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## Code No: V3122/R07 Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2009
DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS
(Electronics & Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

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All Questions carry equal marks
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1. (a) Explain the process of differential quantizing scheme and compare differential
quantizing scheme with direct quantizing scheme.
(b) The message signal, m(t) is a zero mean stationary Guassian random process,
and it is sampled at a rate of 10,000 samples/second (Ts = 0.1msec). The
normalized autocorrelation function has a value of 0.8 when τ = 0.1msec.
Assume that the mean squared error due to quantizing a normal random
variable with variance ‘σ 2 ’ is 2σ 2 Q−2 . Find the mean squared error of
i. A non ? uniform quantizer with Q = 32, operating on each sample inde-
pendently.
ii. A differential quantizer with Q = 32, which operates on successive differ-
ences {M(kTs) - M((k-1)Ts)}. [8+8]
2. (a) Derive an expression for quantizing noise in DM system and compare it with
PCM systems.
(b) Consider a DM system whose receiver does not include a low pass filter
i. Show that under the assumption of no slope overload distortion, the max-

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imum output signal to quantization noise ratio increases by 6dB when the
sampling rate is doubled.
ii. What is the improvement that results from the use of a LPF at the receiver
output? [8+8]
3. (a) Assume that R = 9600kbits/sec. For a rectangular pulse, calculate the second
null-to-null bandwidth of BPSK, QPSK, MSK and QAM.
(b) Mention the advantages and disadvantages of BPSK, QPSK, MSK and QAM.
[8+8]
4. (a) Mention the drawbacks in duo - binary coding and how these drawbacks can
be overcome by using modified duo - binary coding.
(b) Derive an expression for error probability of modified duo - binary PAM sys-
tem. [8+8]
5. For a source emitting symbols in independent sequences, show that the source
entropy is maximum when the symbols occurs with equal probabilities. [16]
6. Show that H(X, Y) = H(X) + H(Y |X) = H(Y ) + H(X|Y ). [16]
7. Explain about block codes in which each block of k message bits encoded into block
of n>k bits with an example. [16]
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## Code No: V3122/R07 Set No. 1

8. Sketch the State diagram for convolutional encoder shown in figure 8 Rate = 1/2,
constraint length L = 2. [16]

www.andhracolleges.com Figure 8

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## Code No: V3122/R07 Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2009
DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS
(Electronics & Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

www.andhracolleges.com
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

## 1. (a) Explain the term ‘Quantization’.

(b) Find the output signal power due to Quantization noise in a PCM system.
[4+12]

## 2. (a) What is Delta modulation and compare with PCM?

(b) Discuss different types of noise effects in delta modulation. [8+8]

3. (a) Write down the modulation waveform for transmitting binary information over
base band channels, for the following modulation schemes: ASK, PSK, FSK
and DPSK.
(c) Discuss base band transmission of M-ary data. [4+6+6]

## 4. (a) What is correlative coding? And explain.

(b) Design a binary baseband PAM system to transmit data at a bit rate of 9600
bits/sec., with a bit error probability less than 10−5 . The channel available

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is an ideal low pass channel with a bandwidth of 4800 Hz. The noise can
be assumed to be white gaussian with a two-sided power spectral density of
η/2=10−13 w/Hz. Find the transmitted power requirements and sketch the
shape of |HT (f )|, |HR (f )|and|Pg (f )|. [4+12]

5. A code is composed of dots and dashes. Assume that the dash is 3 times as long
as the dots, has one-third the probability of occurrence.

Calculate

## (a) the Information in a dot and that in a hash.

(b) average Information in the dot-hash code.
(c) Assume that a dot lasts for 10 ms and that this same time interval is allowed
between symbols. Calculate average rate of Information. [16]

6. Consider five messages given by the probabilities 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/16

(a) Calculate H
(b) Using Shannon-Fano algorithm to develop a efficient code and, for that Code
calculate average number of bits /message. [16]
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## Code No: V3122/R07 Set No. 2

7. Consider
a (6, 3) generator
matrix.
1 0 0| 0 1 1

G = 0 1 0| 1 0 1
0 0 1| 1 1 0

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Find

## (a) all the code vectors of this data.

(b) the parity check matrix for this code.
(c) the minimum weight of this code. [16]

8. Draw and explain Trellis diagram of convolutional encoder shown in figure 8 with
L=2, k=2, n=3. [16]

www.andhracolleges.com ?????
Figure 8

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## Code No: V3122/R07 Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2009
DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS
(Electronics & Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

www.andhracolleges.com
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. (a) In the binary PCM systems, Find out the minimum number of bits required
so that quantizing noise is less than ±k percentage of the analog signal.
(b) Explain the terms:
i. Sampling
ii. Quantization [8+4+4]

2. (a) Compare Delta modulation and PCM techniques in terms of bandwidth and
signal to noise ratio.
(b) A signal m(t) is to be encoded using either Delta modulation or PCM tech-
nique. The signal to quantization noise ratio (SO /NO ) ≥ 30dB. Find the ratio
bandwidth required for PCM to Delta Modulation. [8+8]

3. (a) Derive the structure of a carrier recovery network for a QPSK signaling scheme.
(b) The bit stream 11011100101 is to be transmitted using DPSK. Determine the
encoded sequence and the transmitted phase sequence. [8+8]

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4. (a) What is meant by ISI? Explain how it differs from cross talk in the PAM.
(b) What is the ideal solution to obtain zero ISI and what is the disadvantage of
this solution. [6+10]

## 5. (a) A source emits an independent sequence of symbols from an alphabet consist-

ing of five symbols A, B, C, D, E with symbols probabilities 1/4, 1/8, 3/16,
5/16, respectively. Find entropy of the source.
(b) A binary source is emitting an independent source of 0’s and 1’s with probabili-
ties p and 1-p, respectively. Plot the Entropy of this source versus p(0 < p < 1).

6. (a) Define the channel capacity in terms of average signal-power and noise power.
(b) Mention the two important implications of Shannon-Hartley theorem? [16]

7. Consider
a (6, 3) generator
matrix.
1 0 0| 0 1 1

G = 0 1 0| 1 0 1
0 0 1| 1 1 0
Find

## (a) all the code vectors of this data.

(b) the parity check matrix for this code.
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## Code No: V3122/R07 Set No. 3

(c) the minimum weight of this code. [16]

## 8. In the given figure 8, rate= 1/2, constraint length= 2, convolution code.

www.andhracolleges.com Figure 8
Solve for the transfer function T (D, N, J ) and, from this specify the minimum
free distance. [16]

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## Code No: V3122/R07 Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2009
DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS
(Electronics & Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

www.andhracolleges.com
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

## 1. (a) Explain µ - law and A - law companding technique?

(b) Approximate µ-law curve with µ = 100 by two-linear segments, one for 0<x≤
0.1 and the other for 0.1 < x ≤ 1. Calculate S/Nq for S = -40, -10. Where
x(t) is input signal. [8+8]

## 2. (a) What is Delta modulation and compare with PCM?

(b) Discuss different types of noise effects in delta modulation. [8+8]

3. (a) Explain with neat block diagram the generation and recovery of DPSK signals.
(b) The bit stream d(t) is to be transmitted using DPSK. If d(t) is 001010011010.
Determine b(t) and draw the waveforms. [10+6]

4. (a) Derive an expression to find the condition for the removal of ISI.
(b) Design a PAM system to transmit the output of a source emitting an equiprob-
able independent bit stream at a rate of 10,000 bits/sec. over an ideal low pass
channel of width 5000Hz and additive gaussian noise with a power spectral

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density of 10−2 w/Hz. Error probability has to be maintained at (or) below
10−4 . [8+8]

5. One experiment has three mutual exclusive outcomes Aj , j =1, 2, 3 and second
experiment has three mutually exclusive outcomes Bj , j=1, 2, 3. The joint proba-
bilities P (A, B) are
P (A1 , B1 ) = 0.11 P (A1 , B2) = 0.08 P (A1 , B3 ) = 0.13
P (A2 , B1 ) = 0.15 P (A2 , B2 ) = 0.03 P (A2 , B3 ) = 0.09
P (A3 , B1 ) = 0.11 P (A3 , B2 ) = 0.04 P (A3 , B3 ) = 0.06
With the given joint probabilities P (Ai , Bj ), if the outcomes Ai , i=1, 2, 3, 4 of
experiment A.
Determine the Mutual Information I (Bj; Ai ) for j=1, 2, 3 and i=1, 2, 3, 4, in bits.
[16]

6. (a) Explain about the characteristics of the Gilbert model for the communication
channel.
(b) What are the disadvantages of Gilbert model? Suggest a method to overcome
the disadvantages of Gilbert model. [16]

7. Explain about block codes in which each block of k message bits encoded into block
of n>k bits with an example. [16]
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## Code No: V3122/R07 Set No. 4

8. Sketch the Tree diagram of convolutional encoder shown in figure 8 with Rate=
1/2, constraint length L = 2. [16]

www.andhracolleges.com Figure 8

?????

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