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Basic Grammar of English Gramática Básica de Inglés 1. Verbos Irregulares en Inglés 2. Simbología 3. Gramática 4. Tiempos Pasivos 5. El Adjetivo 6. El Adverbio 7. El Artículo 8. Pronombres y Adjetivos Demostrativos 9. Pronombres Relativos 10. Pronombres Personales 11. Preposiciones Básicas 12. Tips para traducir 13. Verbos Compuestos 14. Bibliografía
VERBOS IRREGULARES EN INGLÉS PASADO PARTICIPIO TRADUCCIÓN SIMPLE PASADO Arose Arisen Surgir, Levantarse Awake Awoke Awoken Despertarse Be/ am, are, is Was / Were Been Ser / Estar Bear Bore Borne / Born Soportar, dar a luz Beat Beat Beaten Golpear Become Became Become Llegar a Ser Begin Began Begun Empezar Bend Bent Bent Doblar Bet Bet Bet Apostar Bind Bound Bound Atar, encuadernar Bid Bid Bid Pujar Bite Bit Bitten Morder Bleed Bled Bled Sangrar Blow Blew Blown Soplar Break Broke Broken Romper Breed Bred Bred Criar Bring Brought Brought Traer Llevar Broadcast Broadcast Broadcast Radiar Build Built Built Edificar Burn Burnt /Burned Burnt / Burned Quemar Burst Burst Burst Reventar Buy Bought Bought Comprar Cast Cast Cast Arrojar Catch Caught Caught Coger INFINITIVO (Base Form) Arise

Come Cost Cut Choose Cling Creep Deal Dig Do (Does) Draw Dream Drink Drive Eat Fall Feed Feel Fight Find Flee Fly Forbid Forget Forgive Freeze Get Give Go (Goes) Grow Grind Hang Have Hear Hide Hit Hold Hurt Keep Know Kneel Knit Lay Lead Lean Leap Learn Leave Lend Let Lie

Came Cost Cut Chose Clung Crept Dealt Dug Did Drew Dreamt / Dreamed Drank Drove Ate Fell Fed Felt Fought Found Fled Flew Forbade Forgot Forgave Froze Got Gave Went Grew Ground Hung Had Heard Hid Hit Held Hurt Kept Knew Knelt Knit Laid Led Leant Leapt Learnt / Learned Left Lent Let Lay

Come Cost Cut Chosen Clung Crept Dealt Dug Done Drawn Dreamt / Dreamed Drunk Driven Eaten Fallen Fed Felt Fought Found Fled Flown Forbidden Forgotten Forgiven Frozen Got / Gotten Given Gone Grown Ground Hung Had Heard Hidden Hit Held Hurt Kept Known Knelt Knit Laid Led Leant Leapt Learnt / Learned Left Lent Let Lain

Venir Costar Cortar Elegir Agarrarse Arrastrarse Tratar Cavar Hacer Dibujar Soñar Beber Conducir Comer Caer Alimentar Sentir Luchar Encontrar Huir Volar Prohibir Olvidar Perdonar Helar Obtener Dar Ir Crecer Moler Colgar Haber o Tener Oir Ocultar Golpear Agarrar Celebrar Herir Conservar Saber Conocer Arrodillarse Hacer punto Poner Conducir Apoyarse Brincar Aprender Dejar Prestar Permitir Echarse

Light Lose Make Mean Meet Mistake Overcome Pay Put Read Ride Ring Rise Run Say See Seek Sell Send Set Sew Shake Shear Shine Shoot Show Shrink Shut Sing Sink Sit Sleep Slide Smell Sow Speak Speed Spell Spend Spill Spin Spit Split Spoil Spread Spring Stand Steal Stick Sting

Lit Lost Made Meant Met Mistook Overcame Paid Put Read Rode Rang Rose Ran Said Saw Sought Sold Sent Set Sewed Shook Shore Shone Shot Showed Shrank Shut Sang Sank Sat Slept Slid Smelt Sowed Spoke Sped Spelt Spent Spilt / Spilled Spun Spat Split Spoilt / Spoiled Spread Sprang Stood Stole Stuck Stung

Lit Lost Made Meant Met Mistaken Overcome Paid Put Read Ridden Rung Risen Run Said Seen Sought Sold Sent Set Sewed / Sewn Shaken Shorn Shone Shot Shown Shrunk Shut Sung Sunk Sat Slept Slid Smelt Sowed / Sown Spoken Sped Spelt Spent Spilt / Spilled Spun Spat Split Spoilt / Spoiled Spread Sprung Stood Stolen Stuck Stung

Encender Perder Hacer Significar Encontrar Equivocar Vencer Pagar Poner Leer Montar Llamar Levantarse Correr Decir Ver Buscar Vender Enviar Poner(se) Coser Sacudir Esquilar Brillar Disparar Mostrar Encogerse Cerrar Cantar Hundir Sentarse Dormir Resbalar Oler Sembrar Hablar Acelerar Deletrear Gastar Derramar Hilar Escupir Hender / partir / rajar Estropear Extender Saltar Estar en pie Robar Pegar Engomar Picar

Stink Stride Strike Swear Sweat Sweep Swell Swim Swing Take Teach Tear Tell Think Throw Thrust Tread Understand Undergo Undertake Wake Wear Weave Weep Wet Win Wind Withdraw Wring Write

Stank/Stunk Strode Struck Swore Sweat Swept Swelled Swam Swung Took Taught Tore Told Thought Threw Thrust Trod Understood Underwent Undertook Woke Wore Wove Wept Wet Won Wound Withdrew Wrung Wrote

Stunk Stridden Struck Sworn Sweat Swept Swollen Swum Swung Taken Taught Torn Told Thought Thrown Thrust Trodden Understood Undergone Undertaken Woken Worn Woven Wept Wet Won Wound Withdrawn Wrung Written

Apestar Dar zancadas Golpear Jurar Sudar Barrer Hinchar Nadar Columpiarse Coger Enseñar Rasgar Decir Pensar Arrojar Tirar Introducir Pisar, hollar Entender Sufrir Emprender Despertarse Llevar puesto Tejer Llorar Mojar Ganar Enrollar Retirarse Torcer Escribir

SIMBOLOGÍA Esta simbología es para comprender los cuadros gramaticales del inglés. S: Sujeto he, we, you, etc. V: Verbo C: Complemento Aux: auxiliar have, do, will. Neg: negativo -Not. To be: am, are, is / was, were. V(ing): verbo en gerundio. V(p.p): verbo en participio pasado. Ejemplo:
Negació n “Not” Verbo sin to
“Base Form”

Auxiliar “Will”

S+Aux (will)+Neg+V ( base form )+C

She + will + not + travel + to the Brazil

Sujeto “She”

Comple mento

GRAMÁTICA Presente Simple: AFIRMATIVO S+V (base form)+C I You We They eat He She It eats NEGATIVO S+Aux (do)+Neg+V (base form)+C I You We They Do not eat He She It Does not eat

INTERROGACIÓN Aux (do)+S+V ( base form )+C+? Do Nota: Existe una excepción en la tercera persona, se añade una -s al final del verbo. Cuando el verbo termina en -s, -ss, -sh, -o, -ch, -x se añade la terminación “-es”. Ejemplo: to fix - fixes Cuando el verbo termina en “y” precedida de consonante cambia la “y” por “ies”; y cuando el verbo termina en “y” precedida por una vocal (a,e,i,o,u) únicamente se añade la “s”. Ejemplo: to study – studies to buy – buys Para construir la forma negativa e interrogativa en presente simple se recurre al verbo “to do” que realiza una función auxiliar. En la tercera persona la forma “do” cambia a “does”. Pasado Simple: AFIRMATIVO S+V (pasado)+C I You We They He She It NEGATIVO S+Aux (did)+Neg+V ( base form )+C I He did You She did not not We It study study They I You We They Eat? Does He She It Eat?

studied

studied

INTERROGACIÓN Aux (did)+S+V ( base form )+C+? Did Nota: El pasado simple funciona con el auxiliar “did” para todas las personas (incluida la tercera persona singular 'he/she/it'). En la forma afirmativa, el auxiliar “did” no aparece para ello se emplea en su lugar la terminación “ed”, esta es la forma de pasado para todos los “Verbos Regulares”. I You We They study? Did He She It study?

Si el verbo termina en -d o -t, se le pone -ed como sílaba aparte; si el verbo termina en -e, se le pone sólo –d; si el verbo termina en “y” precedida de consonante la “y” cambia por una - i - y se añade –ed; si el verbo termina en “y” precedida de una vocal (a,e,i,o,u) la “y” no cambia y se añade únicamente –ed. Ejemplo: to graft – grafted to study – studies to play – plays Futuro Simple: AFIRMATIVO S+Aux (will)+V ( base form ) +C I He You will She will We travel It travel They NEGATIVO S+Aux (will)+Neg+V ( base form )+C I He You will not She will not We travel It travel They

INTERROGACIÓN Aux (will)+S+V ( base form )+C+? Will Nota: Presente Simple Continuo: AFIRMATIVO S+ be (pres. Simpl.)+V (ing)+C I am walking You We They are walkin g He She It is walking NEGATIVO S+ be (pres. Simpl.)+Neg+V (ing)+C I am not walking He is not You are not She walking It We walkin They g I You We They travel? Will He She It travel?

INTERROGACIÓN Be (pres. simpl.)+S+V (ing)+C+? Am I walking? You We walking? They Is He She It walking?

Are Nota:

Pasado Simple Continuo: AFIRMATIVO NEGATIVO S+ be (pasd. simpl.)+V (ing) S+ be (pasd. simpl.)+Neg+V (ing) +C +C I was driving I was not driving He He was was not You You were She were not She driving We driving We It It driving driving They They INTERROGACIÓN Be (pasd. simpl.)+S+V (ing)+C+? Was I driving? You We driving? They Was He She It driving?

Were Nota:

Futuro Simple Continuo: AFIRMATIVO S+ Aux(will)+ be(base form)+V (ing)+C I will be lending Yo u We Th ey will be lendin g He She It Will be lending NEGATIVO S+ Aux(will)+Neg+be(base form)+V (ing)+C I will not be lending will Yo He not u She be will not W It lendin be e g lending Th ey

INTERROGACIÓN Aux (will)+S+be (base form)+V (ing)+C+? Will I be lending? Will Nota: Presente Perfecto: AFIRMATIVO S+ Aux.(have/has)+V (P.p) +C I have bought You We The y have bought (you’v e) He Sh e It has bought (he’s) NEGATIVO S+ Aux.(have/has)+Neg+V (P.p) +C I have not bought He has not Sh You have not bought e We bought (hasn’t) It The (haven’t) y You We They Be lending? Will He She It be lending?

INTERROGACIÓN Aux.(have/has)+S+V (P.p)+C+? Have I bought? Hav e You We They bought ? Has He She It bought?

Nota: El presente perfecto, se forma con “to have” a modo de auxiliar y el verbo en participio pasado. En la tercera persona se emplea el “has”. Pasado Perfecto: AFIRMATIVO S+ Aux.(had)+V (P.p)+C I had bought (I’d) had He bough You She had t We It bought (he’d) The (you‘d) y NEGATIVO S+ Aux.(had)+Neg+V (P.p)+C I had not bought He had not Yo Sh had not bought u e bought (hadn’t) We It (hadn’t) The y INTERROGACIÓN

Had Nota: Futuro Perfecto:

Aux.(had)+S+V (P.p)+C+? Had I bought? He You She bought Had We It ? They

Bought?

AFIRMATIVO S+ Aux.(will)+(have)+V (P.p)+C I will have will bought have He boug will Sh You ht have e We (he’ll bought It The have (you‘ll y ) have)

NEGATIVO S+ Aux.(will)+Neg+(have)+V (P.p)+C I will not have bought will not will not He have You have She bought We bought It (won’t The (won’t have) y have)

INTERROGACIÓN Aux.(will)+S+(have)+V (P.p)+C+? Will I have bought? He You have Will She We bought? It They

Will

have bought?

Nota: Presente Perfecto Continuo: AFIRMATIVO S+ Aux.(have/has)+be(P.p) +V(ing)+C I have been has selling been He sellin Yo have Sh g u been e (he’s We selling It been The (you‘ve ) y been) NEGATIVO S+ Aux.(have/has)+Neg+be(P.p) +V(ing)+C I have not been have selling not He have not been You She been selling We It selling (hasn’t The (haven’t been) y been)

INTERROGACIÓN Aux.(have/has)+S+be(P.p)+V(ing)+ C+? Have I been selling? He You Has She been selling? We It They

Hav e Nota:

been selling?

Pasado Perfecto Continuo: AFIRMATIVO NEGATIVO S+ Aux.(had)+be(P.p)+V(ing) S+ Aux.(had)+Neg+be(P.p) +C +V(ing)+C I had been I had not been had had selling selling been He not sellin He Yo had had not Sh been You g She u been been e selling We (he’d It We selling selling It (hadn’t The been The (you‘d (hadn’t been) y ) y been) been) INTERROGACIÓN Aux.(had)+S+be(P.p)+V(ing)+ C+? Had I been selling? He You been Had She We selling? It They

Had Nota:

been selling?

Futuro Perfecto Continuo: AFIRMATIVO S+ Aux.(will)+(have)+be(P.p) +V(ing)+C I will have been will selling have been will have He sellin Sh You been g e We selling (he’ll It The (you‘ll have y have been been) ) NEGATIVO S+ Aux.(will)+Neg+(have) +be(P.p)+V(ing)+C I will not have been selling will He not will not Yo Sh have have been u e been selling We It sellin (won’t have Th g been) ey

INTERROGACIÓN Aux.(will)+S+(have)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C+? Will I have been selling? He You Will She have been Will We It selling? They Nota: have been selling?

TIEMPOS PASIVOS La voz pasiva de un verbo activo se forma poniendo el verbo tobe en el mismo tiempo que el verbo activo y añadiendo el participio pasado del verbo activo, es decir que el sujeto de un verbo en pasivo corresponde al objeto de un verbo en activo. Ejemplo: He wrote this book in 1976 (Activo) This book was written in 1976 (Pasivo) “by”: esta preposición se usa para decir quién hacía la acción o que la causaba, por ejemplo: Cristóbal Colón discovered America in 1492 (Activo) America was discovered by Cristóbal Colón in 1492 (Pasivo) Presente Simple (Pasivo): AFIRMATIVO S+ to be(present)+V (P.p)+C I am spoken here You are We spoke The n here y He Sh e It is spoke n here NEGATIVO S+ to be (present)+Neg+V (P.p)+C I am not spoken here You are not We spoken The here y He Sh e It is spoken here

INTERROGACIÓN To be (present)+S+V (P.p)+C+? Am I spoken here? Are Nota: Pasado Simple (Pasivo): AFIRMATIVO S+ to be(past)+V (P.p)+C I was spoken here You were We spoke The n here y He Sh e It was spoke n here NEGATIVO S+ to be(past)+Neg+V (P.p)+C I was not spoken here You were not We spoken The here y He Sh e It was spoken here You We They spoken here? Is He She It spoken here?

INTERROGACIÓN to be(past)+S+V (P.p)+C+? Was I spoken here? Wer e Nota: Futuro Simple (Pasivo): You We They spoken here? Was He She It spoken here?

AFIRMATIVO S+ Aux.(will)+(to be)+V (P.p)+C I will be told soon He will Sh be You will be e told We told It soon The soon y

NEGATIVO S+ Aux.(will)+Neg+(to be)+V (P.p)+C I will not be told soon will not He be told will not You She soon be told We It (won’t soon The be) (won’t be) y

INTERROGACIÓN Aux.(will)+S+(to be)+V (P.p)+C+? Will I be told soon? He You be told Will She We soon? It They

Will Nota:

be told soon?

Futuro Simple con (going to) Pasivo: AFIRMATIVO S+ to be+ going to be+V (P.p)+C I am going to is be made He goin Sh g to You are e be We going It mad The to be e y made NEGATIVO S+ to be+Neg+going to be+V (P.p)+C I am not going to be made is not He going You are not She to be We going to It made The be made y

INTERROGACIÓN To be+S+going to be+V (P.p)+C+? Am I going to be made? He going to be You going to be Is She made? Are We made? It They Nota: Presente Continuo (Pasivo): AFIRMATIVO S+ to be(present)+being+V (P.p)+C I am being painted He is She being You are It painted We being They painted NEGATIVO S+ to be(present) +Neg+being +V (P.p)+C I am not being painted He is not being You are not She It painted We being They painted

INTERROGACIÓN To be (present)+ S+being+V (p.p)+C+? Am I being painted? You Are We being painted? They Nota: Pasado Continuo (Pasivo): AFIRMATIVO S+ to be(past)+being+V (p.p)+C I was being painted He NEGATIVO S+ to be(past) +Neg+being +V (p.p)+C I am not being painted He Is He She It being painted?

You We They

were being painted

She It

was being painted

You We They

were not being painted

She It

was not being painted

INTERROGACIÓN To be (past )+S+being +V (p.p)+C+? Was I being painted? Were Nota: Futuro Continuo (pasivo): AFIRMATIVO S+ Aux.(will)+be+being+V (P.p) +C I will be being told He will be Sh You being e We will be told It The being told y NEGATIVO S+ Aux.(will)+Neg+be+being+V (P.p)+C I will not be being told He will not Sh be You will not e being We be being It told The told y You We They being painted? Was He She It being painted?

INTERROGACIÓN Aux.(will)+S+be+being+V (P.p)+C+? Will I be being told? He You be being Will She We told? It They

Will Nota:

be being told?

Presente Perfecto (Pasivo): AFIRMATIVO S+ Aux.(have/has)+been+V (p.p)+C I have been told He has Sh You been have e We told been It The told y NEGATIVO S+ Aux.(have/has) +Neg +been +V (p.p)+C I have not been told He Sh has not You have not e been told We been told It The y

INTERROGACIÓN Aux.(have/has)+S+been+V (p.p)+C+? Have I been told? Has He been told?

Hav e Nota: Pasado Perfecto (Pasivo):

You We They

been told?

She It

AFIRMATIVO S+ Aux.(had)+been+V (p.p) +C I had been spent He had Sh You been had e We spent been It The spent y

NEGATIVO S+ Aux.(had) +Neg +been +V (p.p) +C I had not been spent He had not Sh You had not been e We been spent It The spent y

INTERROGACIÓN Aux.(had)+S+been+V (p.p)+C+? Had I been spent? Had Nota: You We They been spent? Had He She It been spent?

Futuro Perfecto (Pasivo): AFIRMATIVO S+ Aux.(will) +have/has+been+V (p.p)+C I will have been won He will Sh has You will e been We have It won The been y won NEGATIVO S+ Aux.(will)+have/has+Neg +been +V (p.p)+C I will have not been won He will has Sh You will have not been e We not been won It The won y

INTERROGACIÓN Aux.(will)+S +have/has+been+V (p.p)+C+? Will I have been won? Will Nota: Presente Perfecto Continuo (Pasivo): AFIRMATIVO S+ Aux.(have/has) +been+being+V (p.p)+C I have been being told He has Sh been You have e being We been It told The being y told NEGATIVO S+Aux.(have/has) +Neg+been+being+V (p.p)+C I have not been being told He has not Sh been You have not e being We been It told The being told y You We They have been won? Will He She It has been won?

INTERROGACIÓN Aux.(have/has)+S+been+being+V (p.p)+C+? Have I been told? Hav e Nota: Pasado Perfecto Continuo (Pasivo): AFIRMATIVO S+ Aux.(had)+been+being+V (p.p)+C I had been had being spent He been NEGATIVO S+ Aux.(had)+Neg+been+being+V (p.p)+C I had not been had not being spent He been You We They been being told? Has He She It been being told?

You We The y

had been being spent

Sh e It

being spent

You We The y

had not been being spent

Sh e It

being spent

INTERROGACIÓN Aux.(had)+S+been+being+V (p.p)+C+? Had I been spent? Had Nota: Futuro Perfecto Continuo (Pasivo): AFIRMATIVO S+Aux.(will) +have/has+been+being+V (p.p)+C I will have been being will won He has Sh will been You e have being We It been won The being y won NEGATIVO S+Aux.(will)+have/has+Neg +been+being+V (p.p)+C I will have not been being won You We The y will have not been being won You We They been being spent? Had He She It been being spent?

He Sh e It

will has not been being won

INTERROGACIÓN Aux.(will)+S +have/has+been+being+V (p.p)+C+? Will I have been being won? Will Nota: EL ADJETIVO El Adjetivo se coloca antes del sustantivo que modifica, no varia según el género o número. Pero existe algunas excepciones donde el Adjetivo va después del sustantivo (to be, to become, to feel, to get, to look, to seem, to smell, to sound y to taste) Ejemplo: a good book It tastes nice EL ADVERBIO Los Adverbios son palabras que no varían según el género o número. Los Adverbios matizan, modifican el significado del verbo, sustantivo, adjetivo o adverbio. Se forma añadiendo la terminación “-ly” (angry – angrily); también existen adverbios parecidos al adjetivo (early – early) y los que no derivan de otra palabra (here, soon). You We They have been being won? Will He She It has been being won?

EL ARTÍCULO Son artículo definido y artículo indefinido. EL Artículo Definido: es una palabra que funciona como un adjetivo el cual esta puesto antes del sustantivo, calificando o limitándolo. Este artículo es “THE” que es invariable en número y género. Es usado para referirse a sustantivos en sentido específico y es omitido cuando se refiere a sustantivos en sentido general, cuando se refiere a países o términos geográficos, cuando se refiere a iglesias, escuelas, prisiones, hospitales y otros lugares públicos, delante de nombres de sustancias, colores e idiomas, con los meses, estaciones del año, semanas, años, cuando se toma como referencia el tiempo actual y con los días de la semana y horas. El Artículo Indefinido: es una palabra que funciona como un adjetivo el cual se pone antes de un sustantivo, calificando así este sustantivo. Este artículo es “A” y cambia a “AN” cuando la palabra que se sigue empieza por una vocal. Este artículo es invariable a los géneros. Se usa para designar profesiones y con determinadas expresiones numéricas. PRONOMBRES Y ADJETIVOS DEMOSTRATIVOS Los Pronombres y Adjetivos Demostrativos son invariables en relación al género, pero ellos tienen una forma singular y plural, su uso depende de la distancia del objeto o sujeto. Distancia Cercano Lejano Singular This That Plural These Those

PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS Los Pronombres Relativos son “WHO, WHICH, THAT” que se emplean para introducir cláusulas independientes. Ejemplo: I tipped the waiter who (that) served us. We thanked the people that (who) helped us. En estos dos ejemplos That y Who son intercambiables, pero es mucho mejor usar Who para las personas y That en relación a cosas. En cambio Which se emplea únicamente para cosas. Ejemplo: The car which we rented doesn’t work. PRONOMBRES PERSONALES Pronombre sujeto complemento reflexivo I Me Myself You You Yourself He Him Himself She Her Herself It It Itself We Us Ourselves You You Yourselves They Them Themselves PREPOSICIONES BÁSICAS Example  He has class at 8:30.  My brother is at school.  They live at 2388 Park Road.  He was driving at 90 miles per hour.

1 2 Singular 3 1 2 3

Plural

Pronombre reciproco Each other Each other Each other

B.P at

    

Used Specific times Definite place Full address Speed Idea of definite time and place

in

Exception: at night: use in for the other parts of the day.  Inside  Cities, boroughs  States, countries  Parts of countries  Continents  Parts of the day  Months, seasons, years  Time (length of time)  within

         

The exercise is at the end of the lesson. We are in the kitchen. The school is in the UCV. How long have you lived in Caracas? I live in the West. We saw many interesting sights in Europe. We have class in the morning. Graduation will be in July. You’ll have your exam in seven days. I’ll be back in ten minutes. The book was on the table. Their house is on First Street. My apartment is on the sixth floor. My birthday is on October 22nd. There is no class on Saturday. He works on campus. He’s usually here on time. Note: in time for something) You learn by repeating. You can get there by car.

on

      

On the surface Streets, avenues Floors Dates Days of the week On a farm, a planet, an island, campus Punctuality

       

by

of

  

Means, by way of (pasando por; por vía de; como; por medio de; a modo de) Possessive of things Parts of a whole

   

over

Exact position (vertical)

   

to

  

Destination Leave for Arrive at place

The leg of the chair was broken. I bought a pound of carrots. The light is over jack. The cabinets are over the counter. We are going to New York. The plane to Houston left

Arrive in a city

 
above

              

Degree higher than Location higher than

 

below with

To a lower degree Con… Con… Estar harto de… …conmigo? Para mí Para… Trabajar para ganarse la vida De cenar Para la cena Buscar algo Hacia Tokyo Ir de paseo

            

an hour ago. He got to his office at eight. They will arrive in New York tonight. The temperature is above 40. There are cabinets above the sink. Is Caracas above or below sea level? Wine with your meal. To have dinner with Alex. To be fed up with… What about me? It’s for me. To work for a newspaper To work for a living What’s for dinner? To be ready for dinner To look for something To depart for Tokyo To go for a walk

about for

TIPS PARA TRADUCIR

1. Cuando nos encontramos ante la presencia de palabras en el idioma inglés que se 2. 3.
asemejan a ciertas palabras en el idioma español y poseen el mismo significado, estas palabras son llamadas: cognados verdaderos. Cuando nos encontramos con palabras en el inglés que se parecen a ciertas palabras en el español, pero que su significado es diferente, estas palabras son llamadas: falsos cognados. Cuando nos encontramos con varias palabras seguidas unas de otras que pueden ser sustantivos, adjetivos o adverbios, nos detendremos a leer en el primer verbo, preposición, conectivo o signo de puntuación y procederemos a leer de derecha a izquierda sin omitir ninguna palabra. Solo jugaremos con los adjetivos o adverbios en el idioma español. Cuando nos encontramos con un gerundio al empezar una oración, para traducir añadimos un “HOW” y luego el gerundio en forma de infinitivo. Ejemplo: Describing the future. Como describir el futuro. (Marbella Delgado, 2003) VERBOS COMPUESTOS (http://www.mansioningles.com. Visitado junio 2004, 20) VERBOS TRADUCCIÓN TRADUCCIÓN COMP. totalizar add up to alcanzar un total contestar de malos modos answer for responder de preguntar por (un asunto) ask after preguntar por la salud pedir, preguntar por ask up to pedir hasta (un precio)

4.

VERBOS COMP. add up answer back ask about ask for

ask back ask in ask up back away back up be away be for be off be out be up bend over blow down blow out break away break in break up bring back bring along bring in bring up burn away burn out buy for buy up call at call back call in call out call up carry along carry on clear away clear out close down come about come along come away come for come in come on come to come up to count on count up to cry out cry to cut in cut out

invitar a volver invitar a entrar invitar a subir retroceder reforzar estar fuera estar a favor de irse, estar apagado estar fuera estar levantado inclinarse derrumbarse por el viento apagar (se) (una llama) soltarse irrumpir, interrumpir terminar el curso o una relación devolver traer (consigo) hacer entrar criar, educar consumirse (el fuego) consumirse (el fuego) comprar por o para acaparar Hacer una visita, hacer escala Llamar (a alguien) para que regrese Llamar (a alguien) para que entre Gritar Telefonear Persuadir Continuar Dispersar (se) Marcharse Cerrar Suceder Acompañar, venir por (la calle) Desprenderse Venir por (en busca de) Entrar ¡Vamos! (en imperativo) Ascender (una suma), volver en sí. Acercarse a Contar con Contar hasta Llorar a gritos Llamar a gritos Interrumpir Recortar, omitir

ask down ask out back out be about be back be in be on be over bend down blow away blow off blow up break down break off break out bring about bring down bring out brush off burn down burn up buy over call away call for call on call over call down carry off carry out clear off clear up close up come across come at come down come from come off come out come up count in count up cry for cry over cut down cut off cut through

invitar a bajar invitar a salir volver atrás estar por (un lugar) estar de vuelta estar en casa estar encendido estar acabado agacharse llevarse (el viento) dejar salir (el vapor) volar (con explosivos) derruir, averiarse romper (se) (relaciones) estallar (una guerra) acarrear derribar, rebajar hacer salir, publicar quitar el polvo derrumbarse (por el fuego) consumirse (por el fuego) sobornar Seguir llamando Pedir a voces, exigir Ir a ver (a alguien) Pasar lista, enumerar Llamar (a alguien) para que baje Llevarse a la fuerza Llevar a cabo Marcharse Aclararse (el tiempo,un misterio) Acercarse Encontrarse con Embestir Bajar Venir de Desprenderse Salir Subir Incluir Calcular Pedir llorando Lamentarse Reducir gastos, talar Separar de un tajo Acortar por un atajo

cut up die away die out do without draw back draw in draw on draw up drive back drive in drive off eat away eat up fall down fall over fight on fill in find out fly about fly away fly off get about get at get back get to get out (of) get on get over get up give back give out go about go at go by go in / into go on go over go up go across hang about hang behind hang off hold back hold out hurry away hurry up jump about jump down jump on keep away

Trinchar, triturar Cesar poco a poco Extinguirse Pasarse sin (carecer de) Retroceder Economizar, encoger (se) Aproximarse, retirar fondos Para (un vehículo) Rechazar Entrar en coche, introducir Alejarse en coche, ahuyentar Erosionar Devorar Caerse Tropezar Seguir luchando Rellenar Averiguar Volar de un lado a otro Huir volando Desprenderse Ir de acá para allá Dar a entender Volver, recuperar Llegar a Salir, apearse Subirse, progresar Saltar por encima, recobrarse Levantarse Devolver Agotarse, repartir Ir de un lado para otro Atacar Pasar por Entrar Continuar Repasar Subir Atravesar Vagar Quedarse atrás Colgar (el teléfono) Detener Resistir Irse rápidamente Darse prisa Dar saltos Bajar de un salto Subir de un salto Mantenerse alejado

die down do up draw away draw down draw off draw out drive away drive by drive out eat into fall off fight off fight up fill up fix up fly at fly down get along get away get down get in / into get off get out get through give away give off give up go along go away go down go off go out go through go up to go without hang back hang from hang up hold on hurry along hurry off jump at jump in jump over keep back

Apaciguarse Abrochar Alejarse Bajar Apartarse Sacar, redactar, alargarse (el día) Ahuyentar, alejarse en coche Pasar en coche Salir en coche, expulsar Roer Disminuir, desprenderse Ahuyentar Luchar valerosamente Rellenar, llenar Arreglar (un asunto) Atacar Descender Hacer progreso Escaparse Descender Entrar, meterse Apearse, bajarse Producir, salir Abrirse camino Repartir, denunciar Despedir (humo, olor) Entregar, rendirse Ir a lo largo de Marcharse Bajar Explotar, marcharse Salir, pasarse de moda, apagarse Penetrar, sufrir Acercarse a Pasarse sin Retraerse Colgar de Colgar (un cuadro) Continuar Darse prisa Irse rápidamente Atacar Entrar de un salto Saltar por encima de Mantenerse separado

keep down keep up knock at knock out look after look behind look for look in look out look round move away move down move off move out pass away pass in pay for pay off point at point to point out pull away pull off pull up put back put in put on put up run about run down run off run over see about see to send down send off send up set down shut in sit down sit for speak to stand by stand out stay at stay in step across

Controlar Mantenerse de pie, resistir Llamar (a la puerta) Dejar fuera de combate Cuidar Mirar atrás Buscar Mirar dentro Mirar fuera Mirar alrededor Alejarse Bajar Marcharse Mudarse (de domicilio) Fallecer Entrar Pagar Liquidar (una cuenta), pagar Señalar Señalar Destacar Arrancar Arrancar Parar (un vehículo) Poner en su sitio Meter, instalar Ponerse (una prenda) Subir (algo), alojarse Correr de acá para allá Pararse (un reloj), enfermar Escapar corriendo Atropellar Indagar Encargarse de Bajar (algo) Despachar,despedir (trabajadores) Subir (algo) Asentar, colocar Encerrar Sentarse Presentarse (a un examen) Hablar con Quedarse cerca Destacar Hospedarse Quedarse en casa Atravesar

keep off knock about knock down look at look down look forward to look like look over look up move along move in move on move up pass by pass on pay in pay up point away point down point up pull down pull out put away put down put off put out put up with run across run in run out run up see off send along send for send round set about set off shut up sit up speak for speak up stand off stand up stay by stay out step down

Abstenerse Golpear acá y allá Derribar Mirar Mirar abajo Anhelar Parecer Mirar por encima de Mirar arriba, buscar Pasar, no detenerse Mudarse (de domicilio) No detenerse, pasar a (otro asunto) Moverse (para dejar sitio) Pasar por (un sitio) Pasar (de mano en mano) Ingresar (dinero) Pagar (una deuda) Señalar a lo lejos Señalar abajo Señalar arriba Derribar Sacar Poner a un lado Anotar, bajar (algo) Posponer Apagar, sacar Soportar Encontrarse con, atravesar corriendo Entrar corriendo Salir corriendo Subir corriendo Despedir (a alguien) Despachar Enviar por Circular Ponerse (a trabajar) Partir (para un viaje) Callarse, cerrar (una tienda) Incorporarse, sentarse erguido Hablar a favor de Hablar en alta voz Mantenerse alejado Ponerse de pie Permanecer al lado de Quedarse fuera de casa Bajar

step in step up stop by stop up take down take in take out take up talk of tear away tear up throw back throw in throw out try on turn back turn off turn out turn into walk about walk away walk in walk up work under

Entrar Subir Quedarse al lado de Empastar (una muela), tapar (una botella) Escribir al dictado, bajar (algo) Engañar, meter Sacar, quitar Subir (algo) Hablar de Quitar (rasgando) Hacer pedazos (rasgando) Devolver Tirar hacia adentro Arrojar Probarse una prenda Darse la vuelta Apagar (la luz), cerrar (una llave) Apagar Convertirse Andar de acá para allá Alejarse andando Entrar Subir Trabajar a las órdenes de

step out step up to stop in

Salir Acercarse a (alguien) Quedarse en casa

take for take off take to talk about talk to tear off throw away throw down throw off throw up turn away turn down turn on turn over turn up walk along walk down walk off work out write down

Tomar por (equivocarse) Quitarse (una prenda), despegar Llevar a Hablar acerca de Hablar con Separar (rasgando) Tirar (algo inservible) Tirar hacia abajo Echar fuera Tirar hacia arriba Mirar a otro lado Poner boca abajo Encender (la luz), abrir (una llave) Volcar, poner boca abajo Llegar Andar por Bajar Marcharse Calcular Anotar

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BIBLIOGRAFÍA BOLÍVAR, Adriana y MARKOV, Anica: Estrategias para la lectura en inglés. UCV, 1997. Pp. 276. CASTILLO, Carlos and BOND, Otto F: Spanish-English / English-Spanish Dictionary. Fourth Edition, 1987. Pp. 475. DICCIONARIO BILINGÜE: Español-Inglés / English-Spanish. Copyright C. Langenscheidt KG Berlin and Munich 2000. DICCIONARIO RANDOM HOUSE: Español-Inglés / Inglés-Español, 1995. 1Cd-Rom. ENCICLOPEDIA AUTODIDACTA OCEANO: Lengua y Humanidades, Volumen 1, 1989. Pp. 280. EL NACIONAL, Biblioteca: Diccionario de Inglés-Español. Espasa Calpe, s.a, Tomo 7, 2001. Pp. 460. INGLÉS FÁCIL: Gramática y Diccionario de Modismos. Pp. 25. INGLÉS: Tablas Gramaticales. Wagner Idiomas, Barcelona - España, 1994. Pp. 20. MATERIAL INSTRUCTIVO DEL C.V.A. SPEARS, Richard A: Diccionario Básico Norteamericano. NTC Publishing Group, Illinois USA, 1996. Pp. 253. THE ENGLISH TEACHER. 3.2 (Versión). 2 Cd-Rom’s. THE LEARNING COMPANY. Hablemos Inglés 7.0 (Versión). 3 Cd-Rom’s. www.mansioningles.com. www.usingenglish.com. ZAYAS-BARZÁN E. y NOVAK C.M: El Inglés que usted no sabe. Segunda Serie, Edición PLAYOR, España, 1993. Pp. 228.

Trabajo elaborado por: Israel López Montaño Licenciado de Estudios Internacionales de la Universidad Central de Venezuela islopez22@yahoo.com

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