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Change in organization
change Factors influencing change Forced field analysis Managing Resistance to change Developing Change agents Analyzing and Organizing work – Need Approaches Problems associated with work organization
Organization Development :
characteristics and underlying assumptions and values of OD Assumptions about people Organizational Diagnosis Tools and techniques :
questionnaire Interview Workshops
Nature of OD interventions : Comprehensive intervention
meeting survey feed back Grid OD
Design, Quality Circles, Socio technical systems, MBO & appraisal Parallel learning organizations
Team interventions – Role Negotiation Techniques.
Characteristics of High performance teams Self managed team Work culture and ethics Quality of work life Developing and managing self-personal effectiveness.
“ It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” - Charles Darwin 1809-1882 “ People don't resist change. They resist being changed!” - Peter Senge "Everybody has accepted by now that change is unavoidable. But that still implies that change is like death and taxes — it should be postponed as long as possible and no change would be vastly preferable. But in a period of upheaval, such as the one we are living in, change is the norm." - Peter Drucker "If you want to make enemies, try to change something." - Woodrow Wilson
Contemporary Change in Practice
Technological Explosion e.g. Biometrics, mobile/internet banking Information Highway e.g. Internet, telecom networks
Change Management Total Quality Management Customer centricity Learning Organization Competency development, training
Live Business Examples
In 2004, Toyota showcased its trumpet playing robot. Toyota has been developing multitask robots destined for elderly care, manufacturing, and entertainment. In January 2005, Wal-Mart required its top 100 suppliers to apply RFID labels to all shipments.
An RFID tag used for electronic toll collection.
Change is the coping process of moving from the present state to a desired state that individuals, groups and organizations undertake in response to dynamic internal and external factors that alter current realities. E.g.
of public sector banks Online reservation system for Indian Railways
Imperative of Change
Forces of change - External
Political – Gulf war, reunion of Germany Economic – Global recession Technological – internet, telecom Government – deregulation, protectionism Global Competition Changing customer needs and preferences
Forces of change - Internal
System Dynamics: internal politics, power attribution Inadequacy of administrative processes Individual or group speculation Structure forced changes Technological changes Person focused changes Profitability issue Resource constraint
Some determining factors of change
INTERNAL UNPLANNED CHANGE
INTERNAL PLANNED CHANGE
EXTERNAL PLANNED CHANGE
EXTERNAL UNPLANNED CHANGE
INTERNAL CHANGE Changes in Products/Services EXTERNAL CHANGE Introduction of new technology
Change in Administrative System
Advances in information processing and communication
Change in Organizational Size & Structure (e.g. Outsourcing, downsizing)
Changing Employee Demographics
Types of Change
Type Reactive Change Anticipatory Change Strategic Change Transformational Change Fundamental Change Directional Change Happened Change Features In response to an event e.g. automation in response to the demand In expectation of an event e.g. investment in BRIC nations Change applied to the organization as a whole e.g. Bajaj foray into motor bikes Involves the greater part or whole of the organization. e.g. change in size/complexity Redefinition of current purpose or mission Occurs under condition of severe competition, regulatory shift in government policy, or unsuccessful business strategy Unpredictable and takes place due to external factors e.g. currency devaluation