treated with full attention and aptitude. A brand should be cautious when employing celebrities to ensure promise believability and delivery of the intended effect. The growing importance of mythical characters as celebrities and their sway over the target segments are ample proof of public demand for icons to look up to. As the celebrities traverse from a mere commercial presence to public welfare message endorsements, a whole new dimension is added to this process and helps us in achieving a holistic view of the impact which celebrities generate in every sphere and segment through their well-versed endorsements. At the end of the day, do any stakeholders in a company (employees, contractors, customers, shareholders, communities the company supports with jobs) benefit from a celebrity endorsement? Does anyone buy a product because a Bollywood or TV actor/actress stands up and reads a script in somewhat convincing manner? Are their distinctions in how consumers perceive these types of endorsements and respond to them? What happens when a celebrity endorser gets involved in a public scandal, or worse, dies? Will the product lose consumer support or perish? S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 36

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness The most important thing to remember is that putting a celebrity in an ad is not an idea in itself. Unfortunately, this is how most celebrities are being used in Indian advertising, where they just become a prop. Ideally, there should be an idea that makes the celebrity relevant to the product and the consumer. A celebrity's presence in the ad should be contextual. Celebrity endorsement cannot guarantee fool-proof success. The celebrity endorsement strategy must be integrated with target market characteristics, and the other elements of the marketing mix such as product design, branding, packaging, and pricing. The message execution that will be mouthed by the celebrity must likewise be made clear and single-minded. You can do this cleverly by aligning the spirit of the brand to the product, or by using a celebrity because it ensures that people will notice you, and hopefully remember what the brand is saying. Smart associations are ones where the former happens.

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2.10 Relationship between a Celebrity & a Brand
To understand how consumers associate celebrities to brands is well documented by a research study by Anderson (1976); Collins & Loftus (1975); Rumelhart, Hinton & McClelland (1986). In their study, associative learning principles were based on a conception of memory as a network consisting of various nodes connected by associative links. In the research context, celebrities and brands both represent nodes, which initially are unconnected but become linked over time through the endorsement process.

When a consumer thinks about a brand, the link with the celebrity node is animated to a certain level through spreading activation (Anderson 1983a). The joint activation of brand and celebrity provides a path over which one's evaluation of the celebrity has an opportunity to transfer to the brand. The key to the process is the simultaneous activation of the brand and celebrity nodes. Negative information about the celebrity activates the celebrity node, which then activates the brand node to some degree and allows reduced evaluation of the celebrity to transfer to the brand. Studies by Noffsinger et al. (1983) and Judd et al. (1991) provide empirical evidence demonstrating that attitudes can be affected in such a way.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness It is also important to view the consumer in their social and cultural setting to further see how celebrity endorsements increase sales and impact brands over time. Celebrities usually form a very good example of a reference group appeal. This is particularly beneficial to a marketer and a brand who can cash in on the success of the star and, hence, push his brand. People who idolize their celebrities, hence, have a biased affinity to the brand their favorites endorse. As time passes on, they believe that they by adopting the brand that their celebrity endorses are becoming more like them. Celebrities can be used in four ways namely: testimonial, endorsement, actor and spokesperson. Right now the current hot favorite in India is roping in celebrities for social causes like pulse polio, etc. This has shown to be having a positive effect on the people. In India, Bollywood and sport personalities rule the mind-space and airwaves. A recent study by FCB-ULKA was done on celebrity endorsements in India. Here, they discussed two parameters: Compatibility Index and Trait Index when it came to finding the relationship between a celebrity and a brand. Compatibility Index meant that the consumers saw a suitable match between the brand and the celebrity. Trait Index was based on the match between brand and celebrity personality traits. The numbers showed that Compatibility Index was more favorable than Trait Index. E.g., Hrithik Roshan scored high on his Compatibility Index (100) as compared to his Trait Index with Coca Cola. But the end user being the consumer preferred him. The other startling fact was the high points 93 and 100 by Salman Khan. But ThumsUp had to drop him after Salman's accident. But people still associate ThumsUp with the Khan. The other important factor is unaided association and Salman scored higher than other competition. But in the long run, to protect the brand image, Salman was dropped. So what is important is the way the customer perceives a brand and the celebrity, so if the celebrity is favored, it does have a positive influence over the brand. The other factor is the sheer image or popularity of the star, if the star's image is larger than life, for example, for Amitabh Bachchan or Sachin Tendulkar, the Compatibility Index seems to be a natural collorary.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Taking the millennium superstar Amitabh Bachchan, as an endorser, he fulfills all the FRED objectives, namely, Familiarity (target market is aware of him, finds him friendly, likeable, dependable and trustworthy); Relevance (which says that there should be a link between the endorser and the product as well as between the endorser and the audience); Esteem (the polio endorsement, for example, is successful as the masses see him as a credible name-face-voice); Differentiation (in all his projections, he is seen to be one among the masses, and yet he towers above them. He is different). His appeal is universal; lesser mortals merely cater to specific niches. While there may be different reasons, depending on the category, the lifecycle stage in which the brand is, and the particular marketing mantra being the flavor of the moment, the main reason is to make the brand stand out and to facilitate instant awareness. For example, in the much talked about Shah Rukh - Santro campaign, the organization wanted to overcome the shortcoming of an unknown brand, Korean at that. The objective of the company was to garner faster brand recognition, association and emotional unity with the target group. The Santro ad showed the highest recall amongst auto ads, despite average media spends for the category. Reason being simple - star power paid off. Another example was the launch of Tamarind by S. Kumar, they reckoned they spent 4050 per cent less on media due to the sheer impact of using Hrithik Roshan who was riding on the 'Kaho Na Pyar Hai' wave of Success. Ad recall was as high as 70 per cent, and even the normally conservative trade got interested (so while a new brand would normally take 8-10 months for entry into a Shopper's Stop, Tamarind was prominently displayed within 20 days of launch). But now looking at the long term effects of Hrithik, his movies began to flop and it may seem a sheer co-incidence that the Tamarind brand died out as well. Looking on the flip side, the biggest concerns from the advertiser's point of view is that of 'vampiring' - the celebrity being bigger than the brand. Consider the 1980s when Dinesh Suitings chose Sunil Gavaskar as their brand endorser. Soon it was seen that

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Gavaskar completely overshadowed the brand. A similar case was that of Shah Rukh and Mayur Suitings, where post termination of the contract, the corporate had to vest crucial monies in a campaign where the sole objective was to wean the brand identity off Shah Rukh Khan. So having a celebrity who may outshine your product is not such a viable idea is the common consensus. The other problem is that of duration of endorsement, and a possible mismatch between the celebrity's life cycle and that of the brand. Owing to unavailability of dates, sometimes long-term contracts are signed, but the celebrity's life might be over soon. Multiple endorsements are the other problem. There is unfortunately a limited pool of celebrities who can resonate with consumers. So you have the same celebrity endorsing several categories, as in case of ShahRukh and Sachin, who are completely over-exposed - one would assume a fair degree of confusion and little room for credibility, and hence, a possible devaluing amongst customers. Studying TV and print advertisements, one will realize that either some celebrities are endorsing several brands or a specific brand is endorsed by different spokespersons. These concepts are called multiple brand endorsement and multiple celebrity endorsement respectively. The question is, does this special form of celebrity endorsement affects consumers' brand attitudes? Following Tripp et al. (1994), the endorsement of as many as four products negatively influences the celebrity spokesperson's credibility (i.e., expertise and trustworthiness) and likeability. They further add that these effects are independent of the celebrity, i.e., the perceptions of even well-liked stars can be influenced. Reasons may be found in the lack of distinctiveness, with one famous person endorsing several products instead of concentrating on and representing one specific brand. Though these findings may be valid, it does not automatically mean that the concept of multiple product endorsement is useless. Further, research is suggested on potential positive effects, like transfer of positive brand images, and on the shape of consumers' response when more than four products are endorsed.

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2.11 The Scope of a Celebrity on the Incumbent Brand
Simply stating, a brand is a differentiated product and helps in identifying your product and making it stand out due to its name, design, style, symbol, color combination, or usually a mix of all these

Before we can scrutinize the effects of celebrity endorsement on the overall brand, we have to ferret the implicit nuances that act as sources of strong brand images or values: • Experience of Use: This encapsulates familiarity and proven reliability. • User Associations: Brands acquire images from the type of people who are seen using them. Images of prestige or success are imbibed when brands are associated with glamorous personalities. • Belief in Efficiency: Ranking from consumer associations, newspaper editorials, etc.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness • Brand Appearance: Design of brand offers clues to quality and affects preferences. • Manufacturer’s Name & Reputation: A prominent brand name (Sony, Kellogg’s, Bajaj, Tata) transfers positive associations. The celebrity’s role is the most explicit and profound in incarnating user associations among the above mentioned points. To comprehend this, let us analyze the multiplier effect formula for a successful brand: S=P* D*AV -- the multiplier effect Where S P D AV is a Successful Brand is an Effective Product is Distinctive Identity is Added Values

The realm of the celebrity’s impact is confined to bestow a distinctive identity and provide AV to the brand; the celebrity does not have the power to improve or debilitate the efficiency and features of the core product. Thus, we are gradually approaching an evident proposition claiming, "The health of a brand can definitely be improved up to some extent by celebrity endorsement. But one has to remember that endorsing a celebrity is a means to an end and not an end in itself." An appropriately used celebrity can prove to be a massively powerful tool that magnifies the effects of a campaign. But the aura of cautiousness should always be there. The fact to be emphasized is that celebrities alone do not guarantee success, as consumers nowadays understand advertising, know what advertising is, and how it works. People realize that celebrities are being paid a lot of money for endorsements and this knowledge leads them to cynicism about celebrity endorsements.

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2.12 The Need for Celebrity Endorsement
The charisma of the celebrities almost always entices people and their words are worshipped by a lot of people. Their influence also goes on the political front, where they are invited for political endorsement. The business firms, thus, resort to celebrity endorsement to perk up brand recall and product sales. This has now become a trend and is being perceived as a strategic means of brand building exercise. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (EML) suggests that consumers will scrutinize claims more in important situations (say, life saving drugs) than in unimportant ones. So, for almost similar products like Coke and Pepsi, it makes sense to use endorsement. Also, Friedman & Friedman have shown that a celebrity relative to a non-celebrity spokesperson would be more effective for products high in psychological or social risk, involving such elements as good taste, self-image, and opinion of others. For example, when actor Shah Rukh Khan endorses Santro-Zip drive; the consumers are made to think that he is giving his opinion to go for this car. Two reasons why advertisers need celebrity endorsement are to increase the credibility & attractiveness of their advertisement. This is solely to affect consumers' attitude towards their brand. To justify this hypothesis, we can take the example of former Miss Universe Sushmita Sen who helped the Epson brand of printers achieve instant recognition; even with the established giants like Hewlett-Packard and Wipro in the running. Similarly, actress Rani Mukherjee has turned the tables for Bata's ladies footwear brand called Sundrop as sales increased by a whooping 500%. Celebrity endorsements are impelled by virtue of the following motives: • • • • • • • Instant Brand Awareness and Recall Celebrity values define, and refresh the brand image Celebrity adds new dimensions to the brand image Instant credibility or aspiration PR coverage Lack of ideas Convincing clients

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2.13 Is celebrity advertising effective?
What are the benefits of representing India in the national cricket team? It is an opportunity to compete with the best in the world and pitch one's talent against the best. It is an opportunity to travel around the world. It is an opportunity to uphold national pride. And make good money from every match played. But there is more, a ticket to modelling in the advertising world (and a future perhaps in Bollywood). Not surprisingly it's a very attractive profession. As advertisers pour crores of rupees every year, into celebrity advertising. Think of Sachin Tendulkar. He means Pepsi in soft drinks, Boost in malted beverages, MRF in tires, Fiat Palio in cars, TVS Victor in two-wheelers, Colgate Total in toothpastes, Britannia in biscuits, Visa in credit cards, Airtel in mobile services and Band-aid. Clearly, an overload of brands and categories associated with one star. In the advertising world, celebrity advertising is seen as a substitute for 'absence of ideas' -- and actually frowned upon. Yet it appears again and again. The reasons are quite insightful. A client hits upon celebrity as a solution when his agency is unable to present to him a viable, exciting solution for his communication/marketing problem. He then feels that the presence of a well-known face is an easy way out. It is rare that there is an idea on the table and client and agency mutually agree that the presence of a celebrity will actually lift the script. This is very similar to Bollywood blockbuster films where the cast is decided upon and the script either written accordingly or re-engineered around the cast!

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There is no doubt that celebrity advertising has its benefits – The four Qs: Quick saliency: It gets cut through because of the star and his attention getting value. Goodlass Nerolac has ensured high saliency for its brand with the inclusion of Amitabh Bach Chan in its advertising. Quick connect: There needs to be no insight but the communication connects because the star connects. Sachin, Shah Rukh and their ilk's ensure an easy connect for Pepsi with the youth. Quick shorthand for brand values: The right star can actually telegraph a brand message fast without elaborate story telling. Kapil Dev and Sachin Tendulkar seem to have done that successfully for Boost in the early '90s. And helped to differentiate it in the malted beverages market.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Quick means of brand differentiation: In a category where no brand is using a celebrity, the first that picks one up could use it to differentiate itself in the market. Boost did it in the malted beverage category. And Preity Zinta does all the above four for Perk -- connecting with the youth and reinforcing the brand's youthful, spontaneous, energetic values. In general celebrity endorsements are impelled by virtue of the following motives:
• • • • • •

Instant Brand Awareness and Recall. Celebrity values define, and refresh the brand image. Celebrities add new dimensions to the brand image. Instant credibility or aspiration PR coverage. Lack of ideas. Convincing clients.

An appropriately used celebrity can prove to be a massively powerful tool that magnifies the effects of a campaign. But the aura of cautiousness should always be there. The fact to be emphasized is that celebrities alone do not guarantee success, as consumers nowadays understand advertising. They know what advertising is and how it works. People realize that celebrities are being paid a lot of money for endorsements and this knowledge makes them cynical about celebrity endorsements.

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2.14 WHY COMPANIES USE CELEBRITIES – THE CELEBRITY EDGE
• Psychologica l Factors: Celebrities generally satisfy the 'esteem needs' of an individual. For example a movie actress is expected to possess a flawless skin and a blemish free face. Her fans want to know the secret of her beauty, so she becomes a natural endorser for beauty related products (cosmetics, soaps, powder). • propping Up Awareness and Trust Levels: Rahul Dravid BOB • To Communicate a Certain Message about the Company: Sachin Tendulkar as brand ambassador gave it the desired facelift and image for the launch of 'Victor' • • Value for Money: To Position their Brand Distinctively: Lux worldwide has positioned itself as the 'soap the filmstars use'. From Leela Chitnis to Aishwarya Rai, all top actresses have modeled for Lux • Celebrity Standing for a Single Brand: Think Zakir Hussain and you are reminded of 'Wah Taj' Taj Mahal tea. Ditto with A. R. Rahman for Airtel

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2.15 The Process of Celebrity Endorsement
The process of celebrity endorsement is more of meaning translation & meaning application. A deeper insight into this complex process is provided by the following theory. • The Meaning Transfer Model

McCracken, the author to this model, has suggested that, "The effectiveness of the endorser depends, in part, upon the meaning he or she brings to the endorsement process." The celebrities' effectiveness as endorsers stems from the cultural meanings with which they are endowed. It is a three-stage process of meaning transfer that involves the formation of celebrity image, transfer of meaning from celebrity to the brand, and finally, from the brand to the consumer.

Figure 1: The Meaning Transfer Model To explain it with the help of an example, we can take the case of Rahul Dravid and Castrol. The cricket icon is seen as "Mr. Dependable". And when he endorses Castrol, an image of "dependability" is tagged on to the brand under promotion.

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2.16 Compatibility of the celebrity’s persona with the overall brand image
A celebrity is used to impart credibility and aspirational values to a brand, but the celebrity needs to match the product. A good brand campaign idea and an intrinsic link between the celebrity and the message are musts for a successful campaign. Celebrities are no doubt good at generating attention, recall and positive attitudes towards advertising provided that they are supporting a good idea and there is an explicit fit between them and the brand. On the other hand, they are rendered useless when it comes to the actual efficiency of the core product, creating positive attitudes to brands, purchase intentions and actual sales. Certain parameters that postulate compatibility between the celebrity and brand image are: Fit with the Advertising Idea Marketers now seek to adopt 360 degree brand stewardship in which the brand sees no limits on the number of contact points possible with a target consumer. Advertising ideas, thus, revolve around this approach, and the celebrity endorsement decisions are made through these startegic motives. One of the most successful celebrity endorsement campaign which reflects the fit between the brand and the 360 degree advertising fit is Fardeen Khan and Provogue. Provogue's positioning in the apparel market is of a young, active, party-going, attentiongrabbing brand and so is Fardeen Khan. The conjuction between the two has been immensely impactful and brand managers have utilised this endorsement through 360 degree reinforcement. Provogue Lounge and extensive phased insertions in print in selective publications reaching out to their target audience has made it as one of the highest recalled celebrity endorsement. Similarly, Richard Gere's recent endorsement for VISA in India has gained acclaim due to its innovativeness and consumer connect. Brand marketers say that research reveals that Richard Gere was the most popular face across the Asia Pacific region, and would also fit into the persona of the brand meeting their communication objective to enhance

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness VISA's brand leadership and consumer preference, and the motive to continue the "All it Takes" empowerment platform featuring international celebrities. Celebrity-Target Audience Match Smriti Irani endorsing the WHO recommnded ORS Campaign in India. Indian mothers can associate with Smriti Irani through the facets she projects on screen or in regular life which helps develop a connect with the target audience since mothers medicate their children with ORS. The inserial placement of the campaign in "Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi" has won it an award from PR Week. Similarly, Irfan Pathan endorsing Hero Cycles has gained the brand immense recall and embarked through the positve association between the consumer and the brand. Celebrity Values Celebrity branding is all about the transfer of the value from the person to the product he endorses or stands for. There are two concerns here. The first is how long this could last. Can the person maintain his popularity (i.e., his performance or status ranking)? The lifecycle of celebrity popularity varies a lot. The second concern is his private life personal integrity. If he is implicated in any kind of scandal, that would ruin the brand. "Who would want to use Michael Jackson to brand their product?" (brandchannel.com) Tabu endorsing Tetra Packed Milk, Shabana Azmi campaigning for AIDS Awareness, Amitabh Bachchan & Shahrukh Khan campaigning for Pulse Polio or Aishwarya Rai appearing in the Donate Eyes campaign are few examples, which reflect the transfer of celebrity values to the brand, creating an impact that generates recall. Costs of Acquiring the Celebrity Consequently, companies must have deep pockets to be able to afford the best available celebrities. Recently, a newspaper report showed how cola firms had gone beyond their advertising budgets to get the best celebrities. Small firms that use celebrities' services run greater risks if they invest large amounts. Although nobody is willing to say exactly how much celebrities get paid, industry sources say Sachin Tendulkar's price is believed to be between Rs. 2.0-2.5 crore per endorsement, and musician A. R. Rehman, who had

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness signed up with AirTel, is believed to have picked up Rs. 1.75 crore. Film-star Hrithik Roshan was rumored to have picked up Rs. 2 crore for the Fly With Hrithik campaign to push Close-Up, and Shahrukh Khan's rate seems to be between Rs. 2.5-3.0 crore. Aishwarya Rai apparently picks up Rs. 1.25 crore for an endorsement and the Indian cricket captain Saurav Ganguly is believed to get between Rs. 90 lakh to Rs. 1.5 crore, while film-star Aamir Khan apparentlymakes Rs. 1.5 crore per endorsement. Celebrity Regional Appeal Factors R. Madhavan endorsing Pepsi in southern India or Sachin Tendulkar endorsing in India are few examples of how celebrities are chosen to reach out to target audiences for brands in regional markets. Another interesting example would be of Steve Waugh campaigning for Tourism Australia in India since he was one of the popular celebrities from Australia and could carry the messge of Australia as a tourist destination. Other celebrities like Kylie Minogue, Nicole Kidman from Australia can be prospective endorsers for Brand Australia but not in the region of India. Celebrity-Product Match Cyrus Broacha is the brand ambassador for MTV since both the celebrity and the brand are considered as friendly, young, mood-boosting, humourous and outspoken. MTV's brand personality overlaps Cyrus Broacha's image as a brand. Some more examples of compatible celebrity product match in which celebrity brand attributes get transferred to the brand and increases the brand equity is of Mallaika Arora & Freshizza from Pizza Hut, Govinda & Navratan Tel, Sanjay Dutt & Elf Oil, Sunny Deol & Lux Undergarments, Aishwarya Rai & Nakshatra, etc. Celebrity Controversy Risk The perfect example here is of Salman Khan and the controversy in which he crushed a man to death with his Pajero when he was driving under the influence of alcohol. Also, any act on the part of the endorser that gives him a negative image among the audience and goes on to affect the brands endorsed. The brand, in most instances, takes a bashing.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Celebrity Popularity Celebrity Brand association like Garnier endorsed Tara Sharma & Simone Singh, Agni Diamonds & Riama Sen don't get much brand recall, and even if they do, its difficult to attribute it to the celebrities' endorsing the brand.On the other hand, HPCL has had increased popularity and share of voice due to thendorsement of the brand through Sania Mirza. Celebrity Availability In case of various brands, there are situations in which they prefer to go without a brand face, since there is no brand-fit between the celebrities available and the brand. Also, due to multiple endorsements by certain celebrities, brands refuse to adopt celebrity endorsement since they fear dilution of the brand image. Celebrity Physical Attractiveness Bipasha Basu' physical attractiveness and her connect with the brand makes Levis Strauss's campaign through celebrity in India, John Abraham endorsing Wrangler and Timex Sunglasses are some examples which portray the celebrities' physical attractiveness that helps create an impact. Celebrity Credibility The most important aspect and reason for celebrity endorsement is credibility. In a research carried out among 43 ad agencies and companies, most experts believed that the most important dimensions of credibility are trustworthiness and prowess or expertise with regard to the recommended product or service (Miciak and Shanklin, 2002). One of the most obvious reasons of Amitabh Bachchan endorsing plethora of brands is the credibility of the celebrity and his recognition across consumers.To site one of the most successful campaigns in which the celebrity's credibility has had an indelible impact on the brand and has saved the brand is of Cadbury's. After the worm controversy, Amitabh Bachchan's credibility infused into the brand through the campaign, helping it to get back on track. The campaign has won an award for the same.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Multiple Endorsements The case of multiple endorsements, both in terms of a single brand hiring multiple celebrities and that of a single celebrity endorsing multiple brands, is often debated. At times, consumers do get confused about the brand endorsed when a single celebrity endorses numerous brands. The recall then gets reduced and reduces the popularity of the brand. Not many people can remember all the brands that a celebrity endorses and the chances of losing brand recall increases if the celebrity endorses multiple brands. For example, in case of Sachin Tendulkar people recall Pepsi, TVS Victor and MRF, but might not remember brands like Britannia and Fiat. Similarly, for Amitabh Bachchan, consumers remember ICICI, Pepsi, Parker Pens, Pulse Polio and BPL. They might get confused in the endorsement of Nerolac or Asian Paints. Thus, for multiple endorsements where the same celebrity endorses several brands, it boils down to the strength of the brand and the advertising content. Whether Celebrity is a Brand User One of the strongest platforms to discuss this is through NGOs. Various celebrities endorse NGOs and social causes since they believe in the social message that they need to convey to the audience. One of the most successful campaigns has been executed by PETA in which celebrities like Shilpa Shetty, Amisha Patel, Yana Gupta, Sheetal Malhar, Mahima Choudhary laimed to believe in PETA's philosophy, and thereby endorse the brandOn the other hand, while some would understand that Amitabh Bachchan would have never used Navratan Tel, the target audience that the brands wants to reach out to will be ready to believe that he used the oil and his endorsement thereby creates an impact.

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2.17 Successful celebrity endorsements for a brand- An Indian perspective
In the history of advertising — products or services, political parties or ideas — celebrities have played a seminal role in boosting the bottom line. Whether what's on offer is a soft drink, beauty aid, ideology or public health message, it's the celebrity endorsement that makes the difference between recognition and anonymity. The latter part of the '80s saw the burgeoning of a new trend in India– brands started being endorsed by celebrities. Hindi film and TV stars as well as sportspersons were roped in to endorse prominent brands. Advertisements, featuring stars like Tabassum (Prestige pressure cookers), Jalal Agha (Pan Parag), Kapil Dev (Palmolive Shaving Cream) and Sunil Gavaskar (Dinesh Suitings) became common. Probably, the first ad to cash in on star power in a strategic, long-term, mission statement kind of way was Lux soap. This brand has, perhaps as a result of this, been among the top three in the country for much of its lifetime. In recent times, we had the Shah Rukh-Santro campaign with the objective of mitigating the impediment that an unknown Korean brand faced in the Indian market. The objective was to garner faster brand recognition, association and emotional unity with the target group. Star power in India can be gauged by the successful endorsement done by Sharukh for three products- Pepsi, Clinic All Clear and Santro. Unique selling propositions are best boosted when a popular credible figure vouches for it. A Govinda who claims to wear a particular brand of banian impels scores to switch brands. An Aishwerya Rai pledging her eyes motivates thousands to queue up to pledge theirs. In the Indian context, it would not be presumptuous to state that celebrity endorsements can aggrandize the overall brand. We have numerous examples exemplifying this claim. A standard example here is Coke, which, till recently, didn't use stars at all internationally. In fact, India was a first for them. The result was a ubiquitously appealing Aamir cheekily stating Thanda matlab Coca Cola. The recall value for Nakshatra advertising is only due to the sensuous Aishwarya. The Parker pen brand, which by itself S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 55

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness commands equity, used Amitabh Bachchan to revitalize the brand in India. According to Pooja Jain, Director, Luxor Writing Instruments Ltd (LWIL), post Bachchan, Parker's sales have increased by about 30 per cent.

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2.18 HOWCELEBRITY ENDRSEMENT INFLUENCE THE CONSUMER
The basis for the effectiveness of celebrity-endorsed advertising can be linked to Kelman's processes of social influence as discussed by Friedman and Friedman. According to Kelman, there are three processes of social influence, which result in an individual adopting the attitude advocated by the communicator: Compliance, Identification & Internalization:- These latter two processes are particularly applicable to celebrity-endorsed advertising. Compliance infers that another individual or group of individuals influences an individual cause he or she hopes to achieve a favourable reaction from this other group. This process of social influence is not directly applicable to celebrity advertising because there is little, if any, interaction between the celebrity and the consumer. Identification applies to the situation wherein the individuals emulate the attitudes or behavior of another person or group, simply because they aspire to be like that person or group. This process is the basis for referent power. It was found that celebrities are more commonly liked than a typical consumer spokesperson. Internalization as a process of social influence is said to occur when individuals adopt the attitude or behavior of another person because that behavior is viewed as honest and sincere and is congruent with their value system. The effectiveness of celebrity advertising traditionally has not been strongly linked to this process, as a celebrity's reason for promoting a product can just as easily be attributed by the consumer to an external motive (i.e., payment of fee) as to an internal motive (i.e., the celebrity's true belief in the value and benefit of the product). An important issue of concern relates to the development of a strategy for use in Celebrity Advertising, which benefits from the dramatic impact of dual support of both the identification and internalization processes of social influence. Celebrities are well-liked, but the techniques that can be used to enhance their credibility as spokespeople, and therefore, tie-in more closely with the internalization process needs to be looked into

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2.19 Review of literature:Attribution theory and endorsement effectiveness
Although past research documents a general tendency for consumers to believe in the purity of the motives of celebrity endorsers, it is likely that this tendency varies substantially both across consumers and across endorsers. For example, Tripp showed that celebrities who endorse several products are viewed as less credible endorsers than those who endorse only a single product. also demonstrated that celebrities who are blamed for negative events (e.g. accidents) can have detrimental effects on the products they endorse. In short, the effectiveness of a celebrity endorser is dynamic, dependent on the celebrity, the product, and perhaps even societal conditions at the time and place where the advertisement is shown. As such, it could be fruitful to abandon the use of traditional measures of the celebrity endorser's trustworthiness or credibility in general in favor of directly measuring the degree to which individuals evaluate the celebrity as liking the endorsed product after viewing the advertisement. Such evaluations fit under a class of judgment that has been referred to as “correspondent inferences” Correspondent inferences more generally refer to any judgment in which observers use an individual's behavior (e.g. an endorser saying that she loves Cheerios cereal) to infer congruent dispositions in that individual (e.g. inferring that the endorser actually does love Cheerios cereal). We propose that correspondent inferences are a direct measure of a celebrity's credibility in the specific context of the advertisement, and thus should predict consumers' attitudes toward the advertised product.H1. =Correspondent inferences will be positively associated with attitudes toward the advertised product. Another interesting question in this context is whether consumers will tend to make correspondent inferences about celebrity endorsers. Early social psychological work in attribution theory suggests not – a large endorsement fee should be viewed as a strong incentive toward endorsement behavior, and thus observers should doubt that endorsements reflect true liking for the product on the part of the endorser. However, research indicating that celebrities are especially credible and trustworthy endorsers (e.g. Freiden, 1984) suggests that consumers might believe celebrities like the product regardless of endorsement fees.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Furthermore, research examining a phenomenon called “correspondence bias” suggests that observers are biased such that they tend to attribute behavior to personal characteristics of the individual performing that behavior (e.g. liking for the product) even when situational factors (e.g. endorsement fees) are sufficient to fully explain the behavior. Celebrity attributes that influence endorsement effectiveness Previous research examining the effectiveness of celebrity endorsements has focused primarily on personal attributes of the celebrity that enhance his or her persuasiveness For example, a number of researchers have used models in which “source credibility”, typically viewed as a function of trustworthiness and expertise, is the primary factor determining how influential the endorser will be Trustworthiness refers to the general believability of the endorser, and is thus broader but conceptually similar to correspondent inferences about the endorser. Expertise refers to the product knowledge of the endorser and thus to the validity of his or her claims regarding the product, and is believed to be a factor that increases persuasiveness above and beyond the effects of trustworthiness.H3.=Perceived product knowledge of the endorser will be positively associated with attitudes toward the advertised product.Other researchers have emphasized the importance of source attractiveness in determining liking for the endorser and thereby increasing endorsement effectiveness To the extent that attractiveness is an important determinant of endorsement effectiveness, research based on the matchup hypothesis for a discussion of the matchup hypothesis in relation to endorser expertise) suggests that its importance is limited by the degree to which attractiveness “fits” well with the advertised product Thus, for example, physical attractiveness might be useful when selling cosmetics but not when selling computers. Furthermore, although source attractiveness research has focused primarily on physical attractiveness, attractiveness can also be viewed more generally as a positive attitude toward the endorser. Such positive attitudes might result from admiration or perceived similarity although effective advertising is more likely to rely on the admiration component because the influential power of celebrities is closely connected to their status as role models.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Some researcher conducted a research to measure the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement advertisements. This is given below. Experiment 1: Participants The participants were 66 students (41 females, 25 males) at the University of Tromsø who participated on a voluntary basis. The mean age of the participants was 24.59 years (SD=1.91 years). Materials Baseline measure Prior to examining any of the other experimental materials, participants were asked to indicate what they believed people in general think about the Omega watch brand on a scale from 1=“not good at all” to 7=“very good”. Endorsement advertisement Participants were given a black-and-white copy of a printed advertisement in which Cindy Crawford endorsed the luxury, diamond-set watch “Constellation Carrè” from Omega. The advertisement had a close-up picture of Cindy Crawford with the watch in front of her. “Cindy Crawford's choice” was printed above the picture, and “My choice” was written in cursive next to the Omega logo at the bottom of the advertisement. Evaluation questionnaire The evaluation questionnaire included measures of correspondent inferences, attitude toward the advertisement, attitude toward the product, and attitude toward the celebrity endorser. Correspondent inferences were measured with three items asking participants to indicate their level of belief that Cindy Crawford:

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness 1. likes the Omega brand; 2. frequently uses the Omega brand; and 3. Views the Omega brand as a good product. Each of these items was answered on a seven-point scale ranging from 1=“Not at all likely” to 7=“Extremely likely”. The correspondent inference items showed satisfactory internal reliability (α=0.83). All attitude items used semantic differential scales with a value of one associated with the more negative word and a value of seven associated with the more positive word. Attitude toward the advertisement was measured using the items pleasant/unpleasant, likeable/not likeable, interesting/uninteresting, and good/bad; attitude toward the product was measured using the items desirable/not desirable, pleasant/unpleasant, likeable/not likeable, and good/bad; attitude toward the endorser was measured using the items interesting/uninteresting, pleasant/unpleasant, likeable/not likeable, and good/bad. Each of the three attitude measures showed satisfactory internal reliability (attitude toward advertisement: α=0.85; attitude toward product: α=0.82; attitude toward endorser: α=0.87). Participants were also asked to rate how much they admired Cindy Crawford as well as Cindy Crawford's physical attractiveness, sense of style (attractiveness relevant to the product domain), similarity to the participant, and knowledge of the product domain. All of these ratings were made on seven-point scales where 1 indicated low values (e.g. “not at all attractive”) and 7 indicated high values (e.g. “very attractive”).

Analyses
In addition to preliminary co relational analyses, the primary results will be presented using a structural equations model developed in Amos 4.0. In addition to the chi-square measure of absolute fit, the comparative fit index (CFI) and the root mean square error of approximation were used as measures of relative model fit. Even for models with poor absolute fit, recent research suggests that CFI values of 0.95 or higher and RMSEA values of 0.08 or lower indicate reasonably well overall model fit. S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 61

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Experiment 2: Participants The participants were 66 students (39 females, 25 males, 2 not reported) who were recruited at a higher education conference in Oslo, Norway and participated on a voluntary basis. The mean age of participants was 24.28 years (SD=7.75 years). Materials Endorsement advertisement Participants were given a black-and-white copy of a printed advertisement in which Pierce Brosnan endorsed Goodlife cologne from Davidoff. The advertisement consisted of a picture of a Goodlife cologne bottle on the left and a close-up picture of Pierce Brosnan on the right. The words “Davidoff” and “Goodlife” were written on the ad at the bottom of Pierce Brosnan's picture. Evaluation questionnaire The evaluation questionnaire included measures of correspondent inferences, attitude toward the advertisement, attitude toward the product, and attitude toward the celebrity endorser. Correspondent inferences were measured with three items asking participants to indicate their level of belief that Pierce Brosnan: 1. likes Goodlife cologne; 2. frequently uses Goodlife cologne; and 3. views Goodlife cologne as a good product. Each of these items was answered on an 11-point scale ranging from 0=“Not at all likely” to 10=“Extremely likely”. The correspondent inference items showed satisfactory internal reliability (α=0.82).All attitude items used semantic differential scales with a value of one associated with the more negative word and a value of seven associated with the more positive word. Attitude toward the advertisement was measured using the items

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness pleasant/unpleasant, likeable/not likeable, interesting/uninteresting, and good/bad; attitude toward the product was measured using the items desirable/not desirable, pleasant/unpleasant, likeable/not likeable, and good/bad; attitude toward the endorser was measured using the items interesting/uninteresting, pleasant/unpleasant, likeable/not likeable, and good/bad. Each of the three attitude measures showed satisfactory internal reliability (attitude toward advertisement: α=0.87; attitude toward product: α=0.91; attitude toward endorser: α=0.86).Participants were also asked to rate Pierce Brosnan's knowledge of the product domain, similarity to themselves, and physical attractiveness. All of these ratings were made on seven-point scales where 1 indicated low values (e.g. “not at all attractive”) and 7 indicated high values (e.g. “very attractive”).

Conclusion
The high costs associated with product advertising make it imperative that advertising messages effectively increase consumers' interest in the product. With that in mind, studies that examine characteristics of advertisements that make them effective are especially valuable. The present experiments represent a first step in identifying what makes endorsement advertisements effective based on work in attribution theory within social psychology. The results suggest that endorsement advertising effectiveness can be strongly influenced by consumers' inferences concerning whether the endorser truly likes the product. Advertisers, on the other hand, often appear to be satisfied with merely creating an association between a popular endorser and their product with the hope that the endorser's positive image will somehow “rub off” on the product. The present research suggests that advertisers should put more effort not only into choosing endorsers who are well matched with products, but also into making strong arguments and believable explanations for why endorsers truly do like the products they endorse.

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Figure 1Model predicting attitude toward the advertised product in Experiment 1

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2Model predicting attitude toward the advertised product in Experiment

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2.20 Important Celebrity Attributes
While selecting a celebrity as endorser, the company has to decide the promotional objective of the brand and how far the celebrity image matches with it. The selection is in fact a collaboration, from which both the company and the celebrity gains. The most important attribute for a celebrity endorser is the

Trustworthiness: The target audience must trust that a celebrity carries a particular image and it must match with the product. The second attribute in order of importance is likeability: The celebrity also must be accepted as a popular icon by a large cross-section of the audience. Similarity: between the target audience and the celebrity is the third important attribute. A person well-known in a society can have greater impact than a celebrity of a different world. If the endorser and receiver have similar needs, goals, interests and lifestyles, the position advocated by the brand communication is better understood and received. Similarity is also used to create a situation where the consumer feels empathy for the person shown in the commercial. The bond of similarity between the endorser and the receiver increases the level of persuasiveness. Apart from that, Expertise: is also believed to be another important attribute.

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2.21 The Argument for Celebrity Endorsement
Brands have been leveraging celebrity appeal for a long time. Across categories, whether in products or services, more and more brands are banking on the mass appeal of celebrities. As soon as a new face ascends the popularity charts, advertisers queue up to have it splashed all over. Witness the spectacular rise of Sania Mirza and Irfan Pathan in endorsements in a matter of a few months. The accruement of celebrity endorsements can be justified by the following advantages that are bestowed on the overall brand:

Establishment of Credibility: Approval of a brand by a star fosters a sense of trust for that brand among the target audience- this is especially true in case of new products. We had the Shah Rukh-Santro campaign. At launch, Shah Rukh Khan endorsed Santro and this ensured that brand awareness was created in a market, which did not even know the brand.

Ensured Attention: Celebrities ensure attention of the target group by breaking the clutter of advertisements and making the ad and the brand more noticeable. PR coverage: is another reason for using celebrities. Managers perceive celebrities as topical, which create high PR coverage. A good example of integrated celebrity campaigns is one of the World’s leading pop groups, the Spice Girls, who have not only appeared in advertisements for Pepsi, but also in product launching and PR events.

• •

Time saving: Celebrity is able to build brand credibility in a short period of time. Higher degree of recall: People tend to commensurate the personalities of the celebrity with the brand thereby increasing the recall value. Golf champion Tiger Woods has endorsed American Express, Rolex, and Nike. Actress Catherine ZetaJones is used by T-Mobile and Elizabeth Arden. 007 Pierce Brosnan promotes Omega, BMW, and Noreico.

Associative Benefit: A celebrity’s preference for a brand gives out a persuasive message - because the celebrity is benefiting from the brand, the consumer will also benefit.

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Mitigating a tarnished image: Cadbury India wanted to restore the consumer's confidence in its chocolate brands following the high-pitch worms controversy; so the company appointed Amitabh Bachchan for the job. Last year, when the even more controversial pesticide issue shook up Coca-Cola and PepsiCo and resulted in much negative press, both soft drink majors put out high-profile damage control ad films featuring their best and most expensive celebrities. While Aamir Khan led the Coke fightback as an ingenious and fastidious Bengali who finally gets convinced of the product's `purity,' PepsiCo brought Shah Rukh Khan and Sachin Tendulkar together once again in a television commercial which drew references to the `safety' of the product indirectly.

Psychographic Connect: Celebrities are loved and adored by their fans and advertisers use stars to capitalise on these feelings to sway the fans towards their brand.

Demographic Connect: Different stars appeal differently to various demographic segments (age, gender, class, geography etc.). Mass Appeal: Some stars have a universal appeal and therefore prove to be a good bet to generate interest among the masses. Providing testimony: Another benefit of using celebrity endorsers is that s/he can provide testimony for a product or service, particularly when the product has contributed to their celebrity. The more familiar an endorser, the more likely consumers are to buy the endorsed product.

Rejuvenating a stagnant brand: With the objective of infusing fresh life into the stagnant chyawanprash category and staving off competition from various brands, Dabur India roped in Bachchan for an estimated Rs 8 crore.

Celebrity endorsement can sometimes compensate for lack of innovative ideas.

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2.22 The Argument against Celebrity Endorsement
The celebrity approach has a few serious risks:
1. The reputation of the celebrity may derogate after he/she has endorsed the product: Pepsi Cola's suffered with three tarnished celebrities - Mike Tyson, Madonna, and Michael Jackson. Since the behaviour of the celebrities reflects on the brand, celebrity endorsers may at times become liabilities to the brands they endorse.

2. The vampire effect: This terminology pertains to the issue of a celebrity overshadowing the brand. If there is no congruency between the celebrity and the brand, then the audience will remember the celebrity and not the brand. Examples are the campaigns of Dawn French—Cable Association and Leonard Rossiter— Cinzano. Both of these campaigns were aborted due to celebrities getting in the way of effective communication. Another example could be the Castrol commercial featuring Rahul Dravid. 3. Inconsistency in the professional popularity of the celebrity: The celebrity may lose his or her popularity due to some lapse in professional performances. For

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness example, when Tendulkar went through a prolonged lean patch recently, the inevitable question that cropped up in corporate circles - is he actually worth it? The 2003 Cricket World Cup also threw up the Shane Warne incident, which caught Pepsi off guard. With the Australian cricketer testing positive for consuming banned substances and his subsequent withdrawal from the event, bang in the middle of the event, PepsiCo - the presenting sponsor of the World Cup 2003 - found itself on an uneasy wicket 4. Multi brand endorsements by the same celebrity would lead to overexposure: The novelty of a celebrity endorsement gets diluted if he does too many advertisements. This may be termed as commoditisation of celebrities, who are willing to endorse anything for big bucks. Example, MRF was among the early sponsors of Tendulkar with its logo emblazoned on his bat. But now Tendulkar endorses a myriad brands and the novelty of the Tendulkar-MRF campaign has scaled down. 5. Celebrities endorsing one brand and using another (competitor): Sainsbury’s encountered a problem with Catherina Zeta Jones, whom the company used for its recipe advertisements, when she was caught shopping in Tesco. A similar case happened with Britney Spears who endorsed one cola brand and was repeatedly caught drinking another brand of cola on tape. 6. Mismatch between the celebrity and the image of the brand: Celebrities manifest a certain persona for the audience. It is of paramount importance that there is an egalitarian congruency between the persona of the celebrity and the image of the brand. Each celebrity portrays a broad range of meanings, involving a specific personality and lifestyle. Madonna, for example, is perceived as a tough, intense and modern women associated with the lower middle class. The personality of Pierce Bronson is best characterized as the perfect gentlemen, whereas Jennifer Aniston has the image of the ‘good girl from next door’.

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2.23 Brand, Celebrities & Consumer

Factors Impacting a Brand while being viewed by a Consumer in Media The model above shows the various factors that affect a celebrity endorsed brand while viewed by a consumer in the media (both TV and print). The central idea being the impact on brand. The three major parts to a brand being shown are:  The Product  Advertisement  The celebrity endorsing it

It is important is to study the relationship between these factors and how they together act for or against the brand.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness The product is important, of course, it may fulfill a need, want or a desire. Quality is quintessential and, hence, nowadays it is understood the product is of highest quality. So what next? The advertisement is important as a good product could see an early exit if the advertisement is handled badly, and otherwise, a mediocre product which is tastefully handled goes a long way. Lastly, the celebrity in the advertisement, recall, trust, familiarity are some of the reasons that they are used. Now consider the interactions of these individual factors. The best of superstars can be doing the advertisement but if the product is far from the image the star has, the whole advertisement is a waste. Imagine an Amitabh doing an advertisement for ad for youth apparel. Well, exceptions can be there but then again it depends on the way it is done. Believability is of vital importance, the TVS Victor advertisement shows us the bike being compared to the bat of Sachin and the strokes he plays. (Classically executeadvertisement with the bike and Sachin coming out as winners). The relationship between a product and its advertisement again can be either dependant or none. In that case, a shock value makes people remember the brand better and, hence, a possible long term loyalty.

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2.24 Celebrity Selection
There are various scientific ways in which the right celebrity is selected for the product endorsement, which are discussed here after Stereotyping  Tellis defines stereotypes as perceptions and depictions of individuals based on simplistic, biased image of the group to which they belong, rather than on their own individual characteristics. For example: its better to select celebrities who say are teens for chocolate advertisements and females for detergent ads, etc. The TEARS Model  The attributes highlighted by the acronym "TEARS" are gauged for celebrity selection. These are: • • • • • Trustworthiness: For example - Legendary actor Amitabh Bachchan who is an icon of trust; promoting ICICI Bank. Expertise: For example - Golfer Tiger Woods for a sports brand. Attractiveness: For example - Tennis player Anna Kournikova who earns 10 Million dollars per year in just endorsement. Respect: For example - Former Miss World Aishawarya Rai and the Eye donation campaign. Similarity: For example - a child artist promoting a chocolate brand. A celebrity scoring high on all the above attributes can turn out to be a good endorser for the brand under question.

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The No TEARS Model  The "No TEARS" approach is a tool for managers and their advertisers how to go about selecting celebrities so as to avoid the pitfalls from making an unwise decision. It gauges the following information: • • • • • • • • celebrity & audience match up, celebrity & brand match up, celebrity credibility, celebrity attractiveness, cost consideration, a working ease and difficulty factor, an endorsement saturation factor, a likelihood-of-getting-into-trouble factor

Selecting the right celebrity does more than increasing sales; it can create linkages with the celebrities' appeal, thereby adding new dimension to the brand image. Research conducted by Katherine Eckel has revealed that celebrities can get people to make a better choice but cannot influence 'people to make a foolish choice'. The success of celebrity endorsement in India can be sought from a market research conducted earlier which found that 8 out of 10 TV commercials scored the highest recall were those with celebrity appearances. A few examples: Sachin Tendulkar - Adidas, Sourav Ganguly - Britannia, Leander Paes & Mahesh Bhupati - J. Hampstead, Shah Rukh Khan - Pepsi, Sushmita Sen - Epson, and Aishwarya Rai - Coke.

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2.25 Difference between Brand Ambassador & Brand Face
A Brand Ambassador would be one who is not only a spokesperson for the brand or is just appearing as a testimonial for the brand’s benefits. He/she is an integral part of the brand persona and helps to build an emotionale, which goes beyond just appearing on TV commercials. He takes up the cause of a Brand Champion and is associated with every aspect related with the brand. What is more, there is a significant difference between making just an endorsement for saya shampoo or an automobile, and being that brand’s alter ego. Both parties take the latter far more seriously to the deal. So a brand ambassador would be involved in press releases, he/she would be actively participating in any sales promotion, sporting the Brand all the while. For example, Fardeen Khan is the brand ambassador for Provogue while he remains a brand face for Lux Body Wash. On the other hand, a Brand Face would be the current celebrity who is just used as a tool to increase brand recall and is only appearing in the advertisement. It is usually seen that a brand face is a temporary contract and is very short term at times. An example would be Sona Chandi Chawanpryash using Sourav Ganguly for a while in its commercials. Brand faces are easily forgotten and fades away with the campaign’s end

2.26 Types of Celebrity Endorsements

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Celebrity branding has many aspects. A slight change in the type of branding used can result in either a great success or a dismal failure. Celebrity branding falls into five general categories:
• • • •

Testimonial: The celebrity acts as a spokesperson for the brand. Imported: The celebrity performs a role known to the audience. Invented: The celebrity plays a new, original role. Observer: The celebrity assumes the role of an observer commenting on the brand.

• •

Harnessed: The celebrity's image is integrated with the ad's storyline. Spokepersons:

2.27 Multiple Brand and Celebrity Endorsement

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Studying TV and print advertisements, one will realize that either some celebrities are endorsing several brands or a specific brand is endorsed by different spokespersons. These concepts are called multiple brand endorsement and multiple celebrity endorsement respectively. Some spokespersons are “shared” by different advertising firms, i.e. they are promoting more than one brand (Tripp et al. 1994, p. 535). Golf champion Tiger Woods has endorsed American Express, Rolex, and Nike. Actress Catherine Zeta Jones is used by TMobile and Elizabeth Arden. James Bond character Pierce Brosnan promotes Omega, BMW, and Noreico. Top model and actress Milla Jovovich is a spokesperson for a broad range of brands, including L’Oréal, Banana Republic, Christian Dior, Calvin Klein, and Donna Karan. (View Figure 4). The question is, does this special form of celebrity endorsement does affect consumers’ brand attitudes? Following Tripp et al. (1994), the endorsement of as many as four products negatively influences the celebrity spokesperson’s credibility (i.e. expertise and trustworthiness) and likeability. They further add, that these effects are independent of the celebrity, i.e. the perceptions of even well-liked stars can be influenced. Reasons may be found in the lack of distinctiveness, with one famous person endorsing several products instead of concentrating on and representing one specific brand. Though these findings may be valid, it does not automatically mean that the concept of multiple product endorsement is useless. Further research is suggested on potential positive effects, like transfer of positive brand images, and on the shape of consumers’ response when more than four products are endorsed. More satisfying results have been achieved on the concept of multiple celebrity endorsement. Hsu and McDonald (2002, p.21), studying the effectiveness of the ‘milk mustache campaign’ on consumer perceptions, found that endorsing a product with multiple celebrities “can be beneficial for appealing to various audiences to which the product is aimed.” The watch manufacturer Omega, for example, promotes its brand by matching selected celebrities with the company’s product lines.

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With celebrity spokespersons representing a diverse mix of type, gender, and age, they can effectively be used to endorse specific brand lines of a company as shown by the cosmetic manufacturer L’Oréal, which matches its diverse product lines in accordance with the celebrity’s meanings. (Source: http://www.omega.ch/omega/wo_star_ambass_entry)

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2.28 Advantages of a celebrity endorsing a Brand
Brands have been leveraging celebrity appeal for a long time. Across categories, whether in products or services, more and more brands are banking on the mass appeal of celebrities. As soon as a new face ascends the popularity charts, advertisers queue up to have it splashed all over. Witness the spectacular rise of Sania Mirza and Irfan Pathan in endorsements in a matter of a few months. The accruement of celebrity endorsements can be justified by the following advantages that are bestowed on the overall brand: • Establishment of Credibility: Approval of a brand by a star fosters a sense of trust for that brand among the target audience- this is especially true in case of new products. We had the Shah Rukh-Santro campaign. At launch, Shah Rukh Khan endorsed Santro and this ensured that brand awareness was created in a market, which did not even know the brand. • Ensured Attention: Celebrities ensure attention of the target group by breaking the clutter of advertisements and making the ad and the brand more noticeable. • PR coverage : is another reason for using celebrities. Managers perceive celebrities as topical, which create high PR coverage. A good example of integrated celebrity campaigns is one of the World’s leading pop groups, the Spice Girls, who have not only appeared in advertisements for Pepsi, but also in product launching and PR events. Indeed, celebrity-company marriages are covered by most media from television to newspapers (e.g. The Spice Girls and Pepsi)

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Higher degree of recall: People tend to commensurate the personalities of the celebrity with the brand thereby increasing the recall value. Golf champion Tiger Woods has endorsed American Express, Rolex, and Nike. Actress Catherine ZetaJones is used by T-Mobile and Elizabeth Arden. 007 Pierce Brosnan promotes Omega, BMW, and Noreico.

Associative Benefit: A celebrity’s preference for a brand gives out a persuasive message - because the celebrity is benefiting from the brand, the consumer will also benefit.

Mitigating a tarnished image: Cadbury India wanted to restore the consumer's confidence in its chocolate brands following the high-pitch worms controversy; so the company appointed Amitabh Bachchan for the job. Last year, when the even more controversial pesticide issue shook up Coca-Cola and PepsiCo and resulted in muchnegative press, both soft drink majors put out high-profile damage control ad films featuring their best and most expensive celebrities. While Aamir Khan led the Coke fightback as an ingenious and fastidious Bengali who finally gets convinced of the product's `purity,' PepsiCo brought Shah Rukh Khan and Sachin Tendulkar together once again in a television commercial which drew references to the `safety' of the product indirectly.

Psychographic Connect: Celebrities are loved and adored by their fans and advertisers use stars to capitalise on these feelings to sway the fans towards their brand.

Demographic Connect: Different stars appeal differently to various demographic segments (age, gender, class, geography etc.).

Mass Appeal: Some stars have a universal appeal and therefore prove to be a good bet to generate interest among the masses. S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 81

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Rejuvenating a stagnant brand: With the objective of infusing fresh life into thestagnant chyawanprash category and staving off competition from various brands,Dabur India roped in Bachchan for an estimated Rs 8 crore.

Celebrity endorsement can sometimes compensate for lack of innovative ideas.

2.29 Disadvantages of a celebrity endorsing a brand
The celebrity approach has a few serious risks: • The reputation of the celebrity may derogate after he/she has endorsed the product: Pepsi Cola's suffered with three tarnished celebrities - Mike Tyson, Madonna, andMichael Jackson. Since the behaviour of the celebrities reflects on the brand, celebrity endorsers may at times become liabilities to the brands they endorse. • The vampire effect: This terminology pertains to the issue of a celebrity overshadowing the brand. If there is no congruency between the celebrity and the brand, then the audience will remember the celebrity and not the brand. Examples are the campaigns of Dawn French—Cable Association and Leonard Rossiter— Cinzano. Both of these campaigns were aborted due to celebrities getting in the way of effective communication. Another example could be the Castrol commercial featuring Rahul Dravid. • Inconsistency in the professional popularity of the celebrity: The celebrity may lose his or her popularity due to some lapse in professional performances. For example, when Tendulkar went through a prolonged lean patch recently, the inevitable question that cropped up in corporate circles - is he actually worth it? The 2003 Cricket World Cup also threw up the Shane Warne incident, which caught Pepsi off guard. With the Australian cricketer testing positive for consuming banned substances and his subsequent withdrawal from the event, S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 82

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness bang in the middle of the event, PepsiCo – the presenting sponsor of the World Cup 2003 - found itself on an uneasy wicket • Multi brand endorsements by the same celebrity would lead to overexposure: The novelty of a celebrity endorsement gets diluted if he does too many advertisements. This may be termed as commoditisation of celebrities, who are willing to endorse anything for big bucks. Example, MRF was among the early sponsors of Tendulkar with its logo emblazoned on his bat. But now Tendulkar endorses a myriad brands and the novelty of the Tendulkar-MRF campaign has scaled down. • Celebrities endorsing one brand and using another (competitor): Sainsbury’s encountered a problem with Catherina Zeta Jones, whom the company used for its recipe advertisements, when she was caught shopping in Tesco. A similar case happened with Britney Spears who endorsed one cola brand and was repeatedly caught drinking another brand of cola on tape. • Mismatch between the celebrity and the image of the brand: Celebrities manifest a Certain persona for the audience. It is of paramount importance that there is an egalitarian congruency between the persona of the celebrity and the image of the brand. Each celebrity portrays a broad range of meanings, involving a specific personality and lifestyle. Madonna, for example, is perceived as a tough, intense and modern women associated with the lower middle class. The personality of Pierce Brosnan is best characterized as the perfect gentlemen, whereas Jennifer Aniston has the image of the ‘good girl from next door’.

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2.30 Facts over the Years
• • Approximately 60-70% of all television commercials feature famous people. Aishwarya Rai had once endorsed 'Fuji-Film' camera rolls. The company made an agreement with her to endorse their camera rolls. But, Aishwarya's magic did not work there and they had to terminate the contract. • Amitabh Bachchan (AB) was seen endorsing Maruti's Versa Car. The AB factor worked wonders as far as generating curiosity was concerned but the actual product couldn't meet the expectations of people, and hence, the endorsement strategy didn't work. He has been used very effectively by Parker Pens, ICICI Bank and Cadbury's to name a few. • • Bata’s sales doubled soon after they adopted Rani Mukherjee as their brand ambassador. Magic Johnson lost his endorsement deals when he announced in 1991 that he's HIV-positive. It wasn't until July 2003 that he landed his first endorsement deal since the announcement. • Ticket sales at Wimbledon are known to have shot up significantly for all matches featuring the latest 'sex-symbol' on the circuit - Anna Kournikova. An average player who is yet to win even a single tennis tournament, Anna is known to have earned far more from endorsements than her tennis career could ever have given her.

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2.31 Celebrity Endorsements as a Strategy
How Tiger Woods’s endorsement of Accenture is beneficial to the company in sending the message of high performance. This is just an example of having celebrity endorsement. Marketers of consumer products have long used celebrities to endorse their product - and this has become a common strategy. I therefore have chosen to write about the theory and the intentions behind the strategy of using celebrity endorsements.

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2.32 Objectives of Marketing Communications
Defining the objectives of the advertisements is the first step. In general, there are four major objectives for any advertisement. Note that not all advertisements need to have all the objectives.

1. Establish the product need stablishing a need for a product or a product category is the necessary first step. This is more important in new-to-world category of products In Indian context, consider the advertisement for Polio Immunization drive - the TV advertisement featured Amitab Bachan telling that immunization is a must for every child - while people suffering from polio are shown in the background along with healthy kids. This advertisement used a celebrity to create the need for polio immunization. Another good example is Toyota’s advertisement of Innova in India. The TV advertisement prominently shows Amir Khan playing different roles while traveling in an Innova. The different roles - establish the need for such a big car in India. ( Note that Indian car market is dominated by small cars - which can seat only four adults, Toyota wanted to establish the need for a 8 seater car in India) 2. Create Brand Awareness Once the need for a product is established, customers must be able to associate the brand with the product category. For example iPod is strongly associated with portable MP3 players, Nike with sports shoes etc.. A classic example of this is Nike’s

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness use of Michael Jordan advertising for Nike. This advertisement instantly created a strong association of Nike with basketball shoes. 3.Set customer expectations Brand value comes from the customers experience with the product. If the product meets or beats his expectations, then a positive brand image is created, else a negative brand image is created. Therefore it is essential to set the customer expectations accordingly. This is most common in established consumer products - Beauty products, household cleaning products, food products etc.

4.Create a purchase intention
These are marketing promotion advertisements - Buy one, get one free, or get additional discounts if you buy within a particular date etc.. The sole purpose of such communication messages is to encourage customers to buy immediately or within a short period after seeing Use of celebrity endorsements to create a purchase intention has been very limited. This is mainly because such advertisements adversely affect the personality brand value of the celebrity. Being associated with a discount deal is not favorable image for the celebrity and the customer.

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2.33 Brand Image & Celebrity
Research has shown that there are three aspects that influence a customer's attitude and, hence, the long term impact on the brand - Attractiveness, Trustworthiness and Expertise. The matrix below shows us the images and the celebrities: -

Aspect of Brand

Image
Elegance Beauty Classy Stylish

Celebrity
Aishwarya Rai Madhuri Dixit Saif and Soha Ali Khan Saif Ali Khan Amitabh Bachhan Tarun Tejpal MS Dhoni Sachin & Sehwag Naina Balsavar

Product
Nakshatra Diamonds Emami Asian Paints-Royale Provogue Reid & Taylor Tehelka TVS Star City Reebok Shampoo

Attractiveness

Trustworthiness Expertise

Honest Reliable Knowledge Qualified

Hence, we see depending on the product and aspect of brand, the choice of the celebrity is important so that the celebrity can reflect that and not go against the brand.

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We talk about Brand Equity, Brand Identity and Position. It is worthwhile to see the effect of a celebrity on these critical elements. Brand equity essentially made up of loyalty, awareness, perceived quality, associations, and other proprietary brand assets. The celebrity should be chosen in such a way as to reinforce and strengthen the brand in all these elements but the question is, can he? Take an example of another star Fardeen Khan, who endorses Provogue. Snazzy fashionable apparel from an Indian manufacturer with the backing of a star son was a great idea for the brand image. It was able to attract new customers who were fashion conscious but unable to afford high price international brands.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Awareness of the brand was phenomenal as fashion shows, print and media advertising was booming and Fardeen and Provgue had become a national phenomenon. Quality was given utmost importance and, hence, from the manufacturer side, the commitment to the customer was complete. Competition was present but sales figures showed Provogue reaping handsomely. Then the image of the so-called Bad Boy Fardeen emerged with the drug and brawls in night clubs. This did lead to a certain discontent amongst fans of the star and the brand. But remarkably not much effect on sales. It seemed that the consumers had forgotten Fardeen's issues and remained loyal to the brand. Today Fardeen is still the mainframe picture of every advertisement and the brand has not lost any of its shine.

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2.34 Measuring a Celebrity Endorsement
It becomes very important to measure the effectiveness of a celebrity (or determine the worth of one). Few of the methods of measurement that are in practice are:  The Q-SCORE Method  The FRED Principle The Q-SCORE Method There is a way to measure the credibility, believability, popularity, and like-ability of a celebrity. It's called a Q-Score, and you can purchase the Q-Scores of the candidates you're considering. Consider both sides of the deal - for a client who wanted to use a celebrity endorser, and for a celebrity who was looking for an endorsement opportunity. Once you've defined the kind of endorser you need (e.g., athlete, actor, male/female, young/old, etc.), its well worth going through the Q-Score exercise.

Evaluating the contribution of the endorser after you've already made the decision is not nearly as straightforward. One time, many years ago, a company actually shot a commercial with a well-known (high Q-Score) endorser for national use, and it shot the same commercial with a good actor, not so well-known. The company ran a limited market test for 6 months with the unknown actor (cutting in the commercials locally, over S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 91

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness national network schedule) so could quantify the sales impact of the celebrity. By the way, the celebrity was worth every penny of his outrageous fee. It ended up using him for years, and he helped the brand reach market leadership almost entirely on the strength of the commercials in which he appeared.

The FRED Principle
This concept is seen as the foundation of a successful endorser selection. F is for Familiarity. The target market must be aware of the person, and perceive him or her as empathetic, credible, sincere and trustworthy. R is for Relevance. There should be a meaningful link between the advertised brand and the celebrity endorser, and more important, between the celebrity endorser and the defined target market. The audience must be able to identify with the person. If consumers can immediately associate with an endorser, they will feel more predisposed to accepting, buying and preferring the brand to competition. E is for Esteem. Consumers must have the utmost respect and confidence for the celebrity. Amitabh Bachhan & Tendulkar have these. So do Shahrukh Khan, Preity Zinta, Kapil Dev among others. The public respect them because of their distinguished careers and unassailable salesmanship. D is for Differentiation. The target consumers must see the endorser as a cut above the rest. If there is no perceived disparity among celebrities, then the strategy will not work. Michael Jordan is an example of an international celebrity that rises above the clutter. This proves to be a huge contributory factor to his effectiveness as an endorser. The Fred concept is not a guarantee to success, but it can serve as a guideline when selecting a spokesperson. Each organization and its objectives are different, and should be evaluated on an individual basis.

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The following is given a compatibility index and trait fit index of various celebrities and the product they endorsed.

Brand

Celebrity

Unaided Association

Compatibility Index

Trait Index

Fit

Thums-up

Akshay kumar

93

93

100

Coke Adidas Whirlpool

Hrithik Roshan Sachin Kajol

83 73 54

100 85 68

50 25 25

Source: Cognito FCB ULKA 2007

2.35 Framework to Make Effective Celebrity
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Endorsement Program
With the cut-throat competition and continuously changing market dynamics, one has to assess the market conditions and re-evaluate its current marketing strategies such as its portfolio of celebrity endorsement. The action plan should be able to answer the following key questions:  Are the celebrity endorsements programs result driven?  How to quantify the value generated by the celebrity endorsements?  Are customers able to connect the brand with the celebrity?

Figure 2: Evolution of Celebrity Endorsements S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 94

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness One can gauge the performance of celebrity endorsement marketing program across the various stages of development (Refer to Figure 2). We have attempted to prepare a framework to build a more effective celebrity endorsement program: 1. ALIGN CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT WITH BUSINESS OBJECTIVES. The attributes of the celebrity should be intrinsically valuable and aligned with the product, brand and company. Figure 3 suggests strategies to be adopted by a company depending on its brand positioning and the brand fit with the celebrity.

Figure 3: Brand-Celebrity Attribute Fit Matrix
• If the brand-celebrity attribute fit is slow, then the company should adopt "Eliminate or avoid" strategy. The consumers are unlikely to connect between the brand and the celebrity, and the recall value is likely to be very low; defeating the entire purpose of signing the celebrity.  This is what happened when Goodlass Nerolac Paints roped in Amitabh Bachchan as their brand ambassador.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness  When the positioning of the brand is high but the fit with the celebrity is low, the company should adopt a "Monitor and evaluate" strategy. The company should continuously track the effectiveness of the celebrity endorsement through surveys, monitoring the sales, etc. Though Parker pens had a positioning of premier pens, the early advertisements (Refer Annexure 1) with Amitabh Bachchan showed low brand-celebrity fit.  When the positioning has not been effective, but the fit with the celebrity is high, the company should adopt the strategy of "Keep and enhance". The company has to spot the opportunities to leverage the celebrity investment and to find more better and effective ways to communicate with the target audience. The celebrity attributes align with the company's brand, strategic business objectives and primary customer segment. The Narain Karthikeyan - J K Tyres relationship works well in this category.  In the ideal quadrant when the positioning effectiveness is high and celebrity fit with the brand is also high, the company should follow the strategy of "Grow and partner". In case of Coke, the brand has firmly established the "Thanda" position in the minds of the consumer, with Aamir Khan playing the perfect role. By situating potential celebrity on the matrix, companies can manage the celebrities as portfolios - re-distributing the resources and marketing efforts to those celebrities with the greatest potential to increase value, while eliminating those that prove too costly.

2. MEASURE AND QUANTIFY PERFORMANCE
• A part of the marketing budget should be allocated to primary and secondary research to determine the overall return on investment - measuring the real performance of a celebrity endorsement against the company's business objectives. • The company should have proper metrics in place such as increase in sales, brand awareness and customer preference, to measure the effectiveness and the impact of celebrity endorsement in the short and long term.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness • The endorsement costs are primarily driven by the endorsement fees and promotion outlays. The benefits that accrue from such a relationship can be categorized into two components:  Value of Hard Assets: The benefits derived from the hard assets are those that have a clear market value such as increased sales and increase in brand equity. These are the tangible benefits that a company derives from its endorsement strategy.  Value of Association: Association value is derived from the target customers who associate the company / brand with the celebrity. These are the intangible benefits that the company will accrue in the long-term. There are ways to quantify the potential value of hard assets and association value against their impact on company's celebrity endorsement by looking at the following catergories:  Incremental Sales Companies can quantify the effect of the celebrity programs on sales by performing yearto-year or quarter-to-quarter sales comparisons for targeted consumers, geographic regions, or specific product lines. Primary research can also be done to reveal the impact of the celebrity on target customer's propensity to purchase.  Brand Recognition One of the objectives of celebrity endorsement is to increase brand awareness. However, the companies use popular, though incorrect, survey approach by asking the respondent which celebrity endorsed their brand. Instead, they should ask the respondent the brands

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness associated with the celebrity. By gauging the top-of-mind recall can enable the company to find out if a connection is made between the brand and celebrity.

Figure 4: Endorsement Cost-Value Relationship  Customer Loyalty: Customer churn can be measured in fixed intervals before and after the celebrity campaign period to determine the impact of celebrity on customer retention. Additionally, primary research can be conducted to evaluate changes in the customer loyalty, customer preferences, etc. 3. SELECTION AND RENEWAL OF CONTRACT WITH CELEBRITIES The ability to align goals and measure the value of brand-celebrity fit is the first step in obtaining optimal value from a celebrity endorsement. Value is also derived by revisiting the celebrity portfolio to determine ways to reduce costs and increase benefits. Additionally, a company can increase its benefits by re-examining (and altering, if needed) its promotion strategy to create deeper brand association, identify new celebrities that are capable of achieving company goals and negotiate for additional rights from the

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness existing contracts. A large extent of this can be successful if the company can develop and execute coordinated, preplanned negotiation strategy which will enable it to improve the contractual fees and media commitments stipulated in the contract, as well as the amount and benefits conferred on the company. A few guidelines for formulating a welldefined negotiation strategy would include:  Understand the Competition of Celebrity Except for few venerable celebrities, most of the celebrities quote their price in expectation of negotiation. The company should benchmark the contractual fees and benefits against that of comparable celebrities to ensure the package is equivalent.  Understand 'Celebrity' Clutter There could be a degree of clutter with the celebrity endorsing many more brands and companies. This clutter can impede the ability of the company to capture the image and awareness required to generate value from the endorsement. The company needs to understand the risk associated with the signing of such celebrity and need to devise strategic opportunities to stay clear of the clutter.  Include Value-in-Kind Payments Companies can reduce their risk and endorsement costs by substituting out-of-pocket cash payments with value-in-kind, which can be traded at market price. • Protection Against Ambush Marketing Ambush marketing (or adjacent marketing) is the reality of the day and the marketing managers need to be creative to stay one step ahead of the competition. For instance, Amitabh Bachchan was shown drinking Thumbs-Up in the hindi movie Kaante, when he is actually brand ambassador for Pepsi.

2.36 Impact of Celebrity Endorsement

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness The increasing number of endorsements throws a valid question to the consumers. Is there a science behind the choice of these endorsers or is it just by the popularity measurement? What are the reasons which lead to impact of celebrity endorsement on brands? Through research and analysis, this paper develops a 14 point model, which can be used as a blueprint criterion which can be used by brand managers for selecting celebrities, and capitalizes the celebrity resource through 360 degree brand communication, since our research proposes it as the foundation brick of the impact of celebrity endorsement. Our study reveals that the impact of celebrity endorsement is proportional to the 14 factors discussed in the model. The success of a brand through celebrity endorsement is a cumulative of the following 14 attributes. Greater the score of the below parameters, greater are the chances of getting close to the desired impact. Fit with the Advertising Idea One of the most successful celebrity endorsement campaigns which reflect the fit between the brand and the 360 degree advertising fit is Fardeen Khan and Provogue. Provogue’s positioning in the apparel market is of a young, active, party-going, attentiongrabbing brand and so is Fardeen Khan. The conjunction between the two has been immensely impactful and brand 14 managers have utilised this endorsement through 360 degree reinforcement.

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Celebrity-Target Audience Match
Smriti Irani endorsing the WHO recommended ORS Campaign in India. Indian mothers can associate with Smriti Irani through the facets she projects on screen or in regular life which helps develop a connect with the target audience since mothers medicate their children with ORS.

Celebrity Values
Tabu endorsing Tetra Packed Milk, Shabana Azmi campaigning for AIDS Awareness, Amitabh Bachchan & Shahrukh Khan campaigning for Pulse Polio or Aishwarya Rai appearing in the Donate Eyes campaign are few examples, which reflect the transfer of celebrity values to the brand, creating an impact that generates recall.

Costs of Acquiring the Celebrity
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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Recently, a newspaper report showed how cola firms had gone beyond their advertising budgets to get the best celebrities. Small firms that use celebrities’ services run greater risks if they invest large amounts. Although nobody is willing to say exactly how much celebrities get paid, industry sources say Sachin Tendulkar’s price is believed to be between Rs. 2.0-2.5 crores per endorsement, and musician A. R. Rehman, who had signed up with AirTel, is believed to have picked up Rs. 1.75 crores. Film-star Hrithik Roshan was rumored to have picked up Rs. 2 crores for the Fly With Hrithik campaign to push Close-Up, and Shahrukh Khan’s rate seems to be between Rs. 2.5-3.0 crores. Aishwarya Rai apparently picks up Rs. 1.25 crores for an endorsement and the Indian cricket captain Saurav Ganguly is believed to get between Rs. 90 lakh to Rs. 1.5 crores, while film-star Aamir Khan apparently makes Rs. 1.5 crores per endorsement.

Celebrity Regional Appeal Factors
R. Madhavan endorsing Pepsi in southern India or Sachin Tendulkar endorsing in India are few examples of how celebrities are chosen to reach out to target audiences for brands in regional markets.

Celebrity-Product Match
Cyrus Broacha is the brand ambassador for MTV since both the celebrity and the brand are considered as friendly, young, moodboosting, humorous and outspoken. MTV’s brand personality overlaps Cyrus Broacha’s image as a brand. Some more examples of compatible celebrity product match in which celebrity brand attributes get transferred to the brand and increases the brand equity is of Govinda & Navratan Tel, Aishwarya Rai & Nakshatra, etc.

Celebrity Controversy Risk
The perfect example here is of Salman Khan and the controversy in which he crushed a man to death with his Pajero when he was driving under the influence of alcohol. Also, any act on the part of the endorser that gives him a negative image

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among the audience and goes on to affect the brands endorsed. The brand, in most instances, takes a bashing.

Celebrity Popularity
Celebrity Brand association like Garnier endorsed Tara Sharma & Simone Singh, Agni Diamonds & Riama Sen don’t get much brand recall, and even if they do, its difficult to attribute it to the celebrities’ endorsing the brand.On the other hand, HPCL has had increased popularity and share of voice due to the endorsement of the brand through Sania Mirza.

Celebrity Availability
In case of various brands, there are situations in which they prefer to go without a brand face, since there is no brand-fit between the celebrities available and the brand. Also, due to multiple endorsements by certain celebrities, brands refuse to adopt celebrity endorsement since they fear dilution of the brand image.

Celebrity Physical Attractiveness
John Abraham endorsing Wrangler and Timex Sunglasses are some examples which portray the celebrities’ physical attractiveness that helps create an impact.

Celebrity Credibility
The most important aspect and reason for celebrity endorsement is credibility. In a research carried out among 43 ad agencies and companies, most experts believed that the most important dimensions of credibility are trustworthiness and prowess or expertise with regard to the recommended product or service. One of the most obvious reasons of Amitabh Bachchan endorsing plethora of brands is the credibility of the celebrity and his recognition across consumers. To site one of the most successful campaigns in which the celebrity’s credibility has had an indelible impact on the brand and has saved the brand is of Cadbury’s. After the worm controversy, Amitabh Bachchan’s credibility infused into

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness the brand through the campaign, helping it to get back on track. The campaign has won an award for the same.

Multiple Endorsements
Not many people can remember all the brands that a celebrity endorses and the chances of losing brand recall increases if the celebrity endorses multiple brands. For example, in case of Sachin Tendulkar people recall Pepsi, TVS Victor and MRF, but might not remember brands like Britannia and Fiat. Similarly, for Amitabh Bachchan, consumers remember ICICI, Pepsi, Parker Pens, Pulse Polio and BPL. They might get confused in the endorsement of Nerolac or Asian Paints. Thus, for multiple endorsements where the same celebrity endorses several brands, it boils down to the strength of the brand and the advertising content.

Whether Celebrity is a Brand User
Various celebrities endorse NGOs and social causes since they believe in the social message that they need to convey to the audience. One of the most successful campaigns has been executed by PETA in which celebrities like Shilpa Shetty, Amisha Patel, Yana Gupta, Sheetal Malhar, Mahima Choudhary claimed to believe in PETA’s philosophy, and thereby endorse the brand.

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IMPACT REGIONS OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT:
The illustrations below explain the same: -

Source: Adopted from TOM et al, 1992.

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2.37 Why Celebrity Endorsement Fails?
There maybe cases where brands are not able to take-off even after the backing of celebrities. And this leads to speculations in the Ad World on the soundness of celebrity endorsement as an effective communication strategy. • The Reasons

According to leading management thinker, Dr. Seamus Phan, "Many celebrity endorsements fail because they identify a celebrity they like in an emotive and unresearched manner and then try to create advertising to force-fit the celebrity into the creative concept." Therefore, the advertisers must associate the celebrity to the advertisement and not vice versa. Thinking on the similar lines, the advertisers shouldn't identify the brand to associate with the celebrity but do vice versa. The success of celebrity endorsement also depends upon the capacity, knowledge, experience, and qualification to talk about the product. Failure may be attributed to improper positioning (Example: Amitabh Bachchan, Abhishek Bachchan & Maruti Versa), negative perception after use of product / service (inferior products), misapprehension of the meaning of the endorsement, etc. "The philosophy behind much advertising is based on the old observation that every man is really two men - the man he is and the man he wants to be." - William Feather Another reason for the celebrity endorsement to turn against the brand is due to "Overshadowing". This happens when the celebrity is larger than the brand being endorsed. And unfortunately, though the celebrity generates higher levels of attention among viewers, the impression is not always strongly linked to the advertised brand. Finally, brand may also fail to get noticed given a recent negative publicity of the celebrity endorser. Example: Michael Jordan lost his endorsement deals when he

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness announced in 1991 that he's HIV-positive. It wasn't until July 2003 that he landed his first endorsement deal since the announcement. The Solutions As discussed, celebrity management is very crucial to avoid the brand-celebrity disconnect, and subsequently, brand failures. Proper market research should be carried out and right positioning strategies should be in place. If the consumers have questions in their minds regarding the quality or performance of the product then even God cannot save the brand. There shouldn't be any ambiguity or confusions when showing the celebrity in the advertisement. The obvious solution to the problem of overshadowing is to make sure that both the advertisement and the celebrity are focused on the brand or product. To avoid any bad publicity arising out of celebrity defames, companies may resort to multiple celebrity endorsement. For Example: Pepsi while capitalizing on the popularity of cricket and films in India used several cricketers and film stars in their ads. So when Azharuddin and Jadeja got embroiled in the match-fixing controversy, Pepsi severed its association only with these stars, but its relationship with cricket continued. The Symbiotic Model Based on our understanding of the celebrity endorsement process, we can propose our own model taking cue from the biological kingdom. There are various symbiotic relationships that can exist between two organisms. Similarly, we can visualize two entities "brand" and "celebrity". To achieve a perfect success, there should be absolute symbiosis between the two entities. There may be one of the six effects to the celebrity endorsement process: -

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Figure 2: The Symbiotic Model

 Mutualism (M): Both help each other (Example: Tata and Narayan Karitiken)  Commensalism (C1): Only one among them is benefited (Example: A failed

endorsement)  Parasitism (P): One is benefited; other is harmed (Example: Azharuddin and Pepsi. Also, Home Trade & Shah Rukh Khan, Sachin Tendulkar, Hritik Roshan)  Neutralism (N): None of them benefited or harmed (Example: Amitabh Bachchan, Abhishek Bachchan and Maruti Versa)  Amensalism (A): Only one of them is harmed; other unaffected  Competition (C2): Both are harmed Celebrity endorsement is a complex process of balancing your risk with your gains. "The pure and simple truth is rarely pure and never simple." Oscar Wilde

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2.38 Endorsement: Risk vs. Returns
The basic assumption underlying celebrity endorsement is that the value associated with the celebrity is transferred to the brand and therefore help create an image that can be easily referred by consumers. Consequently by association the brand can very quickly establish the creditability get immediate recognition and improve sales. However, there are many risks associated with such endorsers. The brand could slide down just as quickly as it moved up the consumers mind. There are many cases of brands failing in the market place despite famous celebrities endorsing them.

Risks
a) Celebrity overshadows the brand: In certain cases where the celebrity values category benefit and brand values are not closely linked. There are chances that the celebrity is remembered more than a brand. Cyber media research study reveals that 80% of the respondents approached for research remembered the celebrity but could not recall the brand being endorsed. b) Necessary Evil: Marketing have felt that once the brand rides the back of celebrity it becomes difficult to promote it without the star as it becomes difficult to separate the role of message and the role of the celebrity in selling the brand. The celebrity activity becomes an Addiction and the task to find substitute becomes more and more difficult. c) Celebrity creditability a question mark for the competent customer: Today’s marketing endorsement has to deal with a competitive and knowledgeable customer who has begun to voice his opinion about their perception about endorsing a brand. Celebrity is said to befool

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness The public as he is paid to sell and communicate good things about the brand. Hence the question of creditability of the celebrity being chosen to protect the brand is becoming pertinent. d) Conflicting Image: A mix match between the image of the credibility and the product can damage both. Unless there is a synergy between celebrities owns image and that of product category the strategy of endorsement is rendered futile. e) Multiple Endorsements: The poly endorsement has lead to a celebrity clutter. Celebrities endorsing multiple products and multi brands in a category have left the customer confused and have lead to dilution in the celebrities’ value. f) Influence of Celebrity scandals and moral violation on brands: a number of entertainers and athletes have been involved in activities that could embarrass the companies whose products the endorsed. When the endorser’s image is finished. It actually leads to a greater fall in image for the brand. For instance Azharuddin was charge with betting and match fixing, which created negative feeling and repulsive thoughts among people for the products he was endorsing.

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Returns
a) Build Awareness: A new brand can benefit greatly if a celebrity endorses it. It can attract the customers attention and inquisitiveness to see what product is being endorsed. Research has shown consumers have a higher level of message recall for products that are endorsed by celebrities. b) Connects Emotionally: some celebrities like Shahrukh Khan, Amitabh Bachan command great adoration among people. Such celebrities can positively influence their fans etc. a great extents and hence tend to even connect with the brand emotionally because of their star enduring it. c) Quick Connect: The communication process tends to hasten up due to the more presence of a celebrity. This is because the star carrying the message tends to click with the customer more. Because of likeability, recall attractiveness and creditability thereby helping the company to clearly and quickly pass on the message to the target Customers. d) Means of Brand different ion: using a celebrity is a source of brand differentiation. In a category where a brand is suing a celebrity the first that picks one up could use it differently itself in the market the same was done by Boost in the malted beverage category. e) Source of Imitation and hence inducing increased product usage: celebrities actually tend to become models or idols for the target audience who tend to start using the product just because the celebrity name. attached with it. For instance, Lux has been used by many as it is a beauty soap recommended by the beauty queen, Aishwarya Rai. f) Better Brand Image: the use of celebrities could also bring in positive image among the masses for brand. The credibility and authenticity attached with Amitabh Bachan has inculcated trust for ICICI, Nerolac Paints and many others.

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2.39 Celebrity Endorsement : The Issues Involved
There are several factors to consider before resorting to celebrity endorsement. There is no single formula to win in the world of marketing. A company must analyze the prospect of endorsement from 360 degrees, prior to product promotion. • Price vs. Profit

The most important issue is that of return on investment (ROI). Companies need to perform a cost-benefit analysis prior to endorsement. The process of gauging the effectiveness of endorsement on the overall brand is but difficult. The companies expect to bring, in the long run, future sales, revenues and profit from the present investments on celebrity endorsement. Celebrity endorsement is an expensive means of brand promotion and the price burden almost always shifts on to the consumers; if not, then it narrows the companies' profit. • Multiple Brand Endorsement vs. Multiple Celebrity Endorsement

In the advertising landscape, we find either a celebrity endorsing multiple brands or multiple celebrities being used to endorse a single brand. Sachin Tendulkar, for example, in 2002 endorsed 12 brands (including Pepsi, Boost, Colgate Total, Gillette, Britannia Tiger, Fiat Palio, TVS Victor, Fiat Sienna, MRF, Adidas, Visa Cards and Home Trade). Tripp et al, says that the endorsement of as many as four products negatively influences the celebrity spokesperson's credibility and likeability.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Figure 3: Multiple Brand Endorsement (Shah Rukh Khan) Also, the use of multiple celebrities to endorse a brand may hinder the meaning transfer process, and thus, lead to confusion among the consumers.

Figure 4: Multiple Celebrity Endorsement (Adidas & Hyundai Santro) Similarity between the target audience and the celebrity is the third important attribute. A person well-known in a society can have greater impact than a celebrity of a different world. If the endorser and receiver have similar needs, goals, interests and lifestyles, the position advocated by the brand communication is better understood and received. Similarity is also used to create a situation where the consumer feels empathy for the person shown in the commercial. The bond of similarity between the endorser and the receiver increases the level of persuasiveness. The companies have to first clarify their business objectives, brand values and then decide who the celebrities are who can carry them forward. Otherwise, their can be unnecessary investments without proper return. So the celebrity endorsement cost has to be weighed up against the return on marketing investment. Besides, while designing an ad campaign, one should also keep in mind that the overuse of some extremely popular celebrities often tends to confuse consumers and reduce the utility of celebrity endorsement. Another argument against celebrity endorsement involves the behavior of the celebrity. The values that display themselves in regrettable behavior could transfer themselves to the brand. The marketing function of a company

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness should also understand that brands should assume a much greater space than the celebrities, because their association may be temporary but the brands are permanent.

The various risks associated with celebrity endorsements are as follows:
 Negative publicity - If the celebrity is strongly associated with the brand then the occurrence of the negative publicity can spill over the brand. This can harm the trustworthiness and credibility in the mind of the consumers. E.g., Salman Khan lost his endorsement deal with Thumbs-Up after his infamous incidents like buck-killing and rash-driving.  Overshadowing - When celebrity endorser is used, the risk of consumers focusing on the celebrity and not on the brand exists.  Overexposure - This risk arises when the celebrity chooses to endorse several different products simultaneously which might leave the consumers confused. E.g., Sachin Tendulkar endorses several brands such as MRF, TVS Victor, Pepsi, Fiat, Boost, etc.  Overuse - Sometimes the company can use many different celebrities to appeal to different market segment. But multiplicity of endorser might blur the image of the brand and reduce the effectiveness of the means of persuasion.  Extinction - The favorable response obtained by a particular brand may weaken over time if the brand gets significant exposure without the association of the celebrity. If the celebrity contract is for a considerable period of time, then it can lead to draining out capital without proper return.  Financial Risk - The decision for hiring an expensive endorser may not be always feasible if there is a poor brand fit.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Therefore, for celebrity endorsements to work effectively there are some fundamental ground rules:  The brand promise and the brand personality should be clearly articulated.  The communication objectives for the campaign should be frozen.  Focus must be on the synergy between the brand and the celebrity image  Establish explicitly what the celebrity is going to communicate Once these criteria are met, endorsements can work as a force multiplier. A deeper insight in the impact of celebrity endorsement on consumers' minds can be explained by the meaning transfer model, explained in the next section.

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Chapter: 3

Primary survey analysis of consumers

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CONSUMER’S SURVEY ANALYSIS
Table 3.1-Gender wise
Gende Frequenc r y Percent Male 92 61.33 Female 58 38.67 Total 150 100 Graph 3.1
Gender

58, 39% Male Female 92, 61%

Table 3.2-Category wise
Category Student Housewife Husband Working person Total Frequency 60 31 40 19 150 Percent 40 20.67 26.67 12.67 100

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Graph 3.2
Category

19, 13% 60, 39% 40, 27% 31, 21% Student Housewife Husband Working person

Table 3.3-Age wise
Age Frequency Percent Below-20 14 9.33 21-35 101 67.33 36-50 24 16 Above-51 11 7.33 Total 150 100

Graph 3.3

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Age

11, 7% 24, 16%

14, 9% Below-20 21-35 36-50 Above-51 101, 68%

Q-1. What are the main reasons due to that the use of celebrities in
advertising is Increasing?
Graph 3.4
Main Reason
Peoples attract toward celebrities Image of the celebrity 41, 27% 28, 19% Increase competition leads use of celebrities 21, 14% 37, 25% 23, 15% celebrities' endorsement lead huge sells of product/services Create good impression of product on customers' minds

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness  From above graph we can conclude that maximum 27% people agree that

celebrity create good impression on consumer’s minds. Where as 25% people are believe celebrity endorsement leads huge sales of product or service. Than 19% people attract towards celebrity, and 15% people respondent believe that due to competition company use celebrity in advertising. And only 14% respondents believe in image of celebrity.

Category
H0: Main reason due to that the use of celebrities in advertising is Increasing is independent to Category. H1: Main reason due to that the use of celebrities in advertising is Increasing is dependent to Category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.4-Category Wise Cross Tabulation
Category Attract toward celebrities Image of the celebrity Competition leads use of celebrities Lead huge sells of product/services Good impression of product Total Working Student Housewife Husband person Total 16 4.00 5.00 3.00 28 7 1.00 10.00 3.00 21 7 15 15 60 8.00 11 7 31 4.00 9 12 40 4.00 2 7 19 23 37 41 150

 In the category wise analysis 37 respondents are lead huge sale of product/services, in which 15 maximum respondents are student & 2 minimum respondents are working person.

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Table 3.5-Chi-Square Test
Value Df Pearson Chi-Square 17.9 N of Valid Cases 150 A 6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.66. Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 12 0.12

Findings:  Testing hypothesis indicated that the main reason for increasing the celebrity’s endorsement in advertisement is independent to category. We also conclude that we accept the null hypothesis because the Asymp. Sign. Value is 0.12 which is more than 0.05. Age
H0: Main reason due to that the use of celebrities in advertising is Increasing is independent to Age. H1: Main reason due to that the use of celebrities in advertising is Increasing is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.6-Age Wise Cross Tabulation
Age Below-20 21-35 36-50 Above-51 Total Attract toward celebrities 4 19 3 2 28 Image of the celebrity 1 13 5 2 21 Competition leads use of celebrities 3 14 5 1 23 lead huge sells of product/services 3 24 8 2 37 Create good impression of product 3 31 3 4 41 Total 14 101 24 11 150  From the above table we conclude that the 37 lead huge sells of product/services, in which 24 maximum with age group 21-35 & minimum 2 with the age group above51.

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Table 3.7-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Asymp. Sig. Value Df (2-sided) 7.83 12 0.80 150

A 13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.54.

Findings:  Testing hypothesis indicated that the main reason for increasing the celebrity’s endorsement in advertisement is independent to Age. We also conclude that we accept the null hypothesis because the Asymp. Sign. Value is 0.80 which is more than 0.05.

Q-2 (A.) Celebrity endorsers are the most persuasive advertising method.
Graph 3.5
Persuisive Advertising

24, 16%

25, 17%

Strongly Disagree Disagree 28, 19% Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree

54, 35%

19, 13%

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness  The above graph indicate that, 35% respondent are agree that celebrity endorsers are the most persuasive method. Only 17% respondents are disagreeing with it. Where as 13% respondent were uncertain. Category H0: The most persuasive advertising method is independent to Category. H1: The most persuasive advertising method is dependent to Category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.8-Category wise
Category Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Student 13 10 10 19 8 60 (Cross tabulation) Persuasive advertising Housewife Husband 6 5 8 7 1 4 8 17 8 7 31 40 Working person 1 3 4 10 1 19 Total 25 28 19 54 24 150

 From the above table we conclude that the 54 agree with that the celebrities endorsers are most persuasive advt. method, in which maximum 19 are student and minimum 8 are housewife.

Table 3.9-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 14.93 150 Df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.25

A 6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.41. From the

Findings:  Above analysis we conclude that celebrities endorsers are most persuasive advt. method is independent to category because the Asymp. Sig. Value 0.25 which is more than 0.05, so we have to accept null hypothesis.
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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness H0: The most persuasive advertising method is independent to Age H1: The most persuasive advertising method is dependent to C. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.10-Age wise
(Cross tabulation) Persuasive advertising Age Below-20 21-35 36-50 Above-51 Total Strongly Disagree 3 14 6 2 25 Disagree 2 21 5 0 28 Uncertain 1 16 0 2 19 Agree 5 37 7 5 54 Strongly Agree 3 13 6 2 24 Total 14 101 24 11 150  From the above table we conclude that the 54 agree with that the celebrities endorsers are most persuasive advt. method, in which maximum 37 with age group of 21-35 and minimum 5 with both Below-20 & Above 51.

Table 3.11-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 11.35 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.50

A 13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.39.

Findings:  From the above analysis we conclude that celebrities endorsers are most persuasive advt. method is independent to age because the Asymp. Sig. Value 0.50 which is more than 0.05, so we have to accept null hypothesis

Q-2 (B.) Do you think celebrity endorsements are ineffective?
Graph 3.6

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Are Ineffective

29, 19% 54, 36% 23, 15% 19, 13% 25, 17%

Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree

 The graph show that, 36%people are think that, celebrity endorsement is effective where as 19% people think celebrity endorsement is ineffective. Only 13%people are uncertain about it.

Category
H0: celebrity endorsements are ineffective is independent to category. H1: celebrity endorsements are ineffective is dependent to category Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.12-Category wise (Cross tabulation) Are ineffective
Category Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Student 26 11 4 8 11 60 Housewife 12 3 4 2 10 31 Husband 14 5 8 8 5 40 Working person 2 6 3 5 3 19 Total 54 25 19 23 29 150

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness  In category wise analyses of celebrity’s endorsement are ineffective 54 with strongly disagree, in which 26 students are maximum and 2 working person are minimum.

Table 3.13-Chi-Square Test
Value Df Pearson Chi-Square 19.52 12 N of Valid Cases 150 A 6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.41 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.08

 Testing null Hypothesis that celebrity endorsement effectiveness is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category group. So accept the Null Hypothesis.

Age
H0: celebrity endorsements are ineffective is independent to Age. H1: celebrity endorsements are ineffective is dependent to Age Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.14-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

Are ineffective
Age Below-20 21-35 36-50 Above-51 Total Strongly Disagree 3 38 10 3 54 Disagree 3 18 3 1 25 Uncertain 0 13 5 1 19 Agree 3 16 3 1 23 Strongly Agree 5 16 3 5 29 Total 14 101 24 11 150  In age wise analyses of celebrity’s endorsement are ineffective 54 with strongly disagree, in which 31 respondents are maximum and 3 respondents are above 51 age group minimum.

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Table 3.15-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square Value 13.20 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.35

A 13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.39.

Findings:  From the above analysis we conclude that celebrity endorsement ineffectiveness is independent to age because the Asymp. Sig. Value 0.35 which is more than 0.05, so we have to accept null hypothesis

Q-2 (C.) Celebrity endorsers affect the sale of the product with which they
are associated.
Graph 3.7
Sale of Product

14, 9%

21, 14% 24, 16%

Strongly Disaree Disagree Uncertain Agree

54, 36% 37, 25%

Strongly Agree

 The above graph show effect of celebrity on product sales.36%respondent are agree with it, where as 16% respondent are disagree with it.

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Category
H0: Affect the sale of the product is independent to category. H1: Affect the sale of the product is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.16-Category wise (Cross tabulation) Sale of product
Category Student Housewife Husband Strongly Disagree 7 3 10 Disagree 12 5 4 Uncertain 15 7 9 Agree 20 13 13 Strongly Agree 6 3 4 Total 60 31 40 Working person Total 1 21 3 24 6 37 8 54 1 14 19 150

 In category wise analysis of celebrity’s endorsement affect the sells of product which they associated 54 with agree, in which maximum 20 are student and minimum 8 are working person.

Table 3.17-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 8.29 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.76

A 8 cells (40.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.77.

Findings:  Testing hypothesis of celebrities endorsement affect the sales of product is independent to category because the Asymp. Sig. Value is 0.76 more than 0.05, so we accept null hypothesis.

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Age
H0: Affect the sale of the product is independent to Age. H1: Affect the sale of the product is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.17-Age wise (Cross tabulation) Sale of product
Age Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Below-20 3 3 2 4 2 14 21-35 10 17 26 39 9 101 36-50 6 3 8 6 1 24 Above-51 2 1 1 5 2 11 Total 21 24 37 54 14 150

 In age wise analysis of celebrity’s endorsement affect the sells of product which they associated 54 with agree, in which maximum 39 with age group of 21-35 and minimum 4 with age group below-20.

Table 3.18-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 10.74 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.55

A 12 cells (60.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.03.

Findings:  Testing hypothesis of celebrities endorsement affect the sales of product is independent to age because the Asymp. Sig. Value is 0.55 more than 0.05, so we accept null hypothesis.

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Q-2 (D.) According today’s highly competitive world, to increase sales of
product or to sustain in the market, use of celebrities in advertising is necessary for the companies.
Graph 3.8
Advertising Necessary

25, 17%

20, 13% 20, 13%

Strongly Disagree dsiagree Uncertain Agree

50, 34%

35, 23%

Strongly Agree

 Most of respondent agree with the use of celebrity in advertising that is 34%, and 13% are disagree with it.

Category
H0: Use of celebrities in advertising is necessary is independent to category. H1: Use of celebrities in advertising is necessary is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.19-Category wise (Cross tabulation) Advertising necessary
Category Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Student 8 6 16 18 12 60 Housewife 5 4 6 14 2 31 Husband 7 6 11 8 8 40 Working person 0 4 2 10 3 19 Total 20 20 35 50 25 150

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness  In category wise analysis of celebrities is necessary in today’s world 50 respondents agree with the statement, in which maximum 18 are student & minimum 8 are husband.

Table 3.20-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 15.18 150 Df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.23

A 6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.53.

Findings:  From the above analysis the celebrities are necessary in today’s world is independent to category because the Asymp. Sig. Value is 0.23, so we accept null hypothesis.

Age
H0: Use of celebrities in advertising is necessary is independent to Age. H1: Use of celebrities in advertising is necessary is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.21-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

Advertising necessary
Age Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Below-20 3 2 5 2 2 14 21-35 10 13 22 38 18 101 36-50 4 4 5 7 4 24 Above-51 3 1 3 3 1 11 Total 20 20 35 50 25 150

 In age wise analysis of celebrities is necessary in today’s world 50 respondents agree with the statement, in which maximum 38 with the age group of 21-35 & minimum 2 with age group of below-20.

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Table 3.22-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 7.75 150 Df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.80

A 13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.47.

Findings:
 From the above analysis the celebrities are necessary in today’s world is independent to age because the Asymp. Sig. Value is 0.80, so we accept null hypothesis.

Q-2 (E) A male celebrity endorser for a car will increase your likelihood to

purchase the product.
Graph 3.9
Male (car)

21, 14%

21, 14% Strongly Disagree 29, 19% Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree 35, 23%

44, 30%

 Here 30% respondents are agreeing, but 23% are uncertain which is affected to celebrity endorsement.

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Category
H0: A male celebrity endorser for a car is independent to category. H1: A male celebrity endorser for a car is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.23-Category wise (Cross tabulation) Male (Car)
Category Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Student 6 10 15 20 9 60 Housewife 6 4 6 10 5 31 Husband 7 12 9 7 5 40 Working person 2 3 5 7 2 19 Total 21 29 35 44 21 150

 In category wise analysis of male celebrities endorse car is increase in sale, 44 respondents agree with the statement, in which maximum 20 are student & minimum 7 are both husband & working person.

Table 3.24-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 8.63 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.73

A 6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. ]The minimum expected count is 2.66.

Findings:
 In category wise analysis of male celebrities endorse car is increase in sale is independent to category because the Asymp. Sig. Value is 0.73, so accept the null hypothesis.

Age
H0: A male celebrity endorser for a car is independent to Age. H1: A male celebrity endorser for a car is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

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Table 3.25-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

Male (Car)
Age Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Below-20 0 1 6 6 1 14 21-35 12 22 23 28 16 101 36-50 7 3 3 7 4 24 Above-51 2 3 3 3 0 11 Total 21 29 35 44 21 150

 In age wise analysis of male celebrities endorse car is increase in sale, 44 respondents agree with the statement, in which maximum 28 with age group of 21-35 & minimum 3 with age group of above-51

Table 3.26-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 15.63 150 df 12.00 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.21

A 13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.54

Findings:  In category wise analysis of male celebrities endorse car is increase in sale is independent to age because the Asymp. Sig. Value is 0.21, so accept the null hypothesis.

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Q-2 (F) A female celebrity endorser for a hair product will increase your
likelihood to purchase the product.
Graph 3.10
Female (hair)

24, 16%

22, 15%

Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree

35, 23% 35, 23%

34, 23%

 Graph show that, disagree, agree and uncertain response are equal, so here people gave mix response.

Category
H0: A female celebrity endorser for a hair is independent to category. H1: A female celebrity endorser for a hair is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.27-Category wise
(Cross tabulation) Female (Hair) Category Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Student 8 9 14 16 13 60 Housewife 4 11 8 4 4 31 Husband 3 10 10 13 4 40 Working person 7 4 3 2 3 19 Total 22 34 35 35 24 150 135

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 From the above table we conclude that the 35 agree with the female celebrities endorse for hair product will increase in sales, in which 16 are student and 2 are working person.

Table 3.28-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 10.25 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.59

A 6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.53.

Findings:
 The above analysis indicates that the female celebrities increase the sells of hair product are independent to category because the Asymp. Sig. Value are 0.59, so we accept null hypothesis.

Age
H0: A female celebrity endorser for a hair is independent to Age. H1: A female celebrity endorser for a hair is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.29-Age wise
Age Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total (Cross tabulation) Female (Hair) Below-20 21-35 36-50 2 28 9 1 19 2 5 16 5 5 22 5 1 16 3 14 101 24 Above-51 2 2 4 3 0 11 Total 41 24 30 35 20 150

 From the above table we conclude that the 35 agree with the female celebrities endorse for hair product will increase in sales, in which 16 are student and 2 are working person.

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Table 3.30-Chi-Square Test
Value df Pearson Chi-Square 11.82 12 N of Valid Cases 150 A 13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5.
The minimum expected count is 1.47.

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.46

Findings:
 The above analysis indicates that the female celebrities increase the sells of hair product are independent to age because the Asymp. Sig. Value are 0.46, so we accept null hypothesis.

Q-2 (G) You intentionally purchase certain products because of their association with the celebrity. Graph 3.11
With celebrity

20, 13%

41, 28%

Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree

35, 23% 30, 20% 24, 16%

Strongly Agree

 According to graph, most of people doesn’t purchase product which they associate with celebrities. That is 28%.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Category H0: Association with the celebrity is independent to category. H1: Association with the celebrity is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.31-Category wise (Cross tabulation)
Category Student Housewife Husband Strongly Disagree 18 10 9 Disagree 8 3 10 Uncertain 11 6 10 Agree 17 5 7 Strongly Agree 6 7 4 Total 60 31 40 Working person 4 3 3 6 3 19 Total 41 24 30 35 20 150

 From the above cross tabulation table, maximum 41 respondent strongly disagree that, they cannot purchase product because of they associate with celebrities, in which 18 student, 10 housewife,9 husband, 4 working person. Only 20 respondent are purchase product due to their associate with celebrities.

Table 3.32-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 10.249 150 Df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.594126

A6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.53.

Findings:
 The above analysis indicates that the celebrity association with the product is independent to category because the Asymp. Sig. Value are 0.59, so we accept null hypothesis.

Age
H0: Association with the celebrity is independent to Age. H1: Association with the celebrity is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05

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Table 3.33-Age wise
(Cross tabulation) Age Below-20 21-35 36-50 Above-51 Total Strongly Disagree 2 28 9 2 41 Disagree 1 19 2 2 24 Uncertain 5 16 5 4 30 Agree 5 22 5 3 35 Strongly Agree 1 16 3 0 20 Total 14 101 24 11 150  According to above cross tabulation, maximum 28 people strongly disagree to purchase product due to its association with celebrities, which are with the age group of 21-35. Where as 22 people agree with it.

Table 3.34-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 11.82444 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.45988

A13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.47.

Findings:  The above analysis indicates that the celebrity association with the product is independent to age because the Asymp. Sig. Value is 0.46, so we accept null hypothesis.

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Q-2 (H) “You are attracted towards those products in which advertisement
celebrities come more frequently”
Graph 3.12
Celebrities more frequently

20, 13%

41, 28%

Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree

35, 23% 26, 17% 28, 19%

Strongly Agree

 The graph indicate that, people only see the advertise but they don’t attract towards that product. Evidence is 28%are strongly disagree.

Category
H0: Advertisement celebrities come more frequently is independent to category. H1: Advertisement celebrities come more frequently is dependent to category Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.35-Category wise
(Cross tabulation)

celebrities more frequently
Category Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Student 15 10 10 18 7 60 Housewife 6 5 5 7 8 31 Husband 14 9 7 7 3 40 Working Person 6 4 4 3 2 19 Total 41 28 26 35 20 150 140

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 From the above table we conclude that people most attract by the advertisement in which celebrities comes frequently with strongly disagree respondent are 41, in which 15 are student and both 6 are housewife and working person.

Table 3.36-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 9.70 150 Df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.64

A 5 cells (25.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.53

Findings:
 From the above table we conclude that the people can not attract by those product in which celebrities comes more frequently, so we accept null hypothesis.

Age
H0: Advertisement celebrities come more frequently is independent to Age. H1: Advertisement celebrities come more frequently is dependent to Age Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.37-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

celebrities more frequently
Age Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Below-20 5 4 1 4 0 14 21-35 27 18 18 22 16 101 36-50 7 3 6 6 2 24 Above-51 2 3 1 3 2 11 Total 41 28 26 35 20 150

 From the above table we conclude that people most not attract by the advertisement in which celebrities comes frequently with strongly disagree

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness respondent are 41, in which 27 are in age group of 21-35 and 2 with the age group of above-51.

Table 3.38-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 7.89 150 Df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.79

A 13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.47

Findings
 From the above table we conclude that the people can not attract by those product in which celebrities comes more frequently, so we accept null hypothesis.

Q-2 (I) “You purchase products more in which advertisement your favorite
celebrities comes”
Graph 3.13
Favorite Celebrities

41, 26%

16, 11% 37, 25%

Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree

28, 19%

28, 19%

Strongly Agree

 Most of people purchase the product in which advertisement their favorite celebrities comes because 26% strongly agree. Where as 19% agree, 19% uncertain, 25% disagree and 11% are strongly disagree. S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 142

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Category
H0: Advertisement your favorite celebrities comes is independent to category. H1: Advertisement your favorite celebrities comes is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.39-Category wise (Cross tabulation) favorite celebrities
Category Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Student 7 15 12 11 15 60 Housewife 3 9 4 5 10 31 Husband 2 9 10 10 9 40 Working person 4 4 2 2 7 19 Total 16 37 28 28 41 150

 According to cross tabulation table 41 respondents are strongly agree with statement that they purchase product in which advertisement their favorite celebrity comes.16respondents are strongly disagree with this statement.

Table 3.40-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 8.78 150 Df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.72

6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.03.

Findings:
 From above table we conclude that purchase more product in which advertisement your favorite celebrity come is independent to category. And the value is more than 0.05 so we accept null hypothesis.

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Age
H0: Advertisement your favorite celebrities comes is independent to Age. H1: Advertisement your favorite celebrities comes is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.41-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

favorite celebrities
Age Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Below-20 3 7 2 0 2 14 21-35 9 24 21 18 29 101 36-50 2 3 4 9 6 24 Above-51 2 3 1 1 4 11 Total 16 37 28 28 41 150

 According to age wise cross tabulation table 41 respondents are strongly agree with statement that they purchase product in which advertisement their favorite celebrity comes.29 maximum respondents are strongly agree with this statement which is belongs to age group 21-35

Table 3.42-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 17.71 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.12

A13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.17.

Findings:
 From above table we conclude that purchase more product in which advertisement your favorite celebrity come is independent to age. And the value is more than 0.05 so we accept null hypothesis.

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Q-2 (J.) “Using those products in which advertisements celebrities comes

creates good impressions on the others (society)”
Graph 3.14
Impressions on Others

20, 13%

19, 13% 32, 21%

Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree

44, 30% 35, 23%

Strongly Agree

 According to graph 30% respondent use those product in which celebrities creates good impact on society, where as 23% respondent are uncertain.

Category
H0: Creates good impressions on the others is independent to category. H1: Creates good impressions on the others is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.43-Category wise (Cross tabulation) Impressions on others
Category Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Student 8 11 8 23 10 60 Housewife 3 7 8 6 7 31 Husband 5 8 13 11 3 40 Working person 3 6 6 4 0 19 total 19 32 35 44 20 150

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 From the above cross tabulation table, maximum 44 respondents are believe that they se product in which advertisement celebrity create good impression. With the maximum 23 students and minimum working persons are agree with this.19 respondents disagree with this.

Table 3.44-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 15.52 150 Df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.21

A 6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.41.

Findings:
 From the above chi-square test we conclude that the celebrity create good impression on other is independent variable. And the value is greater than 0.05 so we accept the null hypothesis.

Age
H0: Creates good impressions on the others is independent to Age. H1: Creates good impressions on the others is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.45-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

Impressions on others
Age Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Below-20 2 5 2 2 3 14 21-35 14 21 22 33 11 101 36-50 1 5 8 5 5 24 Above-51 2 1 3 4 1 11 Total 19 32 35 44 20 150

 From the above cross tabulation table, maximum 44 respondents are believe that they se product in which advertisement celebrity create good impression. With the maximum 33with the age group of 21-35, and minimum 2 respondents with the age group of below 20. 19 respondents disagree with this.

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Table 3.46-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 10.16 12 0.60 150

A 12 cells (60.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.39

Findings:
 From the above chi-square test we conclude that the celebrity creates good impression on other is independent variable. And the value is greater than 0.05 so we accept the null hypothesis.

Q-2 (K.) “You purchased product by watching product endorsed by

celebrities and then after you realized that product having no good quality as endorsed by celebrities and you feel cheated”
Graph 3.15
No Good Quality

25, 17%

23, 15%

Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree

34, 23% 36, 24%

32, 21%

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness  The graph indicate that, 24% respondent are uncertain about product quality which endorsed by celebrity. 17% people are feeling themselves cheated.15% respondents are strongly disagree with this statement.

Category
H0: Product having no good quality as endorsed by celebrities is independent to category. H1: Product having no good quality as endorsed by celebrities is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.47-Category wise (Cross tabulation) No good quality
Category Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Student 8 14 12 15 11 60 Housewife 5 4 12 5 5 31 Husband 5 9 9 11 6 40 Working person 5 5 3 3 3 19 Total 23 32 36 34 25 150

 From the above cross tabulation chart , we conclude that 36 respondent are uncertain. and 23 respondents are strongly disagree that quality of goods are very poor.

Table 3.48-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 8.75 12 0.72 150

A 6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.91.

Findings:
 The product quality is independent to category. Than the table suggests that the value is 0.72, it is independent to category, so we accept the null hypothesis.

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Age
H0: Product having no good quality as endorsed by celebrities is independent to Age. H1: Product having no good quality as endorsed by celebrities is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.49-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

No good quality
Age Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Below-20 1 2 5 4 2 14 21-35 18 23 21 20 19 101 36-50 4 5 5 7 3 24 Above-51 0 2 5 3 1 11 Total 23 32 36 34 25 150

 From the above cross tabulation chart, we conclude that 36 respondent are uncertain. and 23 respondents are strongly disagree that quality of goods are very poor. In uncertain respondents, max. with the age group of 21-35 and minimum 5 with all other age category.

Table 3.50-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 8.74 150 Df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.72

A 12 cells (60.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.69.

 The product quality is independent to age. Than the table suggests that the value is 0.72, it is independent to category, so we accept the null hypothesis.

Q-2 (L.) “Advertisement in which celebrities come that advertisement is

remembered by you through longer period of time”
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Graph 3.16
Longer Period of time

14, 9% 59, 40% 21, 14%

Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree

27, 18% 29, 19%

 From above chart we can conclude that maximum 19% are agree where as 40% respondents are strongly agree that advertisement is remember for long period of time. About 14% are disagree with that statement .9% respondents are strongly dis agree with it. Category H0: Remembered by you through longer period of time independent to category. H1: Remembered by you through longer period of time dependent to category Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.51-Category wise (Cross tabulation)

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Longer period of time
Category Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Student 6 7 11 9 27 60 Housewife 4 4 5 6 12 31 Husband 4 5 9 10 12 40 Working person 0 5 2 4 8 19 Total 14 21 27 29 59 150

 From the above cross tabulation between category and memory of product, 59 respondents are strongly agree with, the long term memory of product due to presence of celebrity. In which 27 student, 12 house wife, 12husband, and 8 working people included.

Table 3.52-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 8.42 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.751

A7 cells (35.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.77.

Findings:  From the analysis of above table, the memory of product is independent to category, and the value is 0.75 which is more then 0.05 so, we can accept null hypothesis. Age
H0: Remembered by you through longer period of time independent to category. H1: Remembered by you through longer period of time dependent to category Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.53-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

Longer period of time
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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Age Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree Total Below-20 5 1 4 1 3 14 21-35 6 17 14 20 44 101 36-50 1 2 7 7 7 24 Above-51 2 1 2 1 5 11 Total 14 21 27 29 59 150

 According to this table results, maximum 59 respondent in which, 44 with the age group of 21-35, & minimum 3 with the age group of below 20, are strongly agree with longtime memory of product. Only 14 people are disagreeing with it.

Table 3.54-Chi-Square Test
Value df Pearson Chi-Square 23.80 12 N of Valid Cases 150 A13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.03. Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.07

Findings:
 From the analysis of above table, the memory of product is independent to age, and the value is 0.07 which is more then 0.05 so, we can accept null hypothesis.

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Q-3. How important do you consider each of the attributes mentioned to be
of importance when considering a Celebrity as a brand ambassador of a product? (Please evaluate each attribute on the scale of 1 to 5)
(A) Expertise (The Level of knowledge a celebrity has in a Particular

Brand)
Graph 3.17
Exepertise

20, 13% 34, 23%

18, 12% 36, 24%

Unimportant Some what unimportant Uncertain Somewhat important Important

42, 28%

 From the analysis of the graph we can know that, expertises attribute is unimportant for 12% of people, & for 13% people it is important, and maximum 28% people are uncertain. And 23% of people have somewhat important. Category H0: Expertise Attributes is independent to Category H1: Expertise Attributes is dependent to Category Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.55-Category wise
(Cross tabulation)

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Expertise Category Unimportant Some what unimportant Uncertain Somewhat important Important Total Student 10 13 16 12 9 60 Housewife 5 13 7 4 2 31 Husband 3 4 13 13 7 40 Working person 0 6 6 5 2 19 Total 18 36 42 34 20 150

 This cross tabulation table shows, the maximum 42respondents in which, 16 are students, minimum 7 are housewife, are uncertain about expertise attribute. Minimum 18 people cannot give important to this attributes.

Table 3.56-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 18.41 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.10

A7 cells (35.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.28.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that important of expertise attribute is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category. So accept the Null Hypothesis. Age H0: Expertise Attributes is independent to Age H1: Expertise Attributes is dependent to Age Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.57-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Expertise Below-20 21-35 1 11 4 23 5 26 3 25 1 16 14 101

Age Unimportant Some what unimportant Uncertain Somewhat important Important Total

36-50 4 7 8 5 0 24

Above-51 2 2 3 1 3 11

Total 18 36 42 34 20 150

 This cross tabulation table shows, the maximum 42respondents in which 26 are in age group of 21-35 and minimum 3 in above 51 groups are uncertain about expertise attribute. And maximum 16 people from 21-35 age group are give important to expertise attribute.

Table 3.58-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 9.31 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.68

A 12 cells (60.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.32.

Findings:  Testing null Hypothesis that important of expertise attribute is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the age, so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 0.68.

(B). Trustworthiness (How honest & believable a celebrity endorsing a product is)
S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 155

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Graph 3.18
Trustworthiness

43, 29%

14, 9%

23, 15%

Unimportant Some what unimportant Uncertain Somewhat important Important

37, 25%

33, 22%

 Above graph indicate, Trustworthiness is important for most of respondent which is 29%. For 25% respondent, trustworthiness is somewhat important, so trust is very important.

Category
H0: trustworthiness attributes is independent to category H1: trustworthiness attributes is dependent to category Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.59-Category wise
(Cross tabulation)

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Trustworthiness
Category Unimportant Some what unimportant Uncertain Somewhat important Important Total Student 9 9 9 15 18 60 Housewife 1 3 9 10 8 31 Husband 2 9 10 6 13 40 Working person 2 2 5 6 4 19 Total 14 23 33 37 43 150

 From the above cross tabulation out of 150respondents, 43 have believe that celebrity trust worthiness is more import while they choosing any product/ services, in which 18 students and minimum 4 working person. Lower believe in trust worthiness in celebrity is 14 out of 150 , in which 2 respondents are working persons.

Table 3.60-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 12.10 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.44

A7 cells (35.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.77.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that important of trustworthiness attribute is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category, so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 0.44

Age
H0: trustworthiness attributes is independent to Age. H1: trustworthiness attributes is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.61-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

Trustworthiness
S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 157

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Age Unimportant Some what unimportant Uncertain Somewhat important Important Total Below-20 3 3 2 4 2 14 21-35 9 16 18 26 32 101 36-50 2 3 11 3 5 24 Above-51 0 1 2 4 4 11 Total 14 23 33 37 43 150

 From the above table analysis we conclude that, the maximum 43 respondents are give important to the trustworthiness attribute, in which maximum 32 respondents belong in age group of 21-35. 37 respondents are give somewhat important to it. 33 respondents are uncertain.

Table 3.62-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 15.73 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.20

A12 cells (60.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.03

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that important of trustworthiness attribute is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the age, so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 0.20

(C ) Similarity (Sense of similarity a consumer feels with a celebrity)
Graph 3.19 S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 158

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness

Similarity

40, 26%

28, 19%

Unimportant Some what unimportant Uncertain

25, 17%

34, 23% 23, 15%

Somewhat important Important

 The above graph shows that the product endorsed by the celebrity, should match with celebrity while choosing them for endorsement. 26% respondents are give important to similarity attribute and minimum 15% respondents are uncertain about the celebrity similarity of the product choosing.

Category
H0: Sense of similarity attributes is independent to category H1: Sense of similarity attributes is dependent to category Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.63-Category wise
(Cross tabulation)

Similarity
S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 159

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Working person 3 6 1 5 4 19

Category Unimportant Some what unimportant Uncertain Somewhat important Important Total

Student 10 13 15 6 16 60

Housewife 6 6 3 4 12 31

Husband 9 9 4 10 8 40

Total 28 34 23 25 40 150

 The above cross tabulation between important attribute and category we can say that , for maximum 40 respondents similarity is important attribute in which 16 students, 12 housewife, 8 husbands, 4 working person.

Table 3.64-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 14.85 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.25

A5 cells (25.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.91.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that important of similarity attribute is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category, so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 0.25.

Age
H0: Sense of similarity attributes is independent to Age H1: Sense of similarity attributes is dependent to Age Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.65-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

Similarity

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Age Unimportant Some what unimportant Uncertain Somewhat important Important Total Below-20 2 3 2 2 5 14 21-35 19 21 19 18 24 101 36-50 4 6 2 4 8 24 Above-51 3 4 0 1 3 11 Total 28 34 23 25 40 150

 The above cross tabulation between important attribute and category we can say that , for maximum 40 respondents similarity is important attribute in which 24 in the age group of 21-35 .3 respondent are in the age group of above 51.

Table 3.66-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 6.69 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.88

A13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.69

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that important of similarity attribute is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the age, so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 0.88

(D) Likeability (The level of a celebrity’s fame in public eye & his/her popularity)
Graph 3.20

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Likelyness

21, 14% 53, 36% 30, 20%

Unimportant Some what unimportant Uncertain Somewhat important

20, 13%

26, 17%

Important

 The likeness of celebrity attribute is that at which level the fame of celebrity in the eye of consumers. For 36% respondent believe that the celebrity should have familiar image in consumer mind. 14% respondent can not believe likeability attribute of celebrity.

Category
H0: Likeability attributes is independent to Category. H1: Likeability attributes is dependent to Category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.67-Category wise (Cross tabulation) Likeliness
Category Student Housewife Husband Working Total 162

S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness person 4 3 21 6 3 30 5 5 26 7 2 20 18 6 53 40 19 150 that, max. 53 respondent,

Unimportant 8 6 Some what unimportant 16 5 Uncertain 6 10 Somewhat important 6 5 Important 24 5 Total 60 31  From the analysis of above cross tabulation we can say

in which 24 student, 5 housewife, 18 husband, and 6 working person in it.26 respondent are uncertain about it.21 respondents cannot give important to it.

Table 3.68-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 16.71 12 0.16 150

A6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.53

Findings:
 The likeability of celebrity in consumer mind is independent from category. The Null hypothesis testing table shows that, likability is independent. So we accept the Null Hypothesis.

Age
H0: Likeability attributes is independent to Age H1: Likeability attributes is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.69-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

Likeliness
Age Below-20 21-35 36-50 Above-51 Total 163

S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Unimportant Some what unimportant Uncertain Somewhat important Important Total 0 6 1 2 5 14 14 18 20 13 36 101 5 5 3 3 8 24 2 1 2 2 4 11 21 30 26 20 53 150

 From the analysis of above cross tabulation we conclude that, max. 53 respondent, in which 36 respondent with age group of 21-35 .30 respondents give somewhat unimportant to likeability.

Table 3.70-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 9.25 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.68

A14 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.47.

Findings:
 The likeability of celebrity in consumer mind is independent from age. The Null hypothesis testing table shows that, likability is independent to age. So we accept the Null Hypothesis.

(E). Meaning Transfer (The meaning a celebrity brings to a brand)
Graph 3.21

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Meaning Transfer

27, 18% 46, 31% Unimportant Some what unimportant 29, 19% Uncertain Somewhat important Important 23, 15% 25, 17%

 It shows that the 31% respondents give more important to meaning transfer attribute. 15% give less important, 17% are uncertain, 19% have somewhat unimportant & 18% gives no important to meaning transfer attribute.

Category
H0: meaning transfer attributes is independent to category H1: meaning transfer attributes is dependent to category Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.71-Category wise
(Cross tabulation)

Meaning Transfer
Working Category Student Housewife Husband person Total Unimportant 10 10 4 3 27 Some what unimportant 17 0 9 3 29 Uncertain 8 6 8 3 25 Somewhat important 6 7 8 2 23 Important 19 8 11 8 46 Total 60 31 40 19 150  From the analysis of above cross tabulation we can say that, max. 46 respondent, in which 19 student, 8 housewife, 11 husband, and 8 working person in it.25

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness respondent are uncertain about it.27 respondents cannot give important to it. There is mix response given by different category of people.

Table 3.72-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 18.91 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.09

5 cells (25.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.91.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that important of meaning transfer attribute is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the category, so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 0.09w

Age
H0: meaning transfer attributes is independent to category H1: meaning transfer attributes is dependent to category Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.73-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

Meaning Transfer
Age Below-20 21-35 36-50 Above-51 Total Unimportant 3 16 4 4 27 Some what unimportant 2 25 1 1 29 Uncertain 3 13 8 1 25 Somewhat important 2 14 4 3 23 Important 4 33 7 2 46 Total 14 101 24 11 150

 The above graph shows that the out of 150 respondents 33 belongs to age group of 21-35, for 46 have important for meaning transfer model. 29 respondent have somewhat important belong age group 21-35 are 25 respondent.

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Table 3.74-Chi-Square Test
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 14.98 12 0.24 N of Valid Cases 150 A14 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The minimum expected count is 1.69.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that important of meaning transfer attribute is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the category, so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 0.24

(F) “Fit” Match (How well the fit between celebrity & the brand is)
Graph 3.22
Fit"Match"

48, 32%

21, 14% 26, C 17%

Unimportant Some what unimportant Uncertain Somewhat important Important

27, 18%

28, 19%

 The graph indicates that, most of respondent want good combination between celebrity and product, because out of 150 respondent maximum 32% respondent agree with it.

Category
S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 167

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness H0: Fit “match” attributes is independent to category H1: Fit “match” attributes is dependent to category Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.75-Category wise
(Cross tabulation)

Fit” Match"
Category Unimportant Some what unimportant Uncertain Somewhat important Important Total Student 8 12 12 8 20 60 Housewife 2 9 7 9 4 31 Husband 8 3 6 5 18 40 Working person 3 2 3 5 6 19 Total 21 26 28 27 48 150

 From the analysis of above cross tabulation we can say that, max. 48 respondent, in which 20 student, 4 housewife, 18 husband, and 6 working person in it.28 respondent are uncertain about it.21 respondents cannot give important to it. There is mix response given by different category of people. But most of people prefer good combination.

Age
H0: Fit “match” attributes is independent to Age H1: Fit “match” attributes is dependent to Age Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.76-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 18.37 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.10

A5 cells (25.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.66

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Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that important of Fit match attribute is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 0.10.

Age
H0: Fit “match” attributes is independent to Age H1: Fit “match” attributes is dependent to Age Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.77-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

Fit” Match"
Age Unimportant Some what unimportant Uncertain Somewhat important Important Total Below-20 4 2 1 2 5 14 21-35 10 21 19 19 32 101 36-50 4 2 6 5 7 24 Above-51 3 1 2 1 4 11 Total 21 26 28 27 48 150

 The above graph shows that the out of 150 respondents maximum 48 respondent give important to fit match attributes in which 32 with age group of 21-35, 21 respondent think fit match attribute is not important .

Table 3.78-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 9.61 150 Df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.65

A14 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.54.

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Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that important of Fit match attribute is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the age so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 0.65.

Q-4.How does presence of celebrity make you Feel about Brand
Graph 3.23
Presence of celebrity make you feel to brand

18, 12% 29, 19%

22, 15%

More likely to look at Improve perceptions Make mae miss Trusts 40, 27% Don't know Others

41, 27%

Category
H0: Celebrity make you Feel about Brand Category is independent to category. H1: Celebrity make you Feel about Brand Category is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.79-Category wise
(Cross tabulation)

Presences of celebrity make you feel to brand
Category More likely to look at Improve perceptions Student 11 11 Housewife 3 7 Husband 6 15 Working Person 2 7 Total 22 40

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Make me miss Trusts Don't know Others Total 20 10 8 60 10 5 6 31 7 9 3 40 4 5 1 19 41 29 18 150

Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 12.26236 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.424846

A6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.28.

Age
H0: Celebrity make you Feel about Brand Category is independent to Age. H1: Celebrity make you Feel about Brand Category is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.80-Age wise
Age More likely to look at Improve perceptions Make me miss Trusts Don't know Others Total (Cross tabulation) Below-20 21-35 36-50 2 16 3 2 24 8 4 31 3 3 18 7 3 12 3 14 101 24 Above 50 1 6 3 1 0 11 Total 22 40 41 29 18 150

Table 3.81-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 11.80536 12 0.461436 150

A13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.32.

Q-5. Which product advertisement can you recall most with these
Celebrities? Sachin Tendulkar:
Graph 3.24 S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 171

a) Boost ( ) b) MRF( ) c)Adidas ( ) d) Pepsi ()

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness

Celebrity (Sachin)

31, 21% 53, 35% Boost MRF 20, 13% 46, 31% Adidas Pepsi

Gender
H0: Product advertisement can you recall most is independent to Gender. H1: Product advertisement can you recall most is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.82-Gender wise (Cross tabulation) Celebrity {Sachin}
Gender Boost MRF Adidas Pepsi Total Male 32 29 13 18 92 Female 21 17 7 13 58 Total 53 46 20 31 150

 From the above cross tabulation table we conclude that, maximum respondent 53 are recall Sachin through Boost, in which 32 male and 21 female. MRF tyre is on second no. with 29 male, 17female respondents. Then Pepsi with 31 respondents and 20 respondents with Adidas.

Table 3.83-Chi-Square Test
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 172

S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases 0.33 150 3 0.95

A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 7.73.

 From the above analysis we can said that, recall of Sachin is independent to gender. And it value is 0.95,which is greater then .05 so, we can accept the Null Hypothesis.

Category
H0: Product advertisement can you recall most is independent to category. H1: Product advertisement can you recall most is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.84-Category wise
(Cross tabulation)

Celebrity {Sachin}
Category Boost MRF Adidas Pepsi Total  The above Student 26 10 7 17 60 Housewife 9 13 4 5 31 Husband 12 14 7 7 40 Working Person 6 9 2 2 19 Total 53 46 20 31 150

table shows that category wise cross tabulation in which 46

respondent from the brand of MRF in which 14 are husband, 13 are house wife, 10 are students & only 9 are working person.

Table 3.85-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 12.84 150 df 9 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.17

A3 cells (18.8%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.53

Findings:

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness  Testing null Hypothesis that important of Recall attribute is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 0.17.

Age
H0: Product advertisement can you recall most is independent to Age. H1: Product advertisement can you recall most is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.86-Age wise
(Cross tabulation)

Celebrity {Sachin}
Age Below-20 21-35 36-50 Above 50 Total Boost 6 38 6 3 53  The MRF 5 27 12 2 46 Adidas 1 12 4 3 20 Pepsi 2 24 2 3 31 Total 14 101 24 11 150 above table shows that age wise cross tabulation in which 53 respondent from the brand of BOOST, in which 27 respondents belongs to 21-35 age categories. MRF brand having total 46 respondent’s age of 21-35, in total 27 respondents.

Table 3.87-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 10.52 9 0.31 150

A10 cells (62.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.47.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that important of Recall attribute is independent to age then
above table suggests that it is independent to the age so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 0.31

Amitabh Bachchan: a) Dabur( ) b) Red&Taylor( )c)TVS victor( ) d)Cadbury( )
S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 174

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Graph 3.25
Celebrity (Amitabh Bachchan)

64, 42%

51, 34%

Dabar Reid & Taylor Binani cement Cadbury

22, 15%

13, 9%

Gender
H0: Product advertisement can you recall most is independent to Gender. H1: Product advertisement can you recall most is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.88-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Celebrity (Amitabh Bachchan) Gender Male Female Total Dabar 31 20 51 Reid & Taylor 11 2 13 Binani cement 17 5 22 Cadbury 33 31 64 Total 92 58 150  According to above graph & table 37% male and female believe that its non competitive, where competitive and moderate rate male respondent believes maximum which is 33 that is hire then female respondent.

Table 3.89-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 7.91 3 0.05 150

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A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 5.03

Findings:
 The null hypothesis show about the value is 0.05 it shows that it has the similarity about the analysis made.

Category
H0: Product advertisement can you recall most is independent to category. H1: Product advertisement can you recall most is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.90-Category wise
(Cross tabulation) Category Dabar Reid & Taylor Binani cement Cadbury Total Student 20 6 9 25 60 Housewife 14 0 3 14 31 Husband 11 7 8 14 40 Working Person 6 0 2 11 19 Total 51 13 22 64 150

 The above table shows that 64 respondent out of 150 and in which 25 students are know Amitabh bachan through the ad of Cadbury.51 respondents are know him through Dabur product. Where as for Binani Cement 22 respondent and Reid & Taylor only 13 respondent.

Table 3.91-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 12.90 9 0.17 150

A5 cells (31.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.65.

Findings:

S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness  Testing null Hypothesis that the product recall is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category group. So accept the Null Hypothesis.

Age
H0: Product advertisement can you recall most is independent to Age. H1: Product advertisement can you recall most is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.92-Age wise
(Cross tabulation) Age Below-20 21-35 36-50 Above 50 Total Dabar 1 40 6 4 51 Reid & Taylor 4 6 2 1 13 Binani cement 3 13 3 3 22 Cadbury 6 42 13 3 64 Total 14 101 24 11 150

 Maximum 42 respondents are from age group of 21-35.who are recall the Cadbury, then Dabur brand is recall by 40 respondent having age group of 21-35.and minimum only 1 respondent recall Ried & Taylor having age group of above 50. Table 3.93-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 15.07 9 0.09 150

A9 cells (56.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .95.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis product recall is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the age group. So accept the Null Hypothesis

Aamir Khan:

a) Titan( ) b) Samsung( )c) Cocacola ( ) d) Smartchips ( )

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Graph 3.26
Celebrity (Aamir Khan)

18, 12%

35, 23% Titan watch Samsung Coca cola Smart chips 55, 37%

42, 28%

 Due to usage of mobile increase, Samsung having good brand name in the market but main thing is that the brand ambassador is Aamir khan who is highly believe in the perfections. So the people o are highly recall brand through Aamir khan.

Gender
H0: Product advertisement can you recall most is independent to Gender. H1: Product advertisement can you recall most is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.94-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Titan watch 24 11 Samsung 36 19 Coca cola 23 19 Smart chips 9 9 Total 35 55 42 18

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Total 92 58 150

 The above table shows that ,for titan 44 male & for Samsung 36 male are recall this brand. Then 11 female for titan watches, 19 female for Samsung , 19 for cocacola recall overall brand out of 150 respondents.

Table 3.95-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 2.91 150 df 3 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.41

A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 6.96.

Findings:
 The null hypothesis show about the value is 0.41, so the null hypothesis is accept.

Category
H0: Product advertisement can you recall most is independent to category. H1: Product advertisement can you recall most is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.96-Category wise
(Cross tabulation) Working Category Student Housewife Husband Person Total Titan watch 18 4 10 3 35 Samsung 20 9 17 9 55 Coca cola 15 12 9 6 42 Smart chips 7 6 4 1 18 Total 60 31 40 19 150  The above table shows that 55 respondent out of 150 and in which 20 students are know Aamir Khan through the ad of Smsung.42 respondents are know him through Coca cola product. Where as 35 for Titan watch respondent and Smart chips has 18 respondents.

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Table 3.97-Chi-Square Test
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 8.98 9 0.44 N of Valid Cases 150 A4 cells (25.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.28.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that the product recall is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category group. So accept the Null Hypothesis because chi-square value is 0.44.

Age
H0: Product advertisement can you recall most is independent to Age. H1: Product advertisement can you recall most is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.98-Age wise
(Cross tabulation) Age Titan watch Samsung Coca cola Smart chips Total Below-20 3 3 6 2 14 21-35 25 40 26 10 101 36-50 5 9 5 5 24 Above 50 2 3 5 1 11 Total 35 55 42 18 150

Table 3.99-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 6.69 150 df 9 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.67

A8 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.32.

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Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that the product recall is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category group. So accept the Null Hypothesis because chi-square value is 0.67.

Q-6. “Products advertisement in which celebrities comes more costly than
other products in same category?
Graph 3.27
Product Rate

55, 37%

51, 34%
Com petitive rates Moderate Non Com petitive

44, 29%

Gender
H0: More costly than other products in same category is independent to category. H1: More costly than other products in same category is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.100-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Competitive rates 33 18 Moderate 33 11 Non Competitive 26 29 Total 51 44 55

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Total 92 58 150

 According to above graph & table 37% male and female believe that its non competitive, where competitive and moderate rate male respondent believes maximum which is 33 that is hire then female respondent.

Table 3.101-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 8.29 150 df 2 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.02

A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 17.01.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that the product cost is independent to gender then above table suggests that it is independent to the gender group. Here chi-square value is 0.02 is below to significant level 0.05, so null hypothesis rejected.

Category
H0: More costly than other products in same category is independent to category. H1: More costly than other products in same category is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.102-Category wise
(Cross tabulation) Working Category Student Housewife Husband Person Total Competitive rates 21 12 13 5 51 Moderate 16 6 16 6 44 Non Competitive 23 13 11 8 55 Total 60 31 40 19 150  According to above table analysis students response for competitive rates and non competitive rate is hire then the other category person. When we see the Overall response for all category non competitive rates is hire.

Table 3.103-Chi-Square Test
S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 182

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Value 4.71 150 Df 6 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.58

Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases

A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 5.57.

 Testing null Hypothesis that the product cost is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category group. So accept the Null Hypothesis because chi-square value is 0.58.

Age
H0: More costly than other products in same category is independent to category. H1: More costly than other products in same category is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.104-Age wise
Age Competitive rates Moderate Non Competitive Total (Cross tabulation) Below-20 21-35 36-50 4 34 12 3 34 4 7 33 8 14 101 24 Above 50 1 3 7 11 Total 51 44 55 150

 Between 21to35 age people are equally believed in competitive rates, moderate and non competitive rates which is maximum no of people 101.

Table 3.105-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 9.58 150 df 6 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.14

A5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 3.23.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that the product cost is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the age group. So accept the Null Hypothesis because chi-square value is 0.14

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Q-7. Please rate the following statements on a scale of 1-5.
(A) You try a new brand if it is advertised by your favorite celebrity.
Graph 3.28
Try new Brand

14, 9% 55, 37% 23, 15% Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Uncertain Somewhat Agree 27, 18% 31, 21% Strongly Agree

Gender
H0: Advertised by your favorite’s celebrity is independent to Gender. H1: Advertised by your favorite’s celebrity is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.106-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Strongly Disagree 10 4 Somewhat Disagree 15 8 Total 14 23 184

S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Uncertain Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree Total  According to above 16 16 35 92 11 15 20 58 27 31 55 150

table about 55 male and female are strongly agree to

purchase a new product offered by their favorite celebrity. in which 35 male and 20 are female.10 male & 4 female are strongly disagree.

Table 3.107-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 2.16 150 df 4 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.71

A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 5.41.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis for try new brand is independent to gender then above table suggests that it is independent to the gender group. So accept the Null Hypothesis.

Category
H0: Advertised by your favorite’s celebrity is independent to category. H1: Advertised by your favorite’s celebrity is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.108-Category wise
(Cross tabulation) Category Strongly Disagree Student 8 Housewife 1 Husband 3 Working Person 2 Total 14 185

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Somewhat Disagree Uncertain Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree Total 6 11 14 21 60 6 6 6 12 31 9 7 7 14 40 2 3 4 8 19 23 27 31 55 150

 All category persons are strongly agree to purchase new product offered by their favorite celebrity students response is more in uncertain and somewhat agree also.

Table 3.109-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 6.29 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.90

A7 cells (35.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.77.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that the product cost is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category group. So accept the Null Hypothesis because chi-square value is 0.90

Age
H0: Advertised by your favorite’s celebrity is independent to Age. H1: Advertised by your favorite’s celebrity is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.110-Age wise
Age Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree (Cross tabulation) Below-20 21-35 36-50 3 11 0 1 15 6 Above 50 0 1 Total 14 23

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Uncertain Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree Total 1 3 6 14 18 21 36 101 4 5 9 24 4 2 4 11 27 31 55 150

 About 36 people with age group of 21-35 are strongly agreed, where as 11respondent respondent strongly disagree to try new product. 18 respondents are uncertain about try new product.

Table 3.111-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 11.31 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.50

A13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.03.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that trying new product is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the age group. So accept the Null Hypothesis because chi-square value is 0.50.

(B) You try an existing product if it is advertised by your favorite celebrity.
Graph 3.29

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Try an existing brand

36, 24%

11, 7%

18, 12%

Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Uncertain Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree

37, 25% 48, 32%

Gender
H0: Try an existing product is independent to Gender H1: Try an existing product is dependent to Gender Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.112-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Strongly Disagree 6 5 Somewhat Disagree 9 9 Uncertain 25 12 Somewhat Agree 28 20 Strongly Agree 24 12 Total 92 58 Total 11 18 37 48 36 150

 According to above table about 48 male and female are somewhat agree to trying existing product by their favorite celebrity. in which 28 male and 20 are female.6 male & 5 female are strongly disagree.

Table 3.113-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square Value 2.41 Df 4 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.66 188

S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness N of Valid Cases 150

A1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 4.25.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis for try an existing product is independent to gender then above table suggests that it is independent to the gender group. So accept the Null Hypothesis is 0.66

Category
H0: Try an existing product is independent to category. H1: Try an existing product is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.114-Category wise
(Cross tabulation) Category Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Uncertain Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree Total Student 7 7 13 20 13 60 Housewife 3 5 5 13 5 31 Husband 1 4 12 11 12 40 Working Person 0 2 7 4 6 19 Total 11 18 37 48 36 150

 According to above table we conclude that, 20 student, 13 housewife, 11husband and 4 working person ware somewhat agreed that they use existing product.

Table 3.115-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 11.73 12 0.47 150

A9 cells (45.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.39.

 Testing null Hypothesis that trying existing product is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category group. So accept the Null Hypothesis because chi-square value is 0.47. S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 189

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness

Age
H0: Try an existing product is independent to Age. H1: Try an existing product is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.116-Age wise
Age Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Uncertain Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree Total (Cross tabulation) Below-20 21-35 36-50 0 10 1 3 11 2 3 27 6 5 29 9 3 24 6 14 101 24 Above 50 0 2 1 5 3 11 Total 11 18 37 48 36 150

 About 24 people with age group of 21-35 are strongly agree, where as 10 respondent strongly disagree to try existing product. 27 respondent are uncertain about trying existing product. Overall, all age category respondent are agree to trying existing product.

Table 3.117-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 7.50 150 Df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.82

A12 cells (60.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that trying existing product is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the age group. So accept the Null Hypothesis because chi-square value is 0.82.

C) You don’t mind paying higher prices for products advertised by my favorite’s celebrity.
Graph 3.30 S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 190

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Paying higher prices

16, 11% 27, 18%

43, 28%

Strongly Disagree Somewhat Dis agree Unc ertain Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree

36, 24%

28, 19%

Gender
H0: For products advertised by your favorites celebrity is independent to Gender. H1: For products advertised by your favorites celebrity is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.118-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Strongly Disagree 27 16 Somewhat Disagree 20 8 Uncertain 22 14 Somewhat Agree 14 13 Strongly Agree 9 7 Total 92 58 Total 43 28 36 27 16 150

 According to above chart , 27 male and 16 female are disagree to pay higher price for the product which endorse by favorite celebrity. Where as only 9male and 7female are strongly agree to pay higher price.

Table 3.119-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 2.440 150 df 4 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.655

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A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 6.19.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis for try pay higher price for product is independent to gender then above table suggests that it is independent to the gender group. So accept the Null Hypothesis is 0.66.

Category
H0: For products advertised by your favorites celebrity is independent to category. H1: For products advertised by your favorites celebrity is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.120-Category wise
(Cross tabulation) Category Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Uncertain Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree Total Student 13 11 15 13 8 60 Housewife 12 5 4 8 2 31 Husband 13 9 13 3 2 40 Working Person 5 3 4 3 4 19 Total 43 28 36 27 16 150

 Overall all category persons are strongly disagree to pay higher price for product, students response is more in uncertain and somewhat also agree by 8.

Table 3.121-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 13.797 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.314

A6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.03.

Findings:

S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness  Testing null Hypothesis that pay higher for product is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category group. So accept the Null Hypothesis because chi-square value is 0.31.

Age
H0: For products advertised by your favorites celebrity is independent to Age. H1: For products advertised by your favorites celebrity is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.122-Age wise
Age Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Uncertain Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree Total (Cross tabulation) Below-20 21-35 36-50 1 30 10 2 20 5 4 23 3 6 15 4 1 13 2 14 101 24 Above 50 2 1 6 2 0 11 Total 43 28 36 27 16 150

 About 30 people with age group of 21-35 are strongly disagree, where as 13 respondent strongly agree to pay higher price for product. 23 respondents are uncertain about to pay higher price for product. Overall, all age category respondent are disagree to pay higher price for product.

Table 3.123-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 18.041 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.114

A13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.17.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that paying higher price for the product is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the age group. So accept the Null Hypothesis because chi-square value is 0.114.

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(D) Advertisement of a product by a celebrity can make that product Successful.
Graph 3.31
Make product successful

29, 19%

23, 15% Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Uncertain Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree 35, 23%

26, 17%

37, 26%

Gender
H0: Make that product Successful is independent to Gender. H1: Make that product Successful is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.124-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Strongly Disagree 16 7 Somewhat Disagree 20 17 Uncertain 27 8 Somewhat Agree 15 11 Strongly Agree 14 15 Total 92 58 Total 23 37 35 26 29 150

 Accordi ng above chart , to

16 male and 7 female are disagree with success of product for which endorse by favorite celebrity. Where as only 14male and 15female are strongly agree to success of product endorsed by celebrity.

Table 3.125-Chi-Square Test

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Value 7.403 150 df 4 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.116

Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases

A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 8.89.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis for successful product endorsed by celebrity gender group. So accept the Null Hypothesis is 0.116. is independent to gender then above table suggests that it is independent to the

Category
H0: Make that product Successful is independent to category. H1: Make that product Successful is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.126-Category wise
(Cross tabulation) Category Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Uncertain Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree Total Student 8 14 12 10 16 60 Housewife 5 9 5 9 3 31 Husband 7 10 10 6 7 40 Working Person 3 4 8 1 3 19 Total 23 37 35 26 29 150

 Overall response from the respondents are in between 37 to 35 which are uncertain or somewhat disagree about product success which are endorsed by their favorite celebrities.

Table 3.127-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 12.115 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.437

A6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The minimum expected count is 2.91.

Findings:
S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 195

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness  Testing null Hypothesis for successful product endorsed by celebrity is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category group. So accept the Null Hypothesis is 0.437

Q-8. The following list of feature are associated with celebrity endorsement,
for each feature, please record the one alternative that best express how important or un important that features to you. 1. Extremely 2.somewhat 3.nither important at all Important important Important nor unimportant unimportant 4.somewhat 5.not

------Higher degree of recall.
Graph 3.32
Important Atribute(High Call)

25, 17%

33, 22%

Extremly Important Somewhat Important Moderate

30, 20% 18, 12% 44, 29%

Somewhat Unimportant Not Important

Gender
H0: Higher degree of recall is independent to Gender. H1: Higher degree of recall is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

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Table 3.128-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Extremely Important 17 16 Somewhat Important 27 17 Moderate 13 5 Somewhat Unimportant 17 13 Not Important 18 7 Total 92 58 Total 33 44 18 30 25 150

 According to above chart, 27 male and 17 female are some what important with some what important. Where as only 17male and 16female extremely important, moderate male and female are 13 & 5 respectively.

Table 3.129-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 3.716 150 df 4 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.446

A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 6.96.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis for celebrity higher degree of recall is independent to gender then above table suggests that it is independent to the gender group. So accept the Null Hypothesis is 0.446

Category
H0: Higher degree of recall is independent to category. H1: Higher degree of recall is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

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Table 3.130-Category wise
(Cross tabulation) Category Extremely Important Somewhat Important Moderate Somewhat Unimportant Not Important Total Student 10 21 4 13 12 60 Housewife 9 10 3 6 3 31 Husband 10 6 9 6 9 40 Working Person 4 7 2 5 1 19 Total 33 44 18 30 25 150

 Overall response from the respondents is in between 44 to 33 which are somewhat important and extremely important about higher degree of recall which are endorsed by their favorite celebrities.

Table 3.131-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 15.405 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.220

A6 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.28.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis for special feature associated with celebrity is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category group. So accept the Null Hypothesis is 0.220

Age
H0: Higher degree of recall is independent to Age. H1: Higher degree of recall is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

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Table 3.132-Age wise
(Cross tabulation) 1 20 9 3 33 5 32 5 2 44 1 12 2 3 18 6 19 3 2 30 1 18 5 1 25 14 101 24 11 150  About 32 people with age group of 21-35 are somewhat important, where as 20 respondent extremely important to pay higher price for product. 23 respondents are uncertain about to pay higher price for product. Overall, all age category respondent are disagree to pay higher price for product.
Age Extremely Important Somewhat Important Moderate Somewhat Unimportant Not Important Total Below-20 21-35 36-50 Above 50 Total

Table 3.133-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 14.405 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.276

A13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.32.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that higher degree of recall is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the age group. So accept the Null Hypothesis because chi-square value is 0.276

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------Trustworthiness.
Graph 3.33
Trustworthiness

19, 13% 26, 17% 58, 39% Extremly Important Somewhat Important Moderate Somewhat Unimportant 6, 4% 41, 27% Not Important

Gender
H0: Trustworthiness is independent to Gender. H1: Trustworthiness is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.134-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Extremely Important 39 19 Somewhat Important 19 22 Moderate 3 3 Somewhat Unimportant 21 5 Not Important 10 9 Total 92 58 Total 58 41 6 26 19 150

 According to above chart, 39 male and 19 female are extremely important with trustworthiness for celebrity. Where as only 19male and 22 female somewhat important, moderate male and female are 3 & 3 respectively.

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Table 3.135-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 9.812 150 df 4 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.044

A2 cells (20.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.32.

Findings:
 Here chi-square value is below the significant level of 0.05, so here we have to reject the null hypothesis below significant level 0.044.

Category
H0: Trustworthiness is independent to category. H1: Trustworthiness is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.136-Category wise
(Cross tabulation) Category Extremely Important Somewhat Important Moderate Somewhat Unimportant Not Important Total Student 22 15 2 11 10 60 Housewife 12 10 2 2 5 31 Husband 17 11 1 8 3 40 Working Person 7 5 1 5 1 19 Total 58 41 6 26 19 150

 Overall response from the respondents is in between 58 to 41 which are somewhat important and extremely important about trustworthiness product, which are endorsed by their favorite celebrities. associated with

Table 3.137-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 7.383 150 Df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.831

A7 cells (35.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .76.

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Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis for trustworthiness associated with celebrity is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category group. So accept the Null Hypothesis is 0.0831

Age
H0: Trustworthiness is independent to Age. H1: Trustworthiness is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.138-Age wise
Age Extremely Important Somewhat Important Moderate Somewhat Unimportant Not Important Total (Cross tabulation) Below-20 21-35 36-50 7 38 10 2 27 8 2 2 1 3 18 2 0 16 3 14 101 24 Above 50 3 4 1 3 0 11 Total 58 41 6 26 19 150

 About 27 people with age group of 21-35 are somewhat important, where as 38respondent extremely important. 23 respondents are uncertain about product. for product. Overall, all age category respondent are disagree to pay higher price for

Table 3.139-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 13.764 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.316

A13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .44.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that trustworthiness of recall is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the age group. So accept the Null Hypothesis because chi-square value is 0.316.

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------Associates benefits.
Graph 3.34
Associates benifits

13, 9% 22, 15% 47, 31% Extremly Important Somewhat Important Moderate 15, 10% 53, 35% Somewhat Unimportant Not Important

Gender
H0: An Associates benefit is independent to Gender. H1: An Associates benefit is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.140-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Extremely Important 29 18 Somewhat Important 29 24 Moderate 9 6 Somewhat Unimportant 18 4 Not Important 7 6 Total 92 58 Total 47 53 15 22 13 150

 According to above chart, 29 male and 18 female are extremely important with associate benefit for celebrity. Where as only 29male and 24 female somewhat important, moderate male and female are 9 & 6 respectively.

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Table 3.141-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 5.192 150 df 4 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.268

A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 5.03.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis for celebrity associate benefits are independent to gender then above table suggests that it is independent to the gender group. So accept the Null Hypothesis is 0.268

Category
H0: An Associates benefit is independent to Category. H1: An Associates benefit is dependent to Category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.142-Category wise
(Cross tabulation) Category Extremely Important Somewhat Important Moderate Somewhat Unimportant Not Important Total Student 19 26 3 8 4 60 Housewife 7 12 5 4 3 31 Husband 12 11 4 8 5 40 Working Person 9 4 3 2 1 19 Total 47 53 15 22 13 150

 Overall response from the respondents is in between 53 to 47 which are somewhat important are students & husband, extremely important about associated benefits, which are endorsed by their favorite celebrities.

Table 3.143-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 11.003 150 Df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.529

A8 cells (40.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.65.

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Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis for benefits associated with celebrity is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category group. So, accept the Null Hypothesis is 0.529

Age
H0: An Associates benefit is independent to Age. H1: An Associates benefit is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.144-Age wise
Age Extremely Important Somewhat Important Moderate Somewhat Unimportant Not Important Total (Cross tabulation) Below-20 21-35 36-50 3 33 7 7 34 7 1 9 4 2 15 4 1 10 2 14 101 24 Above 50 4 5 1 1 0 11 Total 47 53 15 22 13 150

 About 34 people with age group of 21-35 are somewhat important, where as 33 respondent extremely important. 9 respondents are moderate about associate benefits of product. Overall, all age category respondent are agree to pay higher price for product for its associated benefits’.

Table 3.145-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 4.91394 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.960792

A13 cells (65.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .95.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that associate benefits’ of product is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the age group. So accept the Null Hypothesis because chi-square value is 0.960. S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 205

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Q-9. How much you satisfied with the product which is endorse by your
favorite celebrity?
Graph 3.35
Satisfaction level

24, 16%

31, 21%

Very Satisfied Somewhat Satisfied Moderate

30, 20% 14, 9% 51, 34%

Somewhat Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied

Gender
H0: Satisfied with the product is independent to Gender. H1: Satisfied with the product is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.146-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Very Satisfied 19 12 Somewhat Satisfied 32 19 Moderate 6 8 Somewhat Dissatisfied 18 12 Very Dissatisfied 17 7 Total 92 58 Total 31 51 14 30 24 150

 According to above chart, 32 male and 19 female are some what satisfied with celebrity. Where as only 19male and 12 female somewhat satisfied, moderate male and female are 6 & 8 respectively.

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Table 3.147-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 2.994 150 df 4 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.559

A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 5.41.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis for celebrity satisfaction level is independent to gender then above table suggests that it is independent to the gender group. So, accept the Null Hypothesis is 0.559.

Category
H0: Satisfied with the product is independent to category. H1: Satisfied with the product is dependent to category. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.148-Category wise
(Cross tabulation) Category Very Satisfied Somewhat Satisfied Moderate Somewhat Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied Total Student 9 20 7 14 10 60 Housewife 10 8 4 6 3 31 Husband 9 14 3 6 8 40 Working Person 3 9 0 4 3 19 Total 31 51 14 30 24 150

 Overall response from the respondents is in between 51 to 31 which are somewhat satisfied are 20 students & 14 husband, very satisfied about satisfaction level 10 housewife & 9 husband which are endorsed by their favorite celebrities.

Table 3.149-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 9.595 12 0.651 150

A7 cells (35.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.7

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Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis for satisfaction level with celebrity is independent to category then above table suggests that it is independent to the category group. So, accept the Null Hypothesis is 0.651

Age
H0: Satisfied with the product is independent to Age. H1: Satisfied with the product is dependent to Age. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.150-Age wise
Age Very Satisfied Somewhat Satisfied Moderate Somewhat Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied Total (Cross tabulation) Below-20 21-35 36-50 1 22 6 6 35 5 2 7 4 2 20 6 3 17 3 14 101 24 Above 50 2 5 1 2 1 11 Total 31 51 14 30 24 150

 About 35 people with age group of 21-35 are somewhat satisfied where as 22 some what satisfied. 7 respondents are satisfied about product which is endorsed by their celebrity, all age category respondents are agree about their favorite celebrity endorsed for the product.

Table 3.151-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 7.273 150 df 12 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.839

A14 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.03.

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Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that satisfaction level for product by which endorsed by celebrity is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the age group. So accept the Null Hypothesis because chi-square value is 0.839

Q-10. Match the most attributes to the celebrities: Sachin:
Graph 3.36
Match attributes( Sachin)

25, 17%

38, 25% Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability 60, 40%

27, 18%

Gender
H0: Attributes to the celebrities is independent to Gender. H1: Attributes to the celebrities is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

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Table 3.152-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Trust Expertise Attractiveness Reliability Total Male 23 33 17 19 92 Female 15 27 10 6 58 Total 38 60 27 25 150

 From the above table we conclude that, people prefer Expertise attribute maximum for Sachin. In which, 33 male and 27 female are included. Than Trust attribute at second no with 38 respondent, in which 23 male and 15 female.

Table 3.153-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 3.323 150 Df 3 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.344

0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 9.67.

Findings:
 Expressiveness attribute is independent to gender. So here, we cannot accept The Null Hypothesis because value is 0.34. Graph 3.37

Category wise Graph
Sachin
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Student Housewife Husband Working Person Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability

Table 3.154-Category wise Table
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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Working Person 2 11 2 4 19

Category Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability Total

Student 17 24 11 8 60

Housewife 8 14 6 3 31

Husband 11 11 8 10 40

Total 38 60 27 25 150

 According above graph and table we can said that, all category respondent see Expertiseness in Sachin. This was recorded with high value in all categories. And only 25 respondents suggest Reliability attribute to the Sachin, which is minimum value in table.

Amitabh Bacchan:
Graph 3.38
Match Attributes(Amitabh)

25, 17% 23, 15% 66, 44% Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability 36, 24%

Gender
H0: Attributes to the celebrities is independent to Gender. H1: Attributes to the celebrities is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.155-Gender wise
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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness (Cross tabulation) Gender Trust Expressiveness Attractiveness Reliability Total Male 35 22 16 19 92 Female 31 14 7 6 58 Total 66 36 23 25 150

 According to above analysis, Amitabh Bacchan is most trustful person for both male and female respondent. Male respondent also believe in expertiseness of Amitabh Bacchan.

Table 3.156-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 4.844 150 df 3 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.184

A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 8.89.

Findings:
 From the above testing, attribute is independent to gender because chi-square value is 0.184 which is greater then 0.05, so we can accept The Null Hypothesis.

Category wise Graph
Graph 3.39
Amitabh
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Student Housewife Husband Working Person Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability

Table 3.157-Category wise Table
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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Category Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability Total Student 30 13 9 8 60 Housewife 15 8 4 4 31 Husband 15 9 7 9 40 Working Person 6 6 3 4 19 Total 66 36 23 25 150

 A maximum person of all above category shows trust on Amitabh bacchan, in which student make maximum trust.

Priyanka:
Graph 3.40
Match attributes(Priyanka)

29, 19%

21, 14% 32, 21% Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability

68, 46%

Gender
H0: Attributes to the celebrities is independent to Gender. H1: Attributes to the celebrities is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.158-Gender wise

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness (Cross tabulation) Gender Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability Total Male 14 27 32 19 92 Female 7 5 36 10 58 Total 21 32 68 29 150

 Both male and female person look attractiveness in Priyanka, in which 32 male and 36 female, which is maximum in the respondent.

Table 3.159-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 13.472 150 Df 3 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.004

0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 8.12.

Findings:
 Here attributes is dependent to gender, because the chi-square value is 0.004 which is less then, so we can’t accept The Null Hypothesis.

Category wise Graph
Graph 3.41
Priyanka
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Student Housewife Husband Working Person Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability

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Table 3.160-Category wise Table
Category Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability Total  Student 7 13 31 9 60 Housewife 4 3 17 7 31 Husband 7 11 11 11 40 Working Person 3 5 9 2 19 Total 21 32 68 29 150

Out off 150 respondent,68 respondent are agree that, Priyanka is very attractive celebrity.

But minimum 21 respondents make trust on her. 32 people see expertiseness, and 29 people saw reliability in her.

Akshay Kumar:
Graph 3.42
Match Attributes (Akshay)

22, 15%

28, 19% Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability 45, 30%

55, 36%

Gender
H0: Attributes to the celebrities is independent to Gender. H1: Attributes to the celebrities is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.161-Category wise
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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness (Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Trust 15 13 Expertiseness 28 17 Attractiveness 32 23 Reliability 17 5 Total 92 58

Total 28 45 55 22 150

 For Akshay, respondents give mix response towards attributes. Mostly people look attractiveness and expertiseness in Akshya kumar.

Table 3.162-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 3.314 150 Df 3 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.346

A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 8.51.

Findings:
 The celebrity attributes is independent to gender, and chi-square value is 0.346, so we can accept The Null Hypothesis.

Category wise Graph
Graph 3.43
Akshay
25 20 15 10 5 0 Student Housewife Husband Working Person Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability

Table 3.163-Category wise Table

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Working Person 1 7 6 5 19

Category Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability Total

Student 10 18 21 11 60

Housewife 7 9 12 3 31

Husband 10 11 16 3 40

Total 28 45 55 22 150

 In the category wise cross tabulation, respondent give mix response to Akshy. 45 person look expertiseness and maximum 55 person look attractiveness in him.

Ketrina Kaif:
Graph 3.44
Match attributes (Katrina)

11, 7%

14, 9%

13, 9% Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability

112, 75%

Gender
H0: Attributes to the celebrities is independent to Gender. H1: Attributes to the celebrities is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.164-Gender wise

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness (Cross tabulation) Gender Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability Total Male 10 7 70 5 92 Female 4 6 42 6 58 Total 14 13 112 11 150

Table 3.165-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 2.143 150 Df 3 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.543

A1 cells (12.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 4.25.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that important attribute is independent to age then above table suggests that it is independent to the age so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 0.54.

Graph 3.45

Category wise Graph
Katrina
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Student Housewife Husband Working Person Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability

Table 3.166-Category wise Table

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Category Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability Total Student 8 5 44 3 60 Housewife 1 3 24 3 31 Husband 3 3 31 3 40 Working Person 2 2 13 2 19 Total 14 13 112 11 150

 From the analysis of table we surely said that, maximum number of people looks very attractiveness in Ketrina kaif. 112 out of 150respondent are attracting from Katrina’s beauty.

Amirkhan:
Graph 3.46
Match attributes (Amir Khan)

28, 19%

34, 23% Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability

46, 30%

42, 28%

Gender
H0: Attributes to the celebrities is independent to Gender. H1: Attributes to the celebrities is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

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Table 3.167-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Total Trust 20 14 34 Expertiseness 21 21 42 Attractiveness 29 17 46 Reliability 22 6 28 Total 92 58 150  Graph show mix response toward Amir khan attributes, because, for attritiveness 46 respondent, for expertiseness 42, for trust 34 respondent. We can said that, Amirkhan have more then one qualities.

Table 3.168-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 5.930 150 df 3 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.115

A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 10.83.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that important attribute is independent to gender then above table suggests that it is independent to the gender so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 0.115. Graph 3.47

Category wise Graph
Aamir Khan
25 20 15 10 5 0 Student Housewife Husband Working Person Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability

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Table 3.169-Category wise Table
Category Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability Total Student 14 20 13 13 60 Housewife 7 9 13 2 31 Husband 10 10 15 5 40 Working Person 3 3 5 8 19 Total 34 42 46 28 150

 The graph show, maximum students see expertise in him, maximum housewife and husband see as attractive hero.

Sahrukhkhan:
Graph 3.48
Match Attributes (Shahrukh khan)

26, 17%

42, 29% Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness

41, 27% 41, 27%

Reliability

 According to graph, respondent look more Trust, Expertise and Attractiveness rather then Reliability in Sahrukhkhan. In which, 29% for Trust, 27%for both Expertise and Attractiveness and for reliability 17%. S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 221

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Gender
H0: Attributes to the celebrities is independent to Gender. H1: Attributes to the celebrities is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.170-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Trust 14 28 Expertiseness 24 17 Attractiveness 33 8 Reliability 21 5 Total 92 58 Total 42 41 41 26 150

 According to gender wise analysis, maximum 33male look Attractiveness and maximum 28 female look Trust in S.K. but over all mix response of people.

Table 3.171-Chi-Square Test
Valu D Asymp. Sig. (2e f sided) Pearson Chi-Square 24.50 3 1.96E-05 N of Valid Cases 150 A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 10.05.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that important attribute is independent to gender then above table suggests that it is independent to the gender so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 1.96.

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness Graph 3.49

Category wise Table
Shahrukh Khan
20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Student Housewife Husband Working Person

Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability

 This graph shows that, in the student category, maximum student 18 see expertise in Sahrukh khan. Maximum housewife make trust on S.K.maximum husband look attractiveness in him, mix of response from working person.

Table 3.172-Category wise Table
Studen Category t Trust 13 Expertiseness 18 Attractiveness 14 Reliability 15 Total 60 Housewif e 17 7 3 4 31 Husban d 7 9 19 5 40 Workin g Person 5 7 5 2 19 Total 42 41 41 26 150

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Aishwarya Bacchan:
Graph 3.50
Match attributes (Aishwarya)

25, 17%

23, 15% Trust Expertiseness 32, 21% Attractiveness Reliability

70, 47%

 The graph indicates that, 47% people attract from Aish beauty. Some people, about 21% look expertise in her, 15% people make Trust on her and 17% people see Reliability in her.

Gender
H0: Attributes to the celebrities is independent to Gender. H1: Attributes to the celebrities is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

Table 3.173-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Trust 13 10 Expertiseness 15 17 Attractiveness 50 20 Reliability 14 11 Total 92 58 Total 23 32 70 25 150

 From the above table out of 150 respondents 70 are highly believe about attractiveness attribute. Out of 70 respondents 50 are male who are attract towards S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 224

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness the celebrity & 20 are female who are low believe in the attractiveness of the celebrity.

Table 3.174-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 6.353 3 0.096 150

A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 8.89.

Findings:
 Testing null Hypothesis that important attribute is independent to gender then above table suggests that it is independent to the gender so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 1.96. Graph 3.51

Category wise Graph
Aishwariya
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Student Housewife Husband Working Person Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability

Table 3.175-Category wise Table
Category Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability Total Student 9 14 25 12 60 Housewife 6 9 9 7 31 Husband 5 7 24 4 40 Working Person 3 2 12 2 19 Total 23 32 70 25 150

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness  The category wise table shows that, 70 respondents have high attractiveness towards the celebrity in which 25 are students, but no specification about the gender. 32 respondents are in which 14 are students who highly believe in Aishwarya Ray is expertiseness is so good.

Dhoni:
Graph 3.52
Match Attributes (Dhoni)

38, 25%

46, 31% Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability

30, 20%

36, 24%

 People are highly believe in Dhoni as he is one of the successful captain of the Indian cricket team.31% people have the high attractiveness towards Dhoni, 25% people having reliability & 24% people believe that expertiseness in Dhoni about is high. 20% People are know that the Dhoni has good looks due to that people are high attract Dhoni.

Gender
H0: Attributes to the celebrities is independent to Gender. H1: Attributes to the celebrities is dependent to Gender. Significance Level = 0.05 Degree of freedom=1

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Table 3.176-Gender wise
(Cross tabulation) Gender Male Female Trust 29 17 Expertiseness 26 10 Attractiveness 15 15 Reliability 22 16 Total 92 58 Total 46 36 30 38 150

 The above table shows that there is highly trust by male gender related to trust on Dhoni. 46 respondents in which, 29 are male category. 38 respondents in which 22 male reliability are high.36 respondents in which Dhoni has high expertiseness in to the endorsing a product.

Table 3.177-Chi-Square Test
Pearson Chi-Square N of Valid Cases Value 3.671 150 Df 3 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 0.299

A0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 11.60.

Findings:
 The Testing null Hypothesis that important attribute is independent to gender then above table suggests that it is independent to the gender so accept the Null Hypothesis. Because there value is 0.299

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Graph 3.53

Category wise Graph
Dhoni
20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Student Housewife Husband Working Person Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability

Table 3.178-Category wise Table
Category Trust Expertiseness Attractiveness Reliability Total Student 15 13 19 13 60 Housewife 9 7 5 10 31 Husband 14 12 5 9 40 Working Person 8 4 1 6 19 Total 46 36 30 38 150

 The whole category wise table show about Dhoni’s expertiseness as well as the trust related to the particular product is more. 46 respondent in trust and 36 are expertiseness who are highly believe that Dhoni is quiet good for the any of the product due to his impression. Their belief about expertiseness & attractiveness is good due his name &fame also one the factor.

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Chapter : 4
Conclusion

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CONCLUSION
 Celebrity endorsement can be a goldmine or a minefield for a company's brand building process. There have been extensive studies relating to the process of celebrity endorsement and brand-building. These studies indicate that celebrity endorsement has worked well in some consumer segments while failing in others. Few celebrities have been more successful than those with almost parallel fame. So the role of celebrity endorsement in the advertising space is equivocal and cannot be seen as a assured strategic tool to win profits, market share, revenues, etc.  Consumers can identify the clear difference between a good script and a good brand idea. For example, while Pepsi's Sachin and Bachchan (kite flying) ad was seen as one with a good script, Coca-Cola's Thanda Matlab... was seen as an insightful and strong brand idea. For all the flak it drew in its vainglorious attempts to run down competition, Thumbs-Up was seen as the only example of seamless linkage between brand positioning and brand celebrity.  "Brand" is the most valuable asset of any company; building its image is, thus, of paramount importance. Any thoughtless adventure can be like the Sword of Damocles upon your head. Celebrities do not make brands but ideas do. If the former were true then brands would have vanished when the hype and hoopla around the celebrities faded. Celebrity endorsement is also one of the ideas. But, its easy to come up with new ideas; the hard part is letting go of what worked for you two years ago, but will soon be out-of-date. Therefore, it is imperative to invest in good ideas; which will bring good returns. Thus, the need of the hour is to focus less on your Return-on-Investment, and think more in terms of your Return-on-Ideas.  There is an increasing challenge to the marketing manager to develop and implement an integrated marketing communication (IMC) plan to realize the true S.P.B. PATEL ENGG. College, LINCH, MEHSANA 230

Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness value of the celebrity endorsements. There is a gradual shift from the traditional approach of showing celebrities in advertisement to making them the "spokesperson" of the brand. Companies have taken celebrity endorsement to next level by projecting brands as a way of life. Smart companies are using their brand ambassadors in other mediums such as movies to promote their brands. E.g., Amitabh Bachchan, who endorses the financial instruments of ICICI Bank, is shown as a branch-manager of ICICI Bank in the movie Baghban.  Wooing the key existing and potential target customers is the trait of a successful promotion strategy. However, the marketing manager should be able to offer significant value propositions in the services / products offered to the customers. Thus, one needs to integrate celebrity endorsement with other marketing programs and ensure that the celebrity attributes align with the overall brand or company. Companies that succeed in developing such an integrated IMC plans is the one to succeed in the long-ter CONCLUSION OF THE PRIMARY ANALYSIS OF SURVEY:
 we tried to measure the effectiveness of celebrity on advertisement & consumers

behavior, through asking various questions which are based on measurement, with the help of which we measure the consumers effectiveness in terms of their perception, their purchase intention by seeing an advertisement, their experience, recall value, effectiveness towards the celebrity.  From our whole analysis , we conclude that the effectiveness of celebrity on advertisement & its role is high on consumers. But the celebrity proves a best for the consumers due to their name & fame. Advertisement plays a good role in purchasing power of consumers . But sometimes celebrity creates misunderstanding to people also by negative advertisement.  Yes, the celebrity advertisement is best for the brand awareness on consumers mind and also helps in recalling ads and the product. Also consumer behavior is broadly based on its past purchasing experience, but through our analysis we can

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness say that celebrity advertising helps in recalling brand and creates a certain image in the consumers mind.  But main thing is only depend upon the consumers personality, attitude, lifestyle, purchasing power also.  As social benefits include emotional and self esteem benefits, consumers would like to see and emulate some well known personalities who use those products that they want to purchase. By having a celebrity endorse these categories of products, consumers are provided with a strong personality and a persona to emulate

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS:
• • • • • Marketing Management by Philip Kotler Consumer Behavior by leon Schiffman Businees Research Methodology by Statistics of Management By Levin & Rubin Advertising & Promotion management By Lauden &Lauden

REFERENCE:

Philip A. Stroke(2009), "Impact of Celebrity Endorsement",Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 14 March, Pg.471-82. Shimp (2007), "Celebrities as spokesperson", Journal of Retailing, Vol. 76 No. 2, Pg.175-91. Friedmen et al. (1976), “The power of brand”, Journal of Business, Vol. 23, Pg.71-8


MAGAZINES: • Business World • • Marketing Master Mind Journal of Marketing
• • • • • •

Websites:

www.marketingmanagement.in/india.html www.marketingmania.in/india.html http://en.wiki.wikipedia.com/indian_industry www.marketingmanagement.in/india.html www.indiatimes.com/ www.hindustantimes.com

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http://www.businessweek.com./html

Annexure I CONSUMER’S SURVEY
We are the student of S.P.B. Patel Engg.. M.B.A College Linch, Mehsana. As per the requirement of subject, MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROJECT II we are conducting survey on topic: effects of use Celebrities in advertising on customers. We assure you that this information will be used for our academic purpose only so we kindly request you to fill this questionnaire.

Q-1. What are the main reasons due to that the use of celebrities in advertising is Increasing? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Peoples attract toward celebrities …………. Image of the celebrity……………………………………………………. Increase competition leads use of celebrities ……….. Celebrities’ endorsement lead huge sells of product/services………. Create good impression of product on customers’ minds………

Q-2 For the following questions A-L please circle the number which you think is the best answer. 1 2 Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree A.) Celebrity endorsers are the most persuasive advertising method. 1 2 3 4 5 3 Uncertain 4 Agree 5 Strongly

B.) Do you think celebrity endorsements are ineffective? 1 2 3 4 5

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness C.) Celebrity endorsers affect the sale of the product with which they are associated. 1 2 3 4 5

D.) According today’s highly competitive world, to increase sales of product or to sustain in the market, use of celebrities in advertising is necessary for the companies. 1 2 3 4 5 E.) A male celebrity endorser for a car will increase your likelihood to purchase the product. 1 2 3 4 5 F.) A female celebrity endorser for a hair product will increase your likelihood to purchase the product. 1 2 3 4 5

G.) You intentionally purchase certain products because of their association with the celebrity. 1 2 3 4 5 H.) “You are attracted towards those products in which advertisement celebrities come more frequently” 1 2 3 4 5 I.) “You purchase products more in which advertisement your favorite celebrities comes” 1 2 3 4 5 J.) “Using those products in which advertisements celebrities comes creates good impressions on the others (society)” 1 2 3 4 5

K.) “You purchased product by watching product endorsed by celebrities and then after you realized that product having no good quality as endorsed by celebrities and you feel cheated” 1 2 3 4 5

L.) “Advertisement in which celebrities come that advertisement is remembered by you through longer period of time” 1 2 3 4 5

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Q-3. How important do you consider each of the attributes mentioned to be of importance when considering a Celebrity as a brand ambassador of a product? (Please evaluate each attribute on the scale of 1 to 5) a) Expertise (The Level of knowledge a celebrity has in a Particular Brand) Unimportant 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 5( ) Important b). Trustworthiness (How honest & believable a celebrity endorsing a product is) Unimportant 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 5( ) Important c). Similarity (Sense of similarity a consumer feels with a celebrity) Unimportant 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 5( ) Important d) Likeability (The level of a celebrity’s fame in public eye & his/her popularity) Unimportant 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 5( ) Important e). Meaning Transfer (The meaning a celebrity brings to a brand) Unimportant 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 5( ) Important f) “Fit” Match (How well the fit between celebrity & the brand is) Unimportant 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 5( ) Important Q-4.Hoe does presence of celebrity make you feel about Brand a) More likely to look at b) Improve perceptions c) Make me Miss Trusts d) Don’t know e) Others Q-5. Which product advertisement can you recall most with these Celebrities?

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Role Of Celebrities In Advertising And Its Effectiveness

Sachin Tendulkar:

a) Boost ( ) b) MRF ( ) c) Adidas ( )

d) Pepsi ( )

Amitabh Bachchan a) Dabur( )b) Red&Taylor( )c)TVS victor( ) d)Cadbury( ) Aamir Khan: ( ) a) Titan ( )b) Samsung ( )c) Cocacola ( ) d) Smartchips

Q-6. “Products advertisement in which celebrities comes more costly than other products in same category? Competitive rates ( ), Moderate ( ) Noncompetitive rates. ( )
Q-7. Please rate the following statements on a scale of 1-5.

a) You try a new brand if it is advertised by your favorite’s celebrity. Strongly Disagree 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 5( ) Strongly Agree b) You try an existing product if it is advertised by your favorite’s celebrity. Strongly Disagree 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 5( ) Strongly Agree c) You don’t mind paying higher prices for products advertised by my Favorite’s celebrity. Strongly Disagree 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 5( ) Strongly Agree e) Advertisement of a product by a celebrity can make that product Successful. Strongly Disagree 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 5( ) Strongly Agree Q-8. The following list of feature are associated with celebrity endorsement, for each feature, please record the one alternative that best express how important or un important that features to you. 1. Extremely 2.somewhat 3.nither important at all Important important Important nor unimportant unimportant 4.somewhat 5.not

------Higher degree of recall. ------Trustworthiness. ------Associates benefits.
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Q-9. How much you satisfied with the product which is endorse by your favorite celebrity? 1. Very satisfied. 2. Somewhat satisfied. 3. Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied. 4. Somewhat dissatisfied. 5. Very dissatisfied. Q-10. Match the most attributes to the celebrities: Sachin Amitabh Reliability, Priyanka Reliability, Akshay Ketrina Amirkhan : [ ] Trust, [ ] Expertise ness, [ ] Attractiveness. [ ] Reliability, : [ ] Trust, [ ] Expertise ness, [ ] Attractiveness. [ ] : [ ] Trust, [ ] Expertise ness, [ ] Attractiveness. [ ] : [ ] Trust, [ ] Expertise ness, [ ] Attractiveness. [ ] Reliability, : [ ] Trust, [ ] Expertise ness, [ ] Attractiveness. [ ] Reliability, : [ ] Trust, [ ] Expertise ness, [ ] Attractiveness. [ ] Reliability,

Sahrukh khan :[ ] Trust, [ ] Expertise ness, [ ] Attractiveness. [ ] Reliability, Aishwarya Dhoni : [ ] Trust, [ ] Expertise ness, [ ] Attractiveness. [ ] Reliability, : [ ] Trust, [ ] Expertise ness, [ ] Attractiveness. [ ] Reliability,

Name: ……………………………………………………………………………. Address: Category:…………………………………………………………………… (Student, housewife, Husband, Working person (Bachelor) Age: …… Contact No………………………
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