Abbreviations 0 1 Introduction

Contents

1 3 5
5 5 5 8

Brief overview and reasons for the use of cones
1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 Overview Definition and kinds of Egyptian titles Previous studies Reasons for the use of funerary cones

2

Funerary cones
2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 Form Length Colours Placement

10
10 11 11 11 12 15 19 22

Manufacturing method

Geographical distribution Historical distribution Functions Research history

22 25

Research history limitations and future of development

3

Comparison of titles based on dates
3-1 3-2 3-3 How should cones be used? Comparison Considerations while comparing titles

27
27 28 29

4

Conclusion
Published sources

36
37
37

References

Unpublished sources

46

Appendices
1 A catalogue of all known cones
Index for Appendix 1

48
241

2 All titles of the deceaced who appears in the present work
Index for Appendix 2

265
284

3 A Table designating the date and the origin of each cone 4 Assignments by each scholar
1. Daressy 2. 3. 4. 6. 7. 8. 9. Stewart Manniche Kondo Kondo Vivó Vivó (sorted by tombs) The author

293 295
295 295 296 297 298 299 300 302 304 305

5. Kampp

10. The author (sorted by tombs)

Acknowledgements

307

Abbreviations
AAA APM ASAE BACE BAEDE BAEO : BCM BIFAO BMHT BMMA BSÉG CAA Cd’É d DAIK D. & M. EEF GM HM IFAO JEA JNES KhM KMKG-MRAH LD LM MAF MAN MDAIK MDIAAK MFA Boston MM MMAF MNA NMI NMS PSBA PeM PM PM 2 PN Rd'É Rec. trav. RfEa / N RO SAGA SAK Annals of archaeology and anthropology. Allard Pierson Museum. Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Égypte. Bulletin of the Australian Centre for Egyptology. Boletín de la asociación Española de Egiptología. Boletín de la asociación Española de Orientalistas. Buckinghamshire County Museum. Bulletin de l’Institut Français D’Archéologie Orientale. Hieroglyphic texts from Egyptian stelae, &c., in the British Museum. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Bulletin de la société d’Égyptologie Genève. Corpus antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum. Chronique d'Égypte. digit (1.6cm). Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Kairo. Davies, N. de G. & Macadam, M. F. L. 1957. Egypt exploretion fund. Göttinger Miszellen. The Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery, University of Glasgow. L’Institut Français D’Archéologie Orientale. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Kunsthistorisches Museum. De Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis-Les Musées royaux d'Art et d'Histoire. Lepsius, K. R. (1849-59). Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs‘sche Buchhandlung. Liverpool Museum. Museo Archeologico di Firenze. Museo Arqueológico Nacional. Mitteilungen des Deutschen archäologischen Instituts Abteilung Kairo. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Instituts für ägyptische Altertumskunde in Kairo. Musium of Fine Arts, Boston. Manchester Museum. Mémoires publiés par les membres de la mission archéologique Française au Caire. Museu Nacional de Arqueologia. National Museum of Ireland. National Museums Scotland. Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. Petrie Museum. Porter,B., & Moss, R. L. B. (1960). Topographical bibliography of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic texts, reliefs, and paintings. I, 1, 2nd ed. Oxford: Griffith Institute. Porter,B., & Moss, R. L. B. (1964). Topographical bibliography of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic texts, reliefs, and paintings. I, 2, 2nd ed. Oxford: Griffith Institute. Ranke, H. (1935-1977). Die ägyptischen Personennamen, 3Bde. Revue d'Égyptologie. Recueil de travaux relatifs à la philologie et à l'archéologie égyptiennes et assyriennes. The Rundle foundation for Egyptian archaeology / Newsletter. Rijksmuseum van Oudheden. Studien zur Archäologie und Geschichte Altägyptens. Studien zur Altägytischen Kultur. 1

Torino TT UMP Urk VA ZÄS

Museo Egizio di Torino. Theban tomb. The The West Bohemian Museum, Pilsen, Czech Republic. Urkunden der 18. Dynastie. Varia Aegyptiaca. Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde.

2

0

Introduction

This thesis examines the social ranks of the deceased who were buried in the West Bank of Luxor (Thebes) in the New Kingdom. Based on their titles, which help in determining their ranks, a comparison of their merits and demerits has also been presented. In order to accomplish this comparison, funerary cones were employed as the tools for analysis. These cones bear either a stamp or several stamps that have inscriptions of the owner’s name and titles. I believe that these are the most important titles that the officials possessed. Based on them, it is possible to determine the hierarchy of the officials, depending on whether or not the titles are mentioned on the cones. In addition, by comparing the titles of the nobles in the same period, it is possible to rank them further. Thus, by adopting this two-step process, the hierarchy of not only the titles but also the owners can be determined on a date-by-date basis. Nevertheless, till date, this methodology has not been adopted in previous studies. Earlier researchers have attempted to reveal the importance of these titles by using the following two methodologies: interpreting the meaning of the titles or measuring the tombs. However, as stated in Chapter 1, the former approach is considerably limited, and the latter is prone to difficulties and speculation. By employing the present methodology, it has been possible to eliminate such problems, albeit the new methodology is not without limitations. In particular, the following two aspects can be regarded as shortcomings. 1. It is difficult to assign all the cones to their tombs since many tombs have not yet been discovered. 2. It is impossible to include tombs that are severely damaged or unfinished, or those that cannot be specifically dated. Considering that it is improbable to avoid the second problem, regardless of the methodology adopted, it is important to solve the first problem to some extent by means of more thorough excavations. The present thesis has been divided into four chapters and four appendices in the following manner. Chapter 1 provides a brief overview of the subject as well as reasons for the use of cones. In Chapter 2, cones and their various attributes are explained in detail. New insights that have been rarely mentioned in previous studies have been provided. Chapter 3 begins with an explanation of the basic concept of the comparison methodology, including a comparison of the cone titles and non-cone titles. Thereafter, Chapter 4 provides a summary of the previous three chapters. Additional information has been provided in the four appendices. Appendix 1 provides a catalogue that illustrates all the known cones at present. In addition, two indices— sorted by names and by titles—are also provided. Appendix 2 presents detailed information about the titles of the deceased who have been mentioned in this thesis; an index of titles has also been provided. Appendix 3 assigns the cones in a geographical as well as historical context. This information is presented in a tabular format. Appendix 4 provides information about the cone–tomb connection based on concepts presented by earlier scholars. Finally, I would like to mention how this thesis, which claims that it is possible to rank the Theban nobles of the New Kingdom based on their titles by using funerary cones, will contribute to Egyptology. First, since each title has been observed on a date-by-date basis, it is possible to trace the rise and fall of the titles’ importance in every period. Unfortunately, however, since sufficient data could not be collected due to the natural and artificial damages caused to the textual sources, this history has not been reconstructed in the present work. Nevertheless, this does not mean that it is impossible to trace the history of the titles. Further cone–tomb relationships which will be revealed in future works may contribute toward this endeavour. Second, this thesis will facilitate a detailed examination of the buildings and the development of the Theban necropolis. Since it is possible that the highest ranked person was allotted the most suitable location for burial and the second highest ranked noble the second most suitable location, we can determine the location where the tomb building began and the manner in which it expanded. Consequently, relative social positions will help in explaining the transition of the importance of titles and the aspects of the formation of the 3

necropolis. In addition, I would like to mention that the present methodology is not only restricted to the New Kingdom Luxor, Egypt; in other words, it has a wide application base. The most important aspect of this method is that it determines social ranks based on titles by utilising ‘objects on which selected titles of the dead have to be written’. Therefore, such objects, regardless of location, will allow us to rank the titles of a society as well as the people who held them.

4

2

Funerary cones
Fig. 2 Brick-formed 'cone'.

In general, funerary cones are considered to be conical objects that were used to adorn tombs in the Theban Fig. 1 Pyramidal 'cone'. necropolis. These cones were placed in front of the tombs in two or more rows in such a manner that only the flat, circular bases were visible. On these bases, a seal or seals bearing the names and titles of the tomb owners and their relatives were stamped. In this chapter, funerary cones and their various features have been reviewed in a more concrete manner and exceptions have also been mentioned.

Fig. 3 Sledge-formed 'cone'.

2-1

Form

Most of the funerary cones can be classified into the following four types: Fig. 5 Conical cone (Davies & Macadam # 3). pyramidal (Fig. 1), brick© The British Mueum. (EA 96222) formed (Fig. 2), sledge- Fig. 4 Conical cone (Davies & Macadam # 358). © The British Mueum. (EA 35688 ) formed (Fig. 3), and conical (Figs. 4–6). H o w e v e r, h o r n - s h a p e d 12 ) and trumpet( 13 shaped ( ) cones are also present at the Museo Archeologico di Firenze Fig. 6 Conical cone (Davies & Macadam # 302). ( F l o r e n c e ) , I t a l y 14. I n Fig. 7 Bone-like 'cone' (Davies & Macadam © The British Mueum. (EA 9666). # 378). addition, Kunsthistorisches © KHM, Wien. (A 1863). Museum in Wien, Austria, has another rare type of cone (Fig. 7); this bone-shaped cone belongs to Djedhor, whose other cones are also housed in the same museum. Nevertheless, more significant are the double-headed and triple-headed cones, albeit there is only one example at present (Figs. 8–9)15. Each cone bears the name of an ancient official and his title, which is stamped on the face of the cone; the average diameter of the surface base is between five to ten centimetres. While some Egyptians had several types of cones that bore the same seal, others, such as the owner of TT 32 whose cones are Davies & Macadam # 336 and # 346, only had the brick type. Therefore, while the term ‘funerary cone’ is used in English, the Germans refer to it with the following two terms: Grabkegel (tomb’s cone) and

Fig. 8 Double-headed 'cone'. © The Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery, University of Glasgow 2009. (GLAHM D.1925.63) 12 13 14 15

Fig. 9 Triple-headed 'cone'. © Dr José M. Galán.

MAF: 2356 = Davies & Macadam # 594. MAF: 2357 = Davies & Macadam # 385 & MAF: 2367 = Davies & Macadam # 170. Pellegrini 1902: 38, 41, 47. Both of them originated in TT 11—the tomb of Djehuty. Triple-headed cone is referred to in Galán and Borrego 2007: Fig. 37.

10

Friesziegel (ornamental brick). Donald Ryan, who possesses considerable knowledge about cones, suggested that funerary cones be termed ‘funerary stamps’16. Ernõ Gaál, a Spanish archaeologist who excavated TT 32, referred to the unearthed objects bearing seals # 336 and # 346 as ‘stamped bricks’17. Thus, the conicalshaped funerary cones are not exclusive. However, since they are the most abundant, the present work refers to all such objects as ‘cones’, except when specific types are indicated.

2-2

Length

Variation in the length of the cones is considerable. For instance, the longest cone, which was found at El-Tarif, is 52.5 cm18 (= 1 cubit). On the other hand, the shortest cone, to the best of my knowledge, is the one of Padiamunnebnesuttawi that is housed at Manchester Museum; it is only about 4.4 digits19 in length (Fig. 10; 1 digit = 1.6 cm). Another example of this short length is, again, Davies and Macadam # 401; it is also exhibited in the same museum and is 5.6 digits in length20. Further, there is no manner of determining whether the cones became shorter or longer over the years; this is because most of the examples available are either accidentally chipped or artificially broken by both plunderers and scholars for transportation (see Chapter 2-9). However, it is evident that cones from the later period such as # 20 and # 401, both belonging to the same individual, are short, as mentioned Fig. 10 above.

Short cone (Davies & Macadam # 401). © Manchester Museum. (6334b).

2-3

Colours

In terms of colour, it has been reported that most cones are entirely white, entirely red, painted red only on the stamped surface, or are, rather unusually, blue21. Generally speaking, since the outer surface of the tombs was covered with white plaster, it is possible that the cones were coloured so as to attract visitors. The cones of Davies & Macadam # 298 and # 312, which belonged to a couple, serve as evidence of the theory. Based on observations at Fig. 11 Nebseny's cone Fig. 12 Seniseneb's cone the British Museum, it was found that the husband’s (Davies & Macadam 298). (Davies & Macadam 312) (Nebseny) cone (Fig. 11) has a white surface and © The British Mueum. © The British Mueum. his wife’s (Seniseneb) cone (Fig. 12) has a red one. (EA 62684) (EA 62645) These cones, at the time, were set side by side or were separated into a right half and a left half. Regardless, it can be stated that the Egyptians did not build monotonous tombs as is evident by the inclusion of such colourful elements.

2-4

Manufacturing method

Almost all the cones have been crafted by hand. However, in some very rare cases, such as Davies & Macadam # 138 and # 215 (Figs. 13–14), it appears as if they were made on a wheel. This deduction is based on the fact that their bodies are hollow and their bottom surfaces retain the concentric traces of the wheel22. Moreover, these hollow cones may have contained sand or liquid, such as water or alcohol,
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Ryan 1988. Gaál 1993. Arnold 1972 [MDAIK 28]: 21. Personal communication with Dr Karen Exell, curator of the Manchester Museum. 22 February 2008. Personal communication with Dr Karen Exell, curator of the Manchester Museum. 22 February 2008. Daressy 1892: 270. There are three examples (PeM: UC 37598–37600. Stewart 1986: 23, 71, 73) for # 138 and three examples (BM: EA 9720, 9730, and

11

suggesting that they may have had uses other than to be set on the outer walls or courts of the tombs. I believe that these objects initially played an important role in the funeral ceremonies as containers of sand, liquid, or gelatinous material, and were subsequently converted into cones. It is worth noting that Amelia B. Edwards, a writer and an archaeologist, vividly depicted cones in her book, ‘A Thousand Miles up the Nile’. She refers to them in the following manner on her arrival at Abu-Simbel:

Fig. 13 Wheel-made cone (Davies & Macadam 215). © The British Mueum (EA 9730)

Fig. 14 Wheel-made cone (Davies & Macadam 215). © The British Mueum (EA 9720)

…By shoring up the ground, however, they were enabled completely to clear the landing, which was curiously paved with cones of rude pottery like the bottoms of amphorae. These cones, of which we took out some twenty-eight or thirty, were not in the least like the celebrated funereal cones found so abundantly at Thebes. They bore no stamps, and were much shorter and more lumpy in shape.23 Although Edwards rejected the objects that had ‘no stamps and were much shorter and more lumpy in shape’, stating that they were in no way like the funerary cones known to have existed in Thebes, it is interesting to note that they were like the bottoms of amphorae. This implies that concentric lines were present, similar to Davies & Macadam # 138 and # 215.

2-5

Placement

Based on previous research, it can be assumed that cones were placed on the outer wall of the tombs, above the entrance. The reasons for this assumption are as follows: 1. In the wall paintings of the tombs, such as TT 4124, TT 49, TT 55, TT 78, TT 159, TT 178, TT 181, A.21, cones are depicted as being placed on the outer wall, above the entrance (Figs. 15–21). 2. Some researchers have reported that they actually found cones placed there. Despite the fact that the actual finding of cones on the outer wall is considerably rare, the following three excerpts from articles prove this claim. The first report is by Rhind as follows: …Above the scarp, and flush with it, there remained about two feet of coarse building, in continuation, as it were, of the elevation of the front of the tomb; and I mention this here because, imbedded in the building, and stretching very nearly its entire length, were two rows of clay cones, impressed with a hieroglyphic subject on the ends turned to the light.25 The second report can be found in Henry Salt’s manuscript, which is preserved in the British Museum and was published by Reeves and Ryan: …An ancient brick, with Hieroglyphics upon it: and a fine collection of stamped seals which have been found arranged over the door of a Tomb, found by me at Thebes.26 Reeves and Ryan suggest that the potential owner of the tomb to which Salt has referred to is TT A.9. However, till date, no concrete or convincing evidence has been provided. Nevertheless, Reeves and
23 24 25 26 PeM: UC 37653) for # 215. Edwards 1993: 335. Underline added for emphasis. Assmann 1991: Taf. 40. Rhind 1862, 136–137. The tomb is possibly TT 47 but see Manniche 1988, 199, n. 8. Reeves and Ryan 1987, 47–48.

12

Fig. 15 Suspected cones depicted in TT 49. Borchardt etc. 1934 [ZÄS 70]: 28 Abb. 2.

Fig. 16 Suspected cones depicted in TT 55 Davies 1938 [JEA 24]: Fig. 3. Courtesy of the Egypt Exploration Society.

Fig. 17 Suspected cones depicted in TT 78. A part from Bouriant 1894 Pl. 2.

Fig. 18 Suspected cones depicted in TT 159 Davies 1938 [JEA 24]: Fig. 14. Courtesy of the Egypt Exploration Society.

Fig. 19 Suspected cones depicted in TT 178. Borchardt etc. 1934 [ZÄS 70]: 28 Abb. 3. Fig. 20 Suspected cones depicted in TT 181. Davies 1938 [JEA 24]: Fig. 2. Courtesy of the Egypt Exploration Society.

Fig. 21 Suspected cones depicted in A.21. A part of Fig. 124 in Institute of Egyptology, Waseda University 2007. © Institute of Egyptology, Waseda University

Fig. 22 Cones discovered in situ. © The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Fig. 23 Cones discovered in situ. © The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

13

Fig. 24 Reconstruction of TT 157. Borchardt etc. 1934 [ZÄS 70]: 29 Abb. 5.

Fig. 25 Reconstruction of TT 288,9. Borchardt etc. 1934 [ZÄS 70]: 29 Abb. 6.

Fig. 26 Reconstruction of TT 181. Borchardt etc. 1934 [ZÄS 70]: 29 Abb. 7.

Fig. 27 Funerary cones discovered at the court of TT 74. A part of Taf. 52a in Brack and Brack 1977. © DAIK.

Ryan insist that the cone which Salt refers to is Davies & Macadam # 54, which was purchased by the British Museum in 1823 and is still in their possession. Finally, explicit and hard evidence was afforded by Herbert Winlock. He discovered a tomb with cones above its entrance at Deir el-Bahri. The black-and-white photographs of what he found are the only pictures that show cones in situ (Figs. 22–23). Based on the above evidence, Borchardt, Königsberger, and Ricke reconstructed the outward appearances of the following three tombs: TT 157, TT 288/289, and TT 181 (Figs. 24–26). However, these evidences, i.e. cones depicted in wall paintings and cones found in actual discoveries, have certain limitations. First, it cannot be confirmed as to whether the dots in the wall paintings actually represent funerary cones. Moreover, such paintings in which ‘assumed’ funerary cones are depicted are considerably rare; in fact, the author could find only eight examples, as mentioned above. The Theban necropolis has over 1,000 tombs, and each tomb has many paintings depicting different scenes in each room. My research reveals that at least 101 tombs had cones (see Chapter 2-6); thus, if the assumed funerary cones are in fact real ones, they should have been depicted in many paintings vis-à-vis the few that have been found. As mentioned by AlThibi in his PhD thesis, these scenes primarily date back to the late 18th dynasty and the Ramesside period27, and are not from the middle of the 18th dynasty which witnessed the production and use of the funerary
27 Al-Thibi 2005: 13.

14

cones more than any other period (see Chapter 2-7). Further, to the best of my knowledge, there currently exist only two documents of papyri (BM: 10471/7 and Louvre: N3068) in which cones have been depicted in two rows above the entrance wall. Another reason why the evidences provided cannot be regarded as concrete is that the tombs studied by Winlock and Arnold date back to the Middle Kingdom and not the New Kingdom which yielded most of the known cones. In addition, if it were true that the cones were imbedded in the outer wall, then it would be safe to assume that they were placed using mortar or other such materials. However, none of the cones found till date display any vestiges of such materials. There is another fact that cannot be ignored: tomb halls which once held cones have yet to be found. A discovery made by Annelies and Artur Brack may help shed some light on this issue. During their expedition conducted in 1973–1974, they unearthed cones located in the courts of the tombs (Fig. 27). The cones were placed neatly side by side and were arranged from top to bottom, which allows us to assume that these cones are in situ. Although only one such example exists till date, it can be deduced that in many instances, cones were placed on the floor of the courts, and not on the tomb façades. However, regardless of their original placement, one thing is certain: a number of cones were placed in noticeable locations.

2-6

Geographical distribution

Based on the most recently available information, notably from texts and their provenience, 646 types of cones (including those that are only hypothesised to exist) have been found for a total of 496 tombs28. Among them, 188 types can be related to 101 known tombs. Thus, in other words, 29% of all the cone types are believed to belong to 20% of the tombs. These cones have been discovered at Naga ed-Deir29, Abydos30, Dendera31, Naqada32, Thebes (Luxor), Armant33, Rizeiqât34, Tod35, Gebelein36, Ed-Dêr37, Kuban38, Aniba39, Abu Simbel40, and Tombos in Sudan41, from north to south42 (Fig. 28). Given the above information, it is evident that while funerary cones are scattered over a large area extending from Egypt to Sudan, the majority of them have been found in the West Bank of Thebes. The following list indicates the areas of Thebes and the number of tombs located there as well as the number of cone types found at these tombs (see also Figs. 29–30). It should be noted that three cones from a tomb at Tombos and two cones from two tombs at Ed-Dêr have been omitted. Additionally, cone # 261 has been
28 611 types in Davies and Macadam (1957), 14 types gathered by Vivó and Costa (Vivó and Costa 1998), and 21 types newly found and numbered by the author. The discrepancy between the two figures results from the multiple assignment of cones to one tomb. 29 Bissing 1926: 171. 30 Daressy 1926 [ASAE 26]: 18–19. 31 Polz 2007: 271–272. 32 Arnold 1968 [MDAIK 23]: 35. 33 18 examples in sum (2 exx. of Davies and Macadam # 15 + probably 2 exx. of # 170, 4 exx. of # 232, 3 exx. of # 477, 2 exx. of # 501, and 3 exx. of # B.05) were discovered (Drower & Myers 1940: 101; Pl. 107). All of them originated in Luxor and were then transported to Armant in the later periods. 34 Daressy 1926 [ASAE 26]: 18. 35 Málek 1982: 428. 36 Sayce 1905 [ASAE 6]: 164. 37 Ibid.: 163–164. 38 Emery and Kirwan 1935: 50. 39 Steindorff 1937, 161 and 187. 40 Edwards 1993: 335. 41 Smith 2003 142–143; Edwards & Osman 2001. 42 All cones, except those from Luxor, Arman, Ed-Dêr, and Tombos, bear no inscriptions. Gaza in Palestine also yielded 17 cone-like objects (Steel, Manley, Clarke, and Sadeq 2004). While Gaza is far from the main production centre, the enigmatic objects resemble cones in shape, size, and material. Further, they have stamped inscriptions which read ‘mn-xpr[w?]-ra (Thutmose III [IV?])’ and ‘mAat-kA-ra (Hatshepsut)’. On the contrary, there also are some observations which differentiate them from the real cones. First, pharaohs did not have cones, and second, the conical objects from Gaza have two inscriptions—one on the face and the other on the side. There are no funerary cones of this type. Given these substantive similarities and differences, excavators point out that these are not exactly funerary cones, but are of a similar function and are used in a funerary context.

15

Fig. 28 Map of Egypt and Sudan

16

Fig. 29 Map of Theban necropolis.

Fig. 30 Geographical distribution of cones in Thebes.

Fig. 31 Geographical distribution of cones in Thebes including those suggested.

17

Appendices

47

Appendix 1 A catalogue of all known cones*
Davies & Macadam # 1

*All images from Davies and Macadam (1957) are courtesy of the Griffith Institute.

Daressy # 1 Owner: Merymaat (Son of Useramun (TT 63 / 131). Tomb undiscovered) Transliteration: sS aAt nbt Spst nTrt n jmn mry-mAat jrj n jmj-rA njwt wsr sS xtmtj-nTr aq Hr sSn m pr-jmn mry-mAat mAa-xrw wab m jpt-swt mrymAat mAa-xrw Hm-nTr n jmn [m] Dsr Dsrw mry-mAat mAa-xrw jrj.n jmj-rA njwt TAtj wsr-jmn mAa-xrw ms n nbt pr Twjw mAat-xrw Translation: Scribe of all costly divine stones of Amun, Merymaat, born of the overseer of the town User, scribe of the divine seal, one who has access to the lotus in the temple of Amun, Merymaat justified, wab-priest in Karnak, Merymaat justified, prophet of Amun in Deir elBahri, Merymaat justified, born of the overseer of the town, vizier, Useramun justified, born of the mistress of the house Tjuwiw justified. Date: Hat. – T. III Length: 14.4d (BM: EA 9716), 17.4d (BM: EA 9670) Colours: Remarks:

Davies & Macadam # 2
Daressy # 3 Owner: Nakhtmin (tomb undiscovered) Transliteration: Asjr Xrj-Hbt n mwt nxt-mnw, wab n HAt jt-nTr n mwt nxt-mnw, sS arq nTr n mwt nxt-mnw, sS Htp-nTr n mwt nxt-mnw, Asjr Translation: Osiris, lector-priest of Mut Nakhtmin, wab-priest to the front of god's father of Mut, Nakhtmin, scribe who swears to God of Mut, Nakhtmin, scribe of the divine offerings of Mut Nakhtmin, Osiris. Date: Length: Colours: Remarks: ・One example was unearthed from Deir el-Bahri (Pomorska 1966; Lipinska 1968 [ASAE 60]: 173 – 174, 204).

Davies & Macadam # 3
Daressy # 2 Owner: TT 132 Ramose Reasons: Inscription and provenience Transliteration: sS-nswt xtmw-bjtj smr watj n mrwt jrtj nswt anxwj bjtj jmj-rA prwj-HD n nb tAwj thrq mAa-xrw ra-ms mAa-xrw jrt n nbt pr TsmHt-pr mAa-xrw Translation: King's scribe, seal-bearer of the king of Lower Egypt, sole and beloved companion, eyes of the king of Upper Egypt, ears of the king of Lower Egypt, overseer of the double treasury of the lord of the Two Lands Taharqa justified, Ramose justified, born of the mistress of the houseThesmehetper justified. Date: 25th Dynasty Taharqa. Length: 5.6d, 8.8d (LM: 42.18.12), 9.2d (HM: GLAHM D.1925.58. From its website) 9.4d, 9.5d (KhM: 5143), 10.3d (BM: EA 69222) Colours: Remarks: ・12 examples were unearthed from TT 132 (Lepsius 1849 – 1859 [LD Text III]: 284). 48

・The owner ascribed is identical to that of # B.04.

Davies & Macadam # 4
Daressy # 13 Owner: Didu Transliteration: wpwtj-nswt Hr xAswt nbt n aAt n mnx=f Hrj-jb Dd.n=f nbw n Hswt Hr qnt m spw aSAw Hrj-mDAw djdw mAa-xrw Translation: King's messenger in all foreign lands, inasmuch as he was efficient upon the heart, one to whom was given the gold of praises because of his bravery on numerous occassions, chief of the medjay, Didu justified. Date: Length: Colours: Remarks: ・One example was unearthed from TT 196 (Graefe 2003: Text p. 202; Taf. 113, Kat.504).

Davies & Macadam # 5
Daressy # — Owner: Es (tomb undiscovered, perhaps at Dra Abul Naga) Transliteration: jmAxy xr Asjr jmj-rA pr n jmn Hrj wHAt jmj-rA Snwtj n jmn HAtj-a n wHAt mHtt sS s mAa-xrw xr nTr aA nb Dt Translation: Revered one before Osiris, steward of Amun, chief of the oasis, overseer of the double granary of Amun, mayor of the northern oasis, scribe Es, justified before the great god, lord of eternity. Date: Length: 11.7d (MM: 5030), 13.2d (APM: APM U. 12742) Colours: Wholly white originally (MM: 5028 – 30) Remarks: ・Five examples were unearthed at Dra Abul Naga (Gauthier 1908 [BIFAO 6]: 132 – 133). Unknown examples were unearthed at southern Dra Abul Naga (Northampton etc. 1908: 4, Pls. 2, 24. Exact location unknown. Cf. Delgado 2005 [BAEDE 15]: 92).

Davies & Macadam # 6
Daressy # 7 Owner: Pyia (tomb undiscovered, perhaps at Khokha) Transliteration: jmAxy xr Asjr jmj-rA ssmwt jmj-rA jHw n jmn pyA mAa-xrw jn sA=f jmj-rA jHw n jmn s-wAst mAa-xrw Translation: Revered one before Osiris, overseer of horses, overseer of the cattle of Amun, Pyia justified. (Made) By his son, overseer of the cattle of Amun, Eswaset justified. Date: Length: Colours: Remarks: ・Two examples were unearthed at the court of TT 23 (Collins 1976 [JEA 62]: 34). One example was unearthed at the court of TT 105 – 107 (It may not be # 6. Ibid.: 35). ・Some archaeologists and Egyptologists have debated the possibility of a relationship between this cone and TT 344 (Stewart 1987: 67; Kondo 1998: 40; Vivó 2002: 26). Admittedly, both their names and titles are identical; however, I believe that to conclude a relationship based on this would be erroneous. TT 344 49

・A picture and a sketch have been shown by Vivó and Costa in 1994 and 1998 respectively (Vivó and Costa 1994; Vivó and Costa 1998 [BSÉG 22]: 70).

Drawn by the author after Vivó and Costa 1998 [BSÉG 12]: 70.

Vivó and Costa 1998 # A.14
Owner: Djehuty (tomb undiscovered) Transliteration: jmj-rA Snaw n jmn Dhwtj Hmt[=f] my Translation: Overseer of workhouses, Djehuty, [his] wife, Miy. Date: Length: Colours: Remarks: ・Housed in the Bolton museum (Bolton 1920.10.6. Vivó and Costa 1995 [BSÉG 19]: 99). Drawn by the author after Vivó and Costa 1995 [BSÉG 19]: 99.

Zenihiro # B.01
Owner: Amunone (tomb undiscovered) Transliteration: jmn-jnt jrj.n [...]-Htp Translation: Amunone, born of [...]hotep. Date: Length: Gauthier 1908 [BIFAO 6]: 130. Colours: Remarks: ・One example was unearthed at Dra Abul Naga (Gauthier 1908 [BIFAO 6]: 129 – 130). ・The pictures and traced figures have not been published yet so it may have no existence.

Zenihiro # B.02
Owner: Keresetynetjeraa (? Tomb undiscovered) Transliteration: sAb qrsty-nTr-aA (?) Translation: Sab, Keresetynetjeraa (?). Date: Length: Gauthier 1910 [BIFAO 7]: 160. Colours: Remarks: ・Unknown examples were unearthed from the dumped soil in Dra Abul Naga (Chassinat 1910 [BIFAO 7]: 160). ・Since they had not seen the actual cone, Vivó and Costa withheld their judgment on whether this represents a newly-found type or is part of a previously discovered cone (Vivó and Costa 1998 [BSÉG 22]: 65).

Zenihiro # B.03
233

Owner: Nebamun (tomb undiscovered, perhaps at Dra Abul Naga) Transliteration: sS nb-jmn Translation: Scribe Nebamun. Date: Length: Colours: Remarks: ・Two examples (both brick type) unearthed from TT 20 (Davies 1913a: 5). 12 examples (all brick type) unearthed around TT 11 (Galán and Borrego 2007 [Memnonia 17]: 197). ・Like # 336 or # 346, this seal might have been stamped only on the bricks, not on the cones. This may also be true for cones # 85, # 86, # 88, # 120, # B.17, and # B.18. ・From its provenience and the inscription, this cone may have belonged to TT 146. According to Manniche, painted relief fragments held by the British Museum originated from this tomb (Manniche 1988a: 136ff.)

Zenihiro # B.04
Owner: TT 132 Ramose Reasons: Inscription and provenience Transliteration: Asjr sS-nswt xtmw-bjtj smr watj n mrwt jrtj nswt anxwj bjtj jmj-rA prwj-HD n nb tAwj thrq mAa-xrw ra-ms mAa-xrw jrt n nbt pr Ts-mHtpr mAa-xrw Translation: Osiris, king's scribe, seal-bearer of the king of Lower Egypt, sole and beloved companion, eyes of the king of Upper Egypt, ears of the king of Lower Egypt, overseer of the double treasury of the lord of the Two Lands Taharqa justified, Ramose justified, born of the mistress of the houseThesmehetper justified. Date: 25th dynasty Taharqa. Drawn by the author Colours: after Roeder 1924: 297. Remarks: ・This cone was mentioned in Roeder 1924: 297, but has been ignored because it resembles Davies & Macadam # 3, causing scholars to identify this cone with it. However, unlike this one, Davies & Macadam # 3 does not have the word ‘Asjr (Osiris)’ at the head of the sentence.

Zenihiro # B.05
Owner: TT 178 Kel (Neferrenpet) Reasons: Inscription Transliteration: Asjr sS pr-HD n pr jmn kl mAa-xrw Translation: Osiris, scribe of the treasury of the house of Amun, Kel justified. Date: The latter half of R. II Length: Colours: Remarks: ・One brick was found from TT 296 (Borchardt, Königisberger, and Ricke 1934 [ZÄS 70]: 26). ・This example has not been regarded as a cone because it has a rectangular outline of seal stamped on the brick. Similar ones (# 336 and # 346), however, are registered at Davies & Borchardt, Königisberger, and Ricke 1934 [ZÄS 70]: 26. Macadam's catalogue so this one should 234

also be included in this catalogue.

Zenihiro # B.06
Owner: Nr. -286- Nedjem (Aabau) Reasons: Inscription Transliteration: jmj-rA Snaw n aA-xpr[-n]-ra mAa-xrw nDm mAa-xrw Translation: Overseer of the workshop of Thutmose II, Nedjem justified. Date: T. II Length: Colours: Remarks: ・Three examples were unearthed at Armant (Drower and Myers 1940: Texts p. 101, Plates Pl. 107 no. 9). Drower and Myers 1940: Plates Pl. 107 no. 9. ・The owner ascribed is identical to those of # 193, # 232, and # 361. See 'Remarks' for each cone.

Zenihiro # B.07
Owner: Hemnetjer (tomb undiscovered, perhaps at Deir el-Medina) Transliteration: [...] Asjr sS Hm-nTr [...] Translation: [...] Osiris, scribe Hemnetjer [...]. Date: Length: Colours: Remarks: ・Four examples were unearthed at Deir el-Medina (Bruyère 1952: 44, 46).

Zenihiro # B.08
Owner: TT 106 Paser Reasons: Inscription and provenience. Transliteration: jmj-rA njwt TAtj pA-sr Translation: Overseer of the town, vizier Paser. Date: Sety I – R. II Length: Colours: Remarks: ・One brick was found from TT 106 (Collins 1976 [JEA 62]: 36, Fig. 38).

Collins 1976 [JEA 62]: 36, Fig. 38. Courtesy of the Egypt Exploration Society.

Zenihiro # B.09
Owner: ? Transliteration: [...]sS[...] Translation: [...] scribe [...]. Date: Length: Colours: Remarks: ・Unknown examples were unearthed from TT 295 (Feucht 1985: 148, Taf. 73).

235

Feucht 1985: 148, Taf. 73. Courtesy of Dr Erika Feucht.

Zenihiro # B.10
Owner: Mery (tomb undiscovered) Transliteration: [...]nw [...] TAy-sryt n tA [...]y anx wDA snb mry Translation: [...] standard-bearer of Ta[...] l. p. h., Mery. Date: Length: Colours: Remarks: ・One example was unearthed at the side room on hall, two examples at the shaft I in hall, one example at the shaft II in hall of TT 373 Drawn by the author after the ones on Seyfried 1990: 187, 206, 212, 212. (Seyfried 1990: 205 – 206, 209, 212, 215).

Zenihiro # B.11
Owner: Amunemopet (tomb undiscovered) Transliteration: [...] jmn jmn-m-jpAt Translation: [...of] Amun, Amunemopet. Date: Length: Colours: Remarks: ・One examples were unearthed at the shaft of TT 41 (Assmann 1991: 243 – 244). ・Assmann suggests to read: [jmj-rA pr n] jmn jmn-m-jpAt (Ibid.: 244).

Drawn by the author after Assmann 1991: 243.

236

Zenihiro # B.12
Owner: Horemheb (tomb undiscovered) Transliteration: jdnw? Hr-m-Hb Asjr xntj-jmntt [...]w nb rA-sTAw Translation: Deputy (?) Horemheb, Osiris-Khentiamenetet, [...] lord of Rasetjau. Date: Length: Colours: Remarks: Nasr 1993 [SAK 20]: 202. ・One example was unearthed from TT 260 (Nasr 1993 [SAK 20]: 202). © Helmut Buske Verlag GmbH.

Zenihiro # B.13
Owner: [...]u Transliteration: jmj-rA kAt jmn [...]w Translation: Overseer of the works of Amun, [...]u. Date: Length: Colours: Remarks: ・Two examples were unearthed from TT 87 (Guksch 1995: 120 – 121).

Drawn by the author afterGuksch 1995: 121.

Zenihiro # B.14
Owner: TT 36 Ibi Reasons: Inscription and provenience Transliteration: jrj-pat HAtj-a xtmw-bjtj smr watj n mrwt rx-nswt mAa mrj=f jmj-rA pr wr dwAt-nTr jbj sA mry-nTr anx-Hr mAa-xrw Translation: Hereditary noble, mayor, seal-bearer of the king of Lower Egypt, sole and beloved companion, true king's acquaintance, his beloved, chief steward, divine adoratress, Ibi, son of the one beloved of the god, Ankhhor justified. Date: 26th Dynasty Psamtik I Length: 10.9 – 14.1d (Graefe 2003: 203) Colours: Remarks: ・12 examples were unearthed from TT 196 (Ibid.: Text Pp. 201 – Drawn by the author after Graefe 2003: Taf. 112, Kat. 498. 202; Taf. 112, Kat.498). ・The owner ascribed is identical to those of # 450, # 451, # 610, # B.15, and # B.16.

Zenihiro # B.15
Owner: TT 36 Ibi Reasons: Inscription and provenience Transliteration: jrj-pat HAtj-a xtmw-bjtj smr watj n mrwt rx-nswt mAa mrj=f jmj-rA 3 wr dwAt-nTr jbj [sA] mrynTr anx-Hr mAa-xrw Translation: Hereditary noble, mayor, seal-bearer of the king of Lower Egypt, sole and beloved companion, true king's acquaintance, his beloved, chief steward, divine adoratress, Ibi, [son of the] one beloved of the god, Ankhhor justified. Date: 26th Dynasty Psamtik I Length: 12 – 13.4d (Graefe 2003: 203) 237

Colours: Remarks: ・13 examples were unearthed at TT 196 (Ibid.: Text p. 202; Taf. 112, Kat.499). ・The owner ascribed is identical to those of # 450, # 451, # 610, # B.14, and # B.16.

Drawn by the author after Graefe 2003: Taf. 112, Kat. 499.

Zenihiro # B.16
Owner: TT 36 Ibi Reasons: From its inscription and provenience. Transliteration: jrj-pat HAtj-a xtmw-bjtj [smr]-watj n mrwt rx-nswt mAa mrj=f [jmj-rA pr] wr dwAt-nTr jbj [sA] mry-[nTr] anx-Hr mAa[-xrw] Translation: Hereditary noble, mayor, seal-bearer of the king of Lower Egypt, sole and beloved [companion], true king's acquaintance, his beloved, [chief steward], divine adoratress, Ibi, [son of the] one beloved of the [god], Ankhhor justified. Date: 26th Dynasty Psamtik I Length: 11.6d (Graefe 2003: 203) Colours: Remarks: ・One example was unearthed from TT 36 (Ibid.: Text p. 202; Taf. 113, Drawn by the author after Graefe 2003: Taf. 113, Kat. 500. Kat.500). ・The owner ascribed is identical to those of # 450, # 451, # 610, # B.14, and # B.15.

Zenihiro # B.17
Owner: Siamun (buried in the tomb at Tombos) Reasons: From its provenience. Transliteration: Asjr sS nbw-HD jmj-rA xAswt sA-jmn Translation: Osiris, scribe of the gold and silver, overseer of foreign lands, Siamun. Date: The New Kingdom Length: Colours: © Courtesy of Remarks: Dr Stuart Tyson Smith. ・Unknown examples were unearthed from his tomb (Smith 2003: 142 – 143). ・Like # 336 or # 346, this seal might have been stamped only on the bricks, not on the cones. This may also be true for cones # 85, # 86, # 88, # 120, # B.03 and # B.18. ・The owner ascribed is identical to that of # B.19.

Zenihiro # B.18
Owner: Uren (buried in the tomb at Tombos) Reasons: From its provenience. Transliteration: Asjr nbt pr wrn 238

Translation: Osiris, mistress of the house, Uren. Date: The New Kingdom Length: Colours: Remarks: ・Unknown examples were unearthed from her tomb (Smith 2003: 143). ・Like # 336 or # 346, this seal might have been stamped only on the bricks, not on the cones. This may also be true for cones # 85, # 86, # 88, # 120, # B.03, and # B.17. ・The owner ascribed is identical to that of # B.19.

© Courtesy of Dr Stuart Tyson Smith.

Zenihiro # B.19
Owner: Siamun (buried in the tomb at Tombos) Reasons: From its provenience. Transliteration: jmAxy xr Asjr jnpw xntj sH-nTr jn sS nbwHD jmj-rA xAswt sA-jmn mwt=f nbt pr wrn Translation: Revered one before Osiris, Anubis, foremost of the divine booth. By the scribe of the gold and silver, overseer of foreign lands, Siamun. his mother, mistress of the house, Uren. Date: The New Kingdom Length: Colours: Some digits of front side is coloured red (Smith 2003: 142). Remarks: ・Unknown examples were unearthed from his tomb (Ibid.: 143). ・The owner ascribed is identical to those of # B.17 and # B.18. © Courtesy of Dr Stuart Tyson Smith.

Zenihiro # B.20
Owner: ? Transliteration: jmAxy xr [...] n niwt rsjt jmj-rA Snwtj [...] jmn [...] Tr a n s l a t i o n : R e v e r e d o n e before [...] of the southern city, overseer of the double granary [...] Amun [...]. Date: Length: Colours: Remarks: ・One limestone matrix (stamp) unearthed at Medinet Habu © Courtesy of the Oriental Institute of (Teeter et. al. 2003: 187, Pl. the University of Chicago. 103a). © Courtesy of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

239

Zenihiro # B.21
Owner: Baki who was buried in a tomb adjacent to the east of TT 12 (husband of the owner of # 303, Ity). Reasons: From its similarity in appearance to the cone of Ity and its provenience. Transliteration: jmj-rA jHw n jmn bAkj Translation: overseer of the cattle of Amun, Baki. Date: Colours: Remarks: ・43 examples were unearthed from TT 11 – TT 12 area during the first five seasons of the Spanish-Egyptian mission (Ibid.: 204).

© Courtesy of Dr José M. Galán.

240

Index for Appendix 1
A. Names Abx, jmj-rA pr , 331 Ax-jmn, dwAt-nTr , 585 Axt-jmn-rw, jmj-rA jmjw-xnt, dwAt-nTr, , 515 Ax[t]-mwt , f. nbt pr , 7 Ast-xbHw, f. nbt pr , 410 ――――, f. nbt pr , 411 jAm, jmj-rA xtmt , A.05 jAm-nDH, jmj-rA rwyt , wHmw-nswt , 34 (TT 84) ――――, wHmw-nswt , 281 (TT 84) ――――, wHmw-nswt tpj, jmj-rA rwyt , 283
――――, jrj-pat HAtj-a, xtmw-bjtj, smr watj

(TT 84) ――――, sS wdHw, jmj-rA Snwt t , 548 jy, jmj-rA mrwt , 334 jaj=f-jb, jrt Xkr, Tbt bjtj, Hm-nTr , 574 jaH-ms, f. jmj-rA Spswt , 18 ――――, jtj mnaj, jmj-rA jpAt-nswt, jmj-rA aXnwtj, jmj-rA jHw , 94 ――――, f. Hrj-mrt , 112 ――――, sS-nswt mAa n nb tAwj , 178 ――――, Xrd n kAp n mryt-jmn mAa-xrw , 234 ――――, wab, [...n] jmn , 274 ――――, Hm-nTr tpj n jmn m Hnqt-anx , 297 (TT 121) ――――, Hm-nTr snnw n jmn-ra , 300 (TT 121) ――――, aAm , 328 ――――, f. Hrj-mrt, jmj-rA Spswt , 360 ――――, jrj-pat HAty-a, jmj-rA Snwtj n jmn, sS spAt m wAst , 448 ――――, wab jmn , 519 ――――, HAtj-a , 520 ――――, f., 558 jaH-Htp, f. Hrj-mrt , 18 ――――, f. Hrj-mrt , 112 ――――(pA-n-jTA), jmj-rA pr n mwt nswt, jmj-

n mrwt, rx-nswt mAa mrj=f, jmj-rA pr wr, dwAt-nTr , B.16 (TT 36) jbty, wHm , 568 jpy, jmj-rA xntj-S m Hwt jmn , 458 jmj-jmn, jmj-rA bjtjw n nswt , 83 jmn-jnt , B.01 jmn-jr-dj=s, [...] dwAt-nTr , 376 ――――, jmj-xnt , 395 jmn-waH-sw , 453 jmn-m-jpAt, f. Smayt nt jmn , 16 ――――, Xrd n kAp, jmj-rA aXnwtj , 60 (TT 276) ――――, jmj-rA nww n jmn, Hrj-pDt , 96 ――――, Hm-nTr tpj n jmn , 135 ――――, jmj-rA aXnwtj , 186 (TT 276) ――――, jmj-rA njwt, TAtj , 265 (TT 29) ――――, Hrj-pDt, jmj-rA nww , 304 ――――, Hrj-pDt, jmj-rA nww , 305 ――――, sSmw-Hb n jmn, jmj-rA pr wr , 321 ――――, jmj-rA aHaw , 356 ――――, f. nbt pr , 399 ――――(TA-nfr), sS Hsb jt n jmn, jmj-rA AHt ,
73 ――――, [...] jmn , B.11

jmn-m-jnt, jt-nTr, Hm, mAA sStA Axt, smA gbtj (gbtjwj?), jmj-js, Hskw , 385 ――――, jt-nTr, Hm, mAA sStA Axt, smA gbtj (gbtjwj?), jmj-js, Hskw, sS-nswt mAa-mrj=f
, 392 ――――, jrj-mxAt m Hwt jmn , 526 ――――, jmj-rA pr n jmn, jmj-rA Snwtj , 579 jmn-m-wAst, jt-nTr , 483 ――――, 496 jmn-m-nb-tAwj, sAw , A.09 jmn-m-HAt, sS Hsb jt n jmn , 16 ――――, Hm-nTr tpj n Hwt-Hr, Hrj-tp wAst , 27 ――――, sS-nswt, wHmw-nswt, TAy-xw n , 29 ――――, xtmw-bjtj, Hm-nTr 3 nw n jmn , 30 ――――, jrj-pat HAtj-a, xtmw-bjtj, smr watj,

rA Snwt t, jmj-rA Swt nSmt, jmj-rA st jrp, Hsb t n Smaw mHw, sS pr-anx , 389 jbj, jrj-pat HAty-a, xtmw-bjtj, smr watj n mrwt, rx-nswt mAa-mrj=f, jmj-rA pr wr, Hmt-nTr ,

nswt, jmj-rA st, jmj-rA pr-HD, jmj-rA aXnwtj

n mrwt, rx-nswt mAa-mrj=f, jmj-rA pr wr, dwAt-nTr , 451 (TT 36) ――――, rx-nswt mAa-mrj=f, jmj-rA pr wr, dwAt-nTr , 610 (TT 36) ――――, jrj-pat HAtj-a, xtmw-bjtj, smr watj n mrwt, rx-nswt mAa mrj=f, jmj-rA pr wr, dwAt-nTr , B.14 (TT 36) ――――, jrj-pat HAtj-a, xtmw-bjtj, smr watj n mrwt, rx-nswt mAa mrj=f, jmj-rA pr wr, dwAt-nTr , B.15 (TT 36)

450 (TT 36) ――――, jrj-pat HAty-a, xtmw-bjtj, smr watj

jmj-rA Hmw-nTr nw Smaw mHw, Hm-nTr tpj n jmn , 42 (TT 97) ――――, jrj-pat HAtj-a, xtmw-bjtj, smr watj, jrj-rdwj n nb tAwj, Hm-nTr tpj n jmn , 43

(TT 97) ――――, jrj-pat HAtj-a, xtmw-bjtj, smr watj, mH-jb n nb tAwj, Hm-nTr tpj n jmn , 44 (TT 97) ――――, wab n jmn , 52 ――――, sS Hsb jt , 68 241

Appendix 2 All titles of the deceased who appears in the present work
TT 11 Djehuty
Cone-titles # 257 and 263 jmj-rA jHw n jmn (overseer of the cattle of Amun) jmj-rA pr-HD (overseer of the treasury) jmj-rA kAt (overseer of the works) HAtj-a (mayor) Non-cone titles jmj-rA jHw n jmn (Northampton, Spiegelberg & sxntj st=f m aH (Ibid.: 449) Hsy n nTr-nfr (Ibid.: 448) jmj-rA pr-HD (Ibid.: 448) jmj-rA prwj HD (Northampton, Spiegelberg & jmj-rA prwj nbw (Ibid.: Pl. 1) mH-jb aA n nb tAwj (Ibid.: Pl. 1)
Newberry 1908: Pl. 1)

Newberry 1908: Pl. 33) Asjr nTr (Sethe 1906: 448) jrj-pat HAtj-a (Northampton, Spiegelberg & Newberry 1908: Pls. 1, 34, Sethe 1906: 448449) xrp aH tm m rmT [...] nb (Sethe 1906: 449) sSm Hnwt nbt (Ibid.: 449) sr m-HAt rxyt (Ibid.: 449) jmj-rA Hmw-nTr m 8 n nw njwt (Northampton, Spiegelberg & Newberry 1908: Pl. 1) wn Hr sSA m jrwt (Ibid.: Pl. 1) wsTn rd m stp-sA (Ibid.: Pl. 1) mH-jb DHwtj nb aH (Ibid.: Pl. 1) Hrj-tp aA m Hr-wr (Ibid.: Pl. 33) xtm Spss m pr nswt (Ibid.: Pl. 1) xtmw-bjtj (Sethe 1906: 448-449) xtmw-bjtj m r Hmwt nb nt nswt (Northampton, Spiegelberg & Newberry 1908: Pl. 1) xtmw-bjtj nswt (Sethe 1906: 449) mH-jb n xntj-S (Ibid.: 449) jmj-jb n nTr-nfr (Ibid.: 449) Hsy n Hr m pr=f (Ibid.: 449) rx sStA nb n aH (Ibid.: 449) HAp r Hr mAA jry (Ibid.: 449) xrp jb=f r [...] Smaw mHw (Ibid.: 449) [ ... ] awy tp rd (Northampton, Spiegelberg & Newberry 1908: Pl. 1) rx bw Ax smnx n nHH (Spiegelberg & Newberry 1908: Pl. 1) swbA Hr n Hmwt r jrt (Ibid.: Pl. 1) [...] tw n=f mdw (Ibid.: Pl. 1) smnx sxrw wDw djdj n=f (Ibid.: Pl. 1) smr aA n nb tAwj (Ibid.: Pl. 1) smr watj (Sethe 1906: 448) wr m jAwt=f (Ibid.: 448) sS (Ibid.: 448) sS jqr jrj m awy=f (Northampton, Spiegelberg & Newberry 1908: Pl. 1) [...] Sw m bgA (Ibid.: Pl. 1) tm mhj Hr r-a jjt m Hr=f (Ibid.: Pl. 1) jmj-rA Hmw-nTr n Hwt-Hr nbt qjs (Ibid.: Pl. 1) [...]j Hr Ddt [...] (Ibid.: Pl. 1) mH-jb mnx n nb tAwj (Sethe 1906: 448) mH-jb n nswt (Ibid.: 449) xntj wrw (Ibid.: 449)

TT 24 Nebamun

Cone-titles # 188 jmj-rA pr n Hmt-nswt (steward of the king's wife) jmj-rA xA n nswt (overseer of the office of the king) Hrj wjA n nswt (chief of the barque of the king) Non-cone titles jrj-pat HAtj-a (Bouriant 1887 [Rec. trav. 9]: 96, 99) Hsy n nswt (Ibid.: 96) xrp rs tp nty wn wr=f (Ibid.: 98) Xnmw m stp-sA anx wDA snb (Ibid.: 97) jmj-rA Snaw n nswt (Ibid.: 97) jmj-rA xA n nswt (Ibid.: 97, 99) jmj-rA xA n Hmt-nswt nbtw (Ibid.: 99) jmj-rA wjA n nswt (Ibid.: 95) Hrj wjA n nswt (Ibid.: 98)

TT 29 Amunemopet

Cone-titles # 265 jmj-rA njwt (overseer of the town) TAtj (vizier) Non-cone titles jrj-pat HAtj-a (Davies 1913a: Pl. 43, Helck 1984: Hrj-sStA n jmt-wrt (Varille 1936: 203) smr aA n mrwt (Ibid.: 203) Hsy n nTr-nfr (Helck 1984: 1440, Varille 1936: 203) mry-nTrt (Helck 1984: 1439-1440) Hrj-tp n tA r-Dr=f (Ibid.: 1440) rA shrr m tA r-Dr=f (Helck 1984: 1439; Varille sm (Helck 1984: 1439; Varille 1936: 203) Xrp (Helck 1984: 1439; Varille 1936: 203) Xrj-Hbt (Varille 1936: 203) Xrj-Hbt rx Hm-nTr mAat (Helck 1984: 1439) xtmw-bjtj (Ibid.: 1438) smr watj (Ibid.: 1438) sAb n nb=f (Ibid.: 1438) jmAxy xr nswt m aH (Ibid.: 1438) Ddj Hswt (Ibid.: 1438) mn-mrwt (Ibid.: 1438) nb jmAt stp-sA (Ibid.: 1438) Ax m gr (Ibid.: 1438) pr m qbb (Ibid.: 1438) jnj n Drw wAwt nw mnx mtyt (Ibid.: 1438)
265 1936: 203) 1438-1439, Varille 1936: 203)

Qunet Murai 95, 121, 247 95, 121, 247 442 442 402 157 157 11 102 153 475 476 398 130 102 583 417 240 475 476 398 130 102 187, 431, 432 417 240 476 492 42, 43, 44 230 34, 281, 283 270 201 90, 493 130 538, 539 21, 517, 518 100 240 492 128, 129 176 34, 281, 283 270 201 90, 493 137, 147, 177 143, 156, 163, 181 143, 156, 163, 181 120 95, 121, 247 128, 129 176 200, 248, 591 200, 248, 591 21, 517, 518 84, 88 137, 147, 177

Qurna

Thutmose I

Thutmose II

193, 232, 361, B.06

Hatshepsut

Thutmose III

60, 186

265

Amunhotep II

60, 186

265

Thutmose IV

Amunhotep III

169, 170

132, 133

Akhenaten

132, 133

Smenkhkara

Tutankhamun

501

Ay

501

471

Horemheb

501

471

Ramses I

471

Sety I

471

371, 372, 484

Ramses II

529

371, 372, 484

25th Dynasty Taharqa

3, B.04

26th Dynasty Psamtik I

26th Dynasty Apries

Appendix 3 A Table designating the date and the origin of each cone

293

26th Dynasty Iahmose II

The author omitted the cones belonging to the tombs undated to any specific time so far and the tombs located at Tombos and at Ed-Dêr. Also omitted are those whose mother tombs are unknown. However, the cone of TT 324 are not omitted here since it is narrowly dated though it is dated over four kings.

294
Qurna Khokha Asasif Dra Abul Naga 188 446, 447, 494, 514, 556 446, 447, 494, 514, 556 350 559 559 406 477 12 298, 312 576 459, 464 459, 464 367, 491 441, 544 235 109, 222 350 229, 546 31 257, 263 188 367, 491 139, 182 235 558 229, 546 31 257, 263 188 139, 182 61 14, 396-397 291 291 291 532, 554 532, 554 B.08 B.08 336, 346 B.05 409-411, 418-420, 449, 460-461, 472473, 485-486, 604 450-451, 610, B.14-B.16 444-445 444-445

Thutmose I

Thutmose II

Hatshepsut

Thutmose III

223, 224 93, 154

297,

300

368

Amunhotep II

223, 224

Thutmose IV

Amunhotep III

Akhenaten

Smenkhkara

Tutankhamun

Ay

Horemheb

Ramses I

Sety I

Ramses II

25th Dynasty Taharqa

26th Dynasty Psamtik I

26th Dynasty Apries

26th Dynasty Iahmose II

Appendix 4 Assignments by each scholar
1. Daressy
Cone 22 27 34 87 89 91 100 109 113 133 137 157 222 224 230 283 291 314 368 390 391 398 399 400 417 442 444 445 450 458 480 610 TT 200 Wil 65? 84 87 87 87 112 109 87 Wil 118? 87 Wil 125 109 96 Wil 39 84 49 C. 1 Wil 54 Wil 45 197 200 88 Wil 45 Wil 102 53 27 27 36 C. 6 81 36

2. Stewart
Cone 3 4 6 13 22 24 43 73 87 89 94 100 109 110 133 153 158 170 181 230 255 257 263 265 270 298 321 368 388 390 397 400 406 418 419 441 450 466 468 469 477 479 TT 132 200 344 398 200 200 97 297 87 87 224 86 109 A. 1 55 249 A. 3 383 92 367 150 11 11 29 85 108 41 123 79 95 A. 6 95 47 34 34 343 36 201 279 279 48 155

480 485 486 493 494 515 524 554 583 604

81 34 34 79 127 196 346 A. 8 66 34

This table was made after Stewart 1986.

Wil = Wilkinson This table was made after Daressy 1892.

295

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